Parent Presentation

Mi’Chelle Cooks
ECE497: Child Development Capstone Course
Instructor: Tracy Reed
August 04, 2014

Period of Development

Physical Development
In this stage of development, children start to lose fat and gain muscles. They are fine tuning their gross
motor skills and working towards improving their fine motor skills. Their coordination, muscle control and
overall physical development become more accurate and precise. As a child’s coordination and muscle
control continues to become finely-tuned, the child will show off skills on the playground or sports field.
They will enjoy challenging activities such as skating and swimming. Small muscle control also continues
to be refined, making activities such as playing musical instruments or using tools much easier and
enjoyable. They are learning to bounce the basketball pretty accurately, shoot and catch a basketball very
well, and they are learning to catch, throw, and hit a baseball or softball pretty well. Furthermore, their
running skills are getting better. Some children in this stage will demonstrate natural athletic ability, and
will be able to execute movements such as throwing and catching a ball or riding a bike with precision and
agility. Physical skills can develop at different rates for different individuals, and how much and how often
a child practices can also be a factor in how well they perform at a given sport or activity (Lee, 2013).
Language Development
In this stage, language development is becoming much stronger. They are making complete sentences, and
they are gaining a good understanding of the meanings of many words. Furthermore, they are beginning to
understand sentence structure. Children in this stage start to become aware of other people’s points of view
(Siegler, 2005). They are moving away from egocentrical thinking.

Cognitive Development
In this stage of development, children gain a better understanding of mental operations as they better
understand experiences. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty
understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts (LeFrancois, 2012). They become fairly good at inductive
logic, which involves going from a specific experience to a general principle, which includes physical
experiences. On the other hand, children at this age have difficulty using deductive logic, which involves
using a general principle to determine the outcome of a specific event (LeFrancois, 2012). In this stage,
children acquire the ability to solve many problems, but abstract thinking is still out of their league.

Child Development
1. Teachers should be committed to students and their learning.
They treat students equitably, recognizing the individual differences that distinguish their students from one
another and taking account of these differences in their practice. They should adjust their practice, as
appropriate, on the basis of observation and knowledge of their students’ interests, abilities, skills,
knowledge, family circumstances, and peer relationships (NBPTS, 2012).
2. Teachers should know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students.
Teachers should be very knowledgeable in the subject they teach and they should appreciate how knowledge in their
subject is created, organized, linked to other disciplines, and how it is applied to real world settings (NBPTS, 2012).
Their teaching strategies should allow them to create different paths to learn the subjects they teach and also teach
students how to pose and solve challenging problems (NBPTS, 2012).
A teacher should be one who is qualified to equip students with the skills to succeed in a global community
(NBPTS, 2012).
3. Teachers should be responsible for managing and monitoring student learning.
Accomplished teachers should create, enrich, maintain, and alter instructional settings to capture and sustain the
interest of their students, and they should make the most effective use of time in their instruction (NBPTS, 2012).
Accomplished teachers should know how to engage groups of students to ensure a disciplined learning environment
while organizing instruction to meet the school’s goals for children (NBPTS, 2012).
An accomplished teacher should be able to properly assess the accomplishments of each individual student as well
as the class as a whole (NBPTS, 2012).
4. Teachers should think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.
Teachers should be models of educated persons that exemplify the virtues they seek to inspire in students such as
curiosity, tolerance, honesty, fairness, respect for diversity, and appreciation of cultural differences (NBPTS, 2012).
Teachers should be able to draw on their knowledge of human development , subject matter, and instruction, and
their understanding of their students , to make principled judgments about sound practice (NBPTS, 2012).
Lincoln Elementary Rationale
(located in: Gilbert, Arizona)
Gilbert: relatively large city with a strong sense of family and community.
Lincoln Elementary:
population of 765 students from PreK to sixth grade.
94% of the students are eligible for free and/or reduced lunch
58% of the students are second language learners.
93% are Hispanic
5% are white
2% are American Indian.
There are several ways to support children learning a second language in the classroom.
One way to support them would be to label everything in the classroom with both,
the first and the second language. Next, a curriculum that supports English and
Spanish needs to be used in the classroom. There are several ways in which the
families of children learning a second language can be supported. One way is to
offer classes that teach the families the second language as well as the children.
These classes should not be confined to just the parents. It should be provided to
anyone who has any connections to the students that attend the school. Another way
to support families of children learning second languages would be to provide
literacy night once or twice a month and alternate the food and the activities
between the two languages (NAEYC, 2009).

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model
The mesosystem is the connection of two or more of the child’s
microsystems. This part of the model involves the interactions between
the members in the microsystem, as well as their interaction with the
child. In order to fully support your child, you need to make sure there
is communication and positive interactions between you and other
important people who have interactions with your child (
Epstein’s Types of Involvement
The Six Types of Involvement was established by Dr. Joyce L. Epstein. The
framework enables educators to develop effective programs that are
designed to bring school, family, and community together in a positive
manner. Epstein states that this framework is the key to educating students
and supporting families (Hatter, 2014).

Epstein’s Types of Involvement
1. Parenting 4. Learning at Home
2. Communicating 5. Decision Making
3. Volunteering 6. Collaborating with Community
Parent involvement can influence a child’s learning and development because involved parents will create a
positive home environment that enables children to thrive and grow as students. Involved parents will help
build a child’s self-concept, in which the child will feel confident about themselves in the classroom, and
will strive to do more and do better because the parents are involved. Self-concept deals with knowing who
you are and what your strengths and weaknesses are. Involved parents also builds self-esteem in children.

Involvement: A positively involved parent sets their child up to develop better socially, emotionally, and
academically (Green, 2000). An uninvolved parent can lead to behavior problems, academic problems, and
psychological issues (Turner &Welch, 2012).
 Parents serve as role models and this affects how the children relate to peers and adults outside of the
home (Evans & Fogarty, 2011).
 Children with an involved parent tend to score higher on cognitive tests (Evans & Fogarty, 2011).
 Children with involved parents have higher chances of graduating, and going to vocational school or
college (Evans & Fogarty, 2011).
 Involved parents are associated with lower rates of violence, delinquency, and other problems with
authority or the law (Evans & Fogarty, 2011).

One idea that the school or community could implement right away that aligns with the cultures represented at
the school would be to offer parenting classes that would assist the parents in becoming better parents.
Also, they could offer culture night twice a month and provide a guest speaker to come and talk about their
culture, provide a meal to serve, from the chosen culture, and allow families to simply fellowship and talk
amongst themselves.
Communication between the school and the home is vital to the success of a student.
The teachers and the support staff should communicate regularly with parents about
students through emails, telephone conversations, class letters, newsletters, and
whenever the parents come to the classroom. Parents should also communicate any
concerns or issues with educators. Translators should be readily available to assist
in the communication between families and educators when language barriers are
present. Effective communication ensures that everyone involved in the education
of a child is consistent and on the same page, and it also ensures that everyone
involved understands school policies and decisions (Hatter, 2014).

Communication should begin immediately after a child is enrolled so that the parents
know what is expected of them, what is expected of the child, what is expected of
the teacher, and to answer any questions that the parents may have concerning their
child’s education. The initial communication should begin at “Meet the teacher,”
which should be a formal introduction session between the teacher, the parent, and
the child and addresses the expectations and questions. Next, the teacher has a
responsibility to get to know their students and their families and tailor their
communication to match with each individual family.

Communication (cont’d)…
Teachers will have a tougher time communicating with parents that seem to be more unattached, unconcerned, and
uninvolved with their child’s development and education or feel like it is the teacher’s sole responsibility to educate
their child and help in the progress of their development. These parents will need more informal verbal
communication from the teacher so that the teacher can gain their respect and trust. Once the parent feels more
comfortable with the teacher, then the teacher should begin to outline in casual conversation the ideas that family
involvement that is linked to student learning has a greater effect on achievement than more general forms of
involvement (Allen, 2009). Also the teacher needs to relay the idea that family involvement that supports student
learning at home is linked to improved student achievement, and families of all cultural backgrounds and education
and income levels can have a positive influence on their child’s learning (Allen, 2009). It is important that the
teacher gets the parents to understand that their child’s educational success will heavily rely on their involvement
and support. Through effective communication, the teacher needs to get the parents on board to want to participate
in helping their child be successful with their development and education.

One idea that the school or community to implement right away that aligns with the cultures represented would be to
encourage parents to attend at least one parent-teacher conference during the school year. Also, the school should
have some type of open door policy to allow parents to voice their concerns or issues they may have. Furthermore,
parent meetings should be scheduled at least once a month to allow effective communication to take place in
reference to instructions, activities, issues, and progress. This meeting should include a guest speaker that could
discuss a topic of interest to the parents, a teacher who discusses the classroom lessons and activities, and the floor
should be opened up to the parents to discuss anything that they feel needs to be discussed. Finally, the school
should provide free bilingual classes at the school or within the community to the parents once a week to the parents
that need help learning a different language so that they can help their children who are already learning a second
Getting parents involved in their child’s education has positive results on the child’s learning and
development. Parents can help in the classroom with special projects, class field trips, or play
other supportive roles. When a child knows his parent is involved and volunteering, it boosts
their self-confidence and self-esteem. Parents can bring lots of talents and skills to the
classroom, which can greatly help teachers in the process of teaching children. Bringing
parents into the school environment helps children learn how to communicate with adults, and
it sometimes leads to more one-on-one attention (Hatter, 2014).

One idea that the school or community could implement right away that aligns with the cultures
represented at the school would be to poll parents at the beginning of the school year to figure
out the knowledge and abilities of the parents and find out the availability of the parents
willing to volunteer (Hatter, 2014). Furthermore, find out which parents are bilingual and
would be willing to assist in helping other parents. Parents could maybe find them another
parent that would be willing to assist them and their child with bilingual issues whenever is
needed. Also, a list could be made with the phone numbers of the parents that are bilingual
and willing to volunteer, and it could be passed out as a resource manual for assistance with
translation and bilingual barriers.
Learning at Home
Learning at home influences a child’s learning and development if there is a
positive environment for home learning. If parents and teachers are on the
same page, and parents are consistent at home as the teachers are at school
and provide an effective home learning environment, the children tend to
develop a more positive attitude about homework and improve test scores
(Hatter, 2014).

One idea the school or community could implement right away that aligns with
the cultures represented could include the teachers discussing during
parent-teacher conferences, parent meetings, parenting classes, and culture
night how to supervise their child completing homework, how to set up and
effective place for their child to work, how to communicate expectations
for homework, and how to support their child as they work on school work
at home (Hatter, 2014). Another idea would be to offer after school tutorials
for children that may be struggling. Within the community, churches can
offer free tutorial nights at the church to help with any homework or
subjects that the children may be having trouble with.
Decision Making
Parent involvement in school decisions and activities can play an important role in
achieving goals that help students with their learning and development. Parents
should be included in deciding on policies and procedures, field trips, how school
monies are spent. Parents being involved in the decision making can help provide
improvements in the school that would best benefit the children as a whole such as
better technology in the classroom instead of textbooks, field trips connected to
learning themes, and end of the year activities to spend remaining monies. Parental
involvement in decision making helps students to benefit by seeing a parental role
and it helps parents advocate more effectively for student benefits (Hatter, 2014).

One idea the school or community could implement right away that aligns with the
cultures represented would be to form a parent organization that would lead
fundraisers that would benefit the schools and the students. These organizations can
be instrumental in school improvements that revitalize and focus energy on the
students (Hatter, 2014). Another thing that could be done would be to create a
policy council and allow the parents to vote in the members. These members would
be the voice of the parents that would vote on anything and everything dealing with
policies, procedures, and hiring and firing.

with Community
Schools can work cooperatively with communities for activities that
strengthen and develop strong students. They can work together to
provide recreational, cultural, and athletic programs that can provide
important opportunities for students. Students receive expanded
exposure to different experiences and opportunities, which could
assist with choices in future education and careers (Hatter, 2014).

One idea the school and the community could implement right away
that aligns with the cultures represented is to find out what
recreational, cultural, and athletic programs are offered in the
community and provide the parents with information about them
during parent-teacher conferences, parent meetings, culture night,
and parenting classes. The school should promote and endorse these
community activities to show parents the value and importance of
these programs (Hatter, 2014).

Allen, JoBeth. (January 2009). “Effective Home-School Communication.” FINE Newsletter, Volume I, Issue 1.
Retrieved from:
Evans, Garret & Fogarty, Kate. (2011). “The Hidden Benefits of Being an Involved Father.” Retrieved from:
Green, Stephen. (10/2009). “The Essence of Responsible Fatherhood.” Retrieved from:
Gurian, Anita. (12/2011). “About Discipline - Helping Children Develop Self-Control.” Retrieved from:
Hatter, Kathryn. “Epstein's Six Types of Parent Involvement.” Retrieved from:

References (cont’d)…
Lee, Katherine. (2013). “School Age Children: Your 8 Year Old Child: Physical Development.”
Retrieved from:
Lefrançois, G. R. (2012). Children’s journeys: Exploring early childhood. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint
Education, Inc.
National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Responding to linguistic and cultural
diversity. Retrieved from
NBPTS. (2012). “Middle Childhood Generalist Standards Third Edition.” Rertrieved from:

References (cont’d)…
Siegler, R.S., and Alibali, M.W. (2005). Children’s thinking 4th ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Turner, P. & Welch, K. (2012). Parenting in contemporary society (5th ed.).
Boston, MA: Pearson. “The Ecological Perspective of Development.” Retrieved