With the growing standards of the world and the existing concepts and complexities in
political, economic and socio-cultural ideologies, man has always and
continuously pondered over the aspects of his nature. Unity, equality, trade and
commerce are at the forefront of man's complexities. With these thoughts in mind,
man has moved through history trying to satisfy his desires in relation to others.
The advent of the twenty-first century gave birth to the idea of maing the world a
single village, thus, globali!ation. "lobali!ation is the most tal-about issues in
the #$
century. %owever, there is the difficulty of the world to come up with a
single and uniform definition. This is because, so many people doubt if the
happenings in the world today are as a result of globali!ation. Thus, due to these
global differences of what this concept actually is about, globali!ation has grown
to involve aspects not only of economy, but politics and other socio-cultural
issues. "lobali!ation affects almost every human being, this is because the
process of globali!ation is said to have expanded almost through out the entire
world either through transport, commerce, and communication. &n addition, man's
activities on the globe are all located under these sectors.
(ulture, as a way of living of man, is identified by every one immediately after birth and
was often seen as distinct from one another. %owever, with advent of the process
of globali!ation, there is now the integration and homogeni!ation of cultures.
)%omogeni!ation of cultures is the loss of diversity of culture between two or
more cultural groups*. Thus, our topic, )globali!ation and its effects on cultural
integration in the (!ech +epublic* The (!ech +epublic is a country with a rich
cultural heritage with wors of art seen in theatres, cinemas, libraries, globally
recogni!ed galleries, museums and concert halls and with well-maintained
traditions especially, in the villages of the ,oravian--ilesian region. These
villages remain as a sign of the cultural taste of the specific areas.
%uman beings with unlimited quest for wants have let to the advent of the process of
globali!ation. This has come through a dramatic expansion in the volume and
variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services. The development of
new technologies used for information, communication and transportation. and
the huge increase in international flow of capital, has gone a long way to affect
the economic, political, environmental and socio-cultural sectors of many
countries in the world, both positive and negative. /ffects on globali!ation on
cultural integration being our topic of discussion, in recent years there have been
programs carried out by the government bodies, United 0ations, the /uropean
Union and the 0on-governmental organi!ations for the integration of immigrants
and foreigners in the (!ech +epublic. 1s a way of encouraging integration, the
ministry of culture represents intercultural dialogue within the state policy. The
ministry also give support to cultural activities of members of national minorities
living in the country, support for integration of members of the +oma community
and immigrants. The 2epartment of 1rts, 3ibraries, 2epartment of ,edia, and
1udiovisual 4olicies have also supported intercultural pro5ects. 0on-
governmental organi!ations such as6 7rgani!ation for 1id to +efugees, 874U9,
4eople in 0eed, and (!ech ,obility (enter and )/thnic :riendly employer*.
The main ob5ective of this study is to examine globali!ation and its effects on cultural
integration in the (!ech +epublic.
7ther ob5ectives are to examine the effects of globali!ation on the economic, political and
socio-cultural domains in the (!ech +epublic in general.
To determine how globali!ation has contributed to the transformation of the national
sovereignty to global sovereignty.
&t is also to examine the current rate of integration and the characteristics of the people in
the cultural integration process.
:urthermore, the study is intended to identify and describe the techniques in which
people become culturally integrated and the number of questions being raised.
&t is also aimed at examining the role of government, the United 0ations the World ;an,
the 0"7s, the :oreigners, &mmigrants, in the cultural integration process.
:inally, it is to examine the constraints and consequences of cultural integration, since the
long-term results are leaving a legacy positively and negatively. 1s we move
towards the third millennium, a rational planning scheme and utili!ation of
cultures should remain the ma5or pre-occupation of the society.
&n order to carry out the study and achieve the stated ob5ectives, a number of hypotheses
were advanced to address the problem.
i9 "lobali!ation and cultural integration form an interrelated spiral. There is, the more
there the futures of globali!ation, the more there is cultural integration.
ii9 &ntensification of trade and commerce and communication is the main cause of
cultural integration in the (!ech +epublic.
The later part of the #=
century has seen a remarable growth in the level of popular
concern for environmental, political, economic and socio-cultural issues, which
have come as a result of the advent of the globali!ation process. &t is becoming
increasingly clear that if the present environmental crisis is not confronted
immediately, we stand the ris of having serious and irreversible effects on our
The (!ech +epublic has an interest in its cultural protection. That is why the government
in order to preserve the (!ech culture organi!es annual cultural festivals in the
country. %owever, there is little evidence that sufficient steps have been taen to
ensure effective protection is done. This is due to the fact that the local
communities, which are directly concerned with the culture, are not often
considered when maing policies concerning their culture, management and
%ence, a study of this nature could have results, which are beneficial in a number of
ways. -ome of these include.
• To raise awareness of the community on the significance and ways of proper
management of cultural issues,
• To address a number of problems, caused by globali!ation and its effects on the
cultural integration,
• To provide policy maers and research institutions with the basic data, this would
help in designing new program that will be real and problem specific,
• To provide citi!ens of not only the (!ech +epublic but /uropean Union members
as well on the currents effects of changes on cultural issues as a result of
VI.II Data Collet!o"
1lthough the writer has interacted for some time in this area, and has grown up with a
wealth of nowledge of the (!ech culture, a further reading was carried out in order to
further nowledge of the recent changes in the (!ech culture due to the advent of
The theoretical and empirical research was most based on secondary sources and official
websites lie the (!ech -tatistical 7ffice, the ,inistry of 3abor ?ouths and -ports and
/urostat. ,ost of the research was mostly on secondary sources were mostly consulted.
-everal textboos, 5ournals, unpublished dissertations and other related publications on
the sub5ect were also consulted.
VI.II. Data A"al#$!$
The descriptive techniques were used in analy!ing the data collected from sources such
as the (!ech statistical 7ffice, and /urostat website. These techniques included the use of
tables and graphs with the calculations of percentages, and averages. &n addition to this,
the data was illustrated in bar charts, and histograms. This can be seen in chapter three.
VII. L!%!tat!o"$ o& t'e St()#
The first limitation is that even when the researcher tried to carry a review on some
research in the libraries on the effects of globali!ation on cultural integration in the (!ech
+epublic, there of few textboos, which have dealt with this topic. -econdly, even with
the few ones, some there were mostly in other languages lie the (!ech language. -o due
to the scarcity on text boos on the topic and the hindrance to consult some of the
available ones most of the materials were been extracted from official websites lie the
(!ech -tatistics 7ffice, /urostat, the ,inistry of ?ouths and -ports.
1nother constraint on the research was that of finance. -ome of materials found on the
&nternet were on sale, and couple with the financial constraints, the researcher was unable
to reach all of the available materials.
The study area is situated between latitude >AB >@ 0 of the equator and longitude $@ C <=
/ of the "reenwich ,eridian. (!ech +epublic is found in the central /urope, bordered in
east by -lovaia, in the south by 1ustria, in the north by 4oland and in the west by
"ermany. &t has a land cover of DE,EF> sq. ilometers with a population of $=.# million
inhabitants. ,a5or cities include, 4rague 8the capital city9, ;rno, 4l!en, 7lomouc,
Garlovy Hary, (ese ;ude5ovice, (esy Grumlov, 3iberec, %radec Gralove, ;echyne,
Golin, 4elhrimov, -umper, Trebon , Uherse %radiste and ;runtal.
The main ethnic groups in the (!ech +epublic include. the (!ech who are about A.#@
million of the population, the ,oravian 8more than <E=,===9, the -lova about
8$A<.===9, the +oma about 8$D$.===9, the -ilesians 8$$.===9, the 4olish 8@#.===9,
the "ermans 8<A.===9, the Urainian 8##.===9 and the Hietnamese 8$E.===9
;ureau of /uropean and /urasian 1ffairs 8Ianuary #==E9.
,ap $ The ,ap 7f The (!ech +epublic
-ource6 World
"oing bac to the topic of our thesis, )"lobali!ation and effects on cultural integration in
the (!ech +epublic*, there is the need to define what globali!ation actually is. With the
growing debate of what when the globali!ation phenomenon began and it actual meaning,
some social science theorists have come forth with the definition of globali!ation both
from the classical and the contemporary era.
+.+ De&!"!t!o" o& Glo,al!-at!o"
Walters says the Webster's dictionary is the first ma5or dictionary to mention the word
globali!ation in $AF$. The dictionary defines globali!ation as )to render global*
or )the act of globali!ing* cited in ,alcolm Walters 8#==$6#9. The concept
globali!ation has now being use by many academics and there has been a debate
on when the concept of globali!ation actually began. There are some who have
perceived the concept of globali!ation has been in to existence before this period.
Thus, the below mentioned are some of the definitions of globali!ation posed by
various social science theorists.
,arx 8$ADD9 is considered by social theorists as the first author to focus on the
dimensional approach in the explanation of the concept of globali!ation. %e explained the
globali!ation phenomenon, basing his argument on the economic factor. ,arx in his
dependency theory saw that the political-territorial boundaries remain intact and will
disappear under a future proletarian supremacy. This is seen because, immediately after
his death on $>
of ,arch $EE<, his ideas began to invoe a ma5or influence on worers
revolts in the world such as, ;olshevis movement also nown as the 7ctober revolution
in +ussia in 7ctober #@ $A$D.
Wallerstein 8$AD>9 is another diamensionalist, who focuses on the economic view on the
definition of globali!ation. Taing from the wors of ,arx's dependence theory, in his
world systems theory where he developed a theoretical framewor to understand the
historical changes involved in the rise of the modern world, defines globali!ation as, )an
increasing level of interdependence between national systems by way of trade, military
alliance and domination, and cultural imperialism* cited in Walters 8#==$6>9.
+obertson +oland has been considered as one of the most prominent writers of issues of
globali!ation. %e explains globali!ation in the cultural domain. &n is text, “Globalization
as a Problem” in The Globalization Reader says Jglobali!ation as a concept refers both
to the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a
whole* Cited in :ran 3echner and Iohn ;oli 8#==>6A>9
:or Wallerstein, the world started going compression since the beginning of the sixteenth
century, but +obertson. he argues that the history of globali!ation is far longer. :or
+obertson, through an increase in world wide consciousness a person is looed at and is
examined by the whole world and not 5ust by his or her own local environment in which
heKshe lives. %owever, both Wallerstein and +obertson's ideas of the intensification of the
world wide consciousness is said to match.
1ccording to "iddens globali!ation is seen as )the intensification of world wide social
relations which lin distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by
events occurring many miles away and vice versa* "iddens 8$AA=6>9. These local
happenings were said to be may be influenced by distant events and not 5ust the local
events, which all have been influenced by the forces of globali!ation.
3ooing at "iddens 8$AA=9 and +obertson's 8$AA#9 definitions, "iddens believes
modernity has come as a result of globali!ation. That is, he considers modernity to be
inherently globali!ing. :or "iddens globali!ation is said to have started during the
sixteenth century onwards and in /urope in particular. %owever, in +obertson's opinion,
the problem of globali!ation is not new. %e believes the social compression of the world
has begun before the sixteenth century as predicted by "iddens. %e predicts modernity
and the rise of capitalism to be the cause of the rise of globali!ation. That is for
+obertson, moderni!ation has an influence on globali!ation. &n addition, because of this,
it led to a high level of consciousness and the present situation where we in the present
day are unable to trace the diffusion of globali!ation across a large number of areas in the
different parts of the world.
%owever, what can be said is that both "iddens and +obertson have tried to show that
people are now able to see and understand issues beyond their immediate environments
due to the emergence of the concept of globali!ation.
3uhmann in his explanation of globali!ation focuses more on communication. :or him
communication is the ma5or factor of globali!ation. %e thus defines globali!ation as )the
transition from integration to differentiation, from territorial society to world society.
from identity to difference. from Jstratified' differentiation to Jfunctional'* 3uhmann
8$AE#6$<<, ##A9.
1rmand refers globali!ation as )one of those tricy words, one of those instrumental
notions that, under the effects of maret logics and without citi!ens being aware of it
have been naturali!ed to the point of becoming indispensable for establishing
communication between people of different cultures* 1rmand 8#===6AD9. :or 1rmand,
globali!ation has a dominant role in organi!ing and decoding the meaning of the world.

&n a similar manner, ;eynon Iohn and 2unerley 2avid in their general introduction to
globali!ation6 the reader, made the claim that )globali!ation is impacting on the lives of
everyone on the L globali!ation might 5ustifiably be claimed to be the defining features
of human society at the state of the twenty-first century* ;eynon Iohn and 2unerley
2avid 8#===6 <9.
;ec on his text, What is globali!ation, he says globali!ation is the )blanet term* and
thus describe it to be )the processes through which -overeign national states are criss-
crossed and undermined by transnational actors with varying prospects of power,
orientation, identities and networs* ;ec 8#===6$$9. ;ec also referred globali!ation as
the )intensification of transnational space, events, problems, conflicts and biographies*
8ibid6 ED9. %e argues that we are moving into a Jsecond modernity' that is seen through
growth of the economy, the information and communication technologies, civil society
communications and the changes in the environment. %e sees globali!ation to be
discontinuous, conflictual and ill reversible because for him, it not different from any
other historical process.
1lthough ;ec contributed in the explanation of modernity 5ust lie other social scientists
lie "iddens and ,arx, he never saw any good in this process. %e thus focused
more of his attention on the bad side of modernity, which he called a )ris
society*. That is, the new modernity is only concern with the )prevention,
minimi!ation and channeling of ris* (ited in +it!er 8#===6###9.
Waters ,alcolm defines globali!ation in a less political approach as Ja social process in
which the constraints of geography on economic, political, social, and cultural
arrangements recede, in which people become increasingly aware that they are
receding and in which people act accordingly' Walters 8#==6$@9. The idea that
people are conscious that they are receding 8been carried away can to some how
be argued. This is because. at time, some people are not always conscious of the
fact that the processes globali!ation is affecting them. 4eople may be moving or
acting through the forces of globali!ation unconscious.
%eld and ,c"rew also defines globali!ation as a )process 8or set of processes9 which
embodies a transformation in the spatial organi!ation of social relations and
transactions - assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact-
generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows and networs of activity* %eld
and ,c"rew 8$AAA6$F9.
Thus, considering the views of the above-cited authors, globali!ation can be defined as
intensification of economic, political, and socio-cultural relations in the localities
of the world. 1lternatively, it can be seen as the development of equal
opportunities in the political, economic, socio-cultural realms of all nations in the
world. &t's also related to the spread of moderni!ation throughout the world.
"lobali!ation indicates increase linages between people, goods and technology.
&t is a process whereby, national business enterprises and marets become world
wide or international. That is, a situation whereby businesses which were been
carried out within a particular country are now been extended to other countries
across the globe. "lobali!ation is the process of maing the village a single entity.
That is with the advent of globali!ation there is the continuity of the homogeneity
of culture, economy, social and environmental aspects of the world.
+.. Gloal!-at!o".
The tem glocali!ation comes from a combination of two words, 8globali!ation and
locali!ation9 +obertson and 3ash defines glocali!ation as )the process which overrides
locality, including large-scale locality* +obertson and 3ash 8$AA@6#F9. That is
glocali!ation is a situation where by, goods and services produced satisfy people in a
local environment are also exported to countries abroad. /xample of globali!ation
involves the continuous changes in most menus of some restaurants in order to appease
the customers and the use of different languages in the brochures to explain the content of
the goods or services to satisfy the customers. 1 ma5or importance of glocali!ation is that
it )empowers local communities, lining them to global resources and facilitating
initiatives of peace and development, while providing opportunities for the local
communities to direct positive social change in the areas that most directly affect them*
8&bid6 <9.

The "locali!ation ,anifesto 8-eptember #==>6<9. 81ccessed #>K=>K#==A9.
mm=/warehouse/documents/the_glocalization_manifesto.pdf. http://209.!."29."#2/search?
+#D/warehouse/documents/ mm=/warehouse/documents/
+./ Gloloal!-at!o"
:riedman defines glolocali!ation is )Jthe ability of a culture' when it encounters other
strong cultures to resist those things that are truly alien and to compartmentali!e those
things that, while different, can nevertheless be en5oyed and celebrated as different*
:riedman 8#===6#A@9. The difference between glolocali!ation and globali!ation is that,
glolocali!ation helps to absorb )those aspects of globali!ation that adds to your growth
and diversity without overwhelming them*
+.0 Glo,al!$%
+it!er viewed globalism as a situation whereby )the world is dominated by economies
and that we are witnessing the emergence of the hegemony of capitalist world maret and
the neo-liberal ideology that under pins it* +it!er 8#===6@D#9. That is globalism involves
a single economic factor, which is now taing control over the entire globe. 1n example
is the huge multi- national corporations, which even own capitals more than some
+.1 Glo,al!t#.
;ec defines globality as a )no world state* or )world society without a world state and
without a world government* ;ec 8#===6$$D9. &t means, )from now on nothing which
happens in our planet is only a limited event, all inventions, victories and catastrophes
affect the whole world*. 8&bid6 $$9. 1n example of this is the -eptember $$ #==$
coordinated suicide attac on the United -tates by al-Maeda. This catastrophe did not
affect only the United -tates of 1merica. &t affected the world at large in its politics
economic social cultural and environmental aspects. Iust lie when at $#6#F pm. /-T,
:ebruary #= #==E the U- navy 1/"&- warship shot down a decaying satellite in its final
orbit before returning to earth over the 4acific 7cean. The victory was not 5ust for the U-
Further Reading Thomas L. Friedman. The 3exus and the 7live Tree. 1nchor boos, #===.
http6KK#=A.E@.$#A.$<#KsearchN qOcache6xacMgy$1n3gI6www.cob.s5su.eduKfruinPmKfruinnewK3exus
but also to the world at large. This is because if left to fall on earth, the catastrophe could
have been worldwide, affecting both man, animals and the environment.
+.2 MDo"al)!-at!o"
The term ,c2onaldi!ation was first coined by +it!er "eorge in his text )the
McDonaldization of Society”. (ited in Taylor -tephen and 3yon 4hil 8$AA@9, he defines
,c2onaldi!ation as Tthe process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are
coming to dominate more and more sectors of 1merican society as well as the rest of the
. The dimensions of ,c2onaldi!ation +it!er noted include, efficiency,
predictability, calculability 8or an emphasis on quantification9, and control 8especially
through inhuman technologies9, +it!er says ,c2onaldi!ation is Ta largely one-way
process in which a series of 1merican innovations are being aggressively exported too
much of the rest of the worldT 8ibid6 E9.
;ec defines ,c2onaldi!ation as, )the convergence of global cultural thesis*. That is,
the )resemblance of life styles, cultural systems and transnational mode of behavior ;ec
8#===6>#9 1 situation whereby )a single world culture is pushed to its outer limits where
local cultures die out and ever one consumes, eats, sleeps, loves, dresses, argue and
dream in accordance with a single schema of 8however9 neatly divided by profits* 8ibid6
+.3 A%e4!a"!-at!o".
1mericani!ation is a situation in the $A=='s whereby immigrants were integrated in to
1merican society. %owever, today this term has a different but similar meaning, which is
referred to the United -tates globali!ation of the world
+.5 Mo)e4"!-at!o"
-tephen Taylor, 4hil 3yon $AA@ international Iournal of contemporary hospitality management. Holume6 D
&ssue6 #K< page F>-FE.
U+36 http6KKwww.emeraldinsight.comK$=.$$=EK=A@AF$$A@$==E==#> 81ccessed #$K=>K#==A9
,illet, :rederic (. )1mericani!ation*
:urther reading https6KKwww.msu.eduKUmillettfKamericani!ation.html 81ccessed #K=@K#==A9
The encyclopedia ;ritannica dictionary defines moderni!ation as the )transformation of a
society from a rural and agrarian condition to a secular, urban, and industrial one*.
,oderni!ation is mostly associated to )industriali!ation*. This is because when there is
industriali!ation there is division of labor and speciali!ation. &n addition, when there is
division of labor and speciali!ation, it signifies presence of moderni!ation. ,oderni!ation
is a situation whereby there is a fall in the traditional values of the people. &t is also a
situation whereby there is an increase in similarities between different cultural groups.
+.6 De&!"!t!o" o& C(lt(4e.
2efining the term culture has for many years stood the test of time for many authors. This
is because, culture with its very broad nature have always been without a precise
definition. %owever, some authors have tried to come up with some definitions of what
they consider the culture of a people can be.
(ulture is defined by (lyde Gluchomn as )the total way of life of a people*. )The social
legacy an individual acquires from his group*, )a way of thining, feeling and believing*.
)1n abstraction from behavior* or )a theory on the part of the anthropologist about the
way in which a group of people in fact behave*. )a store house of pooled learning*. )a set
of standardi!ed orientations to recurrent problems*. )learned behavior*. )a mechanism
for the normative regulation of behavior*. )a set of techniques for ad5usting both to the
external environment and to other men*. )a precipitate of history*. and turning, in
desperation, to similes, as a map, as a sieve, and as a matrix 8(ited in (lifford "eert!
(ulture is also referred by as )an acted document* "eert! 8$AD<6$=9 and so it was
considered by him to be public. 1n example "eert! gave was win, which is read by the
public as boo. (ulture is said not to exist in some one's head. That is, when we are born
as we grow, through learning from either our parents or schools or the environment we
grow, we now culture.
The ;ritannica encyclopedia definition of moderni!ation
http6KKwww.britannica.comK/;checedKtopicK<ED<=$Kmoderni!ation 81ccessed #DK=>K#==A9
"iddens referred culture to be )the way of life of the members of the society* or )of
groups within a society* "iddens 8#==#6##9. &t includes how they dress, their marriage
customs and family, their patterns of wor, religious ceremonies and leisure pursuits. The
above definition by (lifford "eert! is considered by "iddens as a sociological definition
of culture. The sociologists believe culture is only learned. That is )those aspects of
human societies which are learned* 8ibid9. %owever, "iddens believes that culture is
inherited and it comprises both intangible aspects of life lie the beliefs, ideas and values,
which form the content of culture. &n addition, the tangible aspects lie the ob5ects,
symbols or technology, which represents that content.
(ulture according to Garl ,arx )is not only a code or mode of communication, is also a
form of domination, an ideology at the service of the dominant classes* (ited in IirV
8#==F6$#9. ,ar considers culture as that entity that helps individuals or manind to
interact within them. %e also sees culture as that act that helps to enslave the weaer
communities under the stronger communities. 1n example of this is the present day
1merican cultures of 1mericani!ation and ,c2onaldi!ation. 2escribed by +it!er as the
)fast food restaurants* +it!er, 8#==<6##=9.
Thus, from the above-mentioned definitions of culture, & sum up to say, culture is either
beliefs or some form of religion of a person. That is, either the environment one fines him
or her self, one area of origin, how one acts and main activities carried on in the local
environment. (ulture is a situation whereby a particular group of people or community
tends to loo at certain things to have the same meanings. :or example, certain cultures
lie the beyang culture of ,amfe ,anyu 2ivision of (ameroon, turns to see a rainbow to
signify an on coming death of elite in a community. While to the scientists, a rainbow is
considered an optional and meteorological phenomenon that causes a spectrum of light to
appear in the sy. "reenler says, )&t appeared when sunlight fell in on raindrops* "reener
8$AA=6$9. Therefore, some cultural aspects can mean something different between
different groups of people.
The culture of the (!ech +epublic has over some years now seen some changes in its
composition due to the advent of the phenomenon of globali!ation and for this reason a
loo on it changing aspects is due to be looed at in the next chapters.
Trying to tal about the origins of globali!ation, & thin it necessary to start with. 1dam
-mith in the text “the world of nations” has been considered )the father of economics*.
8-mith $DDF9 says division of labor involves an almost endless increasing production
because of free trade and unlimited desires of human wants. (onsidering -mith's, it can
be said that he was one of those proponents to tal about the issues relating to
globali!ation when he mentions of the limits of the maret to the world of nations.
,arx Garl taing from the perspectives of 1dam -mith, he wrote The )(ommunist
,anifesto*. %e argues that is, )the need of a constantly expanding maret for its products
chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe. &t must nestle everywhere,
settle everywhere, and establish connections everywhere*.
)The bourgeoisie has through
its exploitation of the world-maret given a cosmopolitan character to production and
3arson -imeon and 0issen ;ruce. 8$AED6#A9. Theories of the labor movement
4ublished by Wayne -tate University 4ress, <A@ pages.>F>(,(SpgO41#ASlpgO41#ASdqO
consumption in every country*. This is cited in 3arson -imeon and 0issen ;ruce
8$AED6#A9. ,arx made us to understand that due a continuously expanding maret of the
capitalist maret, the proletariat would one day rise against the bourgeoisie
Walters also believes that, that many theories of globali!ation tae their lead from ,arx
because he stressed on the economic foundations of globali!ation. %e thus writes,
)(apitalism is clearly the vehicle of economic internationali!ation because its peculiar
spectrum of institutions-financial marets, commodities contractuali!ed labor alienable
property- are highly mobile and fluid, facilitating economic exchange over great
distances* Walters 8#===6#D9.
,arx analysis is said to be a reflection of the happenings of the world today especially
when it come to the global maret economy in its endless production system. This
is said to be occurring because of the process of globali!ation.
:riedrich /ngels, who is said to be the co-author of the T(ommunist ,anifesto,T he wrote
with ,arx Garl wrote that,T )a newly )invented machine in /ngland* has stopped
)millions* of woring people of their )livelihood within a year's time*. 1nd because of
this, the big production has brought all the people of the earth into contact with each
other and helping to bring together all local marets into one world maret. 3eading to
increased development and progress everywhere, ensuring that whatever happens in
civili!ed countries will have effects in all other countries 8,a!lish ;ruce < Ianuary
. &t is quite ama!ing that most of :riedrich's writings were seen and are now
being seen in some of the forces of globali!ation as, science, capitalism, and technology.
,a!lish ;ruce < Ianuary #==<. ?ale "lobal. 3ooing at %istory in the 3ight of "lobali!ation
The /conomist also says the term )globali!ation* 8#==$6$@@9 was probably coined in the
$AE=s but the idea has been around for a long time and so it not new. That
globali!ation has been accelerating for the past three decades after the anti-trade
bacslash in the $A#=s and $A<=s. That goods, ideas and people have moved
across the world for millennia. That is, even though with the present modern
technologies especially the &nternet, there have existed the train and steamship
form the $A
century were as important global economic integration. &n addition,
they reduced cost of transport 5ust as communication cost is now being reduced in
the present day. Therefore, what is different now is that is it )moving in a different
gear altogether* 8ibid6 ix9. The /conomist tries to tal of the existence of
globali!ation with relation to time period. That is, in past $A#=s and in the present
day $AE=s. %e therefore assumes that the process of globali!ation has been in
existence in the past and is 5ust intensifying in the present day and so he considers
it not to be a new phenomenon.
Tony -chirato, Ien, Webb and /brary says globali!ation is the Jname' that is often used to
designate the power relation, practices and technologies that characteri!e and
have helped bring into being, the contemporary world. Tony et al 8#==<. %e
maes us to understand that although the word globali!ation has been use only
since the early $AF=s, some writes see it as dating from the empires of the ancient
world while of others globali!ation is coterminous with the modern era and the
process of globali!ation or even the post-moderni!ation. Therefore because of
these confusion at when globali!ation actually began, there is also confusion in its
meaning and global definition both in the general and in the academic fields.
1ccording to 1rmand ,attetart 8#===9, globali!ation emerged out of enlightenment and
liberalism. %e argued that both )enlightenment and liberalism aimed at the construction
of an unrestricted global arena to achieve universal democracy and or a universal maret*
(ited by Tony et al 8#==<6#F9. ,attelart located the neo-liberal pro5ect of globali!ation in
a particular historical moment, and tied it up with historical interests, and tracing how this
particularity came to universali!e itself as the defining character of western society
politics and culture.
7ne of those theorists of ,arxism who tired to trace the origin of globali!ation is
Wallerstein. 1ccording to Wallerstein, )globali!ation does not constitute a new
phenomenon*, Wallerstein 8$AAE6<#9 is the process, completed in the #=th century
by which the capitalist world system spread across the actual globe, which since
its development, the world system had maintained some of it features over several
centuries. -o according to him, globali!ation is the )ideological celebration of so-
called globali!ation is in reality the swan song of our historical system*
. %e
focuses on the economic sphere. %e believes the world has being going social
compression since the beginning of the sixteenth century. %e says the world is
experiencing acceleration globali!ation, which is cultural and reflexive in
character to an extent that it can be regarded as an accomplishment. %e traces the
origins of globali!ation starting form the human societies. %e argued that the
defining characteristic of all social system is the division of labor in economic of
exchange. Wallerstein maes readers to understand that there are only two ways in
which societies are organi!ed. That is the mini and the world systems. The mini
system he said refers where there is division of labor and economic exchange
occurs only within discrete group lie the traditional and isolated hunter-gathering
societies. %e believes those societies were rare and are now virtually in non-
existence. While "iddens tals of Jtime-space distanciation', Wallerstein tals of
Jtime-space realities'.
Wallerstein's 8$AAE6<#9 thoughts on globali!ation
:urther reading.ttp6KKwww.sociology.emory.eduKglobali!ationKtheories=$.htm
The origins of globali!ation are analy!ed according to "iddens under four dimensions.
That is, )capitalism, military order, surveillance, and industriali!ation* "iddens
8$AA=6D=-DE9. %e believes that the liberation of time and space is an entirely
moderni!ing development and is a prerequisite for globali!ation. Thus,
moderni!ation according to "iddens is a direct consequence of moderni!ation.
"iddens says, JThe concept of globali!ation is best understood as expressing the
fundamental aspects of time-space distanciation' "iddens 8$AA=, $AA$9. &n
addition, time- space distanciation was believed by "iddens to be the first step
towards the process of globali!ation. :or "iddens, it has come with the advent of
moderni!ation. &n addition, when there is time space distanciation and
disembedding 8that is the lifting of social relations out of the local environment9,
there is the development of complex relationships between local activities and
interaction across distances. %e believes globali!ation is directly allied to the
development of modern societies to the industriali!ation and the accumulation of
material resources, and is a continuation of modernity rather than a brea with it.
The contemporary period "iddens terms it high modernity, by which he means
modernity has now moved into a global stage. -ociety has become a Jworld
society' and social institutions that have become global confront the individual.
4eople everywhere cannot avoid coming into contact with the global through #=

century brand mareting, imagery and fashions. %e defines three factors in the
century that in his opinion, have resulted in contemporary globali!ation.
0ineteenth century /uropean nations deployment of forces to conquer tribal societies,
coloni!e them and then establish ruling colonial communities,
The comparative peace of the $Ath century allowed ;ritain particularly to invest
resources in advancing colonies ambitions,
/uropean bureaucratic sills allowed them to develop diplomatic networ and
transnational political and businesses agencies.
7n the contrary, +obertson believes that the problem of globali!ation is not new. That it
dates bac modernity and the rise of capitalism. Thus, in opposition to "iddens,
globali!ation is not equated with or seen as a direct consequence on modernity. &n
addition, in opposition to Wallerstein, +obertson believes the social compression
of the world has begun before the sixteenth century but was not regarded as
globali!ation and with some interruptions. %e says the focus on globali!ation
theory is a recent phenomenon. That is, became recogni!ed in academic fields
only in the early or even the middle $AE=s in reaction to new forms of capitalist
supremacy 8+obertson, $AA#9.
1ppradurai believes that moderni!ation is Jvernacularly' called globali!ation. %e says
Jglobali!ation is itself a deeply historical, uneven, and locali!ing process.
+eferring him self as Jone born of the ruling class' understood the existence of
globali!ation during the fifties and sixties. That is 5ust of recent that Jmany of the
woring people and the poor' are reali!ing its existence. %e says a professional
anthropologist, predisposes that Jglobali!ation is not the story of cultural
homogeni!ation' 1ppradurai 8$AAD6$=-$D9. That is, globali!ation does not
necessarily or even frequently imply homogeni!ation of 1mericani!ation. (ulture
stands as the ey to many practices.
%eld and ,c"rew 8#===6#9 in the text )the global transformation readerL*:ocusing on
the economic sphere, tals of two main types of groups in the debate of the
origins of globali!ation. That is, the Jglobalists' 8believers that globali!ation is
real and have significant historical developments9. 1nd the Jsceptics', 8are those
who consider that what we are experiencing at the present is simply a
continuation of trends that developed in the period of /uropean colonial
1nother theorist who loos at globali!ation similar to %eld et al is ;usch 8#===6<=-$9.
They agree that there are globali!ing tendencies which can be identified and
measured, but that they are not as all-encompassing as the literature might imply,
and nor are they all operating without resistance, and without exceptions. That
writers of globali!ation as either Jliberal' who start from the premises that
globali!ation is unquestionably real, and move on to insist that it brings only
benefits to all- or Jsceptics'- for whom global tendencies necessarily have
negative political and economic outcomes.
(onsidering the views of 7'+oure and Williamson globali!ation is not a new
phenomenon. They alluded that globali!ation refers to economic historians who
attach the 'big bang' significance of globali!ation bac to the years $>A#8when
(olumbus landed in the 1mericas in search of species9 and $>AE 8when Hasco da
"ama 5ourneyed around 1frica9. 7'+oure and Williamson 8#===6$9 %owever,
Williamson is of the opinion that the first globali!ation boo too place in the late
nineteenth century when the benefits of revolutionary breathroughs in
transportation and communication where reali!ed. The result was a rapid growth
in trade.
,ichael Heseth and 3ouis Uchitelle have made us to understand that )globali!ation is
both very new and surprisingly old* Heseth ,ichael and Uchitelle 3ouis 8#==#6
Hii9. This view can be taen in to consideration when looing at the origins of
globali!ation because for example, the events occurring in the #$
century seem
to reflect the events which occurred during the #=
century lie the present credit
crunch of the #$
century loos much lie great depression during the late $A#=s
and $A<=s. Iust lie the present day wars in &raq, 1fghanistan, &srael, (ongo, &ran
are similar to war which too place in &taly, "ermany, :rance, +ussia and so on.
&n my opinion, globali!ation refers to collapse in the borders between countries in terms
of trade, education, capital, politics and culture. "lobali!ation is said to be the process of
maing the world appear to be one. That is either through the development of transport
and communication technology lie, 8air transport, television, telephone, and internet9.
0ow is not a matter of time space distance. Through the air transport man is now able to
move to far distances within a shorter time, messages can now be gotten either through
the internet or the telephone and television in most parts of the world today.
"lobali!ation may also be referred to that process that has led to a fall in the hands of the
government over public service ownership to the rise of the private sector ownership.
That is, through the advent of the process of globali!ation, there had been a fall in most
planned economies to rise of unplanned economies or marets economies in most
Trying to actually come out with as specific meaning and origin of globali!ation can eep
writers wanting because first, this term did not come lie an eruption or earthquae which
historians can eep trac of its date of occurrence. -econdly, another person can see what
one sees as a period of globali!ation as a period of moderni!ation. Thirdly, societies
continuously change and individuals are influenced by the change of their social and
natural environments. %owever, these changes are often very difficult to be trapped in
human beings even though it is easy to now that changes have taen place. Therefore,
without pondering on its actual origin, a loo on its effects on cultural integration in the
(!ech +epublic is of absolute importance.
The (!ech +epublic after the fall of the communist government is said to have been
experiencing some culture integration through the forcing of globali!ation that has
encouraged the free movement of people and the use of information technology.
%owever, the level of cultural integration has been very slow due to some factors that are
going to loo in our next chapter.
;efore the word integration came into existence, what existed was assimilation.
1ssimilation is an unreasonable course of action, in which immigrants and their offspring
give up their culture and become accustomed wholly to the society they have migrated in
The policy of assimilation occurred in the United -tates where by, the foremost
cultural group called W1-4s 8White 1nglo--axon 4rotestants9 forcefully made others
immigrants to adopt the language, culture, and social structure of the 1merican people,
restricting them from using their own cultural artifacts. 1nother example was in the
:rench policy of assimilation in her colonies in West 1frica lie -enegal during the late
sixteenth century. The :rench colonial masters made them to wor and thin lie :rench
men. %owever, with the development of spirit of nationalism, and the laws on human
rights, seeing a rise in confidence and cultural dignity of minorities, the policy of
assimilation was banned. Then, leading to what is now called integration today.
:arley 8$AE#9 argues, )There is no doubt that the dominant norm in the United
-tates through nearly all our history has been cultural assimilation.
That is, the prevailing cultural group in the United -tates has been
the so-called W1-4s6 White 1nglo -axon 4rotestants.
group has the influence on 1merican culture. 1nd many social
scientists describe the cultural pattern of the United -tates as
1nglo-conformity6 1ll other groups in 1merica have been
expected to adopt the language, culture, and social structure of the
white northern /uropeans 8(ited in "ordon, $AF>9.
&t is reali!ed that when people migrate in to a country or a city, they change the si!e and
the composition of that country, city, or society that receives them. 1fter that the new
immigrant populations react by adapting to the institutions and policies of that host
country of population lie wise the host country to the immigrant population. This form
of behavior is what has been termed by social scientists as integration.
The term integration is very difficult to define because of it mean many things to many
different people and there is a doubt from many authors on if integration is a condition, a
process or a combination of both. %owever, some scholars and authors have sorted some
definitions to the term integration.
,ac2onald Gevin 8 #==#9 The culture of critique6 1n /volutionary 1nalysis of Iewish &nvolvement in
Twentieth-(entury intellectual and 4olitical ,ovements. 4ublished by 4raeger in $AA>. reissued by $st
boos in #==#.
:urther reading. http6KKwww.scribd.comKdocK>=@$A#>K(ulture-7f-(ritique-1n-/volutionary-1nalysis-of-
Iewish-&nvolvement-in-#=th-(entury-&ntellectual-and-YdocumentPmetadata 8 +etrieved #@1pril #==A9
Wolfgang ;osswic and :riedrich %ecmann 8##=F6>9 &ntegration of migrants6 (ontribution of local and
regional authorities. /uropean :oundation for the &mprovement of 3iving and Woring (onditions"/ef0/22en.pdf.
&ntegration is understood as )the process of inclusion of immigrants in the institutions
and relation of the host society*
. -ociologically, it is the stability of relations )within a
clearly defined social system). &t is )the stability of relations among parts within a
system-lie whole* and which )borders* are said to be )clearly separated from it
%ecmann and -chnapper referred integration as the insertion of new inhabitants in to
existing societal structures of the immigration nation.
7ther processes concerning
integration include. the procedure of lining single elements to one another and, out of
these, forming a new association. adding single elements or part of the structures to the
existing structure, to form an interrelated whole. improving relations within a system or
structure 8;osswic W. and %ecmann :, #==F9.
2eutsch et al said )by integration we mean the attainment, within a territory, of a 'sense
of community' and of institutions and practices strong enough and widespread enough to
assure, for a Jlong' time, dependable expectations of Jpeaceful change'*
2eutsch et al
8$AFF6 #9. %ere they considered integration to be a condition.
,eanwhile, contradicting Garl's idea, /rnst defined integration as )the process whereby
political actors in several distinct national settings are persuaded to shift their loyalties,
expectations and political activities towards a new center, whose institutions process or
demand 5urisdiction over the pre-existing national states* ,arx 8$A@E6$F9 %e considers
integration as a process.
Wolfgang ;osswic and :riedrich %ecmann 8#==F6$9 &ntegration of migrants6 (ontribution of local and
regional authorities
/uropean :oundation for the &mprovement of 3iving and Woring (onditions
%ecmann and -chnapper 8#==<6$=9 The &ntegration of &mmigrants in /uropean -ocieties.
/uropean -ocial &ntegration. :ebruary #==>.;estell-0r.K7der 0o #=$.
www.w! or".pdf.
&n addition, Wallace defines integration as )the creation and maintenance of intense and
diversified patterns of interaction among previously autonomous units, the act or process
of integrating, or a state of becoming integrated* Wallace 8$AAA6A9. That is, the bringing
of people of different racial or ethnic groups in unrestricted and equal association, as in
society or organi!ation desegregation 8/quality among all people9.
2ear ,ichael defines integration )as mutually-agreeable contact leading to
interdependencies that cause little or no change in contact partners and does not require
their geographical proximity, merging, or ad5acency* 2ear ,ichael 8#==@9.
%e maes
us to understand that even when there is integration between of different people their
establishment never really changes.
/ven though with above-mentioned definition of the term integration, there is no
generally accepted definition of the term because it's meaning comes with a lot of
complexities from a lot of people. %owever, some sociological theorists instead of
defining the term have to come out with an explanation of what is integration. These
theorists include6 /mile 2urheim 8$A@$9 and 4arsons Talcott 8$A@$9
&ntegration is defined by 2urheim 8$A@$9 as Jthe coordination or interconnection of
various parts, including the individuals and groups of social system in an effective
manner*. %e focuses on morality in the explanation of integration with the on set of
modernity. %e believes morality help in the determination of social integration. &n
addition, that sociali!ation is seen as a tool for societal integration. That what eeps a
society unified in the primitive days was the )non-material social facts* cited in +it!er
8#===6$E9 lie the common morality between people. -ocial facts are )forces and
structures that are external to and coercive of individual* 8ibid6 $F9.
,ichael 2ear 8#==@9 (ultural &ntegration 1nd %ybridi!ation 1t The U.-.-,exico ;orderlands.
Taling on the division of labor, he maes us to understand that society is thereby
integrated through conviction of the same rules, which he explained in his distinction
between organic and mechanical solidarity. %e says in the organic solidarity people are
unified because are generalists. They are all engaged in similar activities and have similar
responsibilities, which results in competition among them. While in the mechanical
solidarity, people are held together because of the difference among people. They have
different tass and responsibilities. &n addition, because they perform narrow range of
tass, they need many people in order to survive. there is cooperation in mechanical
solidarity because of differentiation. %owever, 2urheim fell that the rise of the issue of
division of labor in modern day has brought with it some negative consequences lie
suicide 8&bid6 $E9.
4arsons 8$A@$9 in his explanation of integration theories in the modern era, he was more
interested on social order. :or 4arsons, a social system can only maintain its balance, if a
number of basic functions are in order6 That is, social goals have to be set up through the
1"&3 scheme. Was referred in +it!er as, )a complex set of activities directed towards
meeting a need or the need of the system* cited in +it!er 8#===6#<<9. This scheme
included adaptation goal, attainment, integration and latency for a system to survive.
Thus, focusing on our topic that relates to integration, 4arsons say for a system to
integrate, it must )regulate the interrelationship of its component parts, &t must manage
the relationships among the other three functional imperatives* 8ibid6 #<<9, that is
adaptation, goal attainment and latency. This means, for an individual to be integrated in
to society the above mentioned 1"&3 scheme must be in existence in order to motivate
the individual in to sociali!ation.
%owever, looing at the conflicting views in the definition of integration, we as readers
are been have left to consider for ourselves what actually is the meaning of the concept
integration. Thus, considering our topic, “globalization and its effects on cltral
integration”! there is a need to now what cultural integration is.
Iust lie, as there is difficulty in the definition of integration, so too it is in the definition
of cultural integration. ,any authors have referred cultural integration to be a
)new wave of cultural imperialism brought by globali!ation. Girstina Woff in the
;lacwell encyclopedia agues that globali!ation has created a new vehicle
through which cultural imperialism is occurring often with little resistance or
nowledge that it is happening, ;lacwell encyclopedia 8#==D6A=D9. Therefore,
trying to mae a sense of what cultural integration is, some scholars have tried to
sort some definitions for it.
Wwingie, / $AAA6<<9 7f the 0ational "eography of global interactions, considering
multicultural society to reflect cultural integration at wor, defines cultural
integration as )the process where the issues of class, gender, race, and ethnicity
are denoted simply by what brand of clothing we wear, by what we live, by what
music we listen to and what cultural events we attend*.

%ecmann and -chnapper defined cultural integration as )a precondition of participation
and refers to social processes of cognitive, cultural, behavioral and attitudinal
changes of persons* %ecmann and -chnapper 8#==<6$=9.
&n my opinion, cultural integration may by be regarded as situation whereby, one culture
willingly turns to learn the ideas of other cultures either in production or consumption
aspects. &t can also be said to be a situation whereby, tangible and intangible cultural
aspects of people become related. Tangible culture refers to those aspects of technology
in the society lie, television, computers, airplanes and cars. While intangible culture
includes norms and values in the society. &n cultural integration, both the tangible and the
intangible cultures have a great impact on each other. :or example, the culture of a
people influences what they wear, eat, drin or behave. Iust lie the way people eat,
dress, drin or behave influences their culture.
Wwingie, /. 1ugust $AAA6<<. 0ational "eography
3ooing at the definition of cultural integration, this does not mean all cultures are
brought together as one abruptly. The process of integration occurs gradually with time.
Where by different cultures through time is being selected absorbed and integrated with
other cultures. Thus, with the advent of globali!ation, influence by the development of
transport, communication and trade, the (!ech +epublic is said to have being witnessing
cultural integration. (ultural integration is occurring in the (!ech +epublic through two
ways. That is, the (!echs are both absorbing and containing of other cultures or other
cultures are absorbing and containing the (!ech culture. 1 closer loo of this is discussed
in chapter three.
The first main difficulty of the (!ech towards cultural integration is because the (!echs
have had almost no personal experience from life in a multiethnic society, and so the
immigrants are always seen as a threat to both by the citi!ens and by the state authorities.
1ccording to the public opinion surveys carried out during the $AA=s, more than D@Q of
the respondents were of the opinion that )there are too many foreigners* in the (!ech
+epublic. &n addition, these views were among older people, less educated people,
woring class and among left-oriented people from smaller towns and Hillages 8The
ministry of interior of the (!ech +epublic9.

1 close loo at the (!echs when it comes to their regards to national and ethnic
minorities, they turn to accept -lovas, Iews and 4oles than the "ypsies, Hietnamese and
(hinese whom they loo at them to be a threat to their lives. This is because there will be
an increase of criminality, fear of 5ob loss due to increased unemployment and fear of
)inadaptability* of and national minorities which would lead to loss of traditional
character of the (!ech culture
84ublic opinion survey from 2ecember #==$9.
+ada %avlova .The +ole of (ivil -ociety in 7vercoming (ultural 2ifferences and 4romoting
&ntercultural 1wareness and Tolerance in the (!ech +epublic 846 <9 8born 3anghammerova9 University of
/conomics 4rague, (!ech +epublic 8accessed on #$K=<K#==A9.
:urther reading www.mvcr.c!.
4ublic opinion surveys also revealed that more then >EQ (!echs perceive immigrants
and refugees negatively and more than F@Q of the respondents support a harder
immigration policy and restrictions of immigration in the (!ech +epublic. T,ore than
@@Q of (!echs are of the opinion that a )refuge camp* should not constructed closer to
their residences. 8%avlova +ada9
. Which all these hinder integration. %owever, at the
same time more than F=Q of the respondents are against racism and over F@Q of the
respondents consider themselves tolerant towards national and ethnic minorities )if they
are able to adapt to our life style.* This attitude is also seen even in the state authorities
who very strict to immigrants and asylum seeers in the country.
The (!ech official structure defines national minorities in the 1ct 0o. #D<K#==$ (oll.
With regards to this 1ct. a group of people must fulfill the following characteristics to be
considered a national minority6
• 4ermanent residence and citi!enship in the (!ech +epublic.
• (ommon ethnic, cultural and language characteristics different from the ma5ority
of the state.
• (ommon wish to be considered a national minority to protect and develop their
own identity, cultural traditions and language and
• 3ong-term, firm and permanent relation to the territory of the (!ech +epublic and
the people who live here.
1ll these hinder cultural integration not 5ust to the new comers but also to those who
have settled in the country for some time. This is because most often than the immigrants
see the conditions as an exam, which they need to pass before, they can be considered
(!ech national minorities. Therefore, they turn to be luewarm about the whole process
and therefore isolate themselves from things that will mae them to come together.
1nother problem of integration is when it comes to discrimination. :or example, the
-lovas are preferred more than other national minorities. /ven though in the past #==$
census proof most "ypsies prefer to be regarded )(!echs* or ),oravians* the (!ech still
8ibid6 >9
do not have a good notion about them because of their )inadaptable* life styles, high
crime rate and their generally passive attitude to wor and dependence on the state social
security system. -lovas are allowed to use their language in education than other
national minorities lie the gypsies language. The gypsy children where sent to schools
called Jspecial schools' separate from the (!ech children. This hinders cultural
3ac of a common language or common concept of world images lead to the
misinterpretation of each other's action or message, misunderstanding and unintended
action consequences, hampers in coordination or efficiency by force perception and belief
of the actors 8-taffan $AA>6 <9.
&n addition, matters concerning foreigners are always handled by a foreign police officer
in a very strict manner. &n addition, because of the language barrier between the foreigner
and police officers and the unreliability of information, their approach to the foreign at
times ends up so harshly and thus discouraging any integration.
1ccess to wor permit is very complicated, the possibility to get a trade license, in the
contrary, is not quite easy. %igh social insurance and minimum or the absence of social
benefits discourages the foreigners from any legal participation in the labor maret. 1ll
these factors act as a hindering integration.
&n addition, because it taes a long time usually ten years for an alien to be granted a
permanent residence in the (!ech +epublic, it maes the foreigners to feel still as
stranger and so discourages integration with the host community.
The absence of good terms in the 1lien 1ct for the settlement of families, maes it
difficult for children to tae part any health insurance system. ,oreover, maes them to
scare from the other children because of their vulnerability and thus, hindering any
cultural mix.
1nother problem reali!ed in cultural integration in the (!ech +epublic is that even when
the asylum holders, that is, those who have already been granted refugee status and
process the same rights and obligations as (!echs, they are still discriminated when it
comes to voting. 8The asylum holders are exempted from voting in to the parliament9.
Therefore, the effort of the process of globali!ation to influence cultural integration is
still with some doubts within in the (!ech +epublic.
1nother difficulty of integration of foreigners in the country is that of the insufficient
mastery of the (!ech language and finding a 5ob. &n addition, this problem has made
some foreigners to thin the future ahead of them is quite blea. ,oreover, because of
this, some are forced to do either mind 5obs or fae deals 5ust to accommodate
The presence of some obstacles in the integration of the (!ech society with other national
minorities lie the refugees, immigrants and foreigners had led to the opening up of some
institutions by the government and non-governmental organi!ations to help influence the
integration of the (!ech society to other nationalities living in the country. ;elow are
some institutions of integration.
The role of the state in overcoming cultural differences and in promoting intercultural
awareness and tolerance in the (!ech +epublic is of paramount importance. This is
because the presence of cultural integration contributes towards the economic growth of
the country. &mmediately after the Helvet +evolution in $AEA and the fall of the
communist government in $AA#, there was a big change in the composition of the (!ech
population because of the coming the first immigrants and asylum seeers. ;y the year
#==> immigrants came from different countries lie Urainian, -lova, Hietnam, 4oland,
+ussia, "erman, ;ulgaria, ,oldavia, (hina, 1merica, ;yelorussia, +umania, Ga!ahstan
1ustria and others lie the +omany population which have existed for many years during
the communist regime.

Iita 2voZ[ov[ Holume F, 0umber $,#==@, $ - $=F 6DF Iournal of %ealth -ciences ,anagement and 4ublic
%ealth 0ational &nstitute of %ealth and -ocial 1ffairs, "eorgia The University of -cranton, 4ennsylvania, U-1
-een from these diversities in cultures and nationalities, is there going to be any unity
between those called the foreigners and the (!echsN The answer will obviously be no to
some extend. Thus, trying to resolve this problem, the country under government
resolution number @ of @ Ianuary #==@, the following ministries were actively involved in
implementing the strategy in the integration of foreigners in the (!ech +epublic. 1nd
these included. the ,inistries of 3abor and -ocial 1ffairs 8,o3-19, the ,inistry of the
&nterior 8,o&9, the ,inistry of /ducation ?outh and -ports, the ,inistry of &ndustry and
Trade, the ,inistry of (ulture, the ,inistry for +egional 2evelopment, the ,inistry of
%ealth, and the ,inistry of :inance. 7ther bodies and institutions 8for example the (!ech
-tatistical 7ffice, social partners of the (ouncil of /conomic and -ocial 1greement, and
non-profit maing \ non-governmental organi!ations, the 1ssociation of +egions, the
Union of ,unicipalities, the 1cademy of -ciences9, the ;ritish council and the :rench
alliance are all involved in the integration of foreigners in the country as well.
....+ T'e Role o& t'e Go7e4"%e"t.
The ministry of 3abor and -ocial 1ffairs 8,o3-19
is one of those ministries, which is
helping to encourage integration in the (!ech +epublic. The ministry seeing from
experience that integration is mostly carried out at the local level, it in the year #==@
entered into contact with representatives from individual regions and some municipalities
with the aim of involving foreigners in integration programs. The ,inistry in the year
#==D included )an amendment to 1ct 0o. $$DK$AA@ (oll.,
on -tate -ocial -upport, 1nd
a draft act which tal of equal treatment and official solutions for the protection of the
foreigners against discrimination. There also programs carried out to teach the foreigners
on issues regarding of the (!ech +epublic, and )1ct 0o. $=EK#==F (oll., on the provision
of -ocial -ervices*. The year #==E also saw the amendment of )1ct 0o. ><@K#==> (oll.,
on /mployment 81ct 0o. <=FK#==E (oll9*.
System of Integration in the Czech Republic, in the Denmark and in the Netherlands,
(!ech presidency of the council of the /U. &ntegration of foreigners in the (!ech +epublic 8#==A6#9
:urther readings!
There is also the ease in the treatment of foreigners' residence with the armament 1ct 0o.
<#FK$AAA (oll., on the +esidence of :oreigners in the country. This act allows,
):oreigners whose employment is terminated, without their fault, before the expiration of
the wor permit to stay on the territory of the (!ech +epublic and use the protection
period 8of F= days9 to loo for a new 5ob, provided they comply with applicable
requirements. :or foreigners who have wored in the (!ech +epublic for a certain period
of time and lost their 5ob without their fault, their long-term residence permit for wor
purposes can be withdrawn only if no new wor permit is issued to them within F= days
after the day following after the employment termination date*
&n addition, as a way of encouraging foreigners to live in the country, the government
extends the validity of wor permits. )With the adoption of the amendment to 1ct 0o.
><@K#==> (oll. on /mployment 81ct 0o. <=FK#==E (oll.9, wor permits can be issued or
renewed, as appropriate, for a period of up to two years, effective as of $ Ianuary #==A
8the current regulation provides for issuance of permits for a period of not more than $
1s a way of encouraging foreigners to learn the (!ech language for easy communication
and integration, the ,inistry of 3abor, -ocial 1ffairs 8,o3-19 in year #==F and during
#==D, cooperated with the ,inistry of /ducation, ?outh and -ports and the ,inistry of
&nterior 8,o&9 )in order to define the conditions for teaching and testing the nowledge of
the (!ech language. 4ursuant to 1ct 0o. <#FK$AAA (oll., on the +esidence of :oreigners
in the (!ech +epublic, a foreigner is \ from $ Ianuary #==A \ required to submit a
permanent residence application accompanied also by a certificate proving that heKshe
has successfully passed a (!ech language test*
1s a way of encouraging foreigners, the government is developing and )regularly
updating local lists of 5obs or professions, as appropriate*.
;ut this is however, not
gainful to the foreigners because most often than not the 5obs and forms are listed in the
8ibid6#9 Url:
(!ech 3anguage which maes it difficult for the foreigners to either read or fill in their
The government has also tried as much as possible to mae things easy in the acquisition
of wor permit for foreigners. Under )the amendment to 1ct 0o. ><@K#==> (oll, on
/mployment 81ct 0o. <=FK#==E (oll9, no longer requires a medical certificate on the
foreigner's health condition to be attached to the wor permit application form. &n
addition, this amendment facilitates the employment of foreigners-graduates of secondary
schools and universities in the (!ech +epublic, who no longer need wor permits. The
amendment includes also certain simplifications as regards the arrangements for posting
foreigners-employees to wor outside of the wor location specified in the wor
1nother institute encouraging integration is the +esearch &nstitute for 3abor and -ocial
1ffairs 8+&3-19, which is in collaboration with the :aculty of -ocial -tudies at the
,asary University in ;rno. This institute is )implementing a pro5ect on JMigrants in the
Czech Re"blic # Position on $abor Mar%et and Social &ntegration' \ the completion date
has been set for Iune #=$=*
The (ommission of the ,inister of 3abor and -ocial 1ffairs 8which was after referred to
as )the (ommission*9 was established within the ,inistry of 3abor and -ocial 1ffairs as
an advisory body to the ,inister of 3abor and -ocial 1ffairs. The (ommission assists the
,inister with creating conditions for preparing and implementing governmental policy in
the field of integration of foreigners and meeting tass resulting from "overnment
+esolutions adopted in the respective areas. &n the year #==@, the (ommission members
or members of its expert consulting groups discussed important materials regarding the
issue of the integration of foreigners.
1s a form of encouragement, the ,inistry of 3abor and -ocial 1ffairs has operated since
#==> its web site called!inci.c!, updated in #==@, which this information is useful
to the civil servants, 0"7s and foreigners. The ,inistry of 3abor and -ocial 1ffairs also,
as a coordinator of integration of foreigners, concentrated its wor both at the national
and international level. &n #==@, it entered, within its competencies, into contact with
/uropean Union institutions, namely with the /uropean (ommission in expert woring
groups nown as 0ational (ontact 4oints on &ntegration. The ,inistries also try to gives
assistance for employment to Urainian citi!ens in the country letting them to now the
ris of being employed illegally.

Under the program coordinated by the ministry of interior, )non-governmental and non-
profit organi!ations provide (!ech language courses to the asylum seeers, free of
charge, and develop teaching materials in cooperation with the ,inistry of /ducation,
?outh and -ports*
The ,inistry of the &nterior paid attention in #==@ to meeting strategic ministerial tass in
the field of promoting the integration of foreigners. &n this context, the &ntegration 4olicy
4lan of the ,inistry of the &nterior 8#==> \ #==F9
was updated with the aim of
expanding coordination and implementation of strategic and practical measures adopted
by the ,inistry in order to support the integration of foreigners and to continuously
removing legislative obstacles preventing the integration of foreigners in the (!ech
1dvisory services were provided in other relevant areas, for example in the area of social
and health security and labor-law relations, and it also aimed at assisting foreigners when
dealing with authorities. 1ctivities funded by the ,inistry of the &nterior also focused on
analy!ing the most frequent problems of foreigners, on overall support for increasing
information for and the orientation of foreigners in the (!ech legal framewor, and on
providing foreign nationals with information regarding basic societal and cultural
Czech Presidency of the Council of the E. !ntegration of foreigners in the Czech "epublic
:urther readings!
2usan 2rbohlav, ,ilada %oraova, /va Iansa 8-eptember #==@6$9. (urrent &mmigration 2ebates in
/urope6 1 4ublication of the /uropean ,igration 2ialogue
1dditional activities of the ,inistry of the &nterior concentrated on supporting curricula
at secondary police schools aimed at improving the education of police officers in the
field of relations with foreigners, gathering data and findings for implementing further
measures to eliminate the illegal employment of foreigners in possession of illegal
residence permits.
The ,inistry of /ducation, ?outh and -ports 8,/?-9 is the central authority of state
administration for overall strategy, educational policy and the preparation of appropriate
legislative standards and also executive and operational activities. &t as way of
encouraging integration opens up )upper-secondary and special schools and appoints
their school heads9.
&t deals with, on an ongoing basis, the issue of education of
foreigners, since the preparedness of the education system and its ability to respond to
changing conditions rans unambiguously among the principal prerequisites for the
successful integration of foreigners. &n conformity with "overnment +esolution 0o. @ of
@ Ianuary #==@, the 4lan of &ntegration 4olicy of the ,inistry of /ducation, ?outh, and
-ports for the ?ears #==>-#==F was updated
The ,inistry of /ducation, ?outh, and -ports 8,/?-9 every year calls for pro5ects to
support activities in the field of integration of foreigners in the (!ech +epublic. The
topics of which focus on promoting the multicultural education of children and youth,
teaching and learning the (!ech language as a foreign language, and studies relating to
the issue of the education of migrating foreigners as well as on organi!ing seminars
dealing with education of foreigners. The implementation of pro5ects contributes to
removing communication barriers and facilitates the integration of child foreign nationals
in every day life whilst respecting differences between individual ethnic groups, their
culture, religion, customs, and so on.
,inistry of the &nterior of the (!ech +epublic, #==@
,iroslav Gostic8#F.=F.#==D9 ,inistry of /ducation, ?outh and -ports of the (!ech +epublic
(!ech 4residency of the (ouncil of the /U. &ntegration of foreigners in the (!ech +epublic 8#==A6F9
:urther readings!
1nother ob5ective of the pro5ect is to assist teachers in acquiring sills necessary for their
wor with foreign children, especially for teaching them (!ech, integrating such children
in out-of-the school activities, or solving respective conflicts arising from mutual
misunderstanding. 7n @ 1pril #==@ the ,inistry of /ducation, ?outh, and -ports
approved the allocation of subsidies to the pro5ects organi!ed within the 4rogram on
4romoting 1ctivities in the :ield of :oreigners' &ntegration in the (!ech +epublic in
#==@. 1ltogether, sixteen pro5ects were selected and these were subsidi!ed with amount
two million (!ech crowns 8,inistry of the &nterior of the (!ech +epublic, #==@9
The ,inistry of /ducation, ?outh and 4hysical education in the 0o. FK$AA@ bulleting also
published arrangement of (!ech language courses for persons with status of a refugee in
the territory of the country. This was to brea the communication barrier and easy
integration of foreigners.
..... T'e Role o& t'e U"!te) Nat!o"$.
The United 0ations as an international organi!ation sees to protect refugees in the
world. 1s a result of this, the (!ech +epublic as a member of the U0 is bound to
respect the U0 refugee act. The (!ech +epublic thus amended the status of
asylum seeers, their rights duties and ad5usted problems of asylum facilities. 1ll
these have helped in the integration of the refugees to the (!ech society.
..../ T'e Role o& t'e E(4o8ea" U"!o".
(!ech 4residency of the (ouncil of the /U. &ntegration of foreigners in the (!ech +epublic 8#==A6E9
:urther readings!
Iita 2vor[ov[ 8#==@6DD9 -ystem of integration in the (!ech +epublic, 2enmar and the 0etherlands. Iournal of
health sciences, management and public health
'sylm 'ct ('mendment of the 'ct )o. *+,-./// Coll.! on 'sylm and 'mendment to 'ct )o. +0*-.//.
Coll.! on the Police of the Czech Re"blic! as amended by 'ct )o. +-+11+ Coll.! 'ct )o. +.2-+11+ Coll.!
'ct )o. *+1-+11+ Coll. and 'ct )o. ,./-+11+3 ](!ech +epublic^. $ Ianuary #==<, available online in
U0%(+ +efworld at6 http6KKwww.unhcr.orgKrefworldKdocidK<aeFbF$==.html ]accessed $ ,ay #==A^
Wal!er, focusing his attention upon cultural differences as a source of ob5ection and
resistance to integrating processes argues, )the citi!en's point of reference is the political
community, but as a man he has other memberships other references and these he
sometimes sets against the state*. Wal!er 8$AD=6$A>9 can be readily extended to the
/uropean Union and the context of the different attachments of citi!ens here, to the
/uropean Union as well as to member states, regions, family, and other sources of
identity such as ethnic and linguistic group, and class 8(ited in :ield #==D9.
1fter the fall of the )&ron (urtain in $AA$ and the communist government in $AEA, the
/uropean Union too several symbolic as well as practical measures to promote cultural
integration in the (!ech +epublic. %owever, the development of /U involvement in
cultural policy has also been a slow process. +eduction of differences in culture and
identity and the promotion and creation of a common /uropean culture being her main
ob5ectives, the /uropean Union has carried its role in the integration of the (!ech
+epublic in some ways. The first is that, it has funded some cultural programs. The
/uropean Union between $AA< and $AAA created the article $#E of the ,aastricht treaty
mentioned that6
)The (ommunity and the ,ember -tates shall* promote collaboration )with third
world countries. The experienced worldwide organi!ations in the sphere of culture, in
particular )the group of people shall donate to the blossoming of cultures of the ),ember
-tates*, )while respecting their national and regional diversity and at the same time
bringing the common cultural heritage to the fore*
(ited in Torbisco 0eus (asals, Ioint
&nternational 3aw 4rogram 8#==F6$><9. ) 1ction by the society shall be intended at
encouraging cooperation between ,ember -tates*, and, if necessary, supporting and
supplementing their action in the following areas (ouncil of /urope, The (ommunity
:ield %eather8#==D6#>F9 /U (ultural 4olicy 1nd The (reation of a (ommon /uropean &dentity (ontemporary
/uropean -tudies "riffith University
http6KKwww.eusan!. orgKpdfKconfAEK:ield.pdf
Torbisco 0eus (asals, Ioint &nternational 3aw 4rogram. 8#==F6$><9 Gro" rights as hman
rights4 a liberal a""roach to mlticltralism. 4ublished by -pringer.,i=/-dy1"-=(SpgO41$><SlpgO41$><SdqO
shall tae cultural aspects into account in its action under other provisions of this Treaty*
(ited in Torbisco 0eus (asals, Ioint &nternational 3aw 4rogram 8#==F6$><9.
The /uropean Union gave financial support to the (!ech +epublic. &n addition, the
country has been very successful in participating in (ulture #===, as shown by the
number of applications and grant awards. The year #==$ was the first year (!ech
organi!ations participated in international cultural pro5ects of (ulture #=== 4rogram.
When compared to other countries, the (!ech +epublic too a greater part in the
)selected pro5ects of #==$ cultural activity*
(ited in /li_a Tomalov[ 8Iune #==F6>9.
There was also support received by the pro5ect )leaders and co-organi!ers*

The /uropean Union has supported the adoption of initiatives, which include a /uropean
Union 8/U9 passport, a /U driving license, a /U emergency health card, /( border signs
and a /U flag, and the financing of a /U TH channel to promote Jthe /uropean message'.
These have all influence cultural integration in the (!ech +epublic a member of the
/uropean Union 8:ield #==D9.
....0 T'e Role o& t'e No"9Go7e4"%e"tal O4:a"!-at!o"$ ;NGO$<.
0on-profit maing governmental organi!ations have also helped in improving the
provision of information to foreigners, as well as the provision of public service officers.
There is also the continuous development of social and legal advisory services for
foreigners. This includes the provision of assistance in communication with authorities,
supporting education, language sills and other qualifications of foreigners. They also
help in the 4romotion of competition of foreigners in the labor maret, developing the
cultural and social life of foreigners by promoting relationships of foreigners and their
communities with (!ech citi!ens, psychological assistance concerning the integration of
foreigners, building and developing the activities of community and multicultural centers,
and supporting tolerance and human co-existence. &n #==@, $# million (!ech crowns
/li_a Tomalov[ 8Iune #==F6>9 The cultural integration of (// countries. The impact of /uropean
cultural programs and cultural networs on cultural cooperation in the new member states
were earmared from the state budget for the implementation of these pro5ects. This
amount was divided among the ministries concerned. &n #==@, several tens of pro5ects
were supported. -ome ministries allocated to pro5ects determined for foreigners'
integration more resources from their respective budgets.
1s non-profit maing non-governmental organi!ation, 4eople in 0eed's educational
program )Hariants* are focuses on implementing principles of intercultural 8&/9 and
global development education 8"2/9 into the (!ech educational system. The current
curriculum requires that these topics be presented in classes and lessons. however, they
are not yet represented well enough. +eally, intercultural 8&/9 and global development
education 8"2/9 topics exceed the field of school education and are viewed as crucial
and interesting for professionals in many other areas
The Hariants program is another nongovernmental organi!ation, which provides
professional training to teachers, students of pedagogy and academic professionals, and
professional groups interested in &/ and "2/. The educational activities performed under
the Hariants program caters for the needs of employees in public administration, 3abor
7ffices, children's homes and reformatories, asylum and refugee camps, school
inspectors, policemen and 5ournalists
The familiarity and understanding of experts from other pro5ects and activities of 4eople
enrich the &/ and "2/ topics in 0eed, especially in the field social worers and
coordinators of development and humanitarian pro5ects abroad. The Hariants program
also involve in other pro5ects for 4eople in 0eed such as 4olis, 7ne World in -chools,
conducting sociological research, preparing a boo of memories of +oma holocaust
survivors, and partnering in pro5ects with other organi!ations.
Hariant pro5ect6 ,ission -tatement 2009-03-30
. 8&bid9
United 0ations &nternational %uman +ights &nstruments %+&K(7+/K$K1dd.D$K+ev.# $E Iuly #==<
The /thnic :riendly /mployers is a non-governmental organi!ation that was developed
under the auspices of first deputy governor of the south ,oravian region, &gn. ,ilan
Hencli, and the mayor of the statutory city ;rno, ,r. +oman 7ndera. The /uropean
Union Transition :aculty 4rogram finances this program
. 1s a principle ob5ective of the
program, it tries as much as possible in the equal treatment of ethnically different
citi!ens. &t also contributes in the creation of a non-discriminatory woring environment,
helping to deconstruct pre5udices against other ethnics or groups such as the gypsies.
The (!ech ,obility (enter 8(,(9 is also an organi!ation that belongs to the /uropean
0etwor of more than #== ,obility (enters at the service of mobile researchers in <#
/uropean countries. 1s one of it ob5ectives, it provides information for visas and other
requirements to settle in the (!ech +epublic
1nother innovation pro5ect, which started in ,ay #==D, is the 7rgani!ation for 1id for
+efugees, /uropean (ontact "roup and -ofia
. This pro5ect is funded by ,inistry of
3abor and -ocial 1ffairs of (!ech +epublic as a part of program for the )support of
integration of foreigners*. The target groups are female foreigners and migrants living in
(!ech +epublic, coming from different social and cultural bacgrounds. The main
activities of these pro5ects are sociological in-depth interviews, autobiography diaries and
multi-cultural groups as well as self-experienced worshops. The pro5ect is focused on
the integration of foreigners and migrants issue in relation to gender perspective. The
main goal is to find out about female migrant's daily experiences and their attitudes and
(!ech women as well6 gender roles, position of nowadays women in private and public
spheres, to get now their experiences from their own country of origin as well as from
host country that is the (!ech +epublic. 1s a way of encouraging integration, the pro5ect
supports )free time activities of young children. 3ie, sport, culture, music, art, language
The /thnic :riendly /mployers 8#AK =@K#==E9
The (!ech ,obility (enter 8(,(9 8#DK=>K#==A9
:urther readings http6KKwww.euraxess.c!
7rgani!ation for 1id to +efugees, /uropean (ontact "roup and -ofia 8#==@9
http6KKwww.opu.c!Kindex.phpNoptionOcomPcontentStas OblogcategorySidO#S&temid#@SngOen.
etc. :ollowing the courses for adults up 8requalification or qualification courses*9,
helping in )translations and validations of diplomas or other documents* 8birth
certificate, marriage certificate etc.9, giving )information about legal*, administration*,
the socio-cultural system of (!ech society, giving )personal assistance to foreigners when
assisting in negotiations with (!ech authorities in individual cases, supporting when
moving and furnishing integration or rental flats'.
-ta_a W[vitovs[, director of the ;ritish (ouncil's for 4artnership and 4ro5ects says,
)The ;ritish (ouncil's function throughout the $AA=s was to promote and support the
/nglish language*
. (ited in ;ro`ov[ 3ucie 8Thursday =<.Ianuary #==E9 that in the year
#=== its pro5ect activities in areas other than /nglish language and ;ritish studies began
and that after some time they stopped supporting /nglish 3anguage teaching and
)mainly concerned with the administration of ;ritish language examinations and
language courses for the public and companies*,

:rance has traditionally rich cultural and social ties with the (!ech +epublic for so many
years today. &n addition, these ties have existed for more than $#= years. &n $EE<, the
:rance 1lliance was established in 4aris with the aim of developing and propagating
:rench 3anguage and culture. Three years later, its first branch in (entral /uropean was
established in 4rague. The :rench 1lliance increased its importance in the (!ech
+epublic. &n addition, by $A<E, it had D# branches throughout the country. The branch of
the :rench 1lliance in 4rague was later renamed the :rench &nstitute in $AA= and today
represent a central crossroads for (!ech-:rench cultural exchange. )The :rench &nstitute
in 4rague offers a good number of courses )for more than >=== people interested in
studying one of the principal languages used by the /uropean Union administration in
cited 3ucie ;ro`ov[, 8Thursday =<. Ianuary #==E9 lie, the #=
century art
74U 8#==@9 &ntegration of disadvantaged groups of migrants
;ro`ov[ 3ucie Ianuary < #==E. :oreign institutes in the (!ech +epublic.
3ucie ;ro`ov[, 8Thursday =<. Ianuary #==E9.:oreign institutes in the (!ech +epublic
:urther reading."blic .(Retrie5ed March +1 +11/3.
;ro`ov[ 3ucie Thursday =<. Ianuary #==E :oreign institutes in the (!ech +epublic
literature, and :rench film. -tudents also carry out theatre pro5ects as well as writing
dramas and acting out the dramas themselves. The :rench also, provides combines
language course with a cooery class taught by a :rench chef from one 4rague's best
restaurants, maing the students to have an imaginary trip to :rance and its culture not
5ust being on paper, the screen or on stage but practical.
:rom the wor of the above mentioned institutions in the integration of the population
there have being some significant of the integration of both the (!ech society with the
immigrant and the refugee population, seen form the next chapter.
"iddens maes us to understand that that even though the dimensions of globali!ation
)are connected in various ways, neither of them can be explained exhaustively in terms of
the other* "iddens 8$AA=6D=9. -o, from this perspective, the different dimensions of
globali!ation in the (!ech +epublic would be discussed independently. but eeping in
mind that the cause of one dimension leads to the cause another dimension. The
following dimensions of globali!ation are said to be present in the (!ech +epublic.
+it!er defines globali!ation of culture ) as the transnational expansion common codes
and practices 8heterogeneity9 or as a process in which many global and local cultural
inputs interact to create a ind of pastiche or blend, leading to a variety of cultural
:urther reading. www.if".cz .
:urther reading."blic.
hybrids 8homogeneity9* +it!er 8#==<6@<A9. (ultural homogeneity according to +it!er is
some form of cultural imperialism. That is, when there is the growing of the national
influence of a particular culture a given area. Taing the (!ech +epublic as our case
study, where do put the effects of globali!ation on our cultureN &s the culture growing in a
homogenous or heterogeneous characterN &n addition, if the culture the culture is growing
in a homogeneous character, is it a form of cultural imperialism or notN The first answer
to the question is that. yes, the (!ech culture is growing in a homogenous character. 1nd
secondly, the (!ech cultural homogeneity is not a form of cultural imperialism because of
the various liberal ways the government is trying to encourage the integration of
foreigners, and the use of other languages in public places lie trams and buses and the
introduction of other cultural inputs lie different language courses in the school
curriculum for the (!echs. 7n the other hand, the (!ech culture can be said to be
growing a form of cultural imperialism. This is because, when a foreigner who appears in
the country in 5ust few days and is ased with force to spea the (!ech language in the
foreign police that deals with foreigners, then, it can be assumed to be a form of cultural
O" Val(e$ a") I)e"t!t#.
"lobali!ation has led to changes in cultural values and norms in the (!ech +epublic.
"iddens maes us to understand that )a society's cultures constitutes both tangible
aspects- the belief, ideas and values which form the context of culture and tangible
aspects-the ob5ects, symbols or technology which represent the content*. )Halues and
norms wor together to shape how members of a culture behave within their
surroundings* "iddens 8#==$6##-#<9. ,any norms such as premarital sex, abortion,
cohabitation that were looed with a negative eye are now being taen for granted in the
lives of some (!echs. Han de Gaa 8$AED6 @9 maes us to understand that there have been
interrelated demographic changes and essential mechanisms in cultural integration in the
(!ech +epublic. That there has been a decline in fertility due to four factors, which
include. 1 change from the golden age of marriage to the dawn of cohabitation. 1lso,
change from an era of the ing-child with parents, to that of the ing pair with a child, a
change from preventive contraception. to self-fulfilling conception. 1nd finally, a change
from single families towards pluralistic families and households 8ibid6 $$9.
There is a change in the self-identity of most (!echs with the advent of the phenomenon
of globali!ation. "iddens 8$AA$9 says that in the post-traditional order, self-identity is not
inherited or static. rather, it is becoming a reflexive pro5ect \ an endeavor that we are
continuously woring and reflecting on. What is "iddens saying hereN %e tells us that
with the advance in modernity there is a change in self-identity. Today in the (!ech
+epublic, the way some people loo or identify them selves is different when compared
to the past generations. )&dentity relates to the understandings people hold about who
they are and what is meaningful to them. lie gender, sexual, orientation, nationality or
ethnicity and social class* "iddens 8#==#6#A9. :or "iddens, tracing the changes in self-
identity from traditional to modern societies, we can see a shift away from the fixed
inherited factors that previously guided identity formation. The (!ech +epublic is
experiencing this identity shift because of the factors of globali!ation lie migration,
communication and trade. ;efore the era of globali!ation, the existed, local independent
distinctive, well defined, strong and culturally sustaining connections between
geographical place and cultural experience lie one's own community, gender, sexual
orientation and social class. This is because of it fragile nature, people always tried to
preserve it from being destroyed. ,oreover, with the advent of the phenomenon of
globali!ation these identities are constantly being disappearing. Today some (!echs feel
good as /uropean Union members not as before when they had to thin more as
. 3ue_ also mentioned that a survey carried by the (enter for +esearch of 4ublic
7pinion in the 7ctober #==D showed that almost a half of all (!echs 8>AQ9 are proud to
be citi!ens of the (!ech +epublic. ,oreover, the level of pride decreases with the level of
The president of the (!ech +epublic mentioned that the period of post socialism has
come lie a dream to the (!ech citi!ens because this period has brought with it )both
2omini 3ue_ Ianuary #Eth, #==A ,ost (!echs feel /U allegiance
8ibid9 Ianuary #nd, #==E %alf of (!echs are proud to be (!echs
surprises and mistrust* Haclav %avel 8-eptember $$, #===9.
%e also mentioned that
when they had a split in )politics* problems where not seen as they are seen today. These
problems are now having effects on the )politics, values and ideas* 8ibid9
of the people.
The president also added that, the creation of large supermarets have led to the lost of
identity in the (!ech +epublic. )&n the early days of post-(ommunism, small stores
emerged on the streets, which developed into Jcrossroads of life and human contact'.
%uge supermarets have created a loss of identity* 8ibid9 and local ties between the
-immel states that there is now )the propondence of ob5ective over ]individual^
sub5ective culture that developed during the nineteenth century L and from all states.
That the wealth of ob5ective culture increases, but the individual mind can reach the
forms and content of its own development only distancing itself still further from that
culture and developing its own much slower pace* -immel 8$A=DK$ADE9. -immel is
taling about the dying of sub5ect individual culture over ob5ective culture. /xamples of
ob5ective culture include. means of transport, product of science, technology, language,
arts, legal system, moral codes and ideas. Today, due to the advent of globali!ation, there
is a suppression of the (!ech culture over other cultures in many respects lies,
/.+.. O" Eat!": Ha,!t$.
The (!ech by their tradition prepared their meals at home and so going to eat out in
restaurants was not common among them and was considered something of a threat.
%owever, with the coming up of fast food restaurants lie the ,c2onald, the G:(s, there
is now a rapid change in the (!ech eating habits especially among the young generations.
%owever, this is slowly changing as a more western life-style is adopted by the younger
generation 82omini 3ue_ #==<3.
+it!er 8#===9 tals of the rise of new means of consumption lie ,c2onalds and other
shopping malls lie mega malls cyber, super malls, and cruise lines theme pars, have
Iane +. /lgass -eptember $$, #===. -ymposium focuses on globali!ation issues
http6KKwww.ur.umich.eduK===$K-ep$$P==KA.htm 6R$4 htt"4--www.r.mich.ed-111.-Se"..711-/.htm
changed the eating habits of people. Weber referred rationali!ation as the organi!ation of
social and economic life according to the principles of efficiency and on the basis of
technical nowledge 8cited in +it!er #==<6$<#-$>#9. %e saw rationality to be a necessary
tool for competent operation of organi!ations. ;ut he however feared that increased
rationali!ation could result in increased control over individual action, stifling charisma
and tradition, and giving man 5ust few alternatives to chose what, how and when a person
can carry out duties. The features of rationality are seen in the (!ech +epublic when
trying to loo at the fast-food restaurants. 0ow instead of people to be served on the
tables by the front-of- house staff, the customers find themselves standing in cues to have
their food from tills. &n addition, they even go as far as cleaning their tables after meals.
The development of fast food restaurants has turned to include the customers in the line
of production. This is because, the customers have no other alternatives rather than
maing sure, they fill their stomachs. %ere, they are held to rules applied by the fast-food
/.+./ O" La":(a:e.
-cheff 8$AF@9 mentioned that change in language usage is usually considered an indicator
of cultural integration if the principal language in the community differs from that of the
immigrants' native language. 3anguage is able to become )the ob5ective repository* of
huge )accumulations of meaning and experience, which it can then preserve in time and
transmit to following generationsL* 3anguage also helps in typifying )experiences,
allowing people to* consider them under wide range of )categories in terms of which
they have meaning not only to themselves but also to fellowmen* cited in ;erger and
3ucmann 8$AFF6<@-<A9. (ultural integration has been achieved to a certain degree in
the (!ech +epublic because presently, there are many refugees and immigrants able to
spea the (!ech language. Iust lie some (!echs who are also interested in studying
other languages apart from the (!ech language lie /nglish language, :rench, "erman
and others.
/.+.0 O" Fa%!l# A") Fa%!l# L!&e
"lobali!ation has led to a change in the family life of some (!echs. The most noticeable
of it is the change in family formation. There is the intensive postponement of family
formation. :ertility rates have fallen to very low levels, in particular among young
women and between $AA@ and #==@ the total fertility rates dropped below the Jlowest-
low' threshold of $.<. 3ess traditional union forms, especially unmarried cohabitation,
have become widespread and marriages have been progressively delayed or even
foregone by many younger men and women. (onsequently, the proportion of extra-
marital births has increased rapidly, surpassing <<Q in #==F. 2ivorce rates, which were
high during the socialist era, have further increased. The rapid diffusion of modern
contraception, particularly the pill, has contributed to a more careful and cautious
planning of family formation and to a steady fall in the number of induced abortions
8/urostat, #==D9.
"iddens 8$AE>9 maes us to understand that system integration is a )face to face*

contact while social integration is the integration with people physically absent. This is
cited in ;arbara 1. ,is!tal 8#===9. That is, the integration of people either through the
telephones or &nternet. This aspect & believe is true because the (!echs through the use of
televisions and the internet they are able to see how other nations 8for example
1mericans9 are integrating and so have influence them to integrate to with other
nationalities living in the country and even out of the country. 4rominent areas were
social integration witnessed in the (!ech +epublic is in the universities. Through the
formation of exchange programs between universities, each year students from many
nationalities come in to the country with varied cultures, and but by the end of the
semester, some of the (!ech students mae new friends with these foreign students. This
is a form of integration.
The increase in the number of churches has also led to an increase in the level of
integration in the (!ech. This is because, here there is no limit to the type of national or
culture to visit or attend these churches. ,oreover, when people come together, they are
forced to share some ideas that mae integration a bit possible.
;arbara 1. ,is!tal 8#===9 ;arbara 1. ,is!tal.#===.&nformality6 social theory and contemporary practice
4ublished by +outledge
6rl4 htt"4--www.inde""oetics#of#
4ublished6 #==A-=>-#>
/.+.1 O" D4e$$!":.
The (!echs before $E@= had traditional costumes called )ro5e* in (!ech. These
costumes are elaborately decorated with bright, lively colors and symbols such as hearts,
bluebirds, doves, daisies, tulips, and poppies, and were worn in the villages for festive
occasions such as -undays, weddings and holidays, and sometimes for ordinary days as
well. ,any costume designs originated from feudal ages, when oppressed peasants
created elaborate costumes to express their individuality. These costumes were signs of
status and nationality, since differences in geographic location influenced differences in
costume design and decoration. With the coming up of the globali!ation, there is now a
change in the way of dressing. -ome of the (!echs now dress very casually. What we
now see is where people turn to copy other cultures. This is because the (!echs normally
frown on shabby or unruly clothing and disregard for appearance. ;ut presently, many
(!ech have turned to copy other cultures lie for example the 1merican culture where
5eans and sports shoes are wore often than their usual traditional costumes. (onsequently,
there is now a disappearance of the (!ech culture dominated by other cultures lie the
1merican culture. %owever, even though with the advancement of different dressing
attires, many (!echs still own a set of traditional clothing that they wear on special days
4at 8$AEA6 <D9.
/.+.2 O" C!7!l So!et#
&n addition, the building of civil society has helped in building bac the minds of some
(!echs who lost their trust and interest in public life during the communist era. The
growth of civil society in the country has also provided opportunities for a broad segment
of the population to participate in governmental elections and to watch government at
wor at close quarters +ueschemeyer 8$AAE6@<9. 1n example of civil society is the
feminist movement. True 8#==<9 says after the fall of the communist government in the
(!ech +epublic there has been an expression of new national identities including feminist
identities. &n their desires to Jreturn to /urope' in $AEA and $AA=, the (!echs citi!ens did
not identify themselves with an undifferentiated Jwest'. +ather, they identified
themselves specifically with a set of western masculinities femininities. Their selective
adoption of these gendered identities has brought both new opportunities and forms of
empowerment as well as widespread new inequalities and insecurities lie, crime.
"iddens also say the modern world with it growth of abstract system in everyday life has
led to the )sequestration of experiences*. That is a situation where by people are
force to see repeated experiences in their lives lie either )madness, criminality,
sicness and death. sexuality. and nature* "iddens 8$AA$6$>A,$@F9.
Today in the (!ech +epublic, there has been an increase in the rate of criminality in the
country. There has also been an increase in the rate of sexual immorality in the country.
1 great number of youths who have either received wrong ideas from friends or the
internet have fallen in to drugs and the eventual out come has been frustrated, sicness
and deaths. The (!ech statistical office shows that there has been an increase crime
The table below shows the figures for crime rates in the (!ech +epublic between the
periods of #==<-#==F.
Ta,le +. J($t!e a") C4!%e.
C4!%e$ Co%%!tte) .==/ .==0 .==1 .==2
4ersons prosecuted9 8incl. cases
settled in shortened preparatory
4ersons accused
4ersons convicted, total9
-entence to
4robation order
$$= E=E
$=E =F$
$= $A#
$$= <<A
So(4e: M!"!$t4# o& J($t!e o& t'e C-e' Re8(,l!;.==2<.
:rom the table above, it shows there has been an increase in the crime rates between the
year #==< and #==F from $$=E=E to $$=<<A. -howing an increase of @<$ in the number
of people prosecuted in cases settled in shortened preparatory proceedings. The number
of persons sentenced to imprisonment has also increased between the periods of #==< to
#==F from ADAD to AAAD.There has also been an increase in crimes committed by females
,inistry of Iustice of the (!ech +epublic \ www.5ustice.c!.
within the year #==< to #==F from E$== to AA<E, showing a very high number of number
females involve in crime within this period.
/...+ o" La,o4
"lobali!ation has had a significant impact in the labor maret in the (!ech +epublic. The
increase in trade and technological change has led to a fall in the number of low silled or
unsilled worers in the labor department in the country. &n addition, this is causing wage
inequality between worers. There is also a fall in the bargaining power of labor due to its
free mobility and has led to an increase of taxes. >n 200?@ foreigners too up nearly >=Q of
the new 5obs created in the (!ech +epublic
. &n the last five years alone, the number of
immigrant worers has however doubled to nearly <F#,=== by the end of #==E.This has
made most of the (!ech to be some how negative about the increase in the number of
immigrant worers in the country. The survey carried out by -(( agency for ,: 20/-
That only about #AQ of (!echs are satisfied with their 5ob and their salary while E#Q of
(!ech people lie their 5ob but not satisfied with this pay.
/.... o" To(4!$%.
+it!er says, ),obility means an unending string of choices, and each choice has a
measure of uncertainty associated with it* +it!er 8#==<6@D>9. There is actually
uncertainty on most tourists who come to the (!ech +epublic because, most often than
not, some tourists who come in to the country do not now what lies ahead of them. 1s a
fact, most of them are often involved in either accidents or being reaped off by
%owever, globali!ation has let to the growth of the tourism industry in the (!ech
+epublic. :rom the year #==F survey carried out by the (!ech statistical 7ffice showed
the tourism industry employed #>=,=== worers. The industry raised a total gross
Ioellen 4erry 1pril #E, #==A The (!ech +epublic 4ays for &mmigrants to "o %ome
Unemployed "uest Worers and Their Gids +eceive (ash and a 7ne-Way Ticet as the (ountry :ights
1;( 4rague -tatistics.#==>-#==A ,ost (!ech people lie their 5ob -eptember >
domestic product of AE.AF> billion crowns, which added a <.=Q to the country's "24. &n
#==F, foreign tourists spent $$E.@A> billion crowns. "iving a #>Q increase when
compared to the year #==<.while traveling within the country, the (!echs spent AE.#
billion crowns and this led to a @Q in the "24. &ncome from incoming and domestic
tourism in #==F, that is money spent within the country, totaled #$F.E billion crowns
;auman 8$AAE9 sees globali!ation terms of a )space air*. That globali!ation has an
influence in the movement of people. &n addition, this movement has led to the formation
of )vagabonds*. This explanation can be related to the (!ech +epublic. There are so
many foreigners who left their countries to the (!ech +epublic either because of political
crisis or for the search of greener pastures. &n addition, coming to the (!ech +epublic
either because of the lac of required sills or language barrier, some of them have
become 5obless, frustrated and wayward. ;auman also maes us to understand that there
are some people who )cannot be quite sure whereL they stand at the moment and even
less can be sure their present standing will see the light of the next day* (ited in +it!er
+it!er says, )"lobali!ation is bringing with it the world spread of nothingness*. +it!er
8#==<6@DF9 %e defines nothing as )centrally 8generally9 conceived and controlled forms
8largely9 devoid of most distinctive content* +it!er 8#==<6@D@9. %ere he refers to present
day globali!ation processes to be inherently homogeni!ing, with the lac of generic
content, lac of personal or local ties, timeless, dehumani!ing and unenchanted.
:rom the above-mentioned understanding of the term globali!ation according to +it!er, it
can be said that there is the lac a generic of content in the (!ech +epublic. This is
because, in the past, there was the presence of human relationship between people at
home, 5obsites and either at either public place. :or example trying to have a loan implied
meeting with a baner. %owever, with today's world, a computer program can easily
award a loan. 1lso, in the past, there was the presence of enchantment, quality and magic
in the way food was being prepared but today, with the growth of technology and the
development of fast food restaurants and the use of microwaves, there is a gradual lost of
enchantment, quality and magic in food preparation in the (!ech +epublic.
There has been a fall in uniqueness in departmental stores in the (!ech +epublic. &n the
past, during the communist era supermarets or departmental stores lie the "U,
departmental shop had local shores and goods, which ept customers at heart and made
close to their traditional roots by selling to them this local commodities. %owever, after
the fall of the communist government and the eventual collapse of the "um department
shop, there has been a change in the uniqueness of departmental stores. There is now a
fall of local ties between the super marets and the customers. 0ow what most super
marets offer to the public is not what the consumers actually want be what the
supermarets believe will yield them more profits.
/.... O" Fo4e!:" I"7e$t%e"t.
There has been a growth in the economy as a result of higher foreign trade investment,
industrial production and household spending.
1lso, the coming of foreign industries has not only helped the (!ech +epublic to increase
investment but had also led to capital flight by foreign investors bac to their home
countries. 7ften instead of ploughing bac the profits to the companies, the investors
decide to flight the profits to their home countries.
The entry of the (!ech +epublic to the /uropean Union has increased pressure on the
ability of the (!ech population in the face of increased competition from multinational
/uropean countries. The (!ech +epublic is now faced with the pressure of increasing its
internal capacity in the field of education, cultural openness and amenities so as to meet
the /U standard
/.../ O" Glo,al F!"a"!al Ma4>et
"lobali!ation has led to the development of nowledge in the economy of the (!ech
+epublic. (astells 8#==$6@#9 mentioned that, when there is productivity and competition,
there is the possibility of the production of nowledge and information for production
purposes. :or example, the (!ech after the fall of the communist government and the rise
of the democratic government, faced with competition from the west and rest of the
world, she was forced to develop the nowledge of nowing that to privati!e the state
owned companies will profit the country. &n addition, trying to liberate both prices and
trade will help to encourage foreign investment and growth in the economy. 0aomi Glein
8#==$6 $AF9 has suggested that, 'brand builders are the new primary producers in our so-
called nowledge economy'
8(ited in -mith, ,.G and -mith, ,. #==#9. )7ne of the ey
elements that eep companies as multinationals rather than trans-national is the extent to
which they loo to 'outsource' products, components and services* 8ibid9.
&n addition, due to the price and trade liberali!ation of price and trade in the (!ech
+epublic in on Ianuary $AA$, many companies have now been able to locate in the (!ech
+epublic. ,inister 2yba said, two years ago there were no private shops in the (!ech
lands, but now, about F=-D= percent of retail, trade, and services are bac in the hands of
private entrepreneurs 82yba in charter DD, :ebruary $Ath $AA<9
. This shows there has
been a growth in trade.
1fter the fall of the (ommunism in $AEA, the minister of finance of the federal
government Haclav Glaus became president. Under his economic policy, he privati!ed the
state-owned industries and the country became a modern-free economy, regulating the
stoc exchange. );y the end of $AA@ over E= percent of the economy was privati!ed*
8Wu!owsi$AAE6 AA9. 4rivati!ation process has gone to shambles because there has been
an insignificant regulation. &n addition, unscrupulous individuals have stolen most of the
state-owned property. ,any bans have shut down, the loss of peoples' savings causing
deep disenchantment. %owever, it is one of the greatest benefits of globali!ation in the
(!ech +epublic. This is because there has been an increase in the international flow of
capital income.
-mith, ,. G. and -mith, ,. 8#==#9 '"lobali!ation' the encyclo"edia of informal edcation,
Garel 2yba :ebruary $A, $AA<
1n Update on 4rivati!ation in the (!ech +epublic6 The /conomic Transformation 1fter the -plit
6rl4 htt""blications-"ri5atization7"ro9ect
Gi5lstra says, )The (!ech +epublic has taen the mantle as the premier transition
economy of the new democracies. 7ver the pass three years of intense economic reforms,
the (!ech has created the largest maret economy in the regionL ;y setting the example
for their neighbors the (!ech republic has en5oyed increasing foreign investment in a
region which is highly competitive for these critical capital infusions* 8Gi5lstra $AA@9.
&n addition, as a result of privati!ation, the (!echs were able to own shares in the
companies if and only if they were able to afford as little as a thousand (!ech crowns.
Gi5lstra said privati!ation has come in the country first )through one time vouchers*
offered to the (!ech people for came primarily through one-time vouchers given to
(!ech citi!ens at an insignificant cost. ,ore than two third of the citi!ens entrusted their
vouchers to newly created investment fund, that grew to over six hundred during the
process* 8Gi5lstra $AA@9.

1s a result of this economic boom, the (!ech +epublic has been able to pay its prior
debts and thus has more surpluses though this gained momentum from the high tax rate in
the country. The (!ech national ban has followed a tight monetary polices that has tied
the (!ech crown to foreign currency which today has been a success. :or example in
#==F, $ "reat ;ritish pound was equal to >= (!ech crowns but today one "reat ;ritish
crown is equal to #A or <= (!ech crowns. The (!ech baning sector has grown extremely
during the past five years. :or example, during the communist era, the (!ech +epublic
had four bans employing $A=== worers. Today there are over @= bans 8of which >=
percent are foreign owned9 and @F=== employers. This dramatic increase has been
influenced by globali!ation 8U- department of treasury report <=
Iune $AA>9.
"lobali!ation has led to growing competition between firms in the (!ech +epublic. This
is good because it has helped to increase production, efficiency and profits. &n addition,
increase (!ech marets lie "ermany has led to the speciali!ation and improvement in
(!ech +epublic6 1 (ase ,ode 2raft. -pecial +eport ,r. Gees W&I3-T+1 80etherland9 ,ay $AA@.
Url6 http6KKwww.friends-partners.orgKoldfriendsKeconomicsKc!
the division of labor within the corporations. 1ll these have led to an increase in wages
and living standards among the worers.
/...0 O" E)(at!o"
"lobali!ation has led to seculari!ation, increasing numbers of young people enrolled in
secondary and tertiary education and growing emancipation and labor participation of
women in the (!ech +epublic 83esthaeghe$AA@6 #$\##9. The %uman 2evelopment
8U02+9 report for a survey conducted between the year #==< and #==@ shows that AAQ
of the adult population 8that is, percentage of population over $@ years of age9 is literate.
this, showing a fall in the illiteracy rate. &t has also helped to mae education more wor
oriented. That is there is now a guarantee of a person having a 5ob after school
completion. The state is also assuming more power in education governance. There has
been an increase in educational standards, increase in public expenditure on education
than in any government activity. &n addition, the extension of university studies by the
creation of exchange programs between universities. The table and graph below shows
some figures on the increase in the rate of literate persons as the years pass by.
Ta,le /...T'e E)(at!o"al Le7el$ ,et?ee" Yea4$ +660 @.==1
Yea4$ E)(at!o" Pe4e"ta:e$
#==@ $=.> $=
#==> A.A A.@
#==< A.F A.#
#==# A.@ A.$
#==$ E.D E.<
#=== E.F E.#F
$AAA E.> E.=D
$AAF D.E D.@
$AA@ D.@ D.#
$AA> D.E D.@
Total +=0 66.5+

So(4e: T'e C-e' $tat!$t!al o&&!e ;.==2<
1s seen from the table and graph above there has been a mar increase in the level of
education in the (!ech +epublic from D.E percent in $AA> to $= percent in the year #==@.
/...1 O" Sta")a4)$ O& L!7!":
1ccording to the statistics carried out by /urostat, the -tatistical 7ffice of /uropean
(ommunities, the (!ech +epublic was seen getting closer to the standard of living of the
older member states of the /uropean Union.
/urostat made a comparison of the "ross 2omestic 4roduct 8"249 per inhabitant
expressed in 4urchasing 4ower -tandards 844-9 in the /U countries. :rom the average of
the /uropean Union, #D are considered to be $== 4urchasing 4ower -tandards 844-9.
1nd when the figures were calculated, it showed that the (!ech +epublic has improve
its ran from D> 44- 8that is #FQ below the average9 in #==@ to DA 44- 8#$Q below the
average9 in #==F.
%owever, globali!ation has let to a mar distinction between the rich and the poor in the
(!ech +epublic. This is what called the )winners* and the )losers* by ;auman
8$AAE6EE9. %e said what is acclaimed as )globali!ation* 8ibid9 is geared to the tourists
The (!ech statistical office 8#==F9 The /ducational 3evels between ?ears $AA> \#==@
The standard of living in the (!ech +epublic grows Iun #A, #==D
dreams and desires. &n addition, that globali!ation is leading to )the transformation of
many others in to vagabonds* cited in +it!er 8#==<6@D>9. The (!ech -tatistical 7ffice
-urvey between the years #=== and #==E shows that there has been an increase in the
number of worthless people or lunatics in the (!ech +epublic. This numbers have
increased as a result to poverty, frustration drug and insanity.
/...2 O" Healt'
There has been an improvement health in the (!ech +epublic. This is because, the
government imposition of a must-have health insurance policy for every o worer in the
in the country it has helped to increase easy treatment. /ven though this policy has not
included the unemployed, the government is trying to mae it becomes beneficial to all.
The ,inistry of health is always improving but however, the pace of improvement is
quite slow in the area of non-communicable diseases
lie circulatory system, neoplasm
diseases that leads to high rate of deaths.
The lifestyle-related ris factors common in the country are particularly, smoing,
unhealthy diet and inadequate physical activity. The long-term health program adopted by
the government has helped in the reduction of the total rate of smoing in the country,
even though the youths are still more involved in it. There has also been a decrease in the
number of communicable diseases 8outbreas diseases9 because of compulsory
vaccination programs carried out by the government
1lso with the help the provision of new opportunities as well as challenges by the
/uropean Union to the (!ech +epublic, has helped in the improvement of the health
/...3 O" Te'"olo:#
There has also been an expansion of the transport system in the country and there is now
a shrining of distances between the (!ech +epublic and the world at large. This
shrining distance was referred to ,arx Garl 8$AD<9 in the text "rundrise as the
)annihilation of space and time*. %avery 8$AEA9 called it )time space compression*.
,eanwhile "iddens 8$AA=9 decided to contradict it by referring it to be )time space
The (!ech +epublic. %ealth and 2evelopment
distanciation*. Through the use of use of the &nternet and televisions, distant images are
now brought right close to the most immediate restricted places 8that is, the interiors9 in
the (!ech and out of the (!ech +epublic. 1s a result, this has created increase in
employment and the living standard of the people.
1ccording to the connectivity scorecard of Waverman #==E, it shows that the (!ech
+epublic has significantly higher levels of business hardware and software spending per
capita and broadband penetration. -he is in the lists of $F countries of 'innovation-driven'
economies, achieving a score of <.D$, and it has been included in the innovation-driven
economies as a consequence of its membership in the /uropean Union. (onnectivity is
explained by 4rofessor 3eonard Waverman, of the 3ondon ;usiness -chool as the bunch
of road and rail networ, corresponding sills, software and up to date usage that maes
communications networs the ey driver of production and economic growth, is the
center of attention of a distinctive study.
/...5 O" T4a"$8o4t a") Co%%("!at!o".
"iddens 8$AA=9 says globali!ation has led to an increase in permeability of people in the
national borders through trade, tourism or electronically systems. This aspect is seen in
the (!ech +epublic. 7n the part of transport, there has also been an expansion of the land
and air transport system. 1ccording to the ministry of transport yearboo of #==D, there
has been an increase in the total length of the state and regional roads form @>,A=A
ilometers in the year #==# to @>,@AA ilo meters in the year #==F. That is, an increase of
@= ilo meters in the total length of the state and regional roads constructed within this
The (!ech statistical office #==D alludes there has been an increase in communications.
:or example, there has been an increase in the number of telephone lines in use. The new
lines increased from <,#$D,<== in the year #==@ to $#.$@ million in the year #==F for
mobile cellular, an increase of radio broadcast stations of 1, <$, :, <=> and $D short
1lma ;uelva :ebruary $>, #==A (onnectivity -corecard #==A sees &(T as tool for battling recession
http6KKwww.philstar.comK1rticle.aspxNarticle&dO>>==F<Spublication-ub(ategory&dOD< 8+etrieved ,ay
waves and about $@= television broadcast stations plus $,><> repeaters, $.D million
&nternet hosts and <.@ million &nternet users.
/...6 O" Wo%e".
2ue to the development of the computer system, it has led to an increase in the number of
women in the wor force. "iving them the opportunity to grow to top positions and this
leading to the old traditional system where women where exploited and giving them the
idea that a woman's place was limited to the house. 0ow women are able to arrange
themselves at home as mothers and housewives and at 5obsites as worers. The (!ech
statistical 7ffice for the year #==E shows that >F.@ percent of women are employed as
against the men with F=.= percent
this number shows a large increase in the number of
employed women.
"lobali!ation has let to the involvement of the (!ech +epublic with other international
communities. 2uring the communist regime, the (!ech +epublic was bloced from other
countries through restriction to migration. 0evertheless, after the fall of the communist
government, the country has come out of the isolation problem. The (!echs )are no
longer isolated from the global communist. but are becoming integrated within it*
"iddens 8#==F6@D9.
&t is nown that, almost two third of the (!ech population, live in areas of intense air and
water pollution.
The northwest ;ohemia and northern ,oravia are area more affect by
pollution and this is leading to some many health diseases lie cancer.
/mployment rate <rd quarter #==E 3abor :orce -urvey
http6KKvdb.c!so.c!KvdbvoKenKtabdetail.5spNcislotabOH-4-Q#=@=AP$ 8+etrieved # ,ay #==A9
"iddens 8$AA=9 sees globali!ation to be more associated with ris. +is lie the
)manufactured* ones we cannot control. Therefore, he termed the present era a
)5uggernaut*'. 1 5uggernaut was described as. a large swift )vehicle* with a big engine,
which collectively, there is the possible of man to control it, but after a certain level, man
will be unable to run this )vehicle*. &n addition, any attempt by man to force his control
on this )vehicle* will lead man to be crushed by this )vehicle*. That there are some times
the vehicle seems to be o. but there are times when it bring some problems man cannot
see before hand or control and these problems are often very undesirable and damaging.
&n addition, he therefore concludes that. as long as man lives in the modern era, he shall
never be able to live, a secured life because the area man is now occupying is full of risy
elements "iddens 8$AA=6$<A9. Today in the (!ech +epublic, there is there development
of both institutionali!ed riss and environmental riss, which are both unnown and
unnown. 1n increase in the number of number of industrial plants, transport networ,
housing infrastructures have in the country has led to the destruction of the natural
vegetation and an increase in the level of green house gases in the atmosphere. The table
below shows the level of greenhouse gases produced from the industries.
Ta,le /./
Potential Emissions of Industrial Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases
So(4e: T'e C-e' $tat!$t!al O&&!e

:rom the table above it shows that there has been an increase the level of in the level of
fluorinated compounds in the atmosphere from EEA.DA in the year #=== to #DFF.#$ in the
year #==D. The increase in the number of fluorinated compounds has come as a result of
The (!ech statistical 7ffice E 7ctober #==E. 4otential emissions of industrial fluorinated greenhouse
"g (7# equivalent
Type of compound #=== #==# #==< #==> #==@ #==F
:luorinated compounds, total EEA.DA$,<##.$D$,D$$.E>$,>><.AE$,>@$.#=#,DFF.#$
%ydrofluorocarbons 8%:(s9 FD>.<#$,=A#.>$$,<><.A>$,#$@.==$,#E=.@@#,@D<.AA
4erfluorocarbons 84:(s9 A.>@ $D.A$ #E.F> #=.AE $<.DD <=.<<
-ulphur hexafluoride 8-:F9 #=F.=# #$$.E@ <<A.#F #=E.== $@F.EE $F$.A=
the increase in the use of hydro fluorocarbons 8%:(s9 elements lie refrigerators, and air
conditioning equipment. The presence of hydrogen in the appliances leads to the emission
of green houses gases in to the atmosphere even though of a less harmful effect. 4:(s,
compounds contain carbon, fluorine, and are very volatile. These gases have come mostly
from the industries are helping in the depletion of the o!one.
/.0.+ I"te4$tate$ Co""et!o"$.
3ash and Urry 8$AED, $AA>9 said the feature of globali!ation is that it helps in bringing
more inter-state connections and a decrease in effects of the state policy, the development
of increase trans-national communication, and activities, an increase in a huge flow of
commodities and cultural products and the world wide spread of western-style
consumerism. The reference point of this intense interstate connection can be said to be
the (!ech +epublic. &mmediately after the fall of the ;erlin wall, there has been an
increase in inter-state connections between the (!ech +epublic and other western
countries lie "ermany :rance, United Gingdom. The (!echs have now started
consuming the western products which in the past where some how restricted due to
socialist policy.
/.0.. O" State So7e4e!:"t#.
"iddens maes readers to understand that )there is no the earth's surface, except of the
polar region* "iddens 8$AA=6D$9 that stands to attest that it is not been ruled by either
)one state or another* 8ibid9. &n addition, that the present day countries )have a more or
less successful monopoly control of the means of violence within their own territories*
8ibid9 That is, countries now matter how big they are, cannot totally control the means of
violence in their own countries. &n addition, no matter how a big a country's )economic
power*, and )industrial corporation are they cannot establish themselves as political
entities which rule a given territorial area* 8ibid9.
4olitically, the (!echs have lost some of their sovereign powers as a result of the
influence of globali!ation. This is, because the (!echs can no longer tae any strong
decisions on their own because there is now a common /uropean foreign policy that they
need to follow. :or example, during the &raq war, the (!ech +epublic could not decide on
her own to support the United -tates of 1merica or to oppose the war. /verything was
left in the hands of the /uropean Union to decide. 1nd when (!ech +epublic finally
decided to support the U-, she received great criticisms from the pioneer members of the
/uropean Union lie "ermany and :rance who even 5eopardi!ed (!ech's entry in to the
in #==>.
The (!ech +epublic entered the /U on the $st of ,ay #==>. With its features of a
)common maret and free movement of worers, union citi!ens and their family
members*, the free search for 5ob, free access to )public employment services and
procedures relating to remuneration and redundancy* 8ibid9. There was a change in the
employment act. Within this act, )worers and union citi!ens* are free to move with their
families. This act has brought much pressure on the (!ech citi!ens who are now face
with much competition from multinational corporations and the huge immigrant labor
coming in to the country. The (!ech +epublic is now faced with the pressure of
increasing its internal capacity in the field of education, cultural openness and amenities
so as to meet the /U standards
;arber 8$AA@9 taling on globali!ation he based his thought on a single political entity
which he called the ),c-world* or the growth of a single political orientation that is
increasingly pervasive throughout the world* cited in +it!er 8#==<6@D=9. The thoughts of
;arber may be of relevant to the (!ech political democracy which told is trying by all
means to meet same standards of other political democratic countries in the world lie the
United -tates of 1merica.

This chapter summari!es the ma5or findings of the study. &t represents the current ways
used to influence cultural integration in the (!ech +epublic. That is, the role of the
United 0ations, the government, the /uropean Union, the 0on- "overnmental
7rgani!ations 80"79, and other international bodies lie the ;ritish (ouncil and the
:rench 1lliance. (onclusions are then drawn from the findings. &t further reveals the
constraints and consequences of globali!ation on cultural integration on the (!ech
+epublic, as well as advance proposals, which if implemented would encourage cultural
integration in the (!ech +epublic in a greater degree.
The finding reveals the extent to which the ob5ectives of the study have been achieved.
(ulture forms the basis of every human society in the world and the (!ech +epublic is no
exception because culture helps in the display of identity. When different cultural groups
come together, there is always a need for the cultural groups to have a common focus
such as, woring together for the development of the economy. 1nd this focus can only
be achieved through the process of cultural integration. This confirms the assertion that
cultural integration is one of the basis through which the (!echs as a nation can live in
harmony with other nationalities in the country. The culture of the (!ech +epublic
includes. acts, food and dance festivals. These cultural products provide fertile ground for
the integration of other cultures. %owever, this process has been hindered because of
some reasons.
The first problem the (!echs face towards cultural integration is that the (!echs have had
almost no personal experience from life in a multiethnic society, and so the immigrants
are always seen as a threat to both the citi!ens and the state authorities. 1ccording to the
public opinion surveys carried out during the $AA=s by the ministry of interior of the
(!ech +epublic, more than D@Q of the respondents were of the opinion that )there are
too many foreigners*
in the (!ech +epublic. &n addition, these views were among older
people, less educated people, woring class and among less-oriented people from smaller
towns and Hillages.
1 close loo at the (!echs when it comes to their regards to national and ethnic
minorities, they turn to accept -lovas, Iews and 4oles than the "ypsies, Hietnamese and
(hinese. They loo at them to be a threat to their lives. This is because there will be an
increase of criminality, fear of 5ob loss due to increased unemployment and fear that they
will not be able to adapt into their culture. :urthermore, an increase in the number of the
national minorities will mean a loss of traditional behavior of the (!ech culture 8&bid,9
This survey also revealed that more then >EQ (!echs perceive immigrants and refugees
negatively and more than F@Q of the respondents support a harder immigration policy
and restrictions of immigrants in the (!ech +epublic. ,ore than @@Q of (!echs refuse
the building of a refugee camps close to their homes. 1ll these hinder integration.
%owever, the same survey reveals that at the same time more than F=Q of the
respondents were against racism and over F@Q of the respondents considered themselves
Radka Havlova. The Role of Civil Society in Overcoming Cultural Differences and Promoting
Intercultural Awareness and Tolerance in the Czech Republic. (Born Langhammerova) University of
Economics Prague, Czech Republic. (Accessed 24/04/2009)
http6KK#=A.E@.$#A.$<#KsearchN qOcache6 2+yA4I;3=I6
tolerant towards national and ethnic minorities )if they are able to adapt to their life
This attitude is also seen even in the state authorities. There are very strict to
immigrants and asylum seeers in the country.
1nother hindrance to cultural integration on the part of the immigrants, foreigners and the
refugees is that the (!ech legal system defines national minorities in the 1ct 0o.
#D<K#==$ (oll. With reference to this 1ct, an assemblage of people must accomplish
some characteristics to be considered a national minority. That is, having permanent
residence and citi!enship in the (!ech +epublic. 1lso, having common ethnic and
cultural language, which is different from the ma5ority of the state.
%aving a common
wish to be considered a national minority to protect and develop their own identity,
cultural traditions and language. 1nd a long-term, firm and permanent relation to the
territory of the (!ech +epublic and the people who live her* 1ll these hinder cultural
integration not 5ust to the new comers but also to those who have settled in the country
for some time. This is because most often than not, the immigrants see the conditions as
an exam they need to pass before they can be considered (!ech national minorities.
Therefore, they turn to be lue-warm about the whole process and therefore isolate
themselves from things that will mae them to come together.
/ven though integration has been taing place in the (!ech +epublic, there have been
some ethnic groups that have been facing some discrimination. :or example, the -lovas
are preferred more by the (!echs than other national minorities. There is also a good
integration process between the (!echs and the Hietnamese who own street vendors and
sell very cheap and low quality goods. %ere the (!ech society considers them to be hard
woring and so, have a good relation with them. /ven though in the past, #==$ census
proof most "ypsies prefer to be regarded as )(!echs* or ),oravians* but the (!echs still
do not have a good conception about them because of their )inadaptable* life styles, high
crime rate and their generally passive attitude to wor and dependence on the state social
+ada %avlova .The +ole of (ivil -ociety in 7vercoming (ultural 2ifferences and 4romoting &ntercultural
1wareness and Tolerance in the (!ech +epublic 46 @8born 3anghammerova9 University of
/conomics 4rague, (!ech +epublic 8accessed on #$K=<K#==A9.
:urther readings. www.mvcr.c!.
security system. -lovas are allowed to use their language in education than other
national minorities lie the gypsies language. The gypsy children where sent to schools
called Jspecial schools' separate from the (!ech children. This, problem has greatly
hindered integration between the (!ech children and the gypsy children.
There are numerous intercultural problems in the (!ech +epublic that come mainly from
lac of nowledge and interest of the general public as well as media and politicians in
the situation of ethnic and national minorities in the (!ech +epublic. ,ost of the (!echs
are not concerned about national minorities and because of this, the (!echs turn to be
intolerance, xenophobia and racist towards foreigners thus hindering cultural integration.
-taffan W. says the lac of a common language or common concept of world images has
led to the misinterpretation of each other's action or message, misunderstanding and
unintended action consequences and it is hampering coordination or efficiency by force
perception and belief of the actors. -taffan W 8$AA>6<9
What is reali!ed is that what ever techniques the /uropean Union want to develop in
reducing cultural and national identities will most often prove to be not rewarding. This is
because, as stated by -oeters )The impact of cultural policies in reducing national
attachments and furthering a sense of /U or /uropean identity necessarily taes time.
(ore cultural differences are developed during childhood, and change only very
1nother fact is that, even though with the presence of organi!ations involved in
integration between the (!ech and the immigrants' societies, they still do not have any
special methodology of dealing with this vulnerable group intended for their integration
and participation in the new democratic society. This is because they use only basic social
wor methodology to influence integration.
:ield %eather. 8#===6#>@9. /U (ultural 4olicy 1nd The (reation of a (ommon /uropean &dentity.
The result of the study indicates vividly that culture forms the bacbone of most countries
in the world and the (!ech +epublic is no exemption. (ulture provides subsistence goods
and services, and items of trade as well as other cultural benefits, food and medicinal
plants to human beings. %owever, the advent of globali!ation has led to destruction or
unsustainable management and gradual extinction of some cultural products in the (!ech
+epublic. &t is therefore of vital importance that some measures be taen to improve on
the present situation of cultural integration in the country. To achieve this goal, co-
operation is needed from the government, the (!echs, the immigrants, foreign institutions
and 0on-"overnmental 7rgani!ations interested in cultural integration.
1bderrahman, %assi, and "iovanna and -torti say, )With the advent of the information
technology, teaching seems to be one of the factors that determine development and
prosperity in modern day societies. Teaching is also one of those important factors, which
help in for maintaining togetherness between people and countries 81bderrahman et al
-o in order to encourage cultural integration in the (!ech +epublic, the
government can decide to increase the number of international students coming in to the
country each year for exchange programs. This is because the presence of international
students on university campuses is profitable for both the host institution and the
domestic students. %ere there will be a great diversity of culture and integration will be
reali!ed within a short period.
&n addition, in order to reduce the rate of lost of cultural products between cultures, the
government can through the ministry of culture organi!e some policies lie language
training. support for immigrants' culture. negotiating support for religious practices,
support for sporting activities that will help to facilitate cultural integration.
The government can organi!e training in the host country's language for the young and
adults' populations of the immigrants. :or mutual integration, the government can also
facilitate the native population in learning the language8s9 of immigrant communities.
%assi ,1bderrahman,, and, -torti "iovanna. :ncoraging Cltral Di5ersity in the Sagenay Region of
;ebec. 4ublished by, the &nternational Iournal of 2iversity in 7rgani!ations, (ommunities and 0ations.
Holume D, &ssue >, pp.@$-@E
The (!echs in order to cooperate with the, immigrants and the refugee populations, they
can be educated on having a community spirit. That is, trying to wor together with other
nationalities either at their 5ob sites or in public places. They can also be trained on
aspects of cultural tolerance.
+eligion as an aspect of cultural identity helps in promoting cultural integration. Thus, in
order to encourage cultural integration in the (!ech +epublic, the country can try to tal
with immigrants living in the country, provide them with sites of places of worship, and
accept their special religious practices. This is because when these places of worship are
set up, there is a greater possibility of integration because religion does not discriminate
when it comes to race. Therefore, there will be the easy conveyance of diverged cultural
groups, which will come together very easily.
&t should coordinate the different country's cultures found in the country in order to
eliminate the barriers in leadership styles, communication models, personnel system,
performance appraisals, and social security benefits.
1s a way of encouraging exchange of views and integration, the ministry of culture, can
occasionally send invitations to different cultural groups for competition and pri!e giving
ceremonies for creativity.
&n addition, if the host country's culture is effectively integrated with cultures of other
minorities within the country, it could help in the development of other sectors of the
country lie the economy and politics. That is, there could be an increase in the sale of
cultural products, which will help to increase the country's "ross 2omestic 4roduct of
the country. 1nd also an increase in the strength of the military through the recruitment of
the foreigners in the army
0./ Co"l($!o".
The (!ech society in the #=
century by is very nature is so complex. /ven though there
is the a lower level of interactive integration, 8a situation whereby the host country
accepts, tolerate and include the immigrant population in the primary relationships and
social networs of the society9, trying to acnowledge the absence of cultural integration
in the (!ech +epublic will some how not be true to a greater extend. (ultural integration
here does not only mean a face- to- face contacts lie in schools, the labor maret venues
for public events. (ultural integration also involves the media and the &nternet.
1fter all said and done, the question that needs to be ased is. is cultural integration
visible in the (!ech +epublicN &f yes, it is of any importance to the (!ech +epublicN &f
we try to answer this question by maing reference to the $AD=s and $AE=s the answer
will obviously be no, there was there absence of cultural integration in the (!ech
+epublic. %owever, taing a close loo at the (!ech +epublic in the $AA=s and the
present day, the answer will virtually be yes. cultural integration is a necessary
characteristic in the (!ech society and of importance. The most visible element of
cultural integration in the (!ech +epublic is seen with the growth of positive perception
of the (!echs towards foreigners, the increase in intercultural cooperation through the
opening of the borders under the /uropean Union and the schengen.
,indful of all governmental and other non-government organi!ational efforts to
encourage integration, there has not really been a greater success in this field between the
(!ech society and foreigners. %owever, today cultural integration is visible in some
particular fields and has brought so much development in the country as alluded in afore
mentioned chapters.


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