‰Ï·˜

‚‰ÓÂ
∫‰ÙÈËÚ·

Ʊπ∏¥ ¨Â· ¨ÔÂÒÓ¯·‡ ȯ‡Ï
˙·Ȅ‡· ¨¯ÈÈ ÏÚ ˜ÈÏȯ˜‡
ÆÔÓ‡‰

ÌÈÓÚÙ· ÌÚÙ‰

‰ÚÈ„È ∫Ì”·Ó¯‰ Ï˘ ÒÂ‡Ó Â˙ÂÓÏÒ‡˙‰

µ

¯ÂÊÓ ¯ÈÓ‡ Ø ‰˘„Á
Ï˘ ÒÂ˙ÈӉ ‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

π

Ò‰ ÊÚ· Ø ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰
‰‡Ó‰ ˙Ï·˜· ‰Èχ ÍÂÁ Ï˘ Ì˙ÈÈÏÚ

≥±

Èχ¯˘È „„ÂÚ Ø ‰¯˘Ú ˘ÂÏ˘‰
ÔÓ ∫‰˘„Á‰ ˙Ú· ˙ÂÈ„Â‰È ‰Ú·˘‰ ˙ÂÁψ

µµ

ȯ¯‰ Ï·ÂÈ Ø Ï‡¯˘ÈÏ ÈÓÏÒÂÓ‰ ·Á¯Ó‰
ÂÏÈ· ̯ÂÈ Ø ˙ÈÏÂÙÈË ‰˘È‚Ù „ÂÚÈ˙ — ‰·È˙η ÈÂÙȯ ∫ÁÙÒ

∑π

ÈÈÒ¯Ó· ˙ÒΉ È˙· ˙ÂÓ„Ï ÌȘ

∏µ

˜ÈÙ ·‡Ê ‰ÓÏ˘ Ø ÌÈÈÈ·‰ ÈÓÈ· ̉Ȃ‰ÓÂ

±∞∏ ’ÌÈÓÚÙ’· ·ÏΖԇ‰„ ËÈȯ‰ Ï˘ ‰¯Ó‡Ó ÏÚ ˙·‚˙
Ø ¯˜Ù‰ ‰„˘Î ‰È‚ÂÏÂȈÂÒ· ÌÈÁ¯ÊÓ‰ ¯˜Á

±±µ

˜ÒÈÏ ‰˘Ó
Ô¯˜ÈÒ ‰˘Ó Ø ‰·Â‚˙

±≤≤

·ÏΖԇ‰„ ËÈȯ‰ Ø ‰·Â˘˙

±≤¥

˙¯Â˜È·Â ÌÈÂÈÚ
— ‚„¯È· χٯ È·¯Ï ÌÈ„ÂÓÈÏ ÔÂ˘Ï ÏÚ

±≤π

ÔÓÓ Ô¯‰‡ Ø ¯˘‡–¯· ‰˘Ó ˙¯Â„‰Ó

˙¯˜ÈÒ
˙ÂÈ„¯ÙÒ ˙ÂÏȉ˜ ÏÚ „ÂÓÈÏ ¯ÙÒ ÏÚ Ò˜ÂÙ ¯Ó˙
‰‡Â˘·

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±¥∑

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9

|

‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰
˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÒÂ˙ÈÓ‰Â
Ò‰ ÊÚ·
The work of an intellectual is… through the analyses
that he carries out in his own field, to question over
and over again what is postulated as self-evident, to
disturb people’s mental habits, the way they do and
think things, to dissipate what is familiar and accepted,
to reexamine rules and institutions, and on the basis of
this re-problematization… to participate in the formation
of a political will±
¨Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ ‰¢‡¯‰ ˙ȈÁÓ· ÈÓÂ¡ ¯˜ÁÓ ‰„˘Î ¯ˆÂ˘ ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜Á
‰ÈÏÙȈÒÈ„Î Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ ‰ÈÈ˘‰ ˙ȈÁÓ· ÒÒ·˙‰ ¨ÂÈ„ÈÓÏ˙ ÌÂÏ˘ Ì› ÷¯‚ È„È ÏÚ
¨È·¯ÚÓ‰ ÌÏÂÚ· ÌÈ·¯ ÌÈÈÓ„˜‡ ˙„ÒÂӷ χ¯˘È· ˙‡ËÈÒ¯·È‡‰ Ïη ˙È˙¯˜ÂÈ ˙ÈÓ„˜‡
Ô˘‡¯·Â ˙Â¢ ˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙˘ ‰Á‰‰ ÏÚ ˙˙˘ÂÓ ‰Ê ¯˜ÁÓ ‰„˘ ≤Æ˙ȯ·‰–˙ˆ¯‡· ¯˜ÈÚ·
‡ˆÂÈÎ ˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ‰Ù¯ȇ Á¯ÊÓ ˙„ÈÒÁ ¨Ê΢‡ ˙„ÈÒÁ ¨˙ÂÏÎȉ‰ ˙¯ÙÒ ÔΩ ‰Ï·˜‰
Ï˘ ‰ÈÂÂÁ ‡È‰ ÂÊ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ Æ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ÈÙȈÙÒ È„Â‰È ÈÂËÈ· Ô‰ ®‰Ï‡·
˙ÒÙ˙ ¨È„ÂÁÈÈ ‰Ú„Â˙ ·ˆÓ· ‰Î¯Ή ¨˘‚ÙÓ‰ ˙ÈÈÂÂÁ ¨˙ÈÊÈÙËÓ Â‡ ˙ȉÂχ ˙Â˘È ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ
‰˘Ó ȯ·„· ˘È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ ÂÊ ‰˘È‚ Ï˘ ˜‰·ÂÓ ÁÂÒÈ Æ˙È˙„‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ Ï˘ ‰‡È˘Î ‡ ‰˙ȈÓ˙Î
∫ßÌÈ˘„Á ÌÈ˷ȉ ∫‰Ï·˜ß ¯ÙÒ· τȇ
Æχ‰ ÌÚ „ÂÁȇ‰ ˙ÈÂÂÁ ‡È‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ȈÓ˙ ¨˙„‰ ˙ȈÓ˙ ‡È‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ̇
‰‡È˘Ï ÌÈ˙ÚÏ ‰ÚÈ‚Ó ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙¯ˆ ·Â¯ ˙‡ ˙ÈÈÙ‡Ó‰ ¨ÌÈÈ˙„‰ ÌÈÈÁ‰ ˙ÓˆÚ‰
˙ÂÈÂ˘È ÌÚ „ÂÁȇ ÈÒÁÈ Ï˘ Ìȯ‡È˙· ÚÈÙÂÓ È˙¯ÙÒ‰ ÔÈÈÂËÈ·˘ ¨˙ÂÈÚ·Ë–ÏÚ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁ·

ÆÂÓˆÚ Ï‡‰ ÌÚ Û‡ ÌÈÓÚÙÏ ˙ÂȇÏÈÚ

ËÒ‚‡· ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È· ÌÈȘ˙‰˘ ¨˙„‰È‰ ÈÚ„ÓÏ ¯˘Ú ‰Ú·¯‡‰ ÈÓÏÂÚ‰ Ò¯‚˜· È˙‡ˆ¯‰ ÏÚ ÒÒÂ·Ó ‰Ê ¯Ó‡Ó
Ï˘ ˙ÂËÂÈË Â‡¯˜˘ ¨¯·Á Á¯ ‰‡È¯Ó ÔÂ¯Ó ˙È¯ ¨¯·Á ÔÁ ¨È¯¯‰ Ï·ÂÈ ¨¯˜‰ χÂÈÏ ‰„ÂÓ È‡ Æ≤∞∞µ
ÆÈ˙‡ ÂÓÈÎÒ‰ „ÈÓ˙ ‡Ï ̇ Ì‚ ¨È˙ÂÚË ˙‡ „„ÁÏ ÈÏ Â¯ÊÚ ˙·¢Á ˙¯ډ ÈÏ Â¯ÈÚ‰ ¨‰Ê ¯Ó‡Ó
Æ≤∂µ ßÓÚ ¨Â˜ÂÙ
Æπ¥≠π± ßÓÚ ¨ÌÈÈÓ„˜‡ ÌÈ„ÂÓÈÏ ¨Ï„ȇ ∫‡¯ ‰Ï ‰˙ÎÊ˘ ‰·¯‰ ‰¯˜Âȉ ÂÊ ‰ÏÂÎÒ‡ ÏÚ
Ƶ≥ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ï·˜ ¨Ï„ȇ

±

≥∞≠π ’ÓÚ ¨®Ê”Ò˘˙© ±±∞ ÌÈÓÚÙ

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Ò‰ ÊÚ·

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·È·˘ ‰Á ∫ÌÂÏȈ ÆÌÂÏ˘ Ì˘¯‚

Ì˙¯ˆÂÂÈ‰Ï ÒÈÒ· ‰˘ÓÈ˘ ¨‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó· ‰Ù¯ȇ· ‰˘·‚˙‰˘ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÂÊ ‰ÒÈÙ˙
˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰ÚÙÂ˙Î ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜Á· ˙˜ÒÂÚ‰ ˙ÂÈÓ„˜‡ ˙ÂÈÏÙȈÒÈ„ Ï˘Â ¯˜ÁÓ ˙„˘ Ï˘
Âχ ˙ÂÈÓ„˜‡ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· Æ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ӂ„ ¨˙ÂÈÙȈÙÒ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙¯ÂÒÓ ¯˜Á·Â
Ô‰ ‰Ï‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙˘ ÌÈÁÈÓ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚Ë˜Ï ˙Â¢ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙Ó ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ÌÈÎÈÈ˘Ó
ÆÈË„ˆÒ¯Ë‰ ‡ ȉÂχ‰ ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ Ï˘ ÔÙ„ ˙‡ˆÂÈ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁÏ ¨‰˜Â„‰ ‰˜ÈÊ· ˙„ÓÂÚ Â‡ ¨ÈÂËÈ·
˙˙È ‰ȇ˘ ¨˙Ù˙Â˘Ó ˙Â‰Ó ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï˘ Ìȯ·ÂÒ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ˘ ¯Á‡Ó
¯˜ÁÓ· ˘Ó˙˘‰Ï ˘È˘ ÌÈÚÂË Ì‰ ¨ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÎÈÒÙ ÌÈÈ˙¯·Á ¨ÌÈÈÏÎÏÎ ÌÈÓ¯Â‚Ï ‰ÈȈ˜Â„¯Ï
˙Ϸ˜Ӊ ¨˙È˙‡Â¢‰‰ ‡ ˙È‚ÂÏÂÓÂÙ‰ ‰„Â˙Ó· ¯˜ÈÚ· ¨˙„ÁÂÈÓ ˙„Â˙Ó· Âχ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙
˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ˙·‰Ï ͯ„‰˘ ‡È‰ ÂÊ ‰„Â˙Ó· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ „ÂÒÈ·˘ ‰Á‰‰ Æ˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜Á·
ÆÔ‰Ï ÌÈÙ˙¢Ӊ ÌÈӯ‚‰ ˙‡ Û¢ÁÏ ‰¯ËÓ· ÂÊÏ ÂÊ Ô˙‡Â¢‰ ‡È‰
‰ÒÈÙ˙·˘ ˙ÂÈ˙ÈÈÚ·‰ ÏÚ ÌÈ¢ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ „ÓÚ ‰¯·Ú˘ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÂÓ˘‰ ˙Â˘Ó ÏÁ‰
˙˘· Æ˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜ÁÓ Ï˘ „ÂÒȉ ˙ÂÁ‰·Â ®Religion ¯ÓÂÏΩ ˙„ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡‰
Âȯ·„Ï Æ˙ȯ˜ÁÓ ‰ÈȈ˜Â¯ËÒ˜ ‡Ï‡ ‰ȇ ˙„‰˘ ˙ÈÓÒ ßÊ Ô˙Âß‚ ˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜ÂÁ Ú·˜ ±π∏≤

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‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

‰‡Â¢‰ Ï˘ ˙ÂÈÂÈÓ„ ˙ÂÏÂÚÙ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ¨‰¯ˆÂ ‡È‰ Ư˜ÁÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰¯ÈˆÈ ˜¯Â ͇ ‡È‰ ¢˙„¢ß
¥

Æ߉ÈÓ„˜‡Ï ıÂÁÓ È‡ÓˆÚ ÌÂȘ Ôȇ ˙„Ï Æ¯˜ÂÁ‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÈËÈÏ‡‰ ÌÈίˆ‰ ÔÚÓÏ ¨‰ÏÏΉÂ

‡Ï˘ ¨ß˙„‰ Ï˘ ˙ÂÈ‚Âχ‚ß Â¯ÙÒ· ¨±ππ≥ ˙˘· ÔÚË ®Asad© „Ò‡ χÏË ‚ÂÏÂÙ¯˙‡‰
¯ˆÈ˘ ˙ÈÂÂÈү˜ÒÈ„ ‰È·‰ ‡Â‰ ˙„ ‚˘ÂÓ‰˘ ÍÎ ÏÚ „ÓÚ ¨˙„‰ Ï˘ ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰¯„‚‰ ÔÎ˙È˙
˙„ÂÒȉ˘ ÈÙÓ ˜¯ ‡Ï ¨˙„ Ï˘ ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰¯„‚‰ ÔÎ˙È˙ ‡Ïß Â˙ÚËÏ ÆÈ·¯ÚÓ‰ ÌÊÈ¯„ÂÓ‰
‡È‰ ‰ÓˆÚ ‰¯„‚‰‰˘ ÈÙÓ ‡Ï‡ ¨ÌÈȯÂËÒȉ Ìȇ˙ ÈÈÂÏ˙ ̉ ˙„‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÂÎÓ‰ ÌÈÒÁȉÂ
µ

ÆßÌÈÈÂÂÈү˜ÒÈ„ ÌÈÎÈω˙ Ï˘ ȯÂËÒȉ ¯ˆÂ˙

È˙ÂÓÈË ¨®McCutcheon© ÔÂßˆË˜Ó ÏÒ¯ ̉ÈÈ· ¨ÌÈ¢ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ‚Ȉ‰ ˙Â¯Á‡‰ ÌÈ˘·
˙È‚Âχ˙‰ ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó· ÌÈÈ˙¯Â˜È· ÌÈÂÈ„ ¨®Dubuisson© ÔÂÒȷ„ χÈ„ ®Fitzgerald© „ϯ߂ˆÈÙ

Æ· ‰‚‰‰ ˙È‚ÂÏÂÓÂÙ‰ ‰„Â˙Ó‰ Ï˘Â ˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜Á ‰„˘ Ï˘ ¨˙„ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÈËÈÏÂÙ‰Â

ÔÁ·˘ ¨‚Ș „¯ßˆÈ¯ ̉·Â ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ È˙¯Â˜È· ¯˜ÁÓ· Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ‰ÓИÒÚ „·· „·
Ë·Ó ˙„˜Ó ÌÊȉ„·‰Â ÌÊȇ„ȉ‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙‡ ß˙„ ÌÊÈÏËÈÈ¯Â‡ß Â¯ÙÒ·
‰¯˜È· ß˙ȯˆÂ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¯„‚Ó ¨ÁÂÎß ‰¯ÙÒ·˘ ¨®Jantzen© ÔˆÈ ÒÈȯ‚ ¨˙ÈχÈÂϘ–ËÒÂÙ
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰˘ ‰Á‰‰ ˙‡Ê ˙¯ÓÏ ∑Æ˙ȯˆÂ‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÓ ˙‡ ˙ȯ„‚Ó ‰·È˘ÙÒ¯ÙÓ
¨ÈÓ„˜‡‰ ¯˜ÁÓ· ÔÈÈ„Ú ˙Ï·Â˜Ó ¨‰˙·‰Ï ˙„ÁÂÈÓ ˙„Â˙Ó ˙˘¯Â„‰ ¨˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ ‡È‰

Æ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ï˘ ÌÈÈÂËÈ·Î ˙ÂÒÙ˙‰ ˙ÂÙÒÂ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ‰Ï·˜‰ ¯˜ÁÓ „ÂÒÈ· ˙„ÓÂÚÂ

Æ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰È‚Âχ‚·Â ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ· È˙¯Â˜È· ÔÂÈ„ ÚȈ‡ ‰Ê ¯Ó‡Ó·
˙ÂÂÎÓ‰ ¨˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï ˜¯Â ͇ ¨˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÏÎÏ ˙ÂÙ˙¢Ӊ ˙ÂÂÎ˙ ‡ ‰ÂÎ˙ Ì¢ Ôȇ ¨È˙ÚËÏ
¯˜ÁÓÏ ˙È„ÂÁÈÈ ‰„Â˙Ó Ì¢· ͯˆ Ôȇ˘ Ô‡ÎÓ Æ˯ٷ ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÏÏη ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ì˘·
‰˜„ˆ‰ Ôȇ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ì˘· ¨˙ÂÚË· ¨ÌÈÂÎÓ‰ ˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙‰ ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰ Ï˘Â ÌÈËҘˉ Ï˘
‘Religion is solely the creation of the scholar’s study. It is created for the scholar’s analytic
purposes by his imaginative acts of comparison and generalization. Religion has no independent
Æ®±± ßÓÚ ¨˙ÈÓÒ© existence apart from the academy’
‘There cannot be a universal definition of religion, not only because its constituent elements and
relationships are historically specific, but because the definition is itself the historical product
Æ¥∏≠¥∑ ¨¥≥≠¥∞ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ®≤π ßÓÚ ¨„Ò‡© of discursive processes’
ÆÏ¯‡ ªÔ‡¯· ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â ÆÔÂÒȷ„ ª‰È‚Âχ„ȇ‰ ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ ª˙„‰ ˙˘Â¯Á ¨ÔÂ߈˘Ó
ÌÈ·Â˘Á‰ ÌÈÈ˙¯Â˜È·‰ ̉ÈÂÈ„ ˙¯ÓÏ ÆÛ¯˘ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ≤µ≠¥ ßÓÚ ¨ÔˆÈ ª±∏∂≠±∂± ¨≥¥≠∑ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș
¨Ì˙„ÓÚÏ „‚È· Æ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰È¯Â‚˘Π˙ÓÈȘ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ÈÎ ‚Ș ԈÈ ÂÁÈ‰ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘·
¯Â˙ÈÂÂÏ ‰Úˆ‰ ÆÈ¯Ó‚Ï ‰ÈÏÚ ¯˙ÂÂÏ ‡Ï‡ ¨Âʉ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ ˙‡ Ô˜˙Ï ÚÈˆÓ Èȇ Ìȇ·‰ Ìȯ·„·
ÂÏȇ ¨®Religion© ˙„ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ Ï˘ ‰ÓÂȘ ˙‡ ϷȘ ‡Â‰ ͇ ¨¯Ù ¯·Î ‰ÏÚ‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ÏÚ
˙¯˜ӷ ‡¯ ¯˜ÁÓ· ˙„ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ ÏÚ ˙¯Â˜È·Ï Æ˙ÂÚËÓ ˙¯˙ÂÈÓ ˙Âȯ‚˘‰ È˙˘˘ ÔÚÂË È‡
Æ˙ӄ˜‰ ‰¯Ú‰· ¯Îʉ˘
„ÏÂȯ‚ Ï˘ÓÏ ÆȄ‰ȉ ¯˘˜‰· ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰Ó ˙Á ¯ÒÂÁ ÂÚÈ·‰ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ‰Ó΢ Û‡ ˙‡Ê
ȉÈÊ ÏÚ ˙¯Â˜È· Æ≤π≠≤∏ ßÓÚ ¨„ÏÂȯ‚ ∫‡¯ ¨®Spirituality© ˙ÂÈÁ¯ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ ˙‡ ÛȄډ ÍÎÓ ‚ÈÈ˙Ò‰
¯ÊÁ ¨ÂÊ ˙‚ÈÈ˙Ò‰ ˙¯ÓÏ Æ≤±≠±∏ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈÈÚӉ ·Ï‰ ¨Ô„ ∫Ì‚ ‰¯Á‡Ï ‡¯ ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÎ ‰Ï·˜‰
ÔÚË Ò·ÈÏ ‰„Â‰È Ì‚ Æ≤± ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ∫‡¯ ªÌÂÏ˘ Ë˯˘˘ ‰ÓÎÒ‰
Õ
ÈÙ ÏÚ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙‡ ¯‡È˙ Ԅ
ßÓÚ ¨Ò·ÈÏ ∫‡¯ Æ˙ÁψÂÓ ‰ȇ ‰Ï·˜‰ ˙‡ ÔÈÈÙ‡Ï È„Î ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÓ ‰¯ÂÊ‚‰ ‰ÏÈÓ· ‰¯ÈÁ·‰˘ ‰¯Á‡Ï
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¨ÌȯˆÓ ¨¯Â‰Ó„· ‡¯ÈˆÁ·‡ ·˜ÚÈ Ï·Â˜Ó‰ ·¯‰ Ï˘ ¯·˜ ÏÚ ˙ÂÏÏÙ˙Ó ÌÈ˘ ¨ıÈ˘ÙÈÏ È„„
ÔÓ‡‰ ˙·Ȅ‡· ¨±ππ∂ ¨’¯Â‰Ó„ ˘„˜’ ÌÈÓÂψ˙‰ ˙¯„Ò ÍÂ˙Ó Ë¯Ù

‰˜ÈËÒÈӉ ÏÏη ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¨‰‡¯‡˘
à ÈÙÎ Æ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ È„ÂÁÈÈ ¯˜ÁÓ ‰„˘ Ï˘ ÂÓÂȘÏ
˙·Á¯‰ ˙·˜Ú· ¨‰˘„Á‰ ˙Ú· ‰Ù¯ȇ· ¯ˆÂ˘ ¨˙ÂÈÂÂÈү˜ÒÈ„ ˙ÂÈ·‰ Ô‰ ˯ٷ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ
‡Ï˘ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙ ÏÚ Â˙ÏÁ‰Â — ˜‰·ÂÓ È¯ˆÂ È‚Âχ˙ ‚˘ÂÓ — ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó‰
Ï˘Â ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰ÏÁ‰‰ ÆÂÏ ÛÙÂÁ‰ ‚˘ÂÓ Ì¢· ¢Ó˙˘‰ ‡Ï˘Â ¨‰Ê ‚˘ÂÓ Â¯ÈΉ
ÌÊÈχȯÙÓȇ‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ‰˙˘Ú ˙ÂȯˆÂ–˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï ˙ÂÈ·¯˙ ÏÚ ¨˙„ ¨ÂÈχ ˙ÈÂÂÏ‰ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰
ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ· ˙Â¢ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙ Ï˘ ˙ÂÈÓÂ‡Ï ˙ÂÈÂ‰Ê ˙ÈÈ·‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ·Â ¨·¯ÚÓ‰ Ï˘ ÌÊÈχÈÂϘ‰Â
Æ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ì‚ ‰¯ˆÂ — ÔÚˇ ÍÎ — Âχ Ìȯ˘˜‰· ÆÌÈÈÙ¯ȇ ÌÈÈÂÂÈү˜ÒÈ„
‰È¯Â‚˘· ÌÈÏÏÎ‰ ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰Â ÌÈËҘˉ Ï˘ ÌÓÂȘ ˙‡ ˘ÈÁÎÓ Èȇ˘ ˘È‚„‰Ï Èˆ¯·
¯ÙÂÎ Èȇ ÆÌ‰Ï˘ ¯˜ÁÓÏ „‚˙Ó Èȇ ˙ÂÈ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó ˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Î ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ
¨ÌÈ·ÏÓ ˙ÂÓ˘ ÂÈ˘ ¨˙ÂÁ·˘˙ ˙Â¯È˘ ¢ÁÏ ¨Ì‰Èί· ÔÈ· Ì˘‡¯ ˙‡ ÂÁÈ‰ ÌÈ˘‡˘ Íη
˙˜È˘¯Ù· ¢Ó˙˘‰˘ ÌÈ˘‡Ï˘ Íη ˜ÙÒ ÏÈËÓ Èȇ ªÌȘȄˆ ȯ·˜ ÏÚ ÂÁË˙˘‰Â „„·˙‰
‡ ‰‡Â· ¨Ô„Ú‰ Ô‚Ï ‰ÈÈÏÚ ¨‰·Î¯ÓÏ ‰„ȯÈΠ¯‡È˙ ̉˘ ÔÙ„ ȇˆÂÈ ÌÈÚ¯ȇ Âگȇ ÂÏω
ȯÂËÒȉ‰ Ô¯˘˜‰· Âχ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ÂÁ·˘ ÌÈ·Â˘Á‰ Ìȯ˜ÁÓ‰ ˙‡ ÏÒÂÙ Èȇ ªÔȇ· ˙˜·„
Ô‰ ÂÏω ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰˘ ¨È¯˜ÁÓ‰ ‰„˘· ÌÂÈÎ ˙ËÏ¢‰ ‰Á‰‰ „‚Î ˙ÈÙÂÓ È˙ÚË ÆÈ˙¯·Á‰Â
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ÌÈÙ˙¢Ӊ ÌÈӯ‚ ‡ ̯‚ ˘È ¨®‰Ï‡· ‡ˆÂÈΠ˙ÂÈ˜È¯Ó‡ ¨˙ÂȄ‰ ¨˙ÂÈÙÈ ¨˙ÂÈÈÒ ¨˙ÂÈÓÏÒÂÓ
˙‡Â ¨˙Á‡ ‰È¯Â‚Ë˜Ï ˙ÂÎÈÈ˘ Ô‰˘ ‰Á‰‰ ˙‡ ¨‰Ê Ì˘· ÔÈÂÈÎ ˙‡ ÌȘȄˆÓ‰Â ¨Ô‰Ï ˜¯Â ͇ ¨Ô‰Ï

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˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ˙‡ È˙Ú„Ï πÆÔ‰Ï ÌÈ„ÁÂÈÓ‰ ‰‡¯Â‰Â ¯˜ÁÓ ˙ÂËÈ˘Â ¯˜ÁÓ ÈÓÂÁ˙ Ï˘ ÌÂÈÎ
ÌÈÈÂËÈ·Î ¯Â˜ÁÏ Ôȇ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ‰„˘· ÌÂÈÎ ˙ÂÏÏÎ‰ ˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙‰
‡Ï‡ ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰· ÌÈ¢ ÌÈ·Ï˘Î ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙È˙„ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘
˙ÂÈ˙¯·Á ˙ÂÈÏÎÏÎ ¨˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ÌÈÈËÈÏÂÙ ÌÈίˆ ÍÂ˙Ó Â¯ˆÂ˘ ˙·¯˙ ȯˆÂ˙Î
˙‡ ¨˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ˙‡ È˙Ú„Ï ¯Â˜ÁÏ ˘È ͯ„ ‰˙‡· ˜ÂÈ„· Æ˙ÂÈÙȈÙÒ
ȯˆÂ˙ ˙Âȯ˜ÁÓ‰ ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰ ˙‡Â ¨ÂÊ ‰È¯Â‚˘ ÏÚ ÒÒ·Ӊ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ‰„˘ Ï˘ ‰È‚Âχ‚‰
ÆÂÊ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ¯ˆÂ˘ ˙·¯˙‰
¨˙˜È˘¯Ù Ï˘ Ì˙ÏÏΉ ÏÚ ÒÒÂ·Ó ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÈÓ„˜‡‰ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ‰„˘
¯Á‡ ‚˘ÂÓ ÏΠ‰ÂÓΠ— ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ú„ÈΠƉ˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ˙Â¢ ˙¯ÂÒÓ ÌÈËÒ˜Ë
˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂȯˆÂ ‡Ï ˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ‡Ï ±∞¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙·¯˙· ÌÈȘ ‰È‰ ‡Ï — ‰Ó„ ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó ÏÚ·
˙Â¢‰ ˙¯„‚‰‰ Ï˘ Ô„ÂÒÈ· „ÓÂÚ˘ ¨‰ÈÂÂÁ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ì‚ Æ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ô‰· ‰‰ÊÓ ¯˜ÁÓ‰˘
ÌÈȘ ‡Â‰ Ôȇ ±±¨Ô„¯Â‚ „„ Ô¯‰‡ È„È· ‡ˆÓ‰˘ „Ú ˙ȯ·Ú· ÌÈȘ ‰È‰ ‡Ï ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘
¯˜ÈÚ· ¨˙È¯„ÂÓ‰ ˙ȯ·Ú· ıÂÙÏ ÌÓ‡ ÍÙ‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÁÂÓ‰ ±≤Æ˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï ˙ÂÙ˘·
¨ÌÈ‚ÂϯËÒ‡© Ìȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ì˘· ˙¯·Â„Ó‰ ‰Ù˘· ÌÈÂÎÓ˘ ÈÓ ‡˜Â„ Ìχ ¨˙Â¯Á‡‰ ÌÈ˘·
ÌÈÏÏÎ Ìȇ ±≥®‰Ï‡· ‡ˆÂÈΠ‰Ù˜· ÌÈÁ˙ÂÙ ¨ÌÈÙϘ ȇ¯Â˜ ¨ÌÈÈ·ÈË¯Ëχ ÌÈ‡Ù¯Ó ¨Ìȯ˘˜˙à ӟ
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˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ ¨˙Ù˙Â˘Ó ˙ÈÂÂÈ ‰È‚ÂÏÂÓÈˇ ÌÈÏÈÓ‰ È˙˘Ï˘ Û‡ Ìχ Ɖ˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓÏ Ì‚¯˙Î ¨ÔȯÂ˙ÒÓ È¯·Ú‰
Ɖ˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ· È¯„ÂÓ‰ ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰Ó ‰¢ ÔȯÂ˙ÒÓ ‚˘ÂÓ· È˙¯ÂÒÓ‰ ȯ·Ú‰
ÈÊÎ¯Ó „ȘÙ˙ ‡ÏÈÓ˘ ¨Erlebniss ÈÓ¯‚‰ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ Ì‚¯˙ ‡Â‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Æ≤∑∑≠≤∑∂ ßÓÚ ¨Ô„¯Â‚
„˘‡–¯ω Æ≤≤ ‰¯Ú‰ ¨≤∏ ßÓÚ ¨„˘‡–¯ω ∫‡¯Â ÆÌȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ˙È˘‡¯· ˙ÂÈËÓ¯–‡‰ ˙ÂÒÈÙ˙·
‰ÏÈÓß ∫‰Ê ¯„ÚÈ‰Ó ˙Ú·Â‰ ˙ÂÈ˙ÈÈÚ·Ï ‡Ï ͇ ¨‰¯˜Á˘ ˙¯˜ӷ ÂÊ ‰ÏÈÓ Ï˘ ‰¯„ÚÈ‰Ï ˙Ú„ÂÓ ‰˙Èȉ
Â‡ ÆԇΠÌÈ„‰ ÌÈȄ‰ȉ ˙¯˜Ӊ Ïη ËÏ·‰ ‰¯„Ú‰ ˙‡ ˙‡ÏÓÓ ¨Ô„¯Â‚ ڷˢ ÂÊ ‰˜È˙Ú–‰˘„Á
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˙‡ ¯‡˙Ï È„Î ¨‰È‰ ‰ÏӉ ÌÈÈÁ ‰ÏÈÓ‰ ÔÈ· Ô„¯Â‚ ¯ˆÈ˘ „ÁÂÈÓ‰ ¯Â·ÈÁ‰ ¨˙ȯ·Ú· ÂÓÎ ¨‰· ¯ÒÁ ͇
ÆßÔ‰È˙˘ ˙„ÎÏ˙‰
keiken ¨‰Ê ‚˘ÂÓÏ ÌÈÈÙȉ ÌÈÁÂÓ‰˘Â ¨‰ÈÂÂÁ ‰˙‡¯Â‰˘ ‰ÏÈÓ Ôȇ ‰Ó„˜‰ ˙ÈÙÈ·˘ ÍÎ ÏÚ „ÓÚ Û¯˘
experience ÌÈÁÂÓÏ ÌÈÓ‚¯˙Î ®±π±≤≠±∏∂∏© Èß‚ÈÓ ˙Ù˜˙· ¯ˆÂ˘ ÌÈÈ¯„ÂÓ ÔÂ˘Ï È˘Â„ÈÁ ̉ ¨taiken–Â
¨ÌÈÓÈȘ ‰Ï‡ ÌÈÁÂÓ Ôȇ ˙ÈÈÒ· Û‡˘ ÛÈÒ‰ Û¯˘ Æ˙ÂÈ¯„ÂÓ ˙ÂÈ·¯ÚÓ ˙ÂÈÙÂÒÂÏÈÙ ˙¯Ȉȷ erlebniss–Â
≠ππ ßÓÚ ¨Û¯˘ ∫‡¯ ÆÌÈÈ·¯ÚÓ‰ ÌÈËÒ˜ËÏ Ì‰ÈÓ‚¯˙· ˙ÂÈÙȉ ÌÈÏÈÓ‰ ˙‡ ˆÓȇ ÌÈÈÈÒ‰ ÌÈÓ‚¯˙Ó‰˘Â
‰ÏÈ·˜Ó ¯„Úȉ ÏÚ Æ˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï ˙ÂÙ˘· ‰ÏÈ·˜Ó Ôȇ ®Spirituality© ˙ÂÈÁ¯ ‚˘ÂÓÏ Ì‚˘ ÔÈÈˆÏ ˘È Ʊ∞∞
ÔÂÈ„Ï Æ∑∞ ßÓÚ ¨¯È ¯„ Ô ∫‡¯ ¨˙ÂȄ‰‰ ˙Â˙„‰ ÌÂÈÎ ˙‚ÈÂ˙Ó Â·˘ ¨˙ÂÈÁ¯ ‚˘ÂÓÏ ˙È„ȉ·Â Ëȯ˜ÒÒ·
Ƶ≥≠≥∞ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș ˯˜ ∫‡¯ ˙È¯„ÂÓ ˙È·¯ÚÓ ‰È·‰Î ˙ÂÈÁ¯ ‚˘ÂÓ·
Â˙¯˙Â΢© ÔÁ Ï˘ ‰¯ÙÒ· ÔÂÈÚÓ „ÂÓÏÏ Ô˙È ˙È¯„ÂÓ‰ ˙ȯ·Ú· ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÁÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ÈËÓÒ‰ ‰„˘‰ ÏÚ
ÌÈ˘„˜ÂÓ‰ ˙ȯ·Ú· ÌÈÈÊίӉ Ë¯Ëȇ‰ ȯ˙‡Ó ÔΠ®ßÛȘӉ Íȯ„Ó‰ ∫ÌÈχ¯˘È ÌÈ˜ÈËÒÈÓ ±∞±ß
¨‰Ó„‡ ‡Ó‡ Ï˯Â٠‡ ªhttp://alternativly.co.il/msn ¨ÈÏ–·ÈË¯Ëχ Ï˯ÂÙ ˙ӂ„ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ
http://www.ima-adama.co.il

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ÔÂÎ˙ ‡ χ‰ Ôˆ¯ ÍÓÒ ÏÚ ˙ÂÈ‚ÂÏÂÈ·Â ˙ÂÈϘÈÊÈÙ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ È‚Âχ˙ ¯·Ò‰˘ Ì˘Î Æ˙ÂÈ‚Âχ˙
ÈÚ„Ó· ÈÓ„˜‡‰ ¯˜ÁÓ· Ï·˜Ï Ôȇ È˙Ú„Ï ÍÎ ¨Ú·Ë‰ ÈÚ„Ó· ÈÓ„˜‡ ¯˜ÁÓ· ÏÈ·˜ Âȇ È·˙
‡Â‰ ˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÈ˙¯·Á ¨˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï Ì¯Â‚‰ ÂÈÙÏ˘ È‚Âχ˙ ¯·Ò‰ ‰¯·Á‰Â Á¯‰
Æ˙ÈË„ˆÒ¯Ë ˙Â‡ÈˆÓ ÌÚ Â‡ ˙‰Âχ ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ
˙ÂÈ˙„‰ ̉È˙ÂÙ˜˘‰Ï ̇˙‰· ¨˙Â¢ ˙¯ˆ· ÌÈÁÒÓ ‰˜ÈËÒÈӉ ˙„‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ
Ìȯ‡˙Ó Ìȯ˜ÂÁ‰ ÌÈ˙ÚÏ ÆÈËÒÈÓ‰ ·ˆÓ· ˙ÈÂÂÁ‰ ˙‡ȈӉ Ï˘ ‰˙Â‰Ó ˙‡ ¨˙ÂÈ‚Âχ„ȇ‰Â
ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ Ï˘ ‰ÈÂÂÁ ÏÚ Ìȯ·„Ó ¨ÌȘ‰·ÂÓ ÌÈÈËÒȇ˙ÂÂÓ ÌÈÈ‚Âχ˙ ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ· ÂÊ ˙‡ȈÓ
¨ËÏÁÂÓ‰ — ¯˙ÂÈ ÌÈÈÏÏÎ ÌÈÈÊÈÙËÓ ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ· ÌÈ˘Ó˙˘Ó ̉ ÌÈ˙ÚÏ ¨È‰Âχ‰ ÌÚ Â‡ χ‰
±∂

Ɖχ· ‡ˆÂÈΠÈË„ˆÒ¯Ë‰ ¨‰¯Â‰Ë‰ ‰Ú„Â˙‰ ¨˙ÈÊÈÙËÓ‰ ˙‡ȈӉ

Æ≥¥≥≠≤∂µ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈ‚˜Ó ∫‡¯ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÈ¯„ÂÓ‰ ˙ÂÒÈÙ˙‰ Ï˘ ˙˯ÂÙÓ ‰¯È˜ÒÏ
ß˙„‰ ¯Á‡Ï˘ ˙„ß Ì¯ËÒ¯Ò ‰È΢ ‰„ÓÚ‰ „ÂÒÈ· ‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ· ˙„ÓÂÚ ÂÊ ‰ÒÈÙ˙ Ʊ∂≥≠±∂≤ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș
¨Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÚÈÙ˘Ó‰ ˙„‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ ˙˘ÂÏ˘Ï Â˙Ú„Ï ˙Ù˙¢Ӊ ‰„ÓÚ ¨®Religion after Religion©
˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜ÁÓ ÔÈ· ‰˜Èʉ ÏÚ Æ≥∞≠≤π ßÓÚ ¯˜ÈÚ· ¨Ì¯ËÒ¯Ò ∫‡¯ ÆÌÂÏ˘Â ÔÈ·¯Â˜ ȯ‰ ¨‰„‡Èχ ‰ßˆ¯ÈÓ
ÏÚ Æµ±≠≥∑ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ∫‡¯ Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ˙È˘‡¯ Ï˘ ˙ÂȯËÂʇ‰ ˙ÂÚÂ˙Ï ˙ȯˆÂ‰ ‰Ï·˜Ï È¯„ÂÓ‰
ª≥≥∞≠≥≤∑ ßÓÚ ¨Û¯‚‰ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â ª±¥≥≠±¥≤ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ∫‡¯ ˘„Á‰ Ô„ÈÚ‰ ˙ÂÚÂ˙Ï ˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜Á ÔÈ· ¯˘˜‰
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ È¯˜ÂÁ Ï˘ ̉ȯÙÒ· ÈÂËÈ· È„ÈÏ ‰‡·˘ ˘„Á‰ Ô„ÈÚ‰ Ï˘ ˙˜‰·ÂÓ ‰È‚Âχ„È‡Ï Æ≤≥ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș
¨Ò‰ ∫‡¯ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ ·¯˜· ˘„Á‰ Ô„ÈÚ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÂÓ‚Ó ÏÚ Æ˜·ω ª‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨ÔÓ¯ÂÙ ∫‡¯
Æ˘„Á Ô„ÈÚ
¨ÒÓÈÈß‚ Ʊµ ßÓÚ ¨ÒÂß‚ ∫‡¯ ªÒÂß‚ Ï˘ ‰ÚÙ˘‰‰ ˙·¯Â ˙ÓÒ¯ÂÙÓ‰ ‰¯„‚‰· ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ‡˘ÂÓ ‡Â‰ χ‰
˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙„Á‡‰ ˙ÈÈÂÂÁ ‡˘ÂÓ ÈÎ ÔÚË ¨˙ÂÈÂÏÈÁ ˙ÂÈËÒȇ˙ÂÂÓ ‡Ï ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ì‚ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ÏÏ΢
Ï˘ ÌÈÚÂ„È È˙Ï·Â ÌÈ¢ ÌÈÓÂÁ˙ Ï˘ ‰ÈÂÂÁ ÏÚ ¯·È„ Ï‡Ë˘ Æ≤∑µ≠≤∑¥ ßÓÚ ¨ÒÓÈÈß‚ ∫‡¯ ªËÏÁÂÓ‰ ‡Â‰
¯Â˜Ó‰Â ˙ËÏÁÂÓ‰ ˙ÂÈÓˆÚ‰ ˙ÚÈ„ÈÏ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ˙‡ ¯˘˜ ‰¯Ù„ Ʊπµ ßÓÚ ¨Ï‡Ë˘ ∫‡¯ ª˙‡ȈӉ
‰Ú„Â˙Î ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ‡˘ÂÓ ˙‡ ¯‡È˙ ÔÓ¯Â٠Ʊ∞≤ ßÓÚ ¨‰¯Ù„ ∫‡¯ ªÈÓˆÚ‰ Ï˘ ÈË„ˆÒ¯Ë‰
Æ≤µ≠≤± ßÓÚ ¨‰¯Â‰Ë ‰Ú„Â˙ ¨ÔÓ¯ÂÙ ∫‡¯ ª‰¯Â‰Ë‰

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‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

ÌÈÚÈˆÓ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÈÊÈÙËӉ ÌÈÈ‚Âχ˙‰ Ìȯ·Ò‰Ï ÌÈ„‚˙Ó‰ ¨ÌȯÁ‡ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ
¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁÏ — ±∑ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÎÈÒÙ–Â¯È Õ ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÎÈÒÙ ¨ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂȈÂÒ — ÌÈÈËÒÈϯÂË Ìȯ·Ò‰
˘È È˙Ú„Ï˘ Û‡ ±∏ÆÌÈÈËÒÈÂȈ˜Â„¯Î ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ ˙È·¯Ó È„È ÏÚ ÌÈÁ„ ̉ȯ·Ò‰Â
˙Â˘È‚ Ï·˜Ó Èȇ ¨‰¯·Á‰Â Á¯‰ ÈÚ„Ó· È‚Âχ˙ ‡Ï ¯˜ÁÓ· ÌÈÈËÒÈϯÂË Ìȯ·Ò‰· ˘Ó˙˘‰Ï
ȯˆÂ È‚Âχ˙ ‚˘ÂÓ — ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰˘ ˙È˙ÈÈÚ·‰ ‰Á‰‰ ÏÚ ˙ÂÒÒÂ·Ó Ô‰ Û‡˘ ÌÂ˘Ó ¨Âχ
˙˙Ï ˘È˘ ‰ȇ ‰Ê ¯Ó‡Ó· È˙Úˢ ¯È‰·‰Ï Èˆ¯· Æ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ ÔÈÈˆÓ — ˜‰·ÂÓ
‰È¯Â‚˘· ‰ÚËÓ‰ ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ ÏÚ ¯˙ÂÂÏ ˘È˘ ‡Ï‡ ¨ÌÈÈËÒÈϯÂË Ìȯ·Ò‰ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï
ÈËÒÈϯÂË — „Á‡ ¯·Ò‰ ÚȈ‰Ï ͯˆ‰ ÏÚ ¨Ô‡ÎÓ ¨˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙ ˙˜È˘¯Ù ÔÂÈÙ‡Ï ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ
ÆÈ˙Â‰Ó ¯˘˜ Ô‰ÈÈ· Ôȇ˘ ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ·Á¯ Ô‚ÓÏ — È‚Âχ˙ ‡
˙„ÓÂÚ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÏÎ „ÂÒÈ·˘ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ÔÓ ÌÈ‚ÈÈ˙ÒÓ ÌȯÁ‡ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ È¯˜ÂÁ
Æ®perannial© ˙ÈχÈ¯Ù‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ‰ÂÎÓ‰ ‰ÒÈÙ˙ — ‰¯Â‰Ë ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁ
‰ÂÎÓ‰ ¨Ì˙˘È‚ Æ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÈÂÏ˙ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ô‰ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï΢ ÌÈÚÂË ‰Ï‡ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ
Ôȇ˘ ¨ÌÂÏ˘ ‚Ȉ‰˘ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ÏÚ ‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ· ˙ÒÒÂ·Ó ¨˙ÈÂÂÈ˘¯ËÒ˜ ‡ ˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ ˙È·¯Ó ±πÆ˙ÓÈÂÒÓ ˙È˙„ ˙¯ÂÒÓ Ï˘ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ˜¯ ‡Ï‡ ¨‰ÓˆÚÏ˘Î ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ
ÛÂÒ· ÌÈ¢ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ È„È ÏÚ ‰ÁÒÂ ‡È‰Â ≤∞¨ÂÊ ‰˘È‚ ÂϷȘ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ ÌÏÏηÂ
∫ÔÚˢ ¨ı¢Î Ô·ÈËÒ Ì˘‡¯·Â ¨Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÚ·˘‰ ˙Â˘
˙¯ˆ ÔΠ¨˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁ Æ®˙λ˙Ó ‰ȇ˘ ‰ÈÂÂÁ ¯ÓÂÏΩ ‰¯Â‰Ë ‰ÈÂÂÁ ˙ÓÈȘ ‡Ï
Ô‰˘ ¨Íη ÔÈÓ‡‰Ï „ÂÒÈ ÏÎ Ôȇ ¨ÔÓÈÒ Ì¢ ˙Â˙Â Ôȇ ¨‰ÈÂÂÁ Ï˘ ¯˙ÂÈ ˙ÂÏÈ‚¯
˙ÂÈÂÂÁ˘ ÌÈÓÈÎÒÓ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÈÊÈÙËÓ Â‡ ˙È‚Âχ˙ ‰ÒÈÙ˙· ÌȘÈÊÁÓ‰ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ‰ ˙È·¯Ó Ì‚˘ ÔÈÈˆÏ ˘È
ÌÈÚˆÓ‡· ˘ÂÓÈ˘ ÂÓΩ ÌÈÈÓÈΠۇ ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÎÈÒÙ–Â¯È Õ ¨ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÎÈÒÙ ÌÈӯ‚ ˙·˜Ú· ˙¯¯ÂÚ˙Ó ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ
˙‡ȈӉ Ï˘ ÌÈ˷ȉ ˙ÂÂÁÏ È‡˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ Ìȯ˘Ù‡Ó Âχ ÌÈӯ‚ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ‰ Ì˙‡ ˙Ú„Ï Ìχ Æ®ÌÈÈ˘¯
ƉÏÈ‚¯‰ ˙È˘Â‡‰ ‰Ú„Â˙‰ ˜ÙÂ‡Ï ¯·ÚÓ ÌÈȈӉ
¨ÔÓÏ‚ ª≥¥≥ ¨≥≥≤≠≥≥± ßÓÚ ÔÈ‚˜Ó ∫‡¯ Ô˙ÈÈÁ„ ÂÏω ˙ÂÈËÒÈϯÂË‰ ˙„ÓÚ‰ ÔÓ ‰ÓÎ Ï˘ ‰¯È˜ÒÏ
ªµ≥ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ï·˜ ¨Ï„ȇ ª≤≥ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ¨ı¢Î ∫‡¯ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙È‚ÂÏÂÎÈÒÙ ‰ÈȈ˜Â„¯ „‚Πª±∞≤≠∑µ ßÓÚ
‰‡¯‰ ÏÎÎ ÂÁÈ‰ ÌÈÈËÒÈÂȈ˜Â„¯Î ÌÈÈËÒÈϯÂË Ìȯ·Ò‰ ÂÏÒÙ˘ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ‰ Æ≤π≥ ¨≤≤π≠≤≤∑ ßÓÚ ¨˜·ω
Â˙Á·‰ ˙‡ ÍÎ ÏÚ Â‡¯© ‰ÈȈ˜Â„¯ ‰ÂÂ‰Ó ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ¯·Ò‰ ÏÎ Ìχ ƉχΠÌȇ Ì‰Ï˘ Ìȯ·Ò‰‰˘
ÔÈ· ‡Ï‡ ¨‰ÊÎ Âȇ˘ ¯·Ò‰Ï ÈËÒÈÂȈȘ„¯ ¯·Ò‰ ÔÈ· Âȇ Ï„·‰‰Â ®±∑ ßÓÚ ¨˙„‰ ˙˘Â¯Á ¨ÔÂßˆË˜Ó Ï˘
ÆÌÈÈÊÈÙËÓ ÌÈÓ¯Â‚Ï ‰ÈȈ˜Â„¯ ÔÈ·Ï ÌÈÈËÒÈϯÂË ÌÈÓ¯Â‚Ï ‰ÈȈ˜Â„¯
‘There is no mysticism as such, there is only the mysticism of a particular religious system,
Æ®∂ ßÓÚ ¨ÌÈÓ¯Ê ¨ÌÂÏ˘© Christian, Islamic, Jewish Mysticsim, and so on’
ÏÚ ¨Ô„ ªµµ≠µ¥ ¨µ≤ ¨∑ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÂÒÙÏ ∫‡¯ ÂÊ ‰„ÓÚ ÂˆÓȇ˘ ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ È¯˜ÂÁÏ Æ±∂π ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș
ÌÂÁ˙· ÏÈ·ÂÓ‰ ¯˜ÂÁ‰ ¨Ï„ȇ ˙‡Ê ˙ÓÂÚÏ Æ≥∞≠≤π ßÓÚ ¨„˘‡–¯ω ª±∏ ßÓÚ ¨¯Â‡Èχ ª∑π ßÓÚ ¨‰˘Â„˜‰
È„È ÏÚ ÌÈ˙ÈÚÏ ‰ÁÂÓ È‡˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰˘ ˙¯˘Ù‡‰ ˙‡ ˙ÂÁ„Ï ‡Ï·ß ∫ÂÊ ‰„ÓÚ ‰Á„ ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰
˙¯ÒÁ ‡È‰ ÌȯÁ‡ Ìȯ˜Ó·˘© Â˙ÈÈÂÂÁ ˙‡ ·ˆÚÏ ËÏÁ‰· ÌÈÈ¢ډ ¨‰Èχȯ‰ Ï˘ ÌÈ˯Ù ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ ¨ÌÈÈÂÓÈ„
ÌÈËÓχ‰ ˙˘‚„‰ Æ‰ÓˆÚ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ÏÚ ¯˘‡Ó ¯˙ÂÈ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ÈÂËÈ· ÔÙ‡ ÏÚ ÌÈÚÈÙ˘Ó ‰Ï‡˘ È¯Â·Ò ¨®‰¯Âˆ
ßÆÆÆ‰Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÙÈËÒÈÓ–‰„Ï ˘¯ÂÙÓ ‡Ï ÔÓÈÒ ‰¯˜ÈÚ· ‡È‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ˙‡ ¯˜ÈÚ· ÌÈ·ˆÚÓÎ ÌÈÈ˙ÈÈÂÂÁ–̯ˉ
‰Ê ¯Ó‡Ó· ȯ‰ ¨Ï„ȇ ¯˜È·˘ ˙ÈÂÂÈ˘¯ËÒ˜‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ˙‡ ıÓ‡Ó Èȇ˘ Û‡ ¨®µµ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ï·˜ ¨Ï„ȇ©
‰„ÓÚ‰ ÏÚ ˙ÂÙÒÂ ˙Â¯Â˜È·Ï Æ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÂÎÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÙÈËÒÈÓ–‰„ ˙¢ÚÏ ÚÈˆÓ Ô· È‡
Ï˘ Â˙Ó„˜‰· ¯˜ÈÚ·Â ¨‰¯Â‰Ë ‰Ú„Â˙ ¨ÔÓ¯ÂÙ ∫ı·Â˜· ÌÈÏÂÏΉ ÌȯӇӉ ˙‡ ‡¯ ˙ÈÂÂÈ˘¯ËÒ˜‰
Ʊ∑≠±≤ ßÓÚ ¨˜·ω ª≥≤¥≠≥≤≥ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈ‚˜Ó ª±∏ ‰¯Ú‰ ¨±∂π ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș ∫„ÂÚ Â‡¯Â ª¥π≠≥ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ¨ÔÓ¯ÂÙ

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¨¯˙ÂÈ· ˙·ίÂÓ ˙ÂÈ˙¯Î‰ ÌÈί„· ˙„·ÂÚÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁ Ï΢ ˙¯Ó‡ ˙‡Ê Æ˙Âλ˙Ó Ôȇ
ÂÊ ‰„·ÂÚ Ï˘ ‰ÁÂÎ ‰Î¯Ú‰ ÆÆÆÂ¯Â·Ú ‰˘È‚ ˙ÎÙ‰ ˙‚¯Â‡Ó ‡È‰ Ô˙ÂÚˆÓ‡·˘
Ï˘ ÌÈÁÂÂÈ„‰ „ÂÓÈÏ· È„ Ôȇ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙‡ ÔÈ·‰Ï È„Î˘ Íη ¯ÈÎ‰Ï Â˙‡ ‰ÏÈ·ÂÓ
‰·˘ ‰¯Âˆ‰ ÔΠ¨‰ÓˆÚ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰˘ Íη ˙Â„Â‰Ï ˘È ÆÈ˙ÈÈÂÂÁ‰ Ú¯ȇ‰ ¯Á‡Ï ȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰
ÌÈ·ˆÚÓ‰ ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ ¨ÂÓÚ ‡È·Ó ȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰˘ ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ‰ È„È ÏÚ ˙·ˆÂÚÓ ¨˙¯‡Â˙Ó ‡È‰
≤±

ÆÂ˙ÈÈÂÂÁ ˙‡

˙ÈÙÂÏÁ ‰¯„‚‰ ÂÚȈ‰ ‡Ï ˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜‰ ‰„ÓÚ· ÌȘÈÊÁÓ‰ ÌȯÁ‡ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ı¢Î Ìχ
˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï ÌÈÙ˙¢Ӊ ÌÈӯ‚‰ ‡ ̯‚‰ Ì‰Ó Â¯È·Ò‰ ‡Ï ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓÏ ˙˜ÙÒÓ
Ï˘ ÔÂÈÚ¯‰ ˙‡ ‰Á„˘ ¨ı¢Î ÆÔ‰Ï˘ È˙‡Â¢‰‰ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ˙‡Â ‰Ê ‚˘ÂÓ· ÔÈÂÈÎ ˙‡ ÌȘȄˆÓ‰
˙‡ ÔΠ¨˙Â¢ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ „ÂÒÈ· ˙„ÓÂÚ‰ ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁ
Û˙¢Ӊ ̯‚‰ Â‰Ó ¯È‰·‰ ‡Ï ≤≤¨ÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÎÈÒÙ ÌÈ·ˆÓÏ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁ‰ Ï˘ ‰ÈȈ˜Â„¯‰
¯˜ÁÓß „ÈÓÚ‰Ï Ô˙È ‰Ó ÍÓÒ ÏÚ ¨Âχ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ¯Â‡È˙Ï ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ ˙‡ ˜È„ˆÓ‰
ı¢Î ˙·˜Ú· ‰Á„˘ ¨®Wolfson© ÔÂÒÙÏ ËÂÈχ ≤≥Æ߉˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ Ìω ÈÙÂÒÂÏÈÙ ȂÂÏÂÓÂÙ
ÁÈ‰ ¨¯˘˜‰ ˙ÈÂÏ˙ ‡È‰ ¨‰ÈÂÂÁ ÏÎ ÂÓÎ ¨˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰˘ ÔÚË ¨˙ÈχÈ¯Ù‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ˙‡
ÌÈ„ÓÂÚ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ÈÓ‚„ ˙‡Â ˜ÓÂÚ‰ È·Ó ˙‡ Û¢ÁÏ Ô˙È ‰ÂÂ˘Ó ¯˜ÁÓ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡·˘ ˙‡Ê Ïη
‰ÏÏÎ‰Ï ÌÈÂȯËȯ˜‰ Ì‰Ó ¯È‰·‰ ‡Ï ÔÂÒÙÏ Ìχ ≤¥Æ˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰ „ÂÒÈ·
ÛÒÂÈ Æ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ˙¯ÂÒÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ¨Û¢ÁÏ ˘˜È· Ô‰Ï˘ ˜ÓÂÚ‰ È·Ó ˙‡˘ ¨˙¯ÂÒÓ Ô˙‡ Ï˘
ÏÏÎÏ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁ‰ ˙‡ „Á‡Ï ˙˘˜·Ó‰ ‰ÒÈÙ˙ ÏÎß Ï˘ ȯ˜ÁÓ‰ ͯډ ˙‡ ‰Á„˘ ¨Ô„

‘There is NO pure (i.e. unmediated) experience. Neither mystical experience nor more ordinary
forms of experience give any indication, or any grounds for believing, that they are unmediated.
That is to say, all experience is processed through, organized by and makes itself available to
us in extremely complex epistemological ways… A proper evaluation of this fact leads to the
recognition that in order to understand mysticism it is not just a question of studying the reports
of the mystic after the experiential event but of acknowledging that the experience itself as well
as the form in which it is reported is shaped by concepts which the mystic brings to, and which
ÌÈ·¯· ˙¯ÊÂÁ ÂÊ ‰„ÓÚ ÆÈ¯Ó˘‰ ÈÙ‡‰ ¨Ï¢‰ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ®≤∂ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ¨ı¢Î© shape, his experience’
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨Ï¢‰ ª˙ÂÈ˙„ ˙¯ÂÒÓ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨ı¢Î ∫‡¯ ¨ı¢Î Í¯Ú˘ ÌȈ·˜‰ È˘· ÌÈÏÂÏΉ ÌȯӇӉ ÔÓ
∫‡¯ Ô‰· ÌȘÈÊÁÓ‰ ÔÈ· ÁÂÎȉ ˙„ÏÂ˙ ˙„ÓÚ‰ È˙˘ ¯Â‡È˙Ï Æ¯ÂÓ ∫¯˜ÈÚ· Ì˘ ‡¯Â ªÈÙÂÒÂÏÈÙ ÁÂ˙ÈÂ
ßÓÚ ¨ÁÂΉ ¨·¯‡‚ ª±∑≠µ ßÓÚ ¨˜·ω ª≥≤∂≠≥±∑ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈ‚˜Ó ª≥≥π≠≥≥µ ßÓÚ ¨ÔˆÈ ª±∏∂≠±∂≤ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș
Æ≤≤≠≤± ßÓÚ ¨‰ÓÙ‰ ¨ÔÈÏ‚¯Ó ª≤π∞≠≤∏π
Ʊ∏µ ßÓÚ ¨ÂÏÓÈ‚ ÚȈ‰ ÂÊÎ ‰ÈȈ˜Â„¯ Æ≤≥ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ¨ı¢Î
Â˙„ÓÚ ÌÚ ‰˜ÈËÈÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ È‚ÂÏÂÓÂÙ ¯˜ÁÓÏ ı¢Î Ï˘ Â˙Ùȇ˘ ˙‡ ·˘ÈÈÏ È˘Â˜‰ ÏÚ Æ∂µ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ¨ı¢Î
Æ®≤π ‰¯Ú‰ ¨ÔÏ‰Ï Â‡¯Â© ≥≤¥ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈ‚˜Ó „ÓÚ ¨˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜‰
‘the interpretative framework of a mystic’s particular religion shapes his or her experience at the
phenomenal level and not merely in the description or narrative of the experience. This does not,
however, logically preclude the possibility of underlying patterns of experience or deep structures
¨ÔÂÒÙÏ© that may be illuminated through a comparative study of various mystical traditions’
‰ÈÎ ‡Â‰˘ ¨˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜ÁÏ ‰„‡Èχ Ï˘ ‰˘È‚‰ ÏÚ Â˙„ÓÚ ˙‡ ÒÒÈ· ÔÂÒÙÏ Ʈµµ≠µ¥ ßÓÚ
Æ˙Èϯ¢¯ËÒ

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≤±

≤≤
≤≥
≤¥

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‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

¨¯˘˜‰ ˙ÈÂÏ˙ ¨˙ÈË‚ÈË˜ ‰˘È‚ ‰ÙÂÏÁÎ ÚȈ‰ ≤µ¨ßÌÈÈ·ÂÈÁ‰ ÌÈÎ˙‰ ˙ÈÁ·Ó Û˙Â˘Ó ‰ÎÓ
‰ÚÙÂ˙ Ïη ÂÓÎ ¨„ÈÓ˙ ˙‡˘Â‰ ¨˙ȯÂËÒȉ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ ‰È˯ÙÏ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÚÙÂ˙· ‰‡Â¯‰ß
Ï˘ ‰ÏÏÎ‰Ï ÌÈÂȯËȯ˜‰ Ì‰Ó ÔÈȈ ‡Ï Ô„ Ì‚ Ìχ ≤∂ÆßÌÈÈÓÚÙ–„Á „ÂÁÈ È˜ ˙ȯÂËÒȉ
ÈÏÚ· ¯Â‡È˙Ï ‰¯„‚‰Ï ˙˙È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ß ÈÎ Â˙ÚË Æ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ËÒ˜Ë Â‡ ‰ÚÙÂ˙
via negative ÔÈÚÓ ¨‰¯‡˙Ï È„Î ÌÈÈÏÈÏ˘ ÌÈÈÂËÈ·· ˜¯ Â‡ ÌÈ˘Ó˙˘Ó „ÂÚ ÏÎ ˙ÏÏÂÎ ‰ÏÂÁ˙
‰È¯Â‚˘Π‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ ͢Ӊ ˙‡ ‰˜È„ˆÓ ‡ ‰¯È‰·Ó ‰ȇ ≤∑¨ß˙ȯ˜ÁÓ
˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÚÙÂ˙‰˘ ‰˘È‚„‰ ‡È‰Â ¨¯Â‡Èχ ÏÁ¯ Ì‚ ‰˜ÈÊÁÓ ˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜ ‰„ÓÚ· Æ˙ȯ˜ÁÓ
˙È‚˘ÂÓ ‰·¯˜ Ï˘ ‰„ÈÓ ÏÚ ÚÈ·ˆ‰Ï ¯˘Ù‡ ÌÈ˙ÚÏ˘ ˙¯ÓÏß ∫ȯÂËÒȉ ¯˘˜‰Â ˙·¯˙ ˙ÈÂÏ˙ ‡È‰
˙ÂÈ·¯˙·Â ˙Â˙„· ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÈ˙‰Ӊ ‰ÈÂÂ˜Ó ‰Óη È‚ÏÂÓÂÙ ÔÂÈÓ„ Ï˘ ‡
¯˘˜‰· ‰ÁÂÚÙ ˙‡ ÌÈ·ÈÈÁÓ ‰ÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï˘ ‰˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó· ‰˜ÓÚ‰‰Â ÔÂÈÚ‰˘ ȯ‰ ÆÆÆ˙Â¢
‰¯È·Ò‰ ‡Ï ¯Â‡Èχ Ì‚ Ìχ ≤∏Æß˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó ‰Ï ˘È · ˜¯Â · ¨‰¯ˆÂ ÂÓÂÁ˙·˘ ÌÈÂÒÓ È˙·¯˙
˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï˘ Ô˙¯„‚‰ ˙‡ ÌȘȄˆÓ‰ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÈ˙Â‰Ó ÌȘ Ì˙‡ ̉Ó
Ï˘ Ú„ȉ ¯˜ÂÁ‰ ¨®McGinn© ÔÈ‚˜Ó „¯¯· Æ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Î ˙·¯˙‰ ˙ÂÈÂÏ˙ ˙Â¢‰
ÏÎÏ Û˙Â˘Ó Ì¯Â‚ Ôȇ˘ ‰˜ÒÓ‰ ˙Ú·Â ı¢Î Ï˘ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ÔÓ˘ ÍÎ ÏÚ „ÓÚ ¨˙ȯˆÂ‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰
‡¯˜ ˙‡Ê ˙·˜Ú· ÆÔ‰Ï˘ È˙‡Â¢‰ ¯˜ÁÓÏ ˙¯˘Ù‡ Ôȇ˘ Ô‡ÎÓ ¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÂÎÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰
≤π

Æ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁ‰ Ï˘ ‰ÂÂ˘Ó ¯˜ÁÓ ¯˘Ù‡˙˘ ˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈ„ÂÓÏ

ÒÈÒ·‰ ÏÚ ‰ÓÎÒ‰ ¯„Úȉ ÏÚ ÚÈ·ˆ‰˘ Íη ˜Ù˙҉ ¨‰ÊÎ ÈÂÈ˘ ÚȈ‰ ‡Ï ‡Â‰ Ìχ
≥∞

Ɖ˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÏ ˙Óω ‰ÂÂ˘Ó ‰˘È‚ ˙Â·Ï Ô˙È ÂÈÏÚ˘ È‚ÂÏÂÓËÒÈÙ‡‰

˘È˘ Ì‚ ÔÚË Í‡© ˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜ ‰„ÓÚ· Âȯ·„Ï ˜ÈÊÁÓ‰ ¨®Hollenback© ˜·ω Ô¯ÈÈ· Òß‚
‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÈÈÙ‡Ó ‰Ú·˘ ‰Ó ≥±¨®ÂÊ ‰Ó‚È„¯Ù ÈÙ ÏÚ ¯·Ò‰Ï ˙Â˙È Ôȇ˘ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁ
‰Ï‡ ÌÈÈÈÙ‡Ó Ìχ Æ˙È˘Â‡ ‰ÈÂÂÁ Ï˘ ˙¯Á‡ ˙Â¯ÂˆÓ ‰˙‡ ÌÈÈÁ·Ó Âȯ·„Ï˘ ¨˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰
Æ∂∑≠∂∂ ¨∂≥ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ∫‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙Â¢ ˙¯„‚‰‰Ó Â˙‚ÈÈ˙Ò‰ ˙‡ ‡¯Â Æ∑π ßÓÚ ¨‰˘Â„˜‰ ÏÚ ¨Ô„
Ï˘ ¢¯„Ó ˙È·Ó ˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ÔÈ·Ï ˙ÈË‚ÈË˜‰ Â˙ËÈ˘ ÔÈ· ÔÂÈÓ„‰ ˙‡ ÔÈȈ ‡Ï Ô„ ÆÌ˘
Æı¢Î
¯˘‡· ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ ÌÈÙ˙¢Ӊ ˙„ÂÒȉ ˙‡ ‚Ȉ‰Ï ÌÈ˘˜·Ó Â‡ ÂÊ ˙ÂÏÏΉ ˙ίÚÓ·ß ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ∑∑ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘
Âȇ Ô˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰Ó Ô˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· Ú·˜Ï Ô˙È ÆÔ‰ ˙ÂÈÏÈÏ˘ ¨ÏÈÚÏ ¯Ó‡˘ ÈÙÎ ¨‰Ï‡ ˙ÂÏÏΉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‡È‰
ÌÈÂÈÙ‡‰ ÌÂÁ˙Ï ÌÈÎÈÈ˘‰ ¨ÂÈ˙ÂÒÈÙ˙ Ï˘ ÌÈÈ˙‰Ӊ ÌÈÎ˙‰ ˙‡ ˙È·ÂÈÁ ‰¯Âˆ· ¯‡˙Ï ÔÁÂη Ôȇ ͇
Ʊ≥ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈÈÚӉ ·Ï‰ ¨Ï¢‰ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ®∂π ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘© ßÌÈÈË‚ÈË˜‰
Ʊ∏ ßÓÚ ¨¯Â‡Èχ
‘These and other reactions to Katz’s position show that there are serious reasons for holding that
this form of what might be called “mystical nominalism” based on an unqualified contextualism,
needs to be modified in the direction of a position that will both recognize the mediated aspects
Æ®≥≤¥ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈ‚˜Ó© of all mystical experience and still not preclude the possibility of comparison’
Æ≤≥ ‰¯Ú‰ ¨ÏÈÚÏ Â‡¯Â ƉÊ΢ ¯˜ÁÓ ÏÚ ¯˙È ‡Ï ÂÓˆÚ ı¢Î˘ ÍÎ ÏÚ „ÓÚ ÔÈ‚˜Ó
‘There is obviously no agreement on the epistemological basis upon which a more cautious
and more adequate comparitivism based on a qualified contextualism should be reconstructed’
Æ®Ì˘©
‘Although I confirm the contextualist thesis... I suggest that various sorts of supernormal
¨˜·ω© experiencesÆ.. do not appear to be explicable in terms of the contextualist paradigm’
Ʊµ≠±≥ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ®∑ ßÓÚ

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≤∂
≤∑

≤∏
≤π

≥∞

≥±

Ò‰ ÊÚ·

| 18

¯È‰·‰Ï È„ÎÓ ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó È¯ÒÁ ÌÈÏÙ¯ÂÚÓ Ì˜ÏÁ·Â ¨È„Ó Ìȯˆ ̘ÏÁ· ¨È„Ó ÌÈÈÏÏΠ̘ÏÁ· ̉
¨˙ÈÂÂÈ˘¯ËÒ˜ ‰„ÓÚ· ˜ÈÊÁ‰Ï ÔˆÈ Ï˘ ‰ÂÈÒÈ Û‡ ≥≤Ɖ˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ Ï˘ ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó‰ ˙‡
˙ÂÏ„·‰ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁÏ ÂÏÈÙ‡˘ ‰ÚȈ‰ ÔˆÈ ÆÚÎ˘Ó Âȇ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ˙‡ ÏȈ‰Ï ˙‡Ê ÏηÂ
¯·ÚÓ˘ ‰˘Ó ÌÈÈÁ· ˘È˘ Íη ‰¯Î‰‰ Ï˘ÓÏ ÂÓÎ ¨Û˙Â˘Ó Ì¯Â‚ ˙ÂÈ‰Ï ÈÂ˘Ú ¨‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ· ÂÊÓ ÂÊ
˙Ù˙Â˘Ó ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ì˘· ˙ÂÂÎÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÏÎÏ˘ ÚÎÂ˘Ó Èȇ˘ ˜¯ ‡Ï Ìχ ≥≥ÆÈÊÈÙÏ ȯÓÂÁÏ
˙È˙·¯˙ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ÂÏÚÙ Ìȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÌÈÂÎÓ‰ Âχ ÔÈ·Ó ÌÈ·¯ ȯ‰˘© ˙ÈÊÈÙËÓ ˙‡Ȉӷ ‰¯Î‰
ȯ‰ ¨ÔÂÎ ¯·„‰ ̇ Ì‚˘ ‡Ï‡ ¨®˙ÈÊÈÙËÓÏ ˙ȯÓÂÁ ˙Â‡ÈˆÓ ÔÈ· ‰Á·‰ ‰· ˙ÓÈȘ ‰˙Èȉ ‡Ï˘
Ɖ˜ÈËÒÈÓ· ÏÂÏÎÏ ‰ˆÂ¯ ‰˙Èȉ ‡Ï ȇ„· ÔˆÈ˘ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ¯ÂÙÒ–ÔÈ‡Ï ˙Ù˙Â˘Ó ÂÊÎ ‰¯Î‰
‰ÚÙÂ˙ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ· ˙‡¯Ï ÌÈÎÈ˘ÓÓ‰ ͇ ¨˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜ ‰„ÓÚ· ÌȘÈÊÁÓ‰ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ
ÌÈÁȈÓ ÌÈÏÙÎ˘Ó ¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï˘ ‰ÂÂ˘Ó ¯˜ÁÓ ‰˜È„ˆÓ‰ ‰È¯Â‚˘ ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡
‚˘ÂÓ· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ „ÂÒÈ· ˙„ÓÂÚ‰ ˙È‚Âχ˙‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ˙‡Â ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙È˙‰Ӊ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ˙‡
ÔÓ ÌÈ·¯ ψ‡ ˙ˆ·ˆ·Ó ˙¯ÊÂÁ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÈÊÈÙËÓ‰ ‡ ˙È‚Âχ˙‰ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ Ô· ƉÊ
¨Â˙ÒÈÙ˙ ÏÚ ‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ· ˙ÒÒÂ·Ó ˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰˘ ¨ÂÓˆÚ ÌÂÏ˘ ÆÂÏω Ìȯ˜ÂÁ‰
Û˘ÂÁ Â˙‡˘ ¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁÏ Û˙Â˘Ó ÔÈÈÙ‡Ó ˘È˘ ˘ÈÁÎ‰Ï „¯ÂÒ·‡ ‰Ê ‰È‰È˘ ÊȯΉ
ÌÚ ¨È‰Âχ‰ ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ‰ ‡Â‰ ¨ÌÂÏ˘ ȯ·„Ï ¨‰Ê‰ Û˙¢Ӊ ÔÈÈÙ‡Ó‰ ≥¥ÆÔ‰Ï˘ ‰Â¢Ӊ ¯˜ÁÓ‰
Û˙¢Ӊ˘ ÔÚË ı¢Î ≥µÆ˙È˘Â‡‰ ˘Ù‰ ȘÓÚ·˘ ËÏÁÂÓ‰ ˘È‰ ÌÚ Â‡ ˙ÈÊÈÙÈËÓ‰ ˙‡ȈӉ
˙‡ȈÓ߉ Ì˘· ‰È΢ ‰Ó ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ Ï˘ ‰ÈÂÂÁ ‡Â‰ ˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï

·ˆÓ· ˘Á¯˙Ó‰ ‰Ú„Â˙‰ Ï˘ ÈϘȄ¯ ÈÂÈ˘ ‡È‰ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁ — Ô¢‡¯‰ ÔÈÈÙ‡Ó‰ Æ¥±≠¥∞ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘
‰˘È‚ ȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ ˜ÈÚÓ‰ ‰Ú„Â˙ ·ˆÓ ‡È‰ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ — È˘‰ ÔÈÈÙ‡Ó‰ ªÈ„Ó ÈÏÏÎ ‡Â‰ — ˙Â¯Ú
˙ÈχÂËÒ˜Ë˜‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ Ï˘ Ï·¯ÂÒÓ ÁÂÒÈ ‡Â‰ — È˙ӇΠ‰‡Â¯ ÂÏ˘ ˙ÈÙȈÙÒ‰ ˙È˙„‰ ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰˘ ‰ÓÏ
˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ — È˘ÈÏ˘‰ ÔÈÈÙ‡Ó‰ ª®Â¯ÙÒ· ÌȯÁ‡ ˙ÂÓ˜ӷ ˜·ω Ï˘ ÂÈ˙ÂÚ„ ÌÚ ·˘ÈÈ˙Ó Âȇ©
È„Ó ®Ï·¯ÂÒÓ© ¯ˆ ¨ÈÏ‚ÚÓ ‡Â‰ — ‰Ïȉ˜· ‰Ú¢ÈÏ ÌÈÚ‚Â‰ ÌÈÈÈÚ ˙„‡ ÏÚ ®°© ÈËÒÈÓ Ú„È ‰˜ÈÚÓ
ÈÚÈ·˘‰Â È˘È˘‰ È˘ÈÓÁ‰ ¨ÈÚÈ·¯‰ ÌÈÈÈÙ‡Ó‰ ª˙ÂÈËÒÈÓÎ ‰‡Â¯ ÂÓˆÚ ˜·ω˘ ˙·¯ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ÏÏÂÎ ÂȇÂ
‰¯Âˆ ˙¯ÒÁ ‡È‰ ª˙Á‡ ‰ÂÚ·Â ˙Ú· ˙ȯÂÙËÓ ˙È˘ÓÓ ‰¯‡‰ ‡È‰ ª˙ÂÏÚÙȉ ‰ÂÚË ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰©
‡ ¨·Âˉ ‰¯˜Ó· ¨Ìȯȉ· Ìȇ ®˙ÂÊί˙‰· ·Â¯Ï ‰¯Â˜Ó ª‰È¯ÂËÒȉ ÈÂÏ˙ ‡Â‰ ‰ÎÂ˙ ÈÒÈÒ· ÔÙ‡·
ÆÈ¯Ó‚Ï ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó È¯ÒÁ
‘Constructivist analyses of mystical experience have the advantage of making obvious sense of
the wide diversity of experiences to be found more even in the literature of Christian mysticism,
let alone that of other religious traditions… Nor does it make nonsense of the idea that even
experiences that differ sharply may still have some things in common, such as, for instance, a
Æ®≥≥∏ ßÓÚ ¨ÔˆÈ© recognition that there is more to life than the physical or material’
‘That there remains a common characteristic it would be absurd to deny, and it is this element
¨ÌÂÏ˘© which is brought out in the comparative analysis of particular mystical experiences’
Æ®∂ ßÓÚ ¨ÌÈÓ¯Ê
ÔÈχ Ï˘ ‰¯ÙÒ ÏÚ ÌÂÁ· ıÈÏӉ ¨ÒÓÈÈß‚ Ï˘ ÂÈ˙ÂÒÈÙ˙Ó ÚÙ˘Â‰ ¨ÒÂß‚ Ï˘ Â˙¯„‚‰ ÏÚ ÍÓ˙Ò‰˘ ¨ÌÂÏ˘
‘The fundamental© ˙ÈÊÈÙËÓ‰ ˙‡ȈӉ ‡ χ‰ ÌÚ Ú‚ÓÎ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ˙‡ ¯‡È˙ ¨®Underhill© Ïȉ¯„‡
experience of the inner self which enters into immediate contact with God or the metaphysical
‘the encounter with the© ˘Ù‰ ȘÓÚ· ˙ËÏÁÂÓ‰ ˙Â˘È‰ ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓΠ‡ ®˛¥ ßÓÚ ¨ÌÈÓ¯Ê ¨ÌÂÏ˘¸ reality’
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ ÌÂÏ˘ Ï˘ ˙¯„‚‰· ÔÂÈ„Ï Æ®˛±µ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘¸ absolute being in the depths of one’s own soul’
Æ≤∂≠≤≤ ßÓÚ ¨Ì„‡ ˘„˜Ó ¨ÔÈÏ‚¯Ó ªµ∂ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÂÒÙÏ ªπ≠µ ßÓÚ ¨„ÈÈ·˘ ∫‡¯

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≥≤

≥≥

≥¥

≥µ

19

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‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

˙È‚Âχ˙‰Â ˙È˙‰Ӊ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ÏÚ ¯ÊÁ ¨˙ÈχÈ¯Ù‰ ‰„ÓÚ‰ ˙‡ ‰Á„˘ Û‡ ¨ÔÂÒÙÏ ≥∂Æß˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰
≥∑

Æß˙ȉÂχ‰ ˙ÂÁÎÂ‰ Ï˘ ˙È„ÈÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁß ‡Â‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÔÈÈÙ‡Ó‰˘

˙ÂÈ˙‰Ӊ ˙¯„‚‰·˘ ˙ÂÈ˙ÈÈÚ·‰ ÏÚ Â„ÓÚ˘ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ¯ÙÒÓ ÂÚȈ‰ ˙Â¯Á‡‰ ÌÈ˘·
Ô˙ÂÈ ÚȈ‰ ‰¯Á‡Ï ≥∏ÆÈ˙ÁÙ˘Ó ÔÂÈÓ„ ÈÈÈˢ‚Ëȉ ‚˘ÂÓ· ‰˙¯„‚‰Ï ˘Ó˙˘‰Ï ¨˙„‰ Ï˘
‰¯Â‚Ò ‰ÓÈ˘¯ ‚Ȉ‰Ï ÔÂÈÒÈ‰ ÔÂÏ˘ÈÎ ·˜Ú ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙¯„‚‰Ï ‰Ê ‚˘ÂÓ· ˘Ó˙˘‰Ï ·¯‡‚
˙‡¯Ï ˘Èß Âȯ·„Ï Æ˜·ω ˙¢ÚÏ ‰ÒÈ˘ ÈÙÎ ¨˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁÏ ÌÈÈ„ÂÁÈÈ ÌÈÈÈÙ‡Ó Ï˘
Ì‚¯˙ÈÓ ¨ÁÈ˘ ‡ ‰Ù˘ Ï˘ ‚ÂÒ „ÎÂÏ ‰Ê Ì˘ ªÈÈÈˢ‚Ëȉ Ô·ÂÓ· ‰ÁÙ˘Ó Ì˘ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ·
≥π

Æß˙ÈÈÈÙ‡ ˙È˙¯ÙÒ ‰„ÓÚÏ ˙·¯ ÌÈÓÚÙ

‰ˆÂ·˜ Ïη ÂÓΩ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÂÎÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÔÈ· È˙ÁÙ˘Ó ÔÂÈÓ„ ‡ÂˆÓÏ Ô˙È˘ ˜ÙÒ Ôȇ
ÏÚ ÔΠ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ ÏÚ ÏÈÁ‰Ï ¯˘Ù‡˘Â ¨®‰Ù˘· ÌÈ˘Ó˙˘Ó‰ È„È ÏÚ ˙¯„‚ÂÓ‰ ˙¯Á‡
Ôȇ˘ ‰Úˆ‰‰ Ìχ ¥∞ƘÁ˘Ó ‚˘ÂÓ‰ ÏÚ ÔÈÈˢ‚ËÈÂ Ï˘ ÌÈÓÒ¯ÂÙÓ‰ Âȯ·„ ˙‡ ˙„ ‚˘ÂÓ‰
͇ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ Â‡ ˙„ Ì˘· ÌÈÎÓ Â‡˘ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÏÎÏ ÌÈÙ˙¢Ӊ ÌÈÒÁÈ Â‡ ÔÂÈÓ„ Ș ¨‰ÂÎ˙
˙‡ ÌȈÂÁ ÌÈÙÙÂÁ‰ ‰·¯˜Â ÔÂÈÓ„ ÈÒÁÈ Ï˘ ˙ηÂÒÓ ˙˘¯ ˙ÓÈȘ˘ ‡Ï‡ ¨‰Ï‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï ˜¯Â
‰„˘ ÔÂÈη ˙ÏÚÂ˙‰ ÏÚ ‰Ï‡˘ ÔÓÈÒ ‰·ÈˆÓ ¨Âχ ÌÈÁÂÓ· ˙‚ÈÂ˙Ó‰ ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰Â ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰
¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ ÔÚˢ ÈÙÎ ÆÔ‰Ï˘ È˙‡Â¢‰ ¯˜ÁÓ ÏÚ ÒÒ·˙Ӊ ¨ÂÏω ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï ˘„˜ÂÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÓ
ÌÈÎÈ˘ÓÓ‰ ͇ ¨˙ÈÈÈˢ‚Ëȉ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ˙„ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ˙‡ ÌȯȷÒÓ‰ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ‰
˙È‚Âχ˙‰ — ˙È˙‰Ӊ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ˙‡ ¯˜ÁÓÏ ‰¯ÊÁ ÌÈ·È‚Ó ¨ÂÊ ‰È¯Â‚˘ ÏÚ Ì‰È¯˜ÁÓ ˙‡ ÒÒ·Ï
∫˙„‰ Ï˘ — ‰„ÂÒÈ·
‡Ï ̇ ȯ‰˘ ¨Â‰˘ÏÎ È˙Â‰Ó ÔÈÈÙ‡Ó ˙ÂÈ‰Ï ·ÈÈÁ ˙„ ‚˘ÂÓÏ ¨ß˜ÂÈ˙‰ ˙‡ ÏȈ‰Ïß È„Î
˙È˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó È˙Ï·Ï ‰˘ÚÓÏ ˙ÎÙ‰ ‡È‰˘ „Ú ¨ÍÎ ÏÎ ‰·Á¯ ˙È˘Ú ˙„ Ï˘ ‰ÁÙ˘Ó‰ ¨ÔÎ
‘Thus, for example, the nature of the Christian mystic’s pre-mystical consciousness informs the
mystical consciousness such that he experienced the mystic reality in terms of Jesus, the Trinity
Æ®≤∑ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ¨ı¢Î© or a personal God’
‘the immediate experience of the divine presence that is characteristic of mysticism as an historical
Æ®µµ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÂÒÙÏ© phenomenon’
˙¯„‚‰Ï ÔÈÈˢ‚ËÈÂ Ï˘ ‰Ù˘‰ ˜Á˘Ó ˙Èȯ‡˙·Â È˙ÁÙ˘Ó‰ ÔÂÈÓ„‰ ‚˘ÂÓ· ˘Ó˙˘‰Ï ˙ÂÂÈÒÈ ÏÚ
ÆÔÂÈ˜Ó ª¯ÏÒ ªË¯ÓÒ ∫‡¯ ˙„ ‚˘ÂÓ‰
‘At the same time, listing a limited and closed set of “distinctive features” of mystical expression,
a la Hollenback, also fails to capture this vast array. Instead, one should see “Mysticism” as a
“family name” in the Wittegensteinian sense. This name captures a certain language or discourse,
Æ®≤π∏ ßÓÚ ¨˙¯˜ȷ ¨·¯‡‚© which often translates into a characteristic literary stance’
¨ÌÈÙϘ ȘÁ˘ÓÏ ¨ÁÂÏ È˜Á˘ÓÏ È˙ÂÂΠƢÌȘÁ˘Ó¢ Ìȇ¯Â˜ Â‡ Ì‰Ï˘ ÌÈÎÈω· ÌÚÙ Ï˘ÓÏ ‡–ÔÈÈÚß
Ì‰Ï ˙ÂÈ‰Ï ·ÈÈÁ¢ ∫¯Ó‡˙ χ — ø‰Ï‡ ÏÎÏ Û˙¢Ӊ Â‰Ó Æ‰‡Ï‰ ÔΠ¨‰ÓÁÏÓ È˜Á˘ÓÏ ¨¯Â„ΠȘÁ˘ÓÏ
¯·„ ‰Ï‡ ÏÎÏ ˘È ̇‰ ˜Â„·Â Ô·˙‰ ‡Ï‡ — ¢ÌȘÁ˘Ó¢ ÌÈȯ˜ Âȉ ‡Ï ̉ ÔΖ‡Ï ̇˘ ¨Û˙Â˘Ó Â‰˘Ó
ÔÂÈÓ„ ÈÒÁÈ ‰‡¯˙ Ï·‡ ¨ÌÏÂÎÏ Û˙¢Ӊ ‰Ó–¯·„ ‡ˆÓ˙ ‡Ï ÌÓ‡ ¨Ì‰· Ô·˙˙ ̇ Ô΢ — ÆÛ˙Â˘Ó ‰Ó
˙ηÂÒÓ ˙˘¯ Ìȇ¯ Â‡ ∫‡È‰ ‰Ê ÔÂÈÚ Ï˘ ‰‡ˆÂ˙‰Â ÆÆÆ‰Ï‡Î˘ ÌÈÒÁÈ Ï˘ ‰ÓÏ˘ ‰¯„Ò ÂÏÈه ¨‰·¯˜Â
·ÂË ÂÏω ˙ÂÈÓ„‰ ˙‡ ÔÈÈÙ‡Ï ÏÂÎÈ Èȇ ÆÔ˘·Â Ï„‚· ˙ÂÈÓ„ ÆÂÊ ˙‡ ÂÊ ˙ˆÂÁ ˙ÂÙÙÂÁ‰ ˙ÂÈÂÓ„ Ï˘
ÔÈ· ˙¯¯Â˘‰ ˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÈÂÓ„‰ ˙ˆÂÁ ˙ÂÙÙÂÁ ÍÎ Ô΢ ª¢È˙ÁÙ˘Ó ÔÂÈÓ„¢ ÈÂËÈ·‰ ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ¯˘‡Ó ¯˙ÂÈ
ÌȯˆÂÈ ÌȘÁ˘Ó‰ ∫¯ÓÂÏ ‰ˆ¯‡Â ÆßÂΠßÂΠ‚ÊÓ ¨‰ÎÈω ¨ÌÈÈÈÚ Ú·ˆ ¨ÌÈÙ ÈÂÂ˙ ¨Û‚ ‰·Ó ∫‰ÁÙ˘Ó È·Â¯˜
Æ®∂∂≠∂µ ßÓÚ ¨∂∑≠∂∂ ÌÈÙÈÚÒ ¨ÔÈÈˢ‚ËÈ© ߉ÁÙ˘Ó

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≥∑
≥∏
≥π

¥∞

Ò‰ ÊÚ·

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‰¯„‚‰ ‰·È‚Ó ‰ȇ ̇ ¨È˙ÁÙ˘Ó ÔÂÈÓ„ Ï˘ ‰È¯Â‡˙‰ Æ˙ÈËÈÏ‡ ˙ÏÚÂ˙ ˙¯ÒÁÏÂ
ÔÈÁ·‰Ï ˙¯˘Ù‡Ó ‰ȇ˘ Íη ¨Ô„·‡Ï ˙„‰ ˙‡ ‰¯È„‚Ó ¨ÔÁÏÂ˘Ï ˙Á˙Ó ˙È˙‰Ó
¥±

Æ˙ÂÈÏÏÎ ÌÈÏÓÒ ˙ÂίÚÓ Â‡ ÌÏÂÚ ˙ÂÙ˜˘‰ ¨˙ÂÈ‚Âχ„ȇ ÔÈ·Ï ‰È·

‰ÒÈÙ˙ ‡È‰ Û‡ ‰·È‚Ó ¨ÁÈ˘ ‡ ‰Ù˘ Ï˘ ‚ÂÒ „ÎÂÏ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰˘ ·¯‡‚ Ï˘ Â˙Úˆ‰
¨È˙ÁÙ˘Ó‰ ÔÂÈÓ„‰ ˙ÒÈÙ˙· ÌÈ˘Ó˙˘Ó‰ ÌȯÁ‡ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ‰ÂÓΠ·¯‡‚ Ɖ˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙È˙‰Ó
ÌÈ„ÎÂÏ Â‡ ÌÈÙ˜˘Ó ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ˙„ ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ‰˘ ˙ÂÈ‚¯Â‡ ˙ÂÁÙ˘Ó· ¯·Â„Ó Ôȇ˘ ÍÎÓ ÌÈÓÏÚ˙Ó
ÌÈÈÙȈÙÒ ÌÈȯÂËÒȉ ÌÈÈ˙¯·Á Ìȯ˘˜‰· ¨‰Ù˘· ÌÈ˘Ó˙˘Ó‰ È„È· ¯ˆÂ˘ ˙ÂÁÙ˘Ó· ‡Ï‡ ¨Ô˙‡
∫‚Ș ÔÚˢ ÈÙÎ ¥≤ÆÌȘ‰·ÂÓ ÌÈÈËÈÏÂÙ ÌÈÒ¯Ëȇ ÍÂ˙ÓÂ
˙ÂÒÈÙ˙‰˘ ‰ÁÂÎ ÌÈÎȯÚÓ Ìȇ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙„‡ ÏÚ ÂÓÊ È· Ìȯ˜ÁÓ‰ ÏÎ ËÚÓÎ
¨˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÈÂ˘Ï ˙ÂÈ·‰ Ô‰ ®ÌÈˆÓ‡Ó ÌÓˆÚ Ìȯ˜ÁÓ‰˘ Âχ ÔÏÏη© ßÈËÒÈÓ‰ß Ï˘
¨‰Ê· ‰Ê ÌÈ·Ï¢Ӊ ÌÈÈÂÂÈү˜ÒÈ„ ÌÈÎÈω˙ ˙Â˘È‚ ¨˙¯„‚‰ Ï˘ ˙˘¯ ÏÚ ˙ÂÎÓÒ‰
˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ ˙·ÈÒ· ˙ÂÈÂÏ˙‰ ˙˜È˘¯Ù ˙ÂÈ„ÂÁÈÈ ÌÈÈÁ ˙¯ˆ ÏÚ ÌÈÎÂÓÒ ÌÓˆÚ·˘Â
˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÁ‰Ï ˜¯ ˙ÂÙÂÙÎ Ôȇ ßÈËÒÈÓ‰ß Ï˘ ˙ÂÈÁÎÂ‰ ˙ÂÒÈÙ˙‰ Æ˙ÂÈÙȈÙÒ
ÌÈÎÈω˙ Ï˘ ‰Î¯‡ ‰È¯ÂËÒÈ‰Ï ˙ȘÏÁ ˙ÂÙÙÂÁ ˙ÂÚÙ˘ÂÓ Ô‰˘ ‡Ï‡ ¨ÌÂÈÎ ˙ÂϷ˜Ӊ
¥≥

Ɖ‡¯Â‰ Ï˘Â ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó Ï˘ ÌÈÈÂÈ˘Â ÌȘ˙ÚÓ ¨ÌÈ΢Ӊ ¨ÌÈÈÂÂÈү˜ÒÈ„

ÌÈÁÂÓ‰ ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰È‚Âχ‚‰ ÏÚ „ÂÓÚÏ ÔΠ̇ ȇ¯‰ ÔÓ
ÌÈÈ˙¯·Á‰ ¨ÌÈȯÂËÒȉ‰ Ìȯ˘˜‰‰ ÏÚ ¨˙„ÈÒÁ‰Â ‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ÈÓ„˜‡‰ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ „ÂÒÈ·
ÚȈ‡ ÔÏ‰Ï˘ Ìȯ·„· Ư˜ÁÓ‰ ‰„˘ ˙‡ ·ˆÈÚ ‰·˘ ͯ„‰ ÏÚ ¨Â¯ˆÂ ̉·˘ ÌÈÈËÈÏÂÙ‰Â
‡˘Â· ˜ÂÒÚÏ ‰ÂÂ˜Ó È‡Â ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰È‚Âχ‚‰ Ï˘ ¯˜ÁÓÏ ÌȘ¯Ù È˘‡¯
ƯÁ‡ ̘ӷ ‰·Á¯‰·

‘to save the baby, the concept of religion must have some essential characteristic, and if it does
not, then the family of religion becomes so large as to be practically meaningless and analytically
useless. The theory of family resemblance, if not illegitimately smuggling in an essentialist
definition under the table, is defining religion into oblivion by making it indistinguishable from
˙¯Â˜È·Ï Æ®∑≥ ßÓÚ ¨‰È‚Âχ„ȇ‰ ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ© ideologies, worldviews, or symbolic systems in general’
‡¯Â Æπ∑≠∑≤ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘ ∫‡¯ ˙„‰ ˙¯„‚‰Ï È˙ÁÙ˘Ó‰ ÔÂÈÓ„‰ ‚˘ÂÓ· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ ÏÚ „ϯ߂ˆÈÙ Ï˘ ˙˯ÂÙÓ
Æ˙„ ¨Ï¢‰ ª≤≤¥≠≤±¥ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ȘÁ˘Ó ¨Ï¢‰ ∫Ì‚
¯˘˜· È˙ÁÙ˘Ó ÔÂÈÓ„ ‚˘ÂÓ· ÌÈ˘Ó˙˘ÓÏ ¯˘‡· „ϯ߂ˆÈÙ Ï˘ Â˙Á·‰ ˙‡ Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ≥π ‰¯Ú‰ ¨ÏÈÚÏ Â‡¯
Æ≤±∑ ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ȘÁ˘Ó ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ ∫˙„Ï
‘Virtually all contemporary studies of mysticism fail to appreciat the sense in which notions
of the “mystical” (including those that are adopted in the studies themselves) are cultural and
linguistic constructions dependent upon a web of interlocking definitions, attitudes and discursive
processes, which themselves are tied to particular forms of life and historically specific practices.
Not only are contemporary notions of the “mystical” subject to the cultural presuppositions
of the day, they are also informed by and overlap with a long history of discursive processes,
Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ®π ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș© continuities and discontinuities and shifts in both meaning and denotation’
Æ®˛Ì˘¸ ‚Ș È„È ÏÚ ÌÈËˈӉ© ±≤ ßÓÚ ¨ÔˆÈ Ï˘ ‰È¯·„ ˙‡

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‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

¨˙ÈÂÂÈ· Ú„ÈΠ¯˜Ó ¨ÌÈÈÈ·‰ ÈÓÈ Ï˘ ˙ȯˆÂ‰ ‰È‚Âχ˙· ÂÈ˘¯Â˘ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ‰
˙‡ ‚˘ÂÓ‰ ϷȘ ‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó· ¥¥Æ‰¯˘Ú ˘˘‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ÛÂÒÓ ÏÁ‰ ÌˆÚ Ì˘Î ÚÈÙ‰ ‡Â‰Â
˙‡ˆÂÈ ‰ÈÂÂÁ ‰„ÂÒÈ·˘ ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙È˙„ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ ÂÈȉ„ ¨ÌÂÈÎ ¯˜ÁÓ· ˙Ϸ˜Ӊ Â˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó
È‰Ï˘· „ÒÓ˙‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÈÓ„˜‡‰ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ¥µÆÈË„ˆÒ¯Ë‰ ‡ ȉÂχ‰ ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ Ï˘ ÔÙ„
‰˙‡· Á˙Ù˙‰˘ ¨˙Â˙„‰ Ú„Ó ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ¯˜ÈÚ· ¨Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ˙È˘‡¯·Â ‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó‰
‰ÒÒ·˙‰ ‰Ù˜˙ ‰˙‡· ¥∂Æ˙Â¢ ˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï ˙ÂÈ·¯˙ Ï˘ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ÔΠ¨‰Ù˜˙
˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÚÙÂ˙‰ Ï˘ È„ÂÁÈÈ È„Â‰È ÈÂËÈ·Î ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ï˘ ‰ÓÂȘ ¯·„· ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰
ÆÈÓ„˜‡ ÌÂÁ˙Î ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÓÏ „ÒÓ‰ ¯ˆÂ ¨˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡‰
¯ˆÂ ÂÊ ‰È¯Â‚Ë˜Ï ÂÎÈ¢˘ ˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ÈÓ„˜‡‰ ¯˜ÁӉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰
‰ÒÙ˙ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Æ˙È¯„ÂÓ‰ ˙ÂÈÓ‡ω Ï˘ ‰˘Â·È‚ ÈÙ¯ȇ‰ ÌÊÈχÈÂϘ‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ·
ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ‰ ̉ ¨®Secular© ÔÈÏÂÁ‰ ¨‰‚ÂÊ Ô·Â ‡È‰˘ ¨®Religion© ˙„‰ Ï˘ ‰˙ȈÓ˙Î ‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ·
¨˙È˙ÈÈÂÂÁ ¨˙ÈÂÂÈ˘ÈÈ·ÂÒ ‰ÚÙÂ˙Î ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙¯„‚‰ ¥∑Æ˙ÈÙ¯ȇ‰ ‰¯„ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ÌÈÂÎÓ‰
‰ÒÈÙ˙ ª˙„‰ Ï˘ ˙È¯„ÂÓ‰ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ˙‡ ‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ· ‰ˆÓÓ ¨˙ÈËÈÏÂÙ–‡Â ˙È˙¯·Á–‡ ¨˙È˯Ù
·¯ÚÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÈËÒÈχȯÙÓȇ‰ ˙ÂˢÙ˙‰‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï ˙ÂÈ·¯˙ ÏÚ ‰ÏÁ‰ ÂÊ
¨˙¯ÂÒÓ ÂÎÈ¢ ÂÊ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· Æ˙ÈÏ·ÂÏ‚ ‰ÈÂÓ‚‰· ÌÈÈ¯„ÂÓ‰ ÂÈÎ¯Ú ˙‡ ˙ÂÎÊÏ Â˙Ùȇ˘ ÍÂ˙ÓÂ
ÂÎÊ Âχ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ¥∏ÆÈËÒÈӉ È˙„‰ ÌÂÁ˙Ï ˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï‰ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ÌÈ¢ ˙„ÒÂÓ ˙˜È˘¯Ù
ÏÎ ¨˙ÂÈËÓ¯–‡ Õ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ¯„‡Â‰Â ˆÓ‡ ۇ ¨È·¯ÚÓ‰ ÌÊÈϯ·Èω ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ‰ÈˆÓÈËÈ‚ÏÏ
˙ÂÎÈÈ˘‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Î ¯ÓÂÏÎ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈӉ ˙„‰ Ï˘ ˙È¯„ÂÓ‰ ‰ÈȈو˜· ˙ÂÓÂÁ˙ ¯˙Â „ÂÚ
ÆÈ˙¯·Á‰Â ÈÏÎÏΉ ¨ÈËÈÏÂÙ‰ ÌÂÁ˙Ï ‰ÚÈ‚ ÂÏ Ôȇ˘ ¨ÈÂÂÈ˘ÈÈ·Â҉ È˙ÈÈÂÂÁ‰ ¨È˯ى ÌÂÁ˙Ï
Ï·˜˙‰ ¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÈ˙„Î ˙ÂȯˆÂ–˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï ˙ÂÈ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ È·¯ÚÓ‰ ‚ÂÈ˙‰
˙ÂÈÂ‰Ê ˙ÈÈ·‰Ï ‰Ùȇ˘ ÍÂ˙Ó Â˙‡ ÂÁ˙È٠̉ ¨Âχ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙ È· ÌÈ„ÓÂÏÓ ÌÈÏÈÎ˘Ó È„È ÏÚ
¨ÌÈÈËÒÈÓ ÌÈÈÁ¯ ¨ÌÈÈ˙„Π‰ÂÊ˘ ÌÈ¢‰ ˙„ÒÂӉ ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰ ¨ÌÈÎ˙‰ Æ˙ÂÈÓÂ‡Ï ˙ÂÈ·È˘Ï˜
‰¯Á‡Ï ÂÚˢ ÈÙÎ ¨ÍÎ ¥πÆÌÈ¢ ÌÈ·È˘Ï˜ Ï˘ ˙ÂÈÓ‡ω ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰ ˙ÈÈ·‰Ï ¢ÓÈ˘
Ʊ±≤≠∑∂ ßÓÚ ¨ÂË¯Ò ‰„ ª‰È·
‰Á˙Ù˙‰ ¨˙Â˙„‰ ÏÎ Ï˘ ÈÁ¯‰ ÒÈÒ·‰ ‡È‰˘ ‰Ó„˜ ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰È‚Âχ˙Î ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰
Ʊ∑ ßÓÚ ¨ı· ∫ÍÎ ÏÚ Â‡¯ ªÌÈÓ¯‚‰ Ìȇ˜ÈËÓ¯‰ ·¯˜·
Æ≥¥≠±¥ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș ª≥¥≥≠≤∂µ ßÓÚ ¨ÔÈ‚˜Ó ∫‡¯ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÓ Ï˘Â ‚˘ÂÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰È¯ÂËÒȉ· ÔÂÈ„Ï
Æ≤±∞≠≤∞π ßÓÚ ¨‰Ù˘ ȘÁ˘Ó ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ
‘“Religion” has been used to accommodate a disparate and disconnected series of institutions that
at various times have been singled out as standing in the way of modern rational government.
These characteristics of non-western institutions, and of institutions within “premodern”
Western societies themselves, have been called traditions, mysticism, despotism, superstition,
witchcraft, primitivism, or medieval forms of life. Many of these derogatory references were
perhaps originally made by Protestants against Roman Catholics and then extended to other
colonial situations. What have been fundamental collective institutions within the peripheral
societies in which they operated have been categorized as indigenous religions… and simply
by this naming operation have become grist for the mill of the metropolitan religion-secular
Æπ≠∏ ßÓÚ ¨‰È‚Âχ„ȇ‰ ¨Ï¢‰ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â Æ®≤≥¥ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘© ideology’
Æ∏ ßÓÚ ¨Èß‚¯Ë߈

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¥¥
¥µ
¥∂
¥∑
¥∏

¥π

Ò‰ ÊÚ·

| 22

ÂÁ˙ÂÙ ˆÓ‡ ÌÊȉ„·‰Â ÌÊȇ„ȉ‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈӉ ‰ÈˆÊÈχÂËȯÈÙÒ‰ ¨ÌÈ¢ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ
„‰· ÌÈÈËÈÏÂÙ ÌȂȉÓ ÌȂ‰ È„È ÏÚ Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ˙È˘‡¯·Â ‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó‰ È‰Ï˘·
µ∞

Æ˙ÈÙȉ ˙Ȅ‰‰ ˙ÂÈÓ‡ω ˙ÈÈ·‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ÔÙÈ·Â

Æ˙ÈÓ‡ω ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙‰ʉ ˙ÈÈ·‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ‰Ù˜˙ ‰˙‡· ¢Á¯˙‰ ÌÈÓ„ ÌÈÎÈω˙
Ìȇ˜ÈËÓ¯ Ï˘ ̉ȷ˙ÎÓ ÌÈ„Â‰È ÌÈ„ÓÂÏÓ ÂˆÓȇ ‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ ‰ÈÈ˘‰ ˙ȈÁÓ·
˙·¯˙· ˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙·Â ‰Ï·˜· ‡¯Â

µ±

¨˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ˙‡ ÌȯˆÂ

¯‡È˙ ±∏µ≥ ˙˘· ÍÎ Æ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ÌÈÈ„Â‰È ÌÈÈÓÂ‡Ï ÌÈÈÂËÈ· ˙Ȅ‰ȉ
·ÈÎ¯Ó ‡È‰ ‰˜ÈËÒÈӉߢ ÔÈȈ ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÎ ‰Ï·˜‰ ˙‡ ˜ÈÏÈ ®ÛÏ„‡© Ô¯‰‡ „ÓÂÏÓ‰
Ïη ˙ÂÓ‡‰ Ïη ‰˙‡ ‡ÂˆÓÏ Ô˙È˘ ÍÎ È„Î „Ú ˙¢Â‡‰ Ï˘ ˙ÈÁ¯‰ ˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰· È˙‰Ó
ÌÈÙ¯ȇ ÌÈ„Â‰È ÌÈ„ÓÂÏÓ Ï˘ ̉ȷ˙η ¯·‚ ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ µ≤Æß˙Â˙„‰
‰ÈÈهϠ‰Ù˜È‰Ï ¯˘‡· „ÂÒÈ ˙ÂÁ‰Â ¨Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ˙È˘‡¯·Â ‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó‰ È‰Ï˘·
˙Âȯ˘„ ¨˙¯ÂÒÓ ÆÂÊ ‰Ù˜˙· ÂÚ·˜ ¨ÌÂÈÎ Ì‚ ‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ· ˙ÂϷ˜Ӊ ¨ÂÊ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ˙¯ÂÒÓ Ï˘
˙·¯˙· ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï Â¢‰ ¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ Â¯„‚‰ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙·¯˙· ˙Â¢ ˙˜È˘¯ÙÂ
Æ®˙ÈÈ҉ ˙Ȅ‰‰ ˙·¯˙· ‰¢‡¯·Â ˘‡¯·© ˙¯Á‡ ß˙ÂÈÁ¯ÊÓß ˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ¯˜ÈÚ·Â ˙ȯˆÂ‰
Ï˘ ˙È·ÂÈÁ‰ ‰Î¯Ú‰‰ Ú˜¯ ÏÚ — ‰¯È„‡‰Ï ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙·¯˙‰ ÏÚ Ô‚‰Ï „ÚÂ ‰Ï‡ ÌÈÎωÓ
¨ß˙ÈÁÂ¯ß ˙È„Â‰È ˙¯ÂÒÓ Ï˘ ‰È·‰ Ì˘Ï ÔΠ— ®Fin de Siècle© ‰‡Ó‰ ‰ÙÓ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰
Æ˙È¯„ÂÓ ˙ÈÓÂ‡Ï ˙È„Â‰È ˙Â‰Ê Ï˘ ‰˙¯ÈˆÈ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ¨˙È˙Îω‰ ÂÊÓ ˙Ï„·‰
߯ ȯÂÙÈÒßÏ ¯·Â· ÔÈË¯Ó Ï˘ ‰Ó„˜‰· ˜‰·ÂÓ ÈÂËÈ· È„ÈÏ ˙‡· ÂÏω ˙ÂÓ‚Ó‰ È˙˘
„Á‡ ‡È‰˘Â ¨®Die Jüdische Mystik© ß˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ß ‰˙¯˙Â΢ ¨±π∞∂ ˙˘Ó ¨ßÔÓÁ
¨¯·Â· µ≥Æ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙È¯„ÂÓ‰ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ˘Â·È‚· ¯˙ÂÈ· ÌÈ·Â˘Á‰ ÌÈÎÓÒÓ‰
–‡‰ ‰·È˘ÙÒ¯Ù‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ·Â ¨˙ÈÂȈ‰ Â˙ÂÏÈÚÙÏ ‰˜ÈÊ· ‰¯¯ÂÚ˙‰ ˙„ÈÒÁ· Â˙ÂÈÈÚ˙‰˘
¯ÙÒß — ˙Â¢ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ‰Ê ¯Â·ÈÁ· ¯‡È˙ µ¥¨‰‡Ó‰ È‰Ï˘ Ï˘ ˙ÈËÒÈÏËÈȯ‡‰Â ˙ÈËÓ¯

˙ÂÈÁ¯‰ Ï˘ ‰È·‰Ï ¨¯È ¯„ Ô ÔÚˢ ÈÙÎ Æ∑∑≠∂π ßÓÚ ¨¯È ¯„ Ô ª±¥≤≠±≥∂ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș ª±∞≥≠ππ ßÓÚ ¨Û¯˘
Ô‰ÈÈ· ¨˙ÂÈ·¯ÚÓ ˙ÂÈÁ¯ ˙ÂÚÂ˙ Ï˘ ·Á¯ ÔÂÂ‚Ó ÏÚ ‰ÚÙ˘‰ ‰˙Èȉ Ȅ‰‰ ÈÓ‡ω ¯˘˜‰· ÌÊȇ„ȉ‰ Ï˘
¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ Ì‚ ‰ÂÎ ÂÊ ‰Á·‰ Æ∑¥ ßÓÚ ¨®Ì˘© ¯È ¯„ Ô ∫‡¯ ª˙ÂÈ¢ÎÚ‰ ˘„Á‰ Ô„ÈÚ‰ ˙ÂÚÂ˙
Æ˙ÂÈ¯„ÂÓ ˙ÂÈÁ¯ ˙ÚÂ˙· ·Â˘Á ÌÂ˜Ó ˙ÒÙÂ˙ ‡È‰ Û‡˘Â ¨˙ÈÓÂ‡Ï ˙È„Â‰È ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ‰˙·Â‰˘
Ú·˘‰ ‰‡Ó· ÌȯˆÂ ÌÈÏ·Â˜Ó È·˙η ‰Ï·˜Ï ¯˘˜· ‰¢‡¯Ï ÚÈÙ‰ ßÈËÒÈÓß ¯‡Â˙‰ Ì˘ ¨ÈÏ Ú„ȉ ÏÎÎ
®Basnage© ßÊ· ˜ßÊ Ï˘ ‰ÚÙ˘‰‰ ·¯ ¯ÙÒ· ‰¢‡¯Ï ÚÈÙ‰ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È‚Âχ˙Î ‰Ï·˜‰ ¯Â‡È˙ ¨‰¯˘Ú
‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó· Æ∑ ßÓÚ ¨ßÊ· ∫‡¯ ª‰¯˘Ú ‰ÂÓ˘‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ˙È˘‡¯· ÒÙ„˘ ¨ÌȄ‰ȉ Ï˘ ‰È¯ÂËÒȉ‰ ÏÚ
Ï˘ ‰ÈÙÂÒÂÏÈÙ‰ß Â¯ÙÒ· ¨˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÎ ‰Ï·˜‰ ˙‡ ®Molitor© ¯ÂËÈÏÂÓ ı¯Ù ÈÓ¯‚‰ ÛÂÒ‡˙‰ ¯‡È˙
‰¯˘Ú ‰ÂÓ˘‰ ‰‡Ó‰ È‰Ï˘· ÌÈ„Â‰È ÌÈÏÈÎ˘Ó Æ±≥µ ¨¥¥ ßÓÚ ¨¯ÂËÈÏÂÓ ∫‡¯ ªß‰Ï·˜‰ ÏÚ Â‡ ¨‰È¯ÂËÒȉ‰
˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ‰Ï·˜‰ ¯Â‡È˙Ï ßÈËÒÈÓß ¯‡Â˙· ÌÈ˙ÚÏ Â˘Ó˙˘‰ ‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó‰ Ï˘ ‰¢‡¯‰ ˙ȈÁÓ·Â
‰Ù˜˙· ıÂÙ ‰È‰ ‡Ï „ÂÚ ‰Ï·˜‰ ¯Â‡È˙Ï ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÁÂÓ· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰ Ìχ Æ˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÈ„Â‰È ˙ÂÈ·¯˙
¨ÂÓÊ· ·˙Î˘ ‰Ï·˜‰ ˙„‡ ÏÚ ¯˙ÂÈ· ·Â˘Á‰ ¯ÙÒ‰ ¨±∏¥≥ ˙˘· ÒÙ„˘ ¨˜¯Ù ÛÏ„‡ Ï˘ ¯ÙÒ· ÆÂÊ
Æ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨Ò‰ ∫‰·Á¯‰· ‡¯Â Æ˙È˙„ ‰ÈÙÂÒÂÏÈÙÎ ‡Ï‡ ¨˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÎ ‰Ï·˜‰ ‰¯‡Â˙ ‡Ï
‘Die Mystik ist ein so wesentliches Moment in der geistigen Entwickelung der Menschheit, dass
Æ®¥≠≥ ßÓÚ ¨˜ÈÏÈ© sie bei allen Nationen und in allen Religionen angetroffen wird’
Ʊπ≠µ ßÓÚ ¨¯·Â·
Æ∂µ≤≠∂≥µ ßÓÚ ¨¯ÂÏÙ–Ò„Ó

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µ∞

µ±

µ≤
µ≥
µ¥

23

|

‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

˙ÈËÒÈÓ ˙¯ÂÒÓÓ ˜ÏÁÎ — ˙„ÈÒÁ‰Â ˙‡˙·˘‰ ¨˙È‡È¯Âω ‰Ï·˜‰ ¨ß¯‰ÂÊ߉ ¨ß‰¯ÈˆÈ
˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰ ˙‡ ‰Â¢‰œ ¯·Â· µµÆ„ÂÓÏ˙‰ ˙Ù˜˙· ‰˙È˘‡¯˘ ¨‰ÙȈ¯ ˙Ȅ‰È
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÈÓ‡ω ‰„ÂÁÈÈ ˙‡ ˘È‚„‰ ͇ ¨‰Ò˖‡Ï ÒÂÈËÂÏÙ ¨Ë¯‰˜‡ Ï˘ ̉È˙¯Â˙Ï
Ï˘ ϯ‚·Â ÈÙ‡· ‰Ï˘ ˙˜‰·ÂÓ‰ ˙ÂÏ˙·Â ‰Ï˘ ˙ÂÈÏ‚ҷ ˙ÂÈ˙„Á‡· ¯ÈÎ‰Ï ÂÈÏÚß ∫˙Ȅ‰ȉ
‡ÏÙ Á¯ÙßÎ ¯‡È˙˘ ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰¯„‡‰‰ ˙¯ÓÏ ˙‡Ê ÌÚ µ∂Æ߉ÁÓˆ ÂÎÂ˙·˘ ÌÚ‰
ÈËÒÈÏËÈȯ‡ ÈËÏÂÂÈ·Ó‡ ÒÁÈ ‰È‰ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ ¯·Â· Ï˘ ÂÒÁÈ µ∑¨ßÔÈÓÂÈ ˜È˙Ú ÔÏȇ Ï˘
¨˙ÈÂ˘ ÌÈ˙ÚÏ ‰¯ÂÎÚ ÌÈ˙ÚÏ ¨˙ÓÈÂÒÓ ‰„ÈÓ· ˙ÊÂ‡Ó È˙Ï·ßÎ ‰˙‡ ¯‡È˙ ‡Â‰ ªÈÈÈÙ‡
ÔÓ ÌÏÚ˙‰Ï ¯˘Ù‡ ȇ ª‰ÒË Â‡Ï Â‡ ÒÂÈËÂÏ٠‡ ¨Ë¯‰˜‡ Ï˘ ̉È˙¯Â˙Ï ‰˙‡ ‰Â¢ ̇
µ∏

Æß˙„˘È‡Ù‡‰ „ˆÏ ‰· Ô·˙ ¯˘‡Î ‰Ï˘ ˙Âȯȯ·˘‰

˜ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ· ‰‡¯˘ Ô¢‡¯‰ Ȅ‰ȉ ˙ÂÚ„‰ ‰‚‰ ‰È‰ ¯·Â·ß˘ ÍÎ ÏÚ „ÓÚ˘ ¨ÌÂÏ˘
ÌȘ· ‰ËË¯Â˘˘ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÒÈÙ˙ ˙‡ ıÓȇ µπ¨ß˙„‰È· ˙„Ó˙Ó ‰ÈÈË ‰ÁÓ
¯˜ÁÓ Ï˘ ˙ÂÎÓ‰ ‰Ó‚È„¯ÙÎ ‰˙‡ ÒÒÈ·Â ßÔÓÁ ߯ ȯÂÙÈÒßÏ ¯·Â· Ï˘ Â˙Ó„˜‰· ÌÈÈÏÏÎ
˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÏ ÌÂÏ˘ ‰Ù ¨Â˙ÚÙ˘‰·Â ¨¯·Â·Ï ‰Ó„·
∂±

∂∞

ÆÈ¯„ÂÓ‰ ‰Ï·˜‰

ÆÁ¯ÊӉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ÔÓ ˙ÈËÓ¯–‡‰ ˙·‰Ï˙‰‰Â ıÓȇ˘ ˙ÈÂȈ‰ ‰È‚Âχ„ȇ‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ·

¨˙ÂÏ‚· ‰ÓÂȘ ˙‡ ¯˘Ù‡˘
œ ÈÂÈÁ‰ ÈÓ‡ω ÁÂΉ ˙‡ ˙„‰È‰ Ï˘ ÈËÒÈÓ‰ „ÂÒÈ· ‰‰ÈÊ ÌÂÏ˘
∫¯Ó‡ ÂÓˆÚ ‡Â‰˘ ÈÙÎ ∂≤Æ˙ÂÂȈÏ ‰Ï΢‰Ï È˘χȄ ÔÙ‡· ‡È·‰˘Â
˙¢„Á˙‰Î ¨ÈÁ ¯·„Î ˙ÂÂȈ· È˙ÂӇ È˙·˘ÁÓ ÍÂ˙Ó ‰Ï·˜‰ ÌÏÂÚÏ ÒÎÈ‰Ï È˙Ȉ¯
ÁÂÎ È„ ‰È‰ ‰Îω‰ Ï˘ ˙„‰ÈÏ Ì‡‰ ∫‰Ï‡˘‰ È˙‡ ‰ÈÈÚ ÆÆÆ„‡Ó ÔÂÂ˙‰˘ ÌÚ Ï˘
˙ÂÈÁ ‰· ˘È ̇‰ øÈËÒÈÓ „ÂÒÈ ÈÏ· ˙ȯ˘Ù‡ ‰Îω‰ ˙Ó‡· ̇‰ øÌÈȘ˙‰Ï „ÈÓ˙‰Ï
∂≥

ø‰˘ ÌÈÈÙχ ͢ӷ ÔÂÂ˙‰Ï ÈÏ· „ÈÓ˙‰Ï ‰ÓˆÚ Ï˘Ó

·Ï˘· ∫˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰· ÌÈȯ˜ÈÚ ÌÈ·Ï˘ ‰Ú·¯‡ ¯·Â· ¯‡È˙ ¯Ӈӷ Ƶ ßÓÚ ¨¯·Â·
˙·È˙η Â˙È˘‡¯˘ ¨È˘‰ ·Ï˘· ªÒÂÓÎ „ÂÒ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰¯Â˙‰ ÔÈÈ„Ú ‰˙Èȉ ¨„ÂÓÏ˙‰ ˙Ù˜˙· ¨Ô¢‡¯‰
‰· ˜ÂÒÈÚ‰ ͇ ‰Ï·˜‰ ‰Á˙Ù˙‰ ¨ß¯‰ÂÊ߉ ¯Â·ÈÁ· Â‡È˘Â ®˙ÈÚÈ˘˙Ï ˙ÈÚÈ·˘‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ÔÈ·© ߉¯ÈˆÈ ¯ÙÒß
ªÈÁÈ˘Ó ÈÙ‡ ‰Ï·˜‰ ‰Ï·È˜ ¨˙‡˙·˘· ÂÓÂÈÒ Ȣ¯‡‰ ˙Ï·˜· Â˙È˘‡¯˘ ¨È˘ÈÏ˘‰ ·Ï˘· ªÌˆÓÂˆÓ ‰È‰
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨Ò‰ ∫‡¯Â Æ˙„ÈÒÁ‰ ‡Â‰ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ — ‰ÙÂÒ — ‰‡È˘ ‡Â‰˘ ¨ÈÚÈ·¯‰ ·Ï˘‰Â
Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó· ÌÈ·¯ ÌÈ„ÓÂÏÓ Â„ÓÚ ®˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙© ÂÏω ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÔÈ· ‰˜Èʉ ÏÚ˘ ÔÈÈˆÏ ˘È Æ˙Ȅ‰È
ÂÒÙ˙ ‡Ï ‰¯˘Ú Ú˘˙‰ ‰‡Ó‰ È‰Ï˘ „Ú ¯ÂӇΠÌχ ƉϷ˜‰ ®˙¯Â˜È·· ‡© ¯˜ÁÓ· ˜ÒÚ˘ ‰¯˘Ú
ƉÙȈ¯ ˙È„Â‰È ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ˙¯ÂÒÓ Ï˘ ÌÈÈÂËÈ·Î Âχ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙
‘doch warden wir ihre Einheit, ihre Besonderheit und ihre starke Bedingheit durch die Art und
Æ®Ì˘© Schiksal des Volkes aus dem sie heraufwuchs, anerkennen mussen’
Æ®Ì˘© ‘Die wunderbare Blüte eines uralten Baumes’
‘Die jüdische Mystik mag recht ungleichmässig erscheinen, oft trübe, zuweilen kleinlich, wenn
wir sie an Eckhart, and Plotinus, and Laotse messem; sie wird ihre Brüchigkeit nich verbergen
Æ®Ì˘© können, wenn sie gar neben den Upanischaden betrachten wollte’
Æ≥∏± ßÓÚ ¨¯·„ „ÂÚ ¨ÌÂÏ˘
Æ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨Ò‰ ª∏ ßÓÚ ¨Ì„‡ ˘„˜Ó ¨ÔÈÏ‚¯Ó
Æ≤≤∏≠≤≤∑ ßÓÚ ¨‰„ÈÏÒ ˙ÂÏÚÙ˙‰ ¨Ò‰
Æ≤≤π≠≤≤∏ ßÓÚ ¨‰„ÈÏÒ ˙ÂÏÚÙ˙‰ ¨Ï¢‰ ª∂∞ ßÓÚ ¨Ï‡˘Ï ‡Ï ¨Ò‰ ª±≤π ßÓÚ ¨ÔȘˆÂ˜¯˜–ʯ
Æ≤∑≠≤∂ ßÓÚ ¨Â‚· Ìȯ·„ ¨ÌÂÏ˘

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µµ

µ∂
µ∑
µ∏

µπ
∂∞
∂±
∂≤
∂≥

ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨Ï‡¯˘È Ô‡ÊÂÓ ¨„· ÏÚ Ô¯ÙÈÚ ÔÓ˘ Ʊπ∞∂ ¨ÔÂÒÙÏ ‰Ó¯Ù „Â„Ï ÁÈË˘Ï ‰ÂÂ˙Ó ¨ÔÈÈÏÈÏ Ó”‡

Ò‰ ÊÚ·

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| 24

25

|

‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

˙‡ ˘È‚„‰ ‡Â‰ ˙‡Ê ÌÚ Æ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ‰ÚÙÂ˙Î ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ˙‡ ¯ÂӇΠıÓȇ ÌÂÏ˘
˙¯ÂÒÓ ˙ÈÈ·‰ Ì˘Ï ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ˘Ó˙˘‰Â ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ È„ÂÁÈȉ ˷ȉ‰
˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙‡ ¯‡È˙ ÌÂÏ˘ ÆÌÈÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡‰ ‰È˷ȉ· ÔÈÈÚ ÍÂ˙Ó ‡Ï ˙È„Â‰È ˙ÈËÒÈÓ
Ì‚ ͇ ¨ß˙ȯÂËÒȉ‰ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙¯‚ÒÓß· ˙ÏÚÂÙ‰ ¨ßÌÈÈ‚¯Â‡ ˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰ ÈÂÂ˜ß ˙ÏÚ· ‰ÚÙÂ˙Î
˙ÂÏÎȉ‰ ˙˜ÈËÒÈÓ ∫˙È˘χȄ‰ ‰˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰· ˙Âȯ˜ÈÚ ˙ÂÙ˜˙ ˘˘ ‰Ó ¨‰ÓÓ ˙Ï„·
‰ÓÎÒ ∂¥Æ˙„ÈÒÁ‰Â ˙‡˙·˘‰ ¨È¢¯‡‰ ˙Ï·˜ ¨˙È„¯ÙÒ‰ ‰Ï·˜‰ ¨Ê΢‡ ˙„ÈÒÁ ¨‰·Î¯Ó‰Â
˙¯‡Â˙Ó ¨ßÔÓÁ ߯ ȯÂÙÈÒßÏ Â˙Ó„˜‰· ¯·Â· ‚Ȉ‰˘ ÂÊ ÏÚ ‰·¯ ‰„ÈÓ· ¯ÂӇΠ˙ÒÒ·Ӊ ¨ÂÊ
Major Trends in Jewish© ß˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ· ÌÈȯ˜ÈÚ ÌÈÓ¯Êß ÈÒϘ‰ ¯ÙÒ· ‰·Á¯‰·
‰Ï·˜‰ ¯˜ÁÓ Ï˘ ÔÂÎÓ‰ ¯ÙÒÏ ÍÙ‰˘Â ¨±π¥± ˙˘· ‰¢‡¯Ï ¯Â‡ ‰‡¯˘ ¨®Mysticism
˙‡ ‰· ‰‡¯ ‡Â‰ — ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓÏ ÈËÏÂÂÈ·Ó‡ ÒÁÈ ÌÂÏ˘ ˘ ¯·Â·Ï ‰Ó„· ÆÈ¯„ÂÓ‰
¨˙ÂÈ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰ ÂÈ˙¯ˆ· ˙ÂÁÙÏ ¨Â„ȘÙ˙ ˙‡ ÌÈÈÒ˘ ¨˙ÂÏ‚‰ ˙Ù˜˙· ˙„‰È‰ Ï˘ ÈÂÈÁ‰ ÁÂΉ
∂µ

Æ˙ÈÓ‡ω ‰Ó˜˙‰ ÌÚ

ËÂÈχ ҷÈÏ ‰„Â‰È ¨Ï„ȇ ‰˘Ó Ì˘‡¯·Â ¨ÌÈ¢ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ Â¯Ú¯Ú ÌÈ¯Á‡‰ ÌÈ¯Â˘Ú·
˙„‡ ÏÚ ÂÏ˘ ÏÚ‰–·È˯ ÏÚ ¯˜ÈÚ·Â ÌÂÏ˘ Ï˘ ÂÈ˙Â¯Ú˘‰Ó ÂÈ˙ÂÁ‰Ó ˙·¯ ÏÚ ¨ÔÂÒÙÏÂÂ
‰ÈÊȯ‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ∂∂Æ˙ȯÂËÒȉ‰ ‰˙ÚÙ˘‰Â ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙È˘χȄ‰ ˙ÂÁ˙Ù˙‰‰
ÈÙÎ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙È‚ÂÏÂ¯Ή ˙¯‚ÒÓ‰ ‰ˆ¯Ù Âχ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ ÂÚȈ‰˘ ˙ȯ˜ÁÓ‰
ÂÁÙÂÒ ¨Ï¢ÊÁ ˙¯ÙÒ ˙ȇ¯˜Ó‰ ˙¯ÙÒ‰ ̉·Â ¨ÌÈÙÒÂ ÌÈÓÂÁ˙ ¨ÌÂÏ˘Â ¯·Â· È„È ÏÚ ‰ËË¯Â˘˘
Ï˘ ˙ÂÎÓ‰ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ÏÚ Â¯Ú¯Ú ‡Ï ̉ȄÈÓÏ˙ ‰Ï‡ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ Ìχ ∂∑ƉϷ˜‰ ¯˜ÁÓ ‰„˘Ï
∂∏

Æ˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙ÈÁ¯ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ÈÓÂ‡Ï ÈÂËÈ·Î ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰ÓÂȘ — ‰„˘‰

‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙ÒÈÙ˙ ˙‡ ·ˆÈÚ˘ ÈÓ‡ω ·È˯‰ Ï˘ ‰ÈÂÓ‚‰‰ ˙¯گÚ˙‰ ˙·˜Ú· ˙‡Ê ÌÚ
ÌÈÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡‰ ÌÈ˷ȉ‰ ˙‡ ˘È‚„‰Ï ‰Ó‚Ó ÌÂÈÎ ¯˜ÁÓ· ˙¯ÎÈ ¨ÂÈ„ÈÓÏ˙ ÌÂÏ˘ Ï˘ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ
∂π

Æ‰Ï˘ È˙‡Â¢‰Â È‚ÂÏÂÓÂÙ ¯˜ÁÓ· ˜ÂÒÚÏ ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰ Ï˘

˙ÂÙ˜˙Ó ¨˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ·Á¯ ÔÂÂ‚Ó ¯Â‡È˙Ï ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‚˘ÂÓ· ‰Ï·˜‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ Ï˘ ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰
Ôȇ ˙·¯ ÌÈÓÚÙ˘ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ÔÈ· ˙È˙·ÏÓ ‰˜ÈÊ ¯ˆÂÈ ¨˙Â¢ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙Ó ˙Â¢ ˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ
ÌÈ„ÓÂÏÓ ÆÌÈÈ˙ÂÚÓ˘Ó — ÌÈÈ˙¯ÙÒ Â‡ ÌÈȯÂËÒȉ ¨ÌÈÈÙ¯‚‡‚ — ÌÈÈ˯˜˜ Ìȯ˘˜ Ô‰ÈÈ·
ÏÚ ¨‰Ï·˜‰ ÏÚ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ˙‡ ¯ÂӇΠÂÏÈÁ‰ Ìȯ˘Ú‰ ‰‡Ó‰ ˙È˘‡¯· ÌÈ„Â‰È Ìȯ˜ÂÁÂ
‰˙È˘‡¯˘ ¨˙ÈÓÂ‡Ï ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ˙¯ÂÒÓ ˙ÈÈ·‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙¯ÂÒÓ· ˙¯Á‡ ˙·¯˙ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙
ÔÈ·˘ Û‡ Æ®˙ÂÂȈ· — ÌÂÏ˘ ÈÙ ÏÚ ¨È˘χȄ‰ ‰Î˘Ó‰Â© ˙„ÈÒÁ· ‰ÙÂÒ ¨˙ÂÏÎȉ‰ ˙¯ÙÒ·
¨˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ ˙˜ÈÊ Ìȯ˘˜ ˘È ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰ÓÎÒ· ÂÏÏÎ˘ ˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰Ó ˜ÏÁ
ÆÌÈÈ„ÂÁÈÈ ÌÈÈÈÙ‡Ó ÈÏÚ· ˙¯ÂÒÓÓ Â‡ ̯ÊÓ ˜ÏÁ Ô‰· ˙‡¯Ï ‰˜„ˆ‰ Ì¢ È˙Ú„Ï Ôȇ

Æ≤≥∞ ßÓÚ ¨Ì˘
Æχ˘Ï ‡Ï ¨Ò‰
Æ≤¥∏≠≤¥∑ ßÓÚ ¨˘„Á Ô„ÈÚ ¨Ò‰ ªÔÈÈˢ˜ÂÙ
Æ≥∞ ßÓÚ ¨„ÏÂȯ‚
Æ≤µ≤≠≤¥∏ ßÓÚ ¨˘„Á Ô„ÈÚ ¨Ò‰ ª±≥¥ ßÓÚ ¨ÔȘˆÂ˜¯˜–ʯ
Æ®Ì˘© Ò‰ ª®Ì˘© ÔȘˆÂ˜¯˜–ʯ

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∂¥
∂µ
∂∂
∂∑
∂∏
∂π

Ò‰ ÊÚ·

| 26

‰È¯ÂËÒȉ· ˙Â¢ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ÔÈ· ˜¯ ‡Ï ˙È˙·ÏÓ ‰˜ÈÊ ¯ˆÂÈ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰
˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï ˙ÂÈ„Â‰È ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙¯ÂÒÓ ˙˜È˘¯Ù ÔÈ· Û‡ ‡Ï‡ ¨˙Ȅ‰ȉ
˙ÂÈ‚ÂÏÂÓÂÙ ˙„Â˙Ó· ˘ÂÓÈ˘‰Â ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡‰ ˷ȉ‰ ˙˘‚„‰ Æ˙¯Á‡
˙¯ÂÒÓ· ˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÔÈ·˘ „ÂÚ· Æ˙Â¯Á‡‰ ÌÈ˘· ÌÈÁ¯ ÌÈÎω ‰¯˜ÁÓ· ˙¢ÓÂ
˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰ ÔÈ· ȯ‰ ¨Ô‰˘ÏÎ ˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ ˙˜ÈÊ ·Â¯Ï ˙ÂÓÈȘ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓÎ ˙‚ÈÂ˙Ó‰ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ
˙„ÓÂÚ˘ Ìȯ˜ÂÁ‰ Ï˘ ‰Á‰‰ ËÚÓÏ ¯˘˜ Ì¢ ·Â¯Ï Ôȇ ‰Ê ÁÂÓ· ˙‚ÈÂ˙Ó‰ ˙ÂÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡‰
Ô‰ ¯ÂӇΠ˙Ù˙Â˘Ó ÂÊ ‰Á‰ Æ˙ÈË„ˆÒ¯Ë ˙Â‡ÈˆÓ ÌÚ ˘‚ÙÓ Ï˘ ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁ Ô„ÂÒÈ·
‰ÈÁ·Ó Æ˘„Á‰ Ô„ÈÚ‰ ˙ÂÚÂ˙Ï Ô‰Â ‰Â¢Ӊ ˙Â˙„‰ ¯˜ÁÓÏ Ô‰ ¨˙Â¢ ˙ÂȯËÂʇ ˙ÂÚÂ˙Ï
— ÏÏη ˙Â˙„‰ Ï˘ ‰Â¢Ӊ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ÂÓÎ — ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ È‚ÂÏÂÓÂÙ‰ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ÂÊ
∑∞

Æ˙Ù˙Â˘Ó ˙È‚Âχ„ȇ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ÌÈÏÚÂÙ ˘„Á‰ Ô„ÈÚ‰ ˙ÂÚÂ˙Â

‚˘ÂÓ· ¢Ó˙˘‰ ‡Ï ÌÏÂÚÓ ¯ÂӇ΢ ¨ÌÓˆÚ ÌȄ‰ȉ ßÌȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓ߉˘ ÔÈÈˆÏ ˘È
˙Âȯ˘„‰Â ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰ ÔÈ· ÔÂÈÓ„ ˙·¯ ÌÈÓÚ٠‡¯ ‡Ï ¨Â· ‡ˆÂÈÎ ¯Á‡ ‚˘ÂÓ· ‡ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ
‡ˆÓ ‡Ï˘ ‰ÓΠ‰ÓÎ ˙Á‡ ÏÚ Æ˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÏÂÎÒ‡Ó ÌÈ„Â‰È Ìȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ï˘ Âχ ÔÈ·Ï Ì‰Ï˘
‡¯ ̉ ˙·¯ ÌÈÓÚÙ˘ ¨˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙· Ìȇ˜ÈËÒÈÓ Ï˘ ÂÏ‡Ï Ì‰Ï˘ ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰ ÔÈ· ÔÂÈÓ„
ÌÈȘ˘ ®˘„Á‰ Ô„ÈÚ‰ ˙ÂÚÂ˙ Ï˘Â© ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ Ï˘ Ì˙ÚË ÂÊ ‰ÈÁ·Ó Ɖ¯Ê ‰„Â·Ú Ô‰·
ÌÈ¢ ÌÈÈÂËÈ· Ô‰˘Â ¨˙Â¢‰ ˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÂÎÓ‰ ˙Âȯ˘„‰Â ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰ ÔÈ· ÔÂÈÓ„
¯˜ÁÓ‰ ȇ˘ÂÓ Ï˘ ˙ÈÓˆÚ‰ ‰Ú„Â˙Ï ÛȯÁ „‚È· ˙„ÓÂÚ ¨˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁ Ï˘
ÆÌ‰Ï˘ ÌÈίډ ÌÏÂÚ· ˙˘‚˙ÓÂ Ì‰Ï˘
‰˜ÈÊ ÏÎ Ô‰ÈÈ· Ôȇ˘ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ÔÈ· È˙·ÏÓ ÔÙ‡· ¯˘˜Ó ˜¯ ‡Ï ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜Á
ÆÂÓÈȘ˙‰Â ¯ˆÂ ÌÎÂ˙·˘ ÌÈÈ˘ÓÓ‰ Ìȯ˘˜‰‰Ó Âχ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ˜˙Ï ‰ËÂ Û‡ ‡Ï‡ ¨˙È˘ÓÓ
˙¯‚ÒÓ· ˙ÂÓÈȘ˙Ó ˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÂÎÓ‰ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙‰˘ ÌÈÓÈÎÒÓ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ȯ˜ÂÁ ˙È·¯Ó
˙ÈËÒÈÓ ‰ÈÂÂÁ Ï˘ ÈÂËÈ· Ô‰ ‰Ï‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙˘ ‰Úˉ ͇ ¨˙ÂÈÙȈÙÒ ˙ÂÈ˙¯·Á ˙ÂȯÂËÒȉ
¨˙ÂÈ‚ÂÏÂÓÂÙ ˙ÂÈ˙‡Â¢‰ ˙„Â˙Ó ˙ÂÚˆÓ‡· ‡È‰ Ô˙‡ ¯Â˜ÁÏ Í¯„‰˘Â ¨˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡
∑±

ÆÈËÈÏÂى È˙¯·Á‰ ÔÈÈÙ‡ ˘ÂˢËÏ ÌÈȯÂËÒȉ‰ ԉȯ˘˜‰Ó ‰Ï‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ˜Â˙ÈÏ ˙ӯ‚

¯˜ÁÓ Ï˘ „„ȷÏ ˜Â˙ÈÏ Ì‚ ˙ӯ‚ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ˙È˙‰Ӊ ‰ÒÈÙ˙‰ ¨ÔÎ ÏÚ ¯˙È
˙Âȯ˜ÁÓ‰ ˙ÂÓ‚Ó‰ ÔÓ — ÏÏη ˙„‰Â ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÓÏ ‰Ó„· — ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰
∑≤

Ɖ¯·Á‰Â Á¯‰ ÈÚ„Ó· ˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÈÏÙȈÒÈ„· ˙ÂÁ¯‰

‚˘ÂÓ ÏÚ ˙ÂÒÒ·Ӊ ˙Âȯ˜ÁÓ ˙Âȯ‚˘ Ô‰ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈӉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¨ÌÂÎÈÒÏ
ÌÊÈχȯÙÓȇ‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ· ˙ÂȯˆÂ–˙ÂÈÙ¯ȇ ‡Ï ˙ÂÈ·¯˙ ÏÚ ÏÁ‰ ‰Ê ‚˘ÂÓ ªÈ¯ˆÂ È‚Âχ˙
ÌÈ‚˘ÂÓ· ˙ÂÈ·¯ÚÓ ‡Ï ˙ÂÈÓÂ‡Ï ˙ÂÈÂ‰Ê ˙ÈÈ·‰ ˙¯‚ÒÓ·Â ¨·¯ÚÓ‰ Ï˘ ÌÊÈχÈÂϘ‰Â

Æ≤µ≤≠≤µ± ßÓÚ ¨®Ì˘© Ò‰
ÆÏÏη ˙„‰ ¯˜Á ˙‡ ‡Ï‡ ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜Á ˙‡ ˜¯ ‡Ï ˙ÈÈÙ‡Ó ÂÊ ‰˘È‚ Æ≤¥π ßÓÚ ¨®Ì˘© Ò‰ ª≤¥ ßÓÚ ¨‚Ș
Ƶ∂≠µµ ßÓÚ ¨‰ÈÏÙȈÒÈ„‰ ¨Ï¢‰ ªπ ßÓÚ ¨˙„‰ ˙˘Â¯Á ¨ÔÂßˆË˜Ó ª≤∏ ßÓÚ ¨„Ò‡ ∫‡¯
Ƶ± ßÓÚ ¨‰È‚Âχ„ȇ‰ ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ ª≤± ßÓÚ ¨˙„‰ ˙˘Â¯Á ¨Ï¢‰ ∫Ì‚ ‡¯Â ª®Ì˘© ‰ÈÏÙȈÒÈ„‰ ¨ÔÂ߈˘Ó
˙ÂÈÈȘ»Ù ˙ÂÈχÈÂϘ–ËÒÂÙ ¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÒ˜¯Ó–‡ ˙ÂÈ˙¯Â˜È· ˙Âȯ‡˙Ó ‰Ï·˜ ȯ˜ÂÁ Ï˘ Ì˙ÂÓÏÚ˙‰ ÏÚ
Æ≤¥∑ ßÓÚ ¨˘„Á Ô„ÈÚ ¨Ò‰ ∫‡¯

3_Pe110_ Huss_2

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∑∞
∑±
∑≤

27

|

‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

˙ÂÈ·¯˙· ˙˜È˘¯Ù ˙Âȯ˘„ ¨ÌÈËÒ˜Ë ¨˙¯ÂÒÓ Ï˘ ÍÂÈ˘‰ ÆÌÈÈÙ¯ȇ ÌÈÈÂÂÈү˜ÒÈ„
‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ Ï˘ ˙ÂÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡‰ ¯·„· ˙È‚Âχ˙ ‰Á‰ ÏÚ ÒÒÂ·Ó ¨‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚Ë˜Ï ˙Â¢
Ô˙‡ ˜˙Ó ˙È˘ÓÓ ‰˜ÈÊ Ô‰ÈÈ· Ôȇ˘ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙ ÔÈ· ˙È˙·ÏÓ ‰˜ÈÊ ¯ˆÂÈ ‡Â‰Â ¨˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰
˙‚ÈÂ˙Ó‰ ˙Â‚Ӊ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï ÆÂÓÈȘ˙‰Â ¯ˆÂ ̉·˘ ÌÈÈ˙¯·Á‰Â ÌÈȯÂËÒȉ‰ Ìȯ˘˜‰‰Ó
Í‡Â Ô‰Ï ˙ÂÙ˙¢Ӊ ˙ÂÂÎ˙ ‡ ‰ÂÎ˙ Ì¢ Ôȇ ˯ٷ ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÏÏη ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ÁÂÓ·
ÌÈÈ„ÂÁÈȉ ¯˜ÁÓ ˙„˘ ÌÂȘ ‡ Ô‰Ï˘ ¯˜ÁÓÏ ˙ÂÈ„ÂÁÈÈ ˙„Â˙Ó· ˘ÂÓÈ˘ ˙˜ȄˆÓ‰Â ¨Ô‰Ï ˜¯Â
˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ÌÂÁ˙· ÌÈÏÏÎ‰ ˙˜È˘¯Ù‰Â ˙¯ÂÒÓ‰ ¨ÌÈËҘˉ ˙‡ ÆÔ‰Ï
˙¯Á‡ ˙ÂÚÙÂ˙Ï Ì˙‡Â¢‰ ÍÓÒ ÏÚ ¨˙ÈÏÒ¯ÂÂÈ‡ ˙È˙„ ‰ÚÙÂ˙ Ï˘ ÌÈÈÂËÈ·Î ¯Â˜ÁÏ Ôȇ
ÌÈÈ˙¯·Á‰ ¨ÌÈȯÂËÒȉ‰ Ìȯ˘˜‰· ÌÈ‚ÂÚÓ‰ ˙·¯˙ ȯˆÂ˙Î ‡Ï‡ ¨‰Ê ÁÂÓ· ˙‚ÈÂ˙Ó‰
˙‡Â ˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ‰È¯Â‚˘‰ ˙‡ Ì‚ È˙Ú„Ï ¯Â˜ÁÏ ˘È ͯ„ ‰˙‡· ƯˆÂ ̉·˘ ÌÈÈËÈÏÂÙ‰Â
ƉÓÂȘ ˙Á‰ ÏÚ ÒÒ·Ӊ ¯˜ÁÓ‰ ‰„˘ Ï˘ ˙ÂÈËÈÏÂى ˙ÂÈ˙¯·Á‰ ˙ÂÈÂÚÓ˘Ó‰

¨ÔȯÙÏ‚ ȯÓÚ
¨ÔÓ‡· ˙„„·˙‰
ÆÊ¢Ò˘˙ ‰˘‰ ˘‡¯
˙·Ȅ‡· ÌÂÏȈ‰
ÔÓ‡‰

3_Pe110_ Huss_2

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Ò‰ ÊÚ·

| 28

ÌÈÈÙ¯‚ÂÈÏ·È· ÌȯˆȘ
Moshe Idel, ‘Academic Studies of Kabbalah in Israel, 1923≠1998: A Short
Survey’, Studia Judaica 8 (1999), pp. 91≠114
·È·‡–Ï˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨··Ï–¯· χȯ·‡ Ì‚¯˙ ¨ÌÈ˘„Á ÌÈ˷ȉ ∫‰Ï·˜ ¨Ï„ȇ ‰˘Ó
‚¢˘˙
±µ ÌÈÈÙχ ¨ß˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ· ÌÈÂÈÚ ∫˙¯ÈÁ‰ Ï˘ ˙Â¢‰ ‰ÈÙß ¨¯Â‡Èχ ÏÁ¯
±±π≠π ßÓÚ ¨®Á¢˘˙©
Gil Anidjar, ‘Jewish Mysticism Alterable and Unalterable: On Orienting
Kabbalah Studies and the Zohar of Christian Spain’, Jewish Social Studies
3 (1996), pp. 89≠157
Talal Asad, Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power
in Christianity and Islam, Baltimore & London 1993
William E.Arnal, ‘Definition’, Willie Braun & Russel T. McCutcheon (eds.),
Guide to the Study of Religion, London & New York 2000, pp. 21≠35
Martin Buber, Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman5, Frankfurt a.M.
1920
Louis Bouyer, ‘Mysticism: An Essay on the History of the Word’, Richard
Woods (ed.), Understanding Mysticism, London 1981, pp. 42≠55
Jacques Basnage, The History of the Jews from Jesus Christ to the Present
Times, London 1708
Ernst Benz, The Mystical Sources of German Romantic Philosophy,
Allison Park, Pa. 1983
Willie Braun, ‘Religion’, Willie Braun & Russel T. McCutcheon (eds.),
Guide to the Study of Religion, London & New York 2000, pp. 3≠21
Jonathan Garb, ‘“Mystics” Critiques of Mystical Experience’, Revue de
l’histoire des Religions 221 (2004), pp. 293≠325
˙Ï·˜ „Ú Ï¢ÊÁ ˙¯ÙÒÓ ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ· ÁÂΉ Ï˘ ÂÈ˙ÂÚÙ‰ ¨·¯‡‚ Ô˙ÂÈ
‰¢Ò˘˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨˙Ùˆ
Rufus M. Jones, Studies in Mystical Religion, New York 1909
‡¢È˘˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨· ¨Ô„¯Â‚ „¢‡ È·˙Î
¨ıÈ·ÈÏÙ˜ ·˜ÚÈ Ì‚¯˙ ¨Ì„‡‰ Ú·Ë· ¯˜ÁÓ ∫‰È‚ÂÒÏ ˙È˙„‰ ‰ÈÈÂÂÁ‰ ¨ÒÓÈÈß‚ ̇ÈÏÈÂ
Ë¢È˘˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨Ï‡ÂÓ˘ Ô·‡ ‰„Â‰È ˙Îȯڷ
Robert M. Gimello, ‘Mysticism and its Contexts’, Steven Katz (ed.),
Mysticism and Religious Traditions, Oxford 1983, pp. 170≠199
Jerome Gellman, Mystical Experience of God: A Philosophical Inquiry,
Aldershot 2001
Ithamar Gruenwald, ‘Reflections on the Nature and Origins of Jewish
Mysticism’, Peter Schäfer & Joseph Dan (eds.), Gershom Scholem’s Major
Trends in Jewish Mysticism: 50 Years after, Tübingen 1993, pp. 25≠49
Michel De Certeau, The Mystic Fable, I, London 1992
Daniel Dubuisson, The Western Construction of Religion, Baltimore 2003
Louis K. Dupree, Transcendent Selfhood: The Loss and Recovery of the
Inner Life, New York 1976
‰˜È˙Ú‰ ˙Ú‰ ÔÓ ¨˙ÂÓÂÏÁ ˙ÂÂÈÊÁ ¨˙ÂÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÈÂÂÁ ¯Á·Ó ∫ÔÈÈÚӉ ·Ï‰ ¨Ô„ ÛÒÂÈ
≤∞∞µ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨ÂÈÓÈ „Ú
Ê¢˘˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨‰˘Â„˜‰ ÏÚ ¨—
Jess Byron Hollenback, Mysticism: Experience, Response, and
Empowerment, University Park, Pa. 1996

3_Pe110_ Huss_2

28

ÌÈÈÓ„˜‡ ÌÈ„ÂÓÈÏ ¨Ï„ȇ
‰Ï·˜ ¨Ï„ȇ
¯Â‡Èχ
¯ß‚„È‡

„Ò‡
Ï¯‡
¯·Â·
‰È·
ßÊ·
ı·
Ô‡¯·
˙¯˜ȷ ¨·¯‡‚
ÁÂΉ ¨·¯‡‚
ÒÂß‚
Ô„¯Â‚
ÒÓÈÈß‚
ÂÏÓÈ‚
ÔÓÏ‚
„ÏÂȯ‚

ÂË¯Ò ‰„
ÔÂÒȷ„
‰¯Ù„
ÔÈÈÚӉ ·Ï‰ ¨Ô„
‰˘Â„˜‰ ÏÚ ¨Ô„
˜·ω

10.06.2007, 07:35

29

|

‰Ï·˜‰ Ï˘ ‰Èˆ˜ÈÙÈËÒÈÓ‰

Boaz Huss, ‘Admiration and Disgust: The Ambivalent Re-Canonization
of the Zohar in the Modern Period’, Howard Kreisel (ed.), Study and
Knowledge in Jewish Thought, Beer Sheva 2006, pp. 203≠237
˙· ˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜Á ÌÂÏ˘ Ì˘¯‚ ∫˙Âχ˘ ÏΠχ˘Ï ‡Ïß ¨Ò‰ ÊÚ·
∑≤≠µ∑ ßÓÚ ¨®‚¢Ò˘˙© πµ≠π¥ ÌÈÓÚÙ ¨ßÂÈÓÈ
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ Ï˘ ‰È‚Âχ‚‰Â ÔÓÁ È·¯ ȯÂÙÈÒÏ ¯·Â· ÔÈË¯Ó Ï˘ Â˙Ó„˜‰ß ¨—
®‰Ή·© ß˙Ȅ‰ȉ
¨®≤∞∞µ© ≤∑ ˙¯Â˜È·Â ‰È¯Â‡È˙ ¨ß˙Ȅ‰ȉ ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ¯˜ÁÓ· ˘„Á Ô„ÈÚß ¨—
≤µ≥≠≤¥∂ ßÓÚ
ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨¯‰ÂÊ· ˙ÈËÒÈÓ‰ ‰ÈÂÂÁ‰ ˙Ù˘ ÏÚ ∫Ô„ÚÓ ‡ˆÂÈ ¯‰ ¨„˘‡–¯ω ‰ÏÈÏÓ
‰¢Ò˘˙
Wouter Hanegraaff, New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism
in the Mirror of Secular Thought, Albany 1998
Elliot R. Wolfson, Through a Speculum that Shines: Vision and Imagination
in Medieval Jewish Mysticism, Princeton 1994
¨˙ÈÏ‚¯Ó–ÔÓχ ‰„Ú ‰Ó‚¯˙ ¨˙ÂÈÙÂÒÂÏÈÙ ˙¯ȘÁ ¨ÔÈÈˢ‚ËÈ ‚È„ÂÏ
‰¢˘˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È
Peter van der Veer, Imperial Encounters: Religion and Modernity in India
and Britain, Princeton 2001
Steven M. Wasserstrom, Religion after Religion: Gershom Scholem,
Mircea Eliade, and Henry Corbin at Eranos, Princeton 1999
±πππ ·È·‡–Ï˙ ¨ÛȘӉ Íȯ„Ó‰ ∫ÌÈχ¯˘È ÌÈ˜ÈËÒÈÓ ±∞± ¨ÔÁ ÏÚÈ
Adolph Jellinek, Auswahl Kabbalisticher Mystik, I, Leipzig 1853
Grace M. Jantzen, Power, Gender and Christian Mysticism, Cambridge,
New York & Melbourne 1997
Steven Katz, ‘The Conservative Character of Mystical Experience’, idem
(ed.), Mysticism and Religious Traditions, Oxford 1983, pp. 3≠60
— (ed.), Mysticism and Religious Traditions, Oxford 1983
— (ed.), Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis, London 1978
—¨ ‘Language, Epistemology, and Mysticism’, Steven Katz (ed.),
Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis, London 1978, pp. 22≠74
ßÓÚ ¨≤∞Ʊ∞Æ≤∞∞∂ ¨Ê¢Ò˘˙ ȯ˘˙· Á¢Î ¨Ô¢‡¯ ¯Â˜Ó ¨Á¯ ˙ÂÈÁ¯ ¨Ò·ÈÏ ‰„‰È
∑≠∂
Franz Joseph Molitor, Philosophie der Geschichte, oder über die Tradition,
Frankfurt a.M. 1827
Peter Moore, ‘Mystical Experience, Mystical Doctrine, Mystical
Technique’, Steven Katz (ed.), Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis,
London 1978, pp. 101≠131
ˢȉ ‰‡Ó‰ ‰ÙÓ Ï˘ ‰˜ÈË˙Ò‡‰ ∫‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ˙ÂÈÏËÈÈ¯Â‡ß ¨¯ÂÏÙ–Ò„Ó ÏÂÙ
∂∏±≠∂≤≥ ßÓÚ ¨®„¢Ó˘˙© ‚ χ¯˘È ˙·˘ÁÓ· ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È È¯˜ÁÓ ¨ß˙Ȅ‰ȉ ˙‰ʉÂ
Bernard McGinn, The Foundations of Mysticism, New York 1991
Russel T. McCutcheon, The Discipline of Religion: Structure, Meaning,
Rhetoric, London & New York 2003
—¨ Manufacturing Religion, New York & Oxford 1997
Andrew M. McKinnon, ‘Sociological Definitions, Language Games and
the “Essence” of Religion’, Method & Theory in the Study of Religion
14 (2002), pp. 61≠83

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29

‰„ÈÏÒ ˙ÂÏÚÙ˙‰ ¨Ò‰

χ˘Ï ‡Ï ¨Ò‰
˙È„Â‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨Ò‰
˘„Á Ô„ÈÚ ¨Ò‰
„˘‡–¯ω
Û¯‚‰
ÔÂÒÙÏÂÂ
ÔÈÈˢ‚ËÈÂ
¯È ¯„ ÔÂ
̯ËÒ¯ÒÂ
ÔÁ
˜ÈÏÈ
ÔˆÈ
È¯Ó˘‰ ÈÙ‡‰ ¨ı¢Î
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨ı¢Î
˙ÂÈ˙„ ˙¯ÂÒÓÂ
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨ı¢Î
ÈÙÂÒÂÏÈÙ ÁÂ˙ÈÂ
‰Ù˘ ¨ı¢Î
Ò·ÈÏ
¯ÂËÈÏÂÓ
¯ÂÓ

¯ÂÏÙ–Ò„Ó
ÔÈ‚˜Ó
‰ÈÏÙȈÒÈ„‰ ¨ÔÂ߈˘Ó
˙„‰ ˙˘Â¯Á ¨ÔÂ߈˘Ó
ÔÂȘÓ

10.06.2007, 07:35

Ò‰ ÊÚ·
∫˙„ÈÒÁ‰ Ï˘ ÌÈ¢‡¯‰ ‰È˙¯„· ‰·˘ÁӉ ˙„‰ ÈÈÁ ˙ÓÙ‰ß ¨ÔÈÏ‚¯Ó Ô¯
˙ȯ·Ú‰ ‰ËÈÒ¯·È‡‰ ¨¯Â˘„ ˙„Â·Ú ¨ßÌÈÈ‚ÂÏÂÓËÒÈÙ‡‰ ‰ÈÒÈÒ·Â ‰È˙¯˜Ó
Ë¢˘˙ ¨ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È·
˙È˘‡¯· ÌÈÈÓÈÙ‰ ˙„‰ ÈÈÁ ·ÂˆÈÚ ˙È˙„‰ ‰ÓÙ‰‰ ∫Ì„‡ ˘„˜Ó ¨—
‰¢Ò˘˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨˙„ÈÒÁ‰
Benson Saler, Conceptualizing Religion: Immanent Anthropologists,
Transcendent Natives, and Unbounded Categories, New York & Oxford
1993
Jonathan Z. Smith, Imagining Religion: From Babylon to Jonestown,
Chicago 1982
Ninian Smart, The Phenomenon of Religion, London 1973
˙ÂÈÏÙȈÒÈ„ ÏÂÓÏ ‰È¯ÂËÒȉ ∫ÌÈÁÂÁ‰ ÔÈ· χ¯˘È ˙„ÏÂ˙ß ¨ÔÈÈˢ˜ÂÙ ÒÂÓÚ
≥¥∑≠≥≥µ ßÓÚ ¨®‰¢˘˙© Ò ÔÂȈ ¨ß˙¯Á‡
Michel Foucault, Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and other
Writings, 1977≠1984, New York & London 1988
Robert K.C. Forman, Mysticism, Mind, Consciousness, Albany 1999
—¨ (ed.), The Problem of Pure Consciousness, Mysticism and Philosophy,
New York & Oxford 1990
Timothy Fitzgerald, ‘Religion, Philosophy and Family Resemblances’,
Religion 26 (1996), pp. 215≠236
—¨ The Ideology of Religious Studies, New York 2000
—¨ ‘Playing Language Games and Performing Rituals: Religious Studies
Ideological State Apparatus’, Method & Theory 15 (2003), pp. 209≠254
Hans H. Penner, ‘The Mystical Illusion’, Steven Katz (ed.), Mysticism
and Religious Traditions, Oxford 1983, pp. 89≠116
Adolph Frank, La Kabbale ou philosophie religieuse des hebreux, Paris
1843
Partha Chatterjee, The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and
Postcolonial Histories, Princeton 1993
Richard King, Orientalism and Religion: Postcolonial Theory, India and
The Mystic East, London & New York 1999
Jeremny Carrette & Richard King, Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover
of Religion, London & New York 2005
Ȅ‰È ˙ÈÂȈ‰ ‰ÈÙ¯‚ÂȯÂËÒȉ‰ ∫˙ÂÏ‚‰ Ï˘ ÈÓ‡ω ‰‚ˆÈÈß ¨ÔȘˆÂ˜¯˜–ʯ ÔÂÓ‡
Ê¢˘˙ ¨·È·‡–Ï˙ ˙ËÈÒ¯·È‡ ¨¯Â˘„ ˙„Â·Ú ¨ßÌÈÈÈ·‰ ÈÓÈ
ȯ˜ÁÓ© È˙¯Â˜È· ÁÂ˙È ∫ÌÂÏ˘ Ì¢¯‚ ÈÙÏ ˙„‰È ‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨„ÈÈ·˘ ¯ÊÚÈχ
‚¢Ó˘˙ ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È ¨®· ÛÒÂÓ ¨Ï‡¯˘È ˙·˘ÁÓ· ÌÈÏ˘Â¯È
Frits Staal, Exploring Mysticism: A Methodological Essay, Berkeley &
Los Angeles 1975
·È·‡–Ï˙ ¨‡¯ÈÙ˘ ̉¯·‡ ˙Îȯڷ ¨‰ÈÈÁ˙ ‰˘¯ÂÓ È˜¯Ù ∫‚· Ìȯ·„ ¨ÌÂÏ˘ Ì˘¯‚
Â¢Ï˘˙
Gershom Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism3, New York 1974
±π∏∂ ·È·‡–Ï˙ ¨‡¯ÈÙ˘ ̉¯·‡ ˙Îȯڷ ¨¯·„ „ÂÚ ¨—
Robert H. Sharf, ‘Experience’, Mark C. Taylor (ed.), Critical Terms for
Religious Studies, Chicago & London 1998, pp. 94≠116

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30

| 30

‰ÓÙ‰ ¨ÔÈÏ‚¯Ó

Ì„‡ ˘„˜Ó ¨ÔÈÏ‚¯Ó
¯ÏÒ

˙ÈÓÒ
˯ÓÒ
ÔÈÈˢ˜ÂÙ
˜ÂÙ
‰˜ÈËÒÈÓ ¨ÔÓ¯ÂÙ
‰¯Â‰Ë ‰Ú„Â˙ ¨ÔÓ¯ÂÙ
˙„ ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ
‰È‚Âχ„ȇ‰ ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ
‰Ù˘ ȘÁ˘Ó ¨„ϯ߂ˆÈÙ
¯Ù
˜¯Ù
Èß‚¯Ë߈
‚Ș
‚Ș ˯˜
ÔȘˆÂ˜¯˜–ʯ
„ÈÈ·˘
Ï‡Ë˘
‚· Ìȯ·„ ¨ÌÂÏ˘
ÌÈÓ¯Ê ¨ÌÂÏ˘
¯·„ „ÂÚ ¨ÌÂÏ˘
Û¯˘

10.06.2007, 07:35

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