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Study guide 6

Study guide 6

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Published by: Aaron Merrill on Dec 05, 2009
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Today innovations are evolving from combination of different technologies. Microelectronics mechanics, optics and software interact when technical systems of our times become reality. Mechatronics word originated in Japan, a senior engineer of a company, Yaskawa in 1969 coined it as, “ MECHATRONICS is the synergistic integration of mechanical engineering with electronics and intelligent computer control ion the design and manufacture of products and processes”. The advent of mechatronics, a synergistic blend of mechanics marks the dazzling technological advances in precision engineering, control systems, computers sensors actuators fields helping to design innovative products & processes. Mechatronics is an indisciplinary fusion used to produce & enhance products & systems, like computer disk drives, photo copier, fax machine, CNC machine, modern car HMD, cave & so on. Some features are quick response, precision & robustness as in C.D. drive of Seagate technology. These concepts & devises used in robotics. The paper covers development of mechatronics, general structure & design of mechatronics systems, advance approaches, applications and advantages. It covers importance to needs and evaluation of mechatronics has taken place from the indesciplinary fields. It also covers a brief review of the application for which this field is completely devoted. A case study is reveled to understand the concepts of mechatronics by study of electronic control module (ECM) use in different injection system. The ECM can regarded as the brain which controls the injection system with the variable inputs given through sensors

INTRODUCTION:A senior engineer of a Japanese company first coined the word mechatronics;

Yaskawa, in 1969, as a combination of "mecha" of mechanisms and "tronics" of electronics and the company was granted the trademark rights on the word in 1971. The word soon received broad acceptance in industry. The word has taken a wider meaning since then and is now widely being used as a technical jargon to describe a philosophy in engineering technology, more than the technology itself. For this wider concept of mechatronics, a number of definitions have been proposed in the literature but the most commonly used one is, Mechatronics is the synergistic integration of mechanical engineering with electronics and intelligent computer control in the design and manufacture of products and processes. Mechatronics is the interdisciplinary fusion of Mechanics, Electronics and Information Technology, as shown in the Ven diagram.

 Chico State University "Mechatronics is a field of study that combines the fundamentals of Mechanical, Electrical, and Computer Engineering."  Clemson University "Mechatronics is the blending of software, hardware for the design and analysis of advanced control techniques."  Mechatronics - Electronic Control Systems in Mechanical Engineering (book) "Mechatronics is integration of electronics, control engineering and mechanical engineering"

Figure 1: The interdisciplinary nature of Mechatronics

 DEVELOPMENT OF MECHATRONICS: The development of mechatronics has gone through three stages. [1] The first stage corresponds to the years around the introduction of the word. During this stage, technologies used in mechatronics systems developed rather independently of each other and individually. [2] With the start of the eighties, a synergistic integration of different technologies started taking place, the notable example being in optoelectronics (i.e. an integration of optics and electronics). The concept of hardware/software co-design also started in these years. [3] The third and the last stage, starts with the early nineties, can also be considered as the start of the mechatronics age. The most notable aspect of the third stage is the increased use computational intelligence in mechatronics products and systems. It is due to this development that we can now talk about Machine Intelligence Quotient (MIQ).

The functional diagram of Semiosis

Fig. 3. The six-box diagram of behavior formation


4 The

GENERAL STRUCTURE OF MECHATRONICS SYSTEM: A mechatronics system has two main components as shown in Fig. 4

[1] CONTROLLED SYSTEM: The controlled system is the mechanical process that is in contact with the world with all of its sensors and actuators. [A] MECHANICAL SYSTEMS: Mechanical systems are concerned with the behavior of matter under the action of forces. Such systems are categorized as, Rigid, Deformable, and Fluid in nature. Newtonian mechanics provides the basis for most mechanical systems and consists of 3 independent and absolute concepts: space, time, mass and also force concept. [B] SENSORS: Sensor is used for an element, which produces a signal relating to the quantity being measured. Sensors are required to monitor the performance of machines and processes. Using more no of sensors, we can monitor more no of variables in process such as: Surface quality, Speed, feed, force, temperature, torque, acceleration, vibrations and flow rate of cutting fluid, etc. Sensing system can also be used to evaluate operation, inspect the work in progress and identify parts ad tools. [C] ACTUATORS: -

Actuators are meant for opening and closing of the final control elements in an instrument and control system. The actuators receives signal from controller and acts in the process. Types of actuators: Actuators may be analogous or digital. [a] Electromagnetic Actuators: Ex. A.C. and D.C. electric motor, Stepper motors, Electromagnets, etc. [b] Fluid Power Actuators: Ex. Hydraulic Actuators & Pneumatic Actuators etc. [c] Unconventional Actuators: Ex. Piezoelectric, Magnetostrictrive, Memory metal.

[2] CONTROLLING SYSTEM: The controlling systems have the three sub-systems and are used for perception, knowledge representation and planning and control. The intelligence is usually embedded in the planning and control sub-system. Here, based on the information gathered from the sensors, computational intelligence methodologies are exploited to plan a course of action that will enable the controlled system to achieve the given tasks. Conventional microprocessors, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and probabilistic reasoning are among the tools used in the sub-system for information processing and decision-making. [A] INFORMATION SYSTEM: Information systems include all aspects of information transmit ion from signal processing to control system to analysis techniques. In Mechatronics applications, the information is most concerned with modeling, simulation, automatic control and numerical methods for optimization. Modeling: It is the process of representing the behavior of real system by collection of mathematical equations and logic. Simulation: It is process of solving the model and is performed on computer. Process of simulation can be divided into 3 sections viz, Initialization, Iteration and Termination.

 ADVANCED APPROACHES IN MECHATRONICS:Intelligent manufacturing is a recent development in mechatronics. This manufacturing has broader area of control for plant management; especially in the area of sensor-based manufacturing, which significantly influenced the approaches like, intelligent autonomous inspection system & intelligent decision making systems. These performs task automatically without human intervention, by adapting to the changes in the environment. In intelligent inspection system, real time control is introduced during the process of manufacturing to provide an increase in machining quality &productivity.

 SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS OF MECHATRONICS ARE:1. Autonomous production cells with image based object orientation. 2. Monitoring & control of welding process. 3. Mechatronics systems with off –time programming that automatically program a robot after receiving CAD data. 4. Integrated supervisory systems with multi- process control capability & shared data basis from CAD drawings.

 ADVANTAGES OF MECHATRONICAL SYSTEMS: 1. In mechatronical machine we get controlled and/or coordinated motion of one or more machine elements. The generation and coordination of the required motions, such that the increasingly growing performance and accuracy requirements are satisfied by mechatronics. 2. Mechatronical mechanisms are not limited in their flexibility in generating a wide variety of motions, as in case of traditional mechanisms.

 CONCLUSION:Mechatronics involves the bringing together of a no. of technologies: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer technology and control engineering. This can be considered as the application of computer based digital control techniques, through electronics & electrical interfaces to mechanical engineering problems.

Mechatronics provides an opportunity to take a new look at problem, with mechanical engineers not just seeing a problem in terms of mechanical principles but having to see it in terms of a range of technologies. The electronics, etc. should not be seen as a bolt on item to existing mechanical hardware. A Mechatronics approach needs to be adopted right from the design phase. There needs to be a complete rethink of the requirements in terms of what an item is required to do.

REFERENCES: 1. MECHTRONICS By W. BOLTON 2. www.google.com 3. www.scitech.com

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