## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**State Standard: Motion and Forces
**

1. Newton’s laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students know:

a. how to solve problems involving constant speed and average speed.

b. when forces are balanced no acceleration occurs, and thus an object continues to move at a constant

speed or stays at rest and when there is an unbalanced force on an object it will accelerate

Newton!s "irst #aw$.

State Standard: Investigation and Experimentation

1. %cientific progress is made by asking meaningful &uestions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for

understanding this concept, and to address the content the other four strands, students should develop their own

&uestions and perform investigations. %tudents will:

a. select and use appropriate tools and technology such as computer'linked probes, spread sheets, and graphing

calculators$ to perform tests, collect data, analy(e relationships, and display data.

b. identify and communicate sources of unavoidable e)perimental error.

c. identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sources of error or uncontrolled conditions.

d. formulate e)planations using logic and evidence.

Knowledge argets

• Ac&uire vocabulary and learn relationships of variables e)pressed in the e&uations for linear

motion.

• *now how to present data using significant figures and tolerances.

!easoning argets

• +se knowledge of linear motion to solve word problems.

• +nderstand the relationships of time, displacement, velocity and acceleration through graphs.

• ,ustify how an object is moving through the interpretation of e)perimental data.

S"ill argets

• -ollect e)perimental data within the tolerance of the measuring instruments.

• .raph and tabulate e)perimental data.

#rod$ct argets

• /ake graphs of e)perimental data graphing the dependent variable on the y a)is and the

independent variable on the ) a)is.

• +se knowledge, reasoning, and skills to create a formal laboratory report that includes the

following sections: 0itle page, Abstract, 1ntroduction, 2)perimental, 3esults and -onclusion.

as":

0hrough out life you observe objects in motion relative to you. /otion is seldom

constant. 4bjects speed up and slow down which is a change in velocity. 5elocity has

two components, one for direction and one for its si(e or magnitude. A change in either

its direction or magnitude would represent acceleration. 1t re&uires a force to accelerate

an object. 6hen an object is pushed or pulled the velocity it has will change.

7ou will analy(e the motion of a laboratory cart through graphical analysis. 0he

data will be graphed in two ways. 0he first will be distance traveled versus time and the

other will be velocity versus time. 0hese graphs represent two different views of the

same data and motion. 0hese graph will allow you to see what the cart is doing as it rolls

across the counter.

%ac"gro$nd Information:

0he recording timer is used to measure small intervals of time. 0he motion of a

dynamics cart accelerating across a laboratory table can be analy(ed using the recording

tape from a timer. A timer uses a regularly vibrating clapper and carbon disk to make

dots on a recording tape. 0he dots are made at regular intervals so the distance between

the dots can be used to determine the distance traveled and the velocity of the cart at any

time during the motion.

1t is essential to determine the time for one interval of the timer for the velocity to

be calculated. 0he timer can be calibrated using a digital strobe. A flashing strobe can be

adjusted to coincide with the vibration of the timer and thus the recording timer will

appear to remain still. 0he reading on the strobe can then be used to determine the time

period for one vibration or the time it takes the timer to move through one cycle. A cycle

records a dot on the timer tape or the time it take for the timer to move up from the

previous dot and then move back down to place a second dot on the recording tape.

4nce the timer is calibrated or the time for one cycle has been determined it can

be used to measure time intervals for the travel of a dynamics cart. 0he record of the

distance and time taken to move that distance can be recorded using the timer and a tape

which is pulled through the timer by the dynamics cart. 0his permanent record of dots

shows how far the cart travels and the calibration of time per cycle shows the time it

takes to move the distance between the dots.

0he average speed of a cart can be determined at a mid point of many periods.

0he set of data for time, total distance traveled, and average speed or velocity at each

successive distance can be graphed to analy(e the motion of the cart. 1n the distance

versus time graph the instantaneous velocity of the cart can be determined using the slope

or tangent of the curve at a point.

tangent

time

4n the speed or velocity versus time graph the velocity can be determined at any point

directly off the graph and the acceleration can be found from the slope or tangent to the

curve.

a tangent to the curve is acceleration

distance

velocity or

speed

time

A method to determining the tangent and thus the slope of the curve is by using a

flat mirror. 0he mirror is placed along side the curve so there is continuity between the

curve and the mirror. 0his continuity must be smooth and then a line along the base of

the mirror represents the tangent to the curve at that point.

Apparat$s: recording timer, timing tape, digital strobe, cart, ruler, 899 gram mass, pulley,

mirror.

&ata 'ollection:

0he recording timer can be calibrated using the strobe. 0urn on the timer and then

adjust the strobe in a darken room until the timer appears to stop. 4nce the two are

synchroni(ed the value on the strobe can be noted. 0he timer will appear to stop when the

strobe flashes every third time it vibrates, every second, every time or other multiples. 1t is

important to find a one to one correspondence between the number of flashes and the number

of cycles or vibrations. 0o do this continue to raise the rate at which the strobe flashes until

the timer appears to stop again. 3ecord the higher value from the strobe. -ontinue this

process until the timer no longer stops. 0he final or largest number of flashes per minute

recorded is the value you should use for calibration since there should be a one to one

correspondence for this value. 0he other values should be half, a third, a fourth or other

fractions of the highest value. 3epeat this procedure si) time and then take the average for a

more precise value of time. 3ecord the top si) values. 0hese are flashes per minute and

must be divided by :9 seconds in a minute to determine the number of flashes per second and

finally the reciprocal of that value must be found to determine the seconds per period on the

timer.

After the timer is calibrated it may be used to measure distance and time for the

motion of the dynamics cart. Attach a 899 gram mass to the cart using a string and arrange

the mass over the side of the table placing the string into the pulley at the end of the table to

reduce friction. ;old the cart in place with a book so that it does not accelerate while the rest

of the apparatus is set up. Attach a timer tape to the bottom of the cart with tape. 0hread the

tape through the timer over the top of a carbon disk so that dots are tapped onto the tape as it

is pulled through the timer. /ake sure there is plenty of room between the pulley and the

cart so that the mass will hit the floor before the cart hits to pulley. %tart the timer and then

release the cart. -atch the cart prior to it hitting the pulley. 4n the underside of the tape will

be the dots corresponding to the motion of the cart.

0ape

9 1 8

d1

-ircle the first dot and number it (ero. -ount over successive ten dots and circle

each. Number each successive circled dot with the ne)t higher integer. Now count back

three spaces and forward three spaces from the circle dots to measure the distance, d1, over

si) intervals surrounding the numbered dots. 3ecord the distance for the first dot as (ero as

the dot represents that the cart was at rest. Ne)t, record the distance for the si) intervals

surrounding each numbered dot in the table. <etermine the time for si) intervals by

multiplying the time per period, determined with the strobe, by si). <ivide each of the

distances by the time for the si) periods to determine the average velocity over that distance.

0his is the instantaneous velocity or speed at each numbered point. 3ecord that speed or

velocity in the table ne)t to the distance interval. /ake note that this distance is used to

determine the average speed or velocity and will not be used in the graph. Now the total

distance or d8 traveled will be determined for each successive numbered dot. 0he distance

from (ero to each dot must be measured and recorded since this is the total distance traveled

to reach each of the velocities at the numbered points. 0he distance d8 is used in the graph of

distance versus time. 0o determine the total time interval to reach each successive numbered

dot it is necessary to multiple the time per period by the total number of periods recorded

from (ero to that dot. "or dot number 1 the total time to reach that point is 19 periods times

the time per period. "or dot number 8 the total time is 89 times the time per period and for =

it is =9 times the time per period. 3ecord the time values in the table ne)t to the

corresponding distance to the dot.

&ata Analysis:

-reate two graphs: one with the distance traveled to the numbered points versus

the total time re&uired to reach each successive numbered point and the other velocity at

each point versus the time re&uired to reach that point. 0he slope of the first graph is the

velocity and the slope of the second graph is the acceleration. <escribe the motion of the

cart by analy(ing the graphs.

<etermine the slope of the distance versus time graph for three points using the

mirror and drawing a tangent at a point. 3emember the slope of a line or the tangent is

the change in y over the change in ). 3ecord the ) and y values for two points on each

tangent line and determine the slope or velocity for three points. 3ecord those values in a

second table.

4n the velocity versus time graph find the velocity values you determined from

the first graph and determine the acceleration of the cart at that time. 0o determine the

acceleration of the cart look at the y a)is of velocity and find the values corresponding to

the points. Ne)t move over to the graph at that point and draw the tangent at that point.

"ind the slope of the line at that point. 0his will be the acceleration. 3ecord that value in

the table ne)t to the velocity.

($estions:

1. 6hat are the numbers of significant figures in the speed values>

8. 6hat is the limiting factor for this number of significant figures>

=. %peed was determined using a si) period interval. 6hat determines the si(e of the

interval used to find the speed>

- Quest-Ed - Copy - Google Drive
- Practice XVA
- Test Paper
- 03 lectureoutline
- 2.1 Linear Motion
- HELMI Analysing Linear Motion
- Abaspoor Set 1
- PHY_BK_ANS_2
- the unit organizer motion
- HW #2 (Motion Graphs) (1).pdf
- Engg Mechanics
- 107Lab1
- Motion Graphs
- P3 London June 1970
- 2.1 Analysing Linear Motion
- Mechanic
- Displacement and Velocity
- MIT One Dimensional Kinematics Textbook
- OA02a_ Thermal Physics and 1D Kinematics.pdf
- Section 12 8
- 3-kinematics
- International Journal of Engineering Research and Development (IJERD)
- 63
- linear motion 11-1
- Motion Kinematics 1D
- Acceleration & Deceleration
- motion graphs
- Dynamic
- introduction to Dynamics
- General Science 30 Items

- Tmp 2069
- tmpEADE.tmp
- tmp55B4.tmp
- frbclv_wp1984-05.pdf
- Skylark Three by Smith, E. E. (Edward Elmer), 1890-1965
- tmpA453.tmp
- Results of the Third Saturn IB Launch Vehicle Test Flight AS-202 Vol II
- Fomc 19831004 Material
- tmp7B40
- tmp124C.tmp
- tmp51FA.tmp
- R/C Soaring Digest - May 2012
- as6
- econcomm_19830606.pdf
- tmpBF9B
- Mechanics( Physics Paper 1 B.sc I (for CORRECTION) (1)
- tmp37E4.tmp
- frbsf_let_19850607.pdf
- tmp19A0
- rev_frbrich199304.pdf
- tmp29BF.tmp
- Tmp 3180
- Model Rocketry Mathematics
- 65192_1955-1959
- 67197_1985-1989
- tmpDF60
- tmpBA6C
- tmp49D1
- tmpC744
- tmp3BF1

- Alphabets
- 5054_s03_qp_1.pdf
- 16.2.doc
- 1.4
- Yearly Scheme of Work STPM Physics Term 2 2017
- Designing expt F=ma
- 1.5
- 1.2 and 1.3
- Jadual Pep Akhir Tahun Ting 2 2016
- Simul
- 16.3.doc
- Password KK960415
- Theory
- Physics STPM 1
- Yearly Scheme of Work STPM Physics Term 3 2017
- Pre Test Chapter 2 Kinematics
- SPM Grading
- Physics Challenge
- 白话文理解练习一
- 1.3 Refraction of Waves
- 1.2 Reflection of Waves
- Rules and Regulations
- Pre Test Chapter 3 Dynamics
- KWSP17A__Khas_2016___04022016_update
- QMC Rules and Regulations 2014 15
- 1.1 Understanding Waves
- Pre Test Chapter 1 Physical Quantities and Units
- Yearly Scheme of Work STPM Physics Term 2
- Template Etr Graph 1
- Pre Test Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading