Waray: a Major Language in Philippines I.
Introduction Wáray-Wáray or Waráy is commonly spelled as Waray; which is also referred to as Winaray or Lineyte-Samarnon. It is a language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Leyte (eastern portion), and Biliran in the Philippines. The Waraynon group of languages consists of Waray, Waray Sorsogon and Masbate Sorsogon. Waray Sorsogon and Masbate Sorsogon are called Bisakol because they are intermediate between Visayan and Bicolano languages. All the Warayan languages belong to the Visayan language family and are closely related to the Central Visayan languages: Sorsogon, Bikol, Hiligaynon, and Romblomanon. Other closely related Visayan languages include Tausug, Cebuano, Banton, Aklanon, Kinaray-a, and Kuyonon. The language is largely spoken in Leyte and Samar. There are several dialects of Waray Waray, often referred to by their place name. For example, towns in Leyte like Barugo, Carigara, Jaro and their capital city; Tacloban. People from Barugo have some differences in intonation and accents compared to those from Carigara. And people from those two towns can easily determine those from Jaro, which is known in their place to have softer intonation and a substitution of schwa [ə] sound on the usual sound of [ɔ] and [u] in most “o” and “u” vowels in their words. And people from those three towns may know that whom they are talking to is from Tacloban since people from Tacloban have an intonation that is more similar to those from Samar Regions. The dialects of Northern Samar are the most conservative. They maintain [s] in their common word marker while other dialects have innovated [h]. Vowel-length in the verb prefix paradigm for the Northern Samar dialect is absent except in the active potentate form náka-. Zorc (1975) identifies the following three major dialects: Samar-Leyte spoken in Central Samar and the northern half of Leyte, Waray spoken in southern and eastern Samar, and the Northern Samar dialect. But as of now, there are two main dialects that are being considered: the “S-Waray” and “H-
Waray”. S-Waray is mainly spoken in the Northern and Eastern parts of Samar and Biliran, while H-Waray is spoken in the remaining areas. The reason for the names is the differences in the word markers: H-Waray using “ha” and S-Waray using “sa”. There are about 3 million people that speak Waray-waray, but as of present time, there is no official orthography commonly accepted; there exists two different spellings of many words. Waray-waray is a harsh sounding language, but because there are many different types of tones across the Waray-waray dialects, some sounds sweeter than the others. The literal meaning of Waray is “nothing” or “none”. In history, the Westerners’ first contact with Waray peoples was on March 31, 1521, when Magellan found the Leyte gateway. Very little is known about pre-Hispanic Waray history, but linguistic, ethnographic, and archeological evidence help to classify the Warays as the easternmost extension of the Visayan peoples, a relatively homogeneous group inhabiting the central Philippine Islands named after the great Sumatran empire of Sri Vijaya. Warays today are predominantly Roman Catholic, many practicing with a blend of pre-Hispanic animistic elements. They are the most culturally conservative of the Visayans. Tracing its language family, Waray-waray is a Central Bisayan branch of the Bisayan subgroup. Bisayan is a subgroup of Central Philippine which is a subgroup of the Meso Philippine group. Meso Philippine group then, is a subgroup of the Western Malayo-Polynesian branch. Western Malayo-Polynesian branch which is a subgroup of the Malayo-Polynesian subfamily belongs to the Austronesian language family. There are no much efforts to preserve, promote and protect the Language. Although Waray Waray ranks among the top eight languages of the Philippines, there has been very little done in the way of propagating the language through literature or the media. No works of literature have been produced prior to the 1900s during the early American period of occupation and nothing substantial is being produced in Waray to this day. Norberto Romualdez was the first accomplished writer in Waray, staging his
first play, An Pagtabang ni San Miguel (The Assistance of St. Michael), in 1899 at the age of 24. In 1908 he produced a Bisayan Grammar and organized the Sanghiran san Binisaya or “Bisayan Language Academy” the following year but the academy is no longer active. II. Review of Related Literature There are some related studies in this research like the one anonymously conducted and posted in the internet entitled Waray-Waray Explained. A paragraph there says: Waray-waray is a language that has been around for a long time, and has change a lot over the last couple hundred of years, because of the Spanish and English influences. You may notice a lot of Spanish and English words are now used in Waray-waray. Waray-waray isn’t an easy language to learn for English speakers as many of its concepts are different to those we’re used to in English. It has being said that Waray-waray is rated 4 out of 5 (5 being the hardest) for hardness to learn. But there were some noticeable mistakes in the study, especially in the given examples and the instruction of how words are to be pronounced in Waray way. An in-depth verification of existing documentation was carried out in order to avoid the errors committed in previous research. Christopher Sundita's Salita Blog claims too that: Waray-Waray not only has a definite and indefinite distinction, but also a temporal one! This means a distinction between past and the non-past. He was able to use examples too where he explained: “The genitive forms are simply the addition of h or s, depending on the dialect. I will use h since that is used in Tacloban.” Such explanation by him before citing examples, remind readers again of the considered 2 major dialects of Waray language, the “S” and “H”. Siting some examples, he said that in Tagalog, to express "a man called" one could say may tumawag na lalaki or tumawag ang isang lalaki; and yes, tumawag ang lalaki is also possible. In Waray-Waray, the indefinite article gets rid of the ambiguity, it'd be tinmawag in lalaki. May-ada tinmawag nga lalaki is also possible.
If it's definite, you say tinmawag an lalaki (The man called). Other translations. Natawag an lalaki = The man was calling. (note an, past definite) Natawag it lalaki = The man is calling. (note it, non-past definite) Matawag it lalaki = The man will call. Matawag an lalaki is also possible and it could imply that the person being spoken to knows the man. A substantial info about Waray copula is explained by Wikipedia, one of the popular reference website in the Internet. Here is what they have: Waray, like other Philippine languages, does not have any exact equivalent to the English linking verb be. In Tagalog, for example, the phrase "Siya ay maganda" (She is beautiful) contains the word ay which, contrary to popular belief, does not function as an attributive copula predicating maganda (beautiful) to its subject and topic Siya (he or she). The function of Tagalog's ay is rather a marker of sentence inversion, which is regarded as a literary form but somewhat less common in spoken Tagalog. The same phrase may be spoken as Maganda siya, which has the same meaning. The Waray language in comparison would express "She is beautiful" only as "Mahusay hiya" or sometimes "Mahusay iton hiya" (iton functioning as a definite article of hiya, she), since Waray doesn't have a present-tense copula or even an inversion marker. As in other Philippine languages, attributive statements are usually represented in predicate-initial form and have no copula at all. Take for example the ordinary English sentence "This is a dog" as translated to Waray: Ayam ini. The predicate Ayam (dog) is placed before the subject ini (this); no copula is present. Another example: Amo ito an balay han Winaray o Binisaya nga Lineyte-Samarnon nga Wikipedia. Asya it an balay han Winaray o Binisaya nga taga Eastern Samar.
In English: "This is the Waray/Leyte-Samar Visayan Wikipedia". The predicate Amo ini is roughly translated as "This here" but the rest of the sentence then jumps to its subject, marked by the particle an. A more literal translation would therefore be "This is the Waray/Leyte-Samar Visayan Wikipedia". Unlike Tagalog, it is grammatically impossible to invert a sentence like this into a subject-head form without importing the actual Tagalog inversion marker ay, a growing trend among younger people in Leyte. Amo word is use only in waray waray leyte. In Samar Asya (This). Despite the debate regarding the Waray copula, it would be safe to treat structures like magin (to be), an magin/an magigin (will be or will become), and an nagin (became) as the English treat linking verbs: Makuri magin estudyante. ([It's] hard to be a student.) Ako it magigin presidente! (I will be the president!) Ako an nagin presidente. (I became the president.)
III. Results & Discussion One of the respondents: “Bunny”, is the most knowledgeable of the language, as the fact that it is not yet that long since he left their hometown Barugo, Leyte. He also has a Waray wife too with him here in Davao, so he is able to use the language everyday. He was able to elaborate more about their Language. As for the second one: “Billy”, he left his hometown some 9 years ago, and he seldom converse using the language, as it is not everyday that he meets people speaking Waray. That makes him not fluent in speaking the language anymore. The information that the researchers researched from the internet have been printed, analyzed and some were shown to the respondents too for confirmation and comparison.
Here are the Waray Language grammatical components: Pronunciation and Alphabet The pure Waray-waray alphabet had 18 letters which are: A B K D E G H I L M N NG O P R S T U W Y These days there are 28 letters in the alphabet, in order to accommodate words of Spanish and English origin. The letters include: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable normally contains a consonant and a vowel plotted in a pattern called clustering, where vowels come in between consonants. Stress is placed on the second-to-the-last syllable of a word. However, sometimes the stress is moved to change the meaning of a word. Examples: Salâ = sin Bâsa = wet Sâla = living room Basâ = read
(â = where the stress should be placed) Waray-waray is a harsh sounding language that somebody from other culture hearing the native speaker of Waray-waray speaking would mistook him/her being angry. There are three main vowels: [a], [ɛ]/[i], and [ɔ]/[u]. [i]/[ɛ] and [ɔ]/[u] sound the same, but [ɔ] is still an allophone of [u] in final syllables. In some other areas especially those uptowns, though they have same lexicons of their dialects, the [ɔ] or [u] sound in some words are being substituted by the [ə] sound. Example: Waray downtown: Bulad [bulad] = dried fish, Waray uptown: Bulad [bəlad] = dried fish, Surâ [sura] = viand Surâ [səra] = viand
Vowels are pronounced the same way the Spanish vowels are. Examples: English – man Waray - man [mæn] [m^n]
Pronouns and Markers I CLASS akó ikáw/ka hiyá kitá kamí kamó hirá MARKERS w/Proper Nouns w/Common Nouns GENERAL PRONOUNS iní iton adto hi hira an an mga ni nira han/hin han mga/ hin mga kan kan ngan kan ha ha mga II CLASS nákon nímo níya náton námon níyo nira III CLASS ákon ímo íya áton ámon íyo íra
ha ákon ha ímo ha íya ha áton ha ámon ha ínyo ha íra
hini hiton hadto
dínhi/didi dida didto
The table above was the summary table of the Waray language’s pronouns and markers. To explain this more clearly, we then regrouped them to classes and functions. In Waray – Waray there are two kinds of pronouns: 1. Personal Pronouns ( I, you, we, my, your, etc.) 2. General Pronouns ( this, that, those, here, there, etc.) Personal Pronouns ( I Class)
There are three classes of personal pronouns in Waray. These are called First Class (I), Second Class (II), and Third Class (III). I Class Personal Pronouns Singular akó ikáw / ka hiyá Plural kitá kamí kamó hira
I You he / she
we(incl) we ( excl) you they
The personal pronoun Ikaw only has the short from which is ka. The personal kita is “inclusive”, that is, it includes those to whom one is speaking; kami is “exclusive”, that is, it excludes some or all. I Class Personal Pronoun marks the “Topic” of the sentence. The topic is the most important thing in the sentence. In English the speaker usually emphasizes particular words by using it louder, or by his intonation or pitch. In Waray-waray, words in a sentences are given relative importance by “marking” them with a I Class word. Sometimes this I Class words are the subject of the sentence; at other times they are the object of the action, or the recipient or the beneficiary of the action. (The latter will be explained later in this research paper.) Examples: 1. Pilipino ka. 2. Amerikano ako. 3. Estudyante hiya. 4. Mahusay hiya. 5. Hataas ako. 6. Riko hira. 7. Mga lalake kita. 8. Mga babaye kami. 9. Mga sangkay kita. 10. Mga Pilipino kami. You are a Filipino. I am an American He / She is a student. She is beautiful I am tall. They are rich. We (incl) are men (male) We (excl) are women (female) We (incl) are friends. We (excl) are Filipinos.
“Mga” is a pluralizeer, indicating a plural form of the noun following. The examples of Waray sentences given above were Equational Sentences. There is no verb in these Waray sentences. The noun or adjective is “equated” (=) with the pronoun. The English translation it is noticeable that it uses the “to be” verb. I Class Markers Just as there are three classes of personal pronouns in Waray-waray, there are also three classes of markers. A I Class Marker “marks” the TOPIC, or the “emphasized” word, of the sentence. Markers are used with proper nouns (people’s names) and common nouns. I Class Markers Singular Hi an Plural hira an mga
w/ Proper Nouns w/ Common Nouns Examples 1. Ako hi Peter. 2. Hiya hi Bebing. 3. Pilipino hi Pablo. 4. Hira Perla ngan Tessie. 5. Boutan hi Ernesto.
I am Peter. She is Bebing. Pablo is Filipino. They are Perla and Tessie. Ernesto is nice. Marvin and Annie are rich. The table is beautiful. The paper is white. The children are naughty. The chairs are strong.
6. Riko hire Marvin and Annie. 7. Mahusay an lamesa. 8. Mabusag an papel. 9. Malabad an mga bata. 10. Madig-on an mga lingkuran.
Like the previous examples, these are equational sentences which do not need verb. I Class General Pronouns There are also three classes of general pronouns. The general pronouns are sometimes called demonstrative pronouns. In English, these are the pronouns this, that, these, and those. In Waray, these pronouns are based upon their relative location from the speaker. I CLASS GENERAL PRONOUNS Full Form Ini Iton / Ito Adto Meaning this (very near the speaker) that (near the speaker) that “over there” (far from the speaker)
A “I Class General Pronoun” functions as the “topic”, or the emphasized word, or the sentence. Example: The following are equational sentence using the I Class General Pronouns. 1. Tubig ini. 2. Lamesa ini. 3. Kahoy adto. 4. Papel ini. 5. Hira iton. 6. Mga estudyante ito. 7. Tawo iton. 8. Dagat iton. 9. Karsada ito. 10. Mga libro ini. Linker This is water. (very near) This is a table. (near) That “over there” is a tree. (far) This is a paper. That’s them “over there” Those are students. That is a person. That “over there” is the ocean. That is a road. These are books.
There is a word called “nga” [ŋa] in the Waray language. It links the adjective and other object together. To illustrate the function of “ nga” here are some example. You say for example, if you say a toy, you will say the following: “ Uyagan ini” “Ini an uyagan” “Ini nga uyagan” (not a complete sentence) ( as you hold it)
However saying “Ini nga uyagan” is not a complete sentence though it looks like one, since Ini functions like this(near the speaker) in English language and one might mistook nga in the sentence to function like verb be. That is wrong. “Ini nga uyagan” when stated in Waray will not make sense if spoken plainly. To make it a complete sentence, use of descriptive word first or adjective before the phrase is a must. To illustrate this, we use the word “ mahusay” or beautiful as a word to describe the “uyagan” (toy). Now we have: “Mahusay ini nga uyagan”, which now means: This toy is beautiful. More examples: English – blue ball Waray – Asul nga bola white house busag nga balay hard rock matig-a nga bato
Descriptive Words in Equational Sentences When descriptive words which use the nga linker are used in equational sentences, the word order is as follows: W/ I Class Markers (an,hi) Descriptive word + nga + noun + I Cl Marker + rest… Examples: 1. Hataas nga babaye hi Ruth. 2. Matambok nga lalake hi George. 3. Malipayon nga tawo hi Paul. Ruth is a tall woman. George is a fat man. Paul is a happy person.
4. Daragita nga babaye an bugto ni Jess. 5. Buotan nga tawo an nanay ni Suzie.
Jess’ sister is a young girl. Suzie’s mother is a nice person.
When I Class Personal Pronouns or I Class General Pronouns are used, they come between the descriptive word and the nga. The personal pronouns, however, are not usually contracted. The nga remains in its full form. w/ I Class Personal/ General Pronouns Descriptive word + I Cl Per. Pro./ I Cl GEN. Pro. + nga + noun + rest 1. Makusog hiya nga lalake. 2. Hubya hira nga mga maestra. 3. Habubo kami nga mga misyonero. 4. Kapoy kamo nga mga asawa. 5. Padlas ini nga tawo. 6. Maupay iton nga babaye. 7. Madig-on adto nga bangko. He is a strong man. They are lazy teachers. We(excl) missionaries are short. You(pl) wives are tired. This person is crazy. That woman is pretty. That chair “over there” is strong.
II Class Personal Pronouns and II Class Markers II CLASS PERSONAL PRONOUNS Nákon / ko Nimo / mo Niya Singular My Your his / her Náton Námon Niyo Nira Plural our ( incl) our ( excl) your their
The II Class Personal Pronouns function as a “Possessor” when they are attached to a noun. Examples: 1. libro nakon My book
2. lapis nimo 3. uyab niya 4. balay naton 5. eskwelahan namon
Your (sing) pencil His girlfriend / her boyfriend our (incl) house our (excl) school your (pl) dog their friend my teacher your (sing) mother our (incl) father
7. sangkay nira 8. maestro ko 9. nanay nimo 10. tatay naton 11. II Class Markers
In the previous discussion the I Class Markers (hi, hira, an, an mga) were given. Those mark the topic of the sentence. The II Class Markers, like the II Class Personal Pronouns above, also function many times as POSSESSORS. The hin Marker marks the object of a verb. (This will be learned in a later in the discussion.) II CLASS MARKERS w/ PROPER NOUNS w/COMMON NOUNS Singular Ni han / hin Plural nira han mga / hin mga
han – equivalent to the English definite article the in a verbal sentence, and it shows possession hin – equivalent to the English indefinite article a in a verbal sentence, and it shows possession also and marks the object of a verb. One may use it interchangeably. It depends upon the context and the place. Examples: Waray lapis ni Lorna balay ni Lorie kwarta nira Rico ngan Bobong English Lorna’s pencil (pencil of Lorna) Lorie’s house (house of Lorie) Rico and Bobong’s money (money of Rico
saruwal nira Tata ngan Jojo libro han maestro uyagan han mga bata lamesa han director Bibliya han mga pastor bado ni Stacey sapatos han panday
and Bobong) Tata and Jojo’s pants (pants of Tata and Jojo) Teacher’s book (book of the teacher) Children’s toy (toy of the children) Director’s table (table of the director) Pastor’s Bible ( Bible of the pastor) Stacey’s dress (dress of Stacy) Carpenter’s shoes (shoes of the carpenter)
Verbal Sentences / Focuses and ma- Actor Focus Equational sentences were given as examples previously. Those sentences do not have a verb. Here we will discuss how Warays make sentences which use a verb. We call these “verbal sentences”. Verbal sentences, which contain a subject a verb and an actor, are expanded by adding an object, a direction/location, a beneficiary, or an instrument. In Waray the Topic, or the emphasized part of the sentence, may be the subject, the object, the direction/location, the beneficiary, or the instrument. The emphasized part of the sentence or the topic is marked by a I Class word. In English, words are emphasized by the raising of the voice or by prolonging the word. In Waray, however, words are given emphasis by what is called “Verb Focuses”. There are several different verb forms, or focuses, in Waray. These are as follows: Verb Actor Focus Object Focus Beneficiary/ Direction Focus Instrument Focus Waray verbs also have tenses like English. There are past, present, and future tenses. There is also a command form, or imperative of the verbs. Ma – Actor Focus In Actor Focus, the emphasis is on the actor, or the doer of the action (the subject of the verb). Ma – is the prefix used before the verb root in the future tense. The past is –
in m infix and present tense is na – prefix. The following chart shows the verb root, the past, present form, and the future form. In the past form, if the root word ends in a consonant, Waray put the –in m infix after the first letter of the word but if the root word ends in the vowel they put the –in m prefix connected by the root word. MA – ACTOR FOCUS Past Tense Root inm + root Ist letter + inm +root -sakay -palit -hatag -kaon -lakat -Inom -sunod -kadto -simba -balhin sinmakay pinmalit hinmatag kinmaon linmakat inminom sinmunod kinmadto sinmimba binmalhin nasakay napalit nahatag nakaon malakat nainom nasunod nakadto nasimba nabalhin Masakay Mapalit Mahatag Makaon Malakat Mainom Masunod Makadto Masimba Mabalhin Present Tense na + root Future Tense ma + root
ADDITIONAL NOTE: The ma- prefix is generally used with verbs of motion or movement. It usually refers to an instantaneous action, or “short –lived” action. Later, the mag- actor focus which is usually used with verbs whose action extends over a longer period of time will be discussed. Ma –verb + I Class Actor Examples (in simple form) The verb usually precedes the noun in Waray. Examples: 1. Mapalit ko 2. Nakaon hiya. 3. Matindog kita. 4. Nasimba kami. 5. Nakadto hi John. 6. Tinmawag kamo. I will buy (I’m going to buy) He is eating. We (incl) will stand (We are going to stand) We (excl) are worshipping. John went. You (pl) called.
7. Masunod an bata.
The child will follow. Mike and Kristi are moving.
Nabalhin hira Mike ngan hi Kristi.
Ma – Actor Focus (w/Object and Location) II Class General Pronouns Ma – Actor Focus Many times, ma- actor focus verbs have an Object. These objects will be marked by the II Class Markers han or hin. There will also sometimes be a LOCATION/DIRECTION, or BENEFICIARY (L/D/B) added. The word order of the sentence will usually be as follows: Formula Ma- Verb + I Cl Actor + II Cl Object + III Cl L/D/B Examples: ( Ma- Actor Focus sentence) ( I will buy a banana at the store.) 1. Mapalit ako hin saging ha tindahan. ma-verb + I Cl A. + II Cl O. + III Cl L/D/B (location) (They read the book at the school.) 2. Nabasa hira han libro ha eskwelahan. ma- verb + I Cl A. + II Cl O. + III Cl L/D/B (location) (Hazel ate the bread in the house.) 3. Kinmaon hi Hazel ma- verb + I Cl A. hin tinapay + II Cl O. ha balay. + III Cl L/D/B (location)
This is the usual pattern though not every sentence will have all of these parts. Some will not have an object; others will not have a location/direction or beneficiary. Sometimes modifiers or time cues are also added.
Other Functions Han and Hin In the example sentences above, the word han and the word hin are used in different ways. Before the objects (saging, libro, tinapay), the hin and the han mark the object. The hin was then translated into “a” (like an indefinite article), and the han is translated “the” (like a definite article). BEFORE AN OBJECT: hin – “a” han – “the” Hin and han are often used interchangeably by Waray. The ha before the location word (tindahan, eskwelahan, balay) shows location. It functions like a preposition and is usually translated “in, on, or at” II Class General Pronouns II CLASS GENERAL PRONOUNS FULL WORD hini hiton hadto MEANING this (very near) that (near) that “over there” (far)
The meaning is the same as the I Class (ini, iton, adto), but the usage is different. The II Class functions either like a direct object or a possession word in ma-actor focus. Examples: ( II Class General Pronouns) 1. Mapalit hi Ruth hiton nga libro ha Alemars. 2. Mabasa hiya hiton nga Bibliya ha simbahan. 3. Mabalhin hira Joel ngan hi Anna hini nga balay. 4. Liningkod an mga bata hiton nga bangko. 5. Inminom hiya hini nga gatas ha kusina. Ruth will buy that book at Alemars. He read that Bible at the church. Joel and Anna will move in this house. The children sat on this chair. She drank this milk in the kitchen.
Ma- Actor Focus w/ Location and Beneficiary
III Class General Pronouns & III Class Markers In the previous discussion, the formula for ma- actor focus was given. The formula is: Ma- Verb + I Cl Actor + II Cl Object + III Cl L/D/B It was that ma- actor focus sentences often have a location, or direction (ha tindahan, ha balay, ha eskwelahan). These locations are often accompanied by the following III Class General Pronouns: III CLASS GENERAL PRONOUNS (Location) FULL WORD Dinhi Dida Didto SHORT didi MEANING here (very near) there (near) there (far)
The III Class General Pronouns above may be used alone by themselves to show a location or direction, or with another location word. When it is combined with another location, the general pronoun added emphasis. Examples of III Class General Pronouns: 1. Mapalit ako hin utan dida. (I will buy vegetables there.) 2. Nakita hiya hin sine didto ha Rovic. (She is watching the movie there at Victoria Plaza) 3. Pinmalit an nanay nakon hini dida ha Gaisano. (My mother bought this there at Gaisano.) 4. Mabasa hi Paul hin Bibliya didto ha eskwelahan. (Paul will read a Bible there at the school.) 5. Maambak hira Roy ngan Tessie dinhi. (Roy and Tessie will jump here.) 6. Malanat an asawa niys didto ha kanto. (His wife will catch up there at the corner.) 7. Linmingkod ang mga maestro dida.
(The teachers sat there.) 8. Linmabay an kabulig ni Jana dinha. (Jana’s helper passed there.) 9. Makaon kami didto ha Jollibee. (We (excl) are going to eat at Jollibee.) 10. Uminom an inahan hin tubig didto ha balay nira Tomas ngan Maria. (The mother will drink water there at Tomas and Maria.) III CLASS MARKERS The ma- actor focus sentences not only have a location, but they also sometimes have a Beneficiary, that is a recipient of the action or someone for whom the action is done. In the formula discussed, the last part of is the III Class Location/Direction/Beneficiary (III Cl L/D/B). The beneficiary of the action is marked by the III Class Markers below: III CLASS MARKERS SINGULAR w/Proper Nouns w/Proper Nouns kan ha PLURAL kan ngan kan ha mga
Examples (kan, ha) kan Bebbie kan Ben ngan kan Mike ha maestra for Bebbie Mike for Ben Mike for the teacher
The kan and the ha function somewhat similar to the function of the English preposition “for”. They are sometimes preceded by the Waray words which means “for”, or “in the behalf of.” This word is para.
Examples (w/ para/) para kan Joselito para kan Jojo ngan kan Tita para ha doctor para ha mga lalake for Joselito for Jojo and Tita for the doctor for the men
The examples below use the III Class Markers and the III Class General Pronouns to show the beneficiary and/ or the location/ direction of the action: 1. Mapalit hi Bebbie hin bado didto ha Gaisano para kan Perla. (location) (beneficiary) (Bebbie will buy a dress there at Gaisano for Perla.) 2. Nahuram ako hin lamesa dida para ha mga estudyante. (location) (benefeciary) (I am borrowing a table there for the students.) 3. Madara hi Lorie hin gatas dinhi para kan Tony. (location) (Lorie will bring milk here for Tony.) 4. Kinmata hi Bebot didto ha simbahan para ha Dios. (location) (Bebot sang there at the church for God) 5. Mainom an mga tatay hin tubig didto ha kusina. (location) (benefeciary) (benefeciary) (benefeciary)
(The fathers will drink water there in the kitchen.)
III Class Personal Pronouns Ma- Actor Focus In the previous discussion, how to add a beneficiary in a ma- actor focus using the III Class Markers kan and ha was discussed. The word para is also sometimes added. In this lesson you will learn how to use the III Class Personal Pronouns as a Beneficiary. These also function as a POSSESSOR. In their simplest from, they are as follows: III CLASS PERSONAL PRONOUNS SINGULAR ákòn imo íya PLURAL áton (incl) ámon (excl) Íyo Íra
The III Class Personal Pronouns have several variations as the following chart illustrates: III CLASS PERSONAL PRONOUN VARIATIONS I Ákon Ímo Íya áton (incl) ámòn (excl) Íyo Íra ha ákon ha ímo ha íya ha áton ha amon ha íyo ha íra II
The form in column II is just a variation of the “real” pronouns in column I. For example, look at the pronoun akon in column I. Notice the difference in each column: akon ha akon root word ha + root “mine” “to (at,for,with) me”/ “to (at, for, with) my..”
In this part now, use of the pronoun in column I is being emphasized. These pronouns denote Possession. The use of the word forms in column II, which shows the beneficiary, will be discussed later. The examples below will show how the column I word is used in a ma- actor focus sentence. Examples: ( III Class Personal Pronoun Showing Possession) akon (column I) – “mine” (possessor) This house is mine. The book is yours (singular) The shoes are his/hers. This school is ours (incl) The dog is ours (incl) These slippers are yours (pl) The movie house is theirs. This country is ours (incl) This farm is his. This baby is mine.
1. Akon ini nga balay. 2. Imo an libro. 3. Iyan an sapatos. 4. Aton ini nga eskwelahan. 5. Amon an ayam. 6. Iyo ini nga tsinelas. 7. Ira an sinehan. 8. Aton ini mga nasud. 9. Iya ini nga uma. 10. Akon ini nga bata. Akon also means “my” (possessor)
Thus it is possible to show possession in the following ways: Ini an lapis nakon. Ini an akon lapis. This is my pencil. This is my pencil.
Either way is acceptable, but the last is more common. Notice that the II Class nakon always follows the noun, while the III Class akon always precedes the noun as in the following examples:
akon uyab imo ngaran iya lawas aton Diyos amon apoy iyo uma ira kaharani
my girlfriend your(singular) name his body our(incl) God our(excl) grandmother your(pl) farm their neighbor
The following examples demonstrate how this possessive pronoun is used in a ma- actor focus sentence: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inminom an akon uyab hin kape. Dinmala ako ha imo bag. Peligroso an iya gugma. Adto an aton simbahan. HInmulam hi Rico ha amon telebisyon. My boyfriend(girlfriend) drank coffee. I brought your bag, This love is dangerous. That(far) is our(incl) church. Rico borrowed our television.
The pronouns in the next examples show the Beneficiary or the Direction Of The Action Of The Verb. The ha or ka when added before the root pronoun makes it will function like a prepositional phrase. The most commonly used English translation are: “to, at, for, with, or from” followed by the III Class pronoun. Examples: ha akon (column II) – “to (at, with, from) me” “to (at, with, from) my..” These III Class Pronouns show the beneficiary or the direction of the action of the verb. 1. Matan-aw hiya ha akon. 2. Makadto ako ha imo balay.
He will look at me. I will go to your house. Perlita gave a ball to him.
Hinmatag hi Perlita hin bola ha iya.
4. Mabasa an akon anak hini nga libro ha amon. us. 5. Nakanta hi Liling ha iyo. 6. Pinmalit ako hin saging ha ira tindahan. 7. Pinmalit ako hin saging para ha ira. 8. Mahuram hiya hin kwarta ha akon. me. Ba in ma- actor focus
My child will read this book to Liling is singing to you(pl). I bought banana at their store. I bought banana for them. He will borrow money from
In a ma- actor focus question, the ba also follows the first full word of the sentence. The formula is the same. First Full Word + ba + rest of the sentence Examples: (ba in ma- actor focus question) 1. Maampo hi Bong. Maampo ba hi Bong? 2. Mabasa hi Laura han Bibliya. Mabasa ba hi Laura han Bibliya? 3. Nasulod hira ha sinehan. Nasulod ba hira ha sinehan? 4. Malakat hiya ha kanto. Malakat ba hiya ha kanto? 5. Nasudoy kami ha Gaisano. Nasudoy ba kamo ha Gaisano? Ka + ba Bong will pray. Will Bong Pray? Laura read the Bible. Will Laura read the Bible? They went inside the movie house. Did they go inside the movie house? He will walk to the corner. Will he walk to the corner? We (excl) roamed around the Gaisano. Did you (pl) roam around Gaisano?
There is an exception to the rule above. When the short form of the pronoun ikaw (the pronoun ka) is used with the question word ba, then ka will come before ba. This short form of the pronoun ikaw, or ka, is a VIP word. It usually comes before other particles. First Full Word + ka + ba + rest of the sentence Examples (ka ba) 1. Makadto ka ba ha eskwelahan? school? 2. Napalit ka bah in isda? 3. Mahulam ka bah in kwarta? money? 4. Nasunod ka ba ha ira? 5. Mabalhin ka ba didto? 6. Matuok ka ba? Did you(sing) follow them? Will you(sing) move there? Did you(sing) cry? Did you(sing) buy fish? Will you(sing) borrow Are you(sing) going to the
Particles – na and pa The small particles na and pa are often confusing to non Filipino speakers of Waray. However, if one learns how to correctly use them and practice them, they will not be confused. NA – means “now” or “already” Na shows that the action is being done now, or that the action has already been done. PA – means “still” or “yet”
Pa shows that the action is still being done, or that action has not yet begun. The na or pa is placed after the first full word of the sentence. (except with ka). If other particles are also used, the na/pa always comes FIRST. They are VIP particles. Na First Full Word + na + rest of the sentence
Examples (na after the first full word) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Makaon na hi Lusie. Makaon na ‘ta. Nabasita na hiya kan Mary. Nalakaw na hira. Mahatag na kami. Lusie has already eaten. We will eat now. He already visited Mary. They already left. We will give now.
Pa First Full Word + pa + rest of the sentence Examples (pa after the first full word) 1. Nakanta pa hiya. 2. Makadto pa hi Sally didto. 3. Natuok pa an bata. 4. Mabisita pa kami. 5. Wala pa hira makaon. She is still singing. Sally will still go there. The baby is still crying. We(excl) will still visit. They have not yet eaten.
Note: Wala is a negation ( “not” ) word. Ka +Na/Pa The same exception is true for na and pa when the short pronoun KA is used. The na or pa will follw the ka. It is more VIP na and pa. First Full Word + ka+ na/pa + rest of the sentence Examples (ka na, ka pa) 1. Makadto ka na ha tindahan. 2. Nahigda ka na ha katre . the bed. 3. Mainom ka na ha tubig. water now. 4. Makanta ka na ha tindahan. 5. Matuok ka pa. 6. Wala ka pa matawag ha doctor. doctor. ka + na/pa + ba Many times na and pa are used with the question word ba. When this occurs, the ba follows the na/pa. When short pronoun ka is used, it again always comes before the particles. It is the VIP word. When ka is not used: First full word + na/pa + ba + rest of the sentence When ka is used: First full word + ka +na/pa + ba + rest of the sentence You will now sing at church. You will still crying. You have not yet called the You are going to drink the You will go to the store now. You were still lying down on
Examples (na/pa with ba) 1. Masimba naba hira? 2. Mabalhin nab a hi Mike ha Baguio? 3. Nalaba pa ba hi Inday? clothes) 4. Natindog ka na ba? 5. Maambak ka pa ba ha bangko? chair? This may seem very complicated. The correct word order is the most difficult thing. The following summary formula will be of help. Remember the VIP words come first. The VIP pronoun ka always comes before any particles. The VIP Particles na/pa always are the first particles in the sentence. Summary Formula: First Full word + ka + VIP PRO. -- or will she still wear your’s? -- The Waray word for “or” is simplt o. Particles – liwat/ gihapon The particles ba, na, and pa are very important for us to know. But there are also other several particles aside from that, and one of them is the particle liwat. Below is the lesson on how to use the particle liwat. liwat / gihapon – means “also”, “too”, or “again” na/pa VIP PART. + ba + other particles + rest… Are you already standing? Will you still jump to the Will they go to church now? Did Mike move to Baguio already? Is Inday still washing (the
Like the other particles previously, the particles liwat is also placed in the sentence after the first full word. If there is also a particle na/pa and/or ba, the liwat/ gihapon follow them. First full word ( + na/pa +ba) + liwat/gihapon + rest… First full word + (na/pa + ba) + liwat/gihapon + rest
Examples: 1. Hataas liwat hiya. 2. Ikaw na liwat? 3. Mapalit gihapon ako. 4. Nakanta liwat hiya. 5. Nakaon gihapon hi Bebbie ini nga utan. He is also tall. You again? [or] You also. I too will buy (that). [or] I will buy (that) again. He is singing also/again. Bebbie ate this vegetable also/again.
Also/Too or Again The conrext will usually determine the appropriate meaning.
Particles – hin duro intensifier The particles hin duro is used with a descriptive word to intensify it. “Hin duro” – means “very” or sometimes “so” or “extremely”. It usually follows the descriptive word. Descriptive Word + hin duro + I Cl Marker + rest.
Examples (*kayo after the descriptive words)
I Class Personal Pronoun + hin duro
When hin duro modifies a I Class Personal Pronoun (ako, ikaw, hiya, etc.), the word order is often changed. The hin duro comes after the descriptive word and the I Class Pronoun. However, Filipinos often Place it after the descriptive word. Either way is acceptable. Descriptive Word + I Cl Pronoun + hin duro + rest… [or] Descriptive Word + hinduro + I Cl Pronoun + rest… Examples (hin duro before or after the I Class Pronoun) 1. Marasa liwat hin duro ini. 2. Matam-is liwat hin duro iton mangga. 3. Tambok pa hiya hin duro. [or] Tambok pa hin duro hiya. 4. Magasa na ako hin duro. [or] Magasa nah in duro ako. 5. Habubo ba hira hin duro? [or] Habubo bah in duro hiya? Waray and diri negators w/ ma- Actor Focus Waray and Diri. These are two of the most confusing words for non-native Waray speakers. However, each is to be used with a specific form. In ma- actor focus sentence, both Waray and Diri means NOT or NO. WARAY is used when referring to PAST or Present Action. DIRI is used when referring to FUTURE action. Are they very short? I am already very thin. This is also very delicious. That mango is also very sweet. She is still very fat.
Examples (oo and waray and diri) YES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Naadto ka ba ha ira? Nakaon ka na ba? Makadto ka ba ha ira? Makaon ka pa ba? [past] Napalit ka ba hin sapatos?[past] [future] [past] Oo Oo [future] Oo Oo Waray Oo Waray Waray Waray NO Waray
If action already begun (past or present) is referred to, use Waray! If action not yet begun (future) is referred to, Use Diri! waray pa / diri pa waray na / diri na Often, a more complete answer is given such as: [w/past/present action] waray pa -- “not yet” waray na -- “not now” [w/ future action] diri pa diri na --“not yet” “not now”
These most often, follow a question that uses na or pa. However, they are also used in sentences without na or pa to show the various meanings below: waray pa waray na diri pa diri na ----“not yet” (but plan to do it) “not now” or “no more” ( and no plan to do it) “not yet” (but plan to do it) “not now” or “no more” (and no plan to do it)
Sometimes expressions like waray na or diri na should not be taken too seriously. For example, if a Filipino comes to your house at supper time, and you say, “Makaon na ‘ta”, he may reply, “Diri na la!”. This is only showing politeness or shame. If you ask him again, he may agree. Examples (waray pa, waray na, diri pa, diri na) 1. Natawag nab a hi Jess? 2. Nasimba nab a hira? 3. Masulat ka ba ha imo tatay? 4. Malakaw pa ba an iyo anak? 5. Napasaylo ka nab a ha iya? 6. Nasarig liwat ka ha iya? more) 7. Maluto ba hi Gener hin pagkaon? 8. Masul-ot ba hiya hiton nga bado? more) Waray / Diri with I Class Personal Pronouns The word order for a negation response with I Class Personal Pronouns is as follows: Waray + I Cl Pers Pro + Um – Verb or Ma- AFV + rest… Diri + particles + I Cl. Pers. Pro. + Ma – Verb + rest If the subject is a I Class Personal Pronoun (ako,ikaw hiya, kita, kami, kamo, hira), the pronoun comes after the waray / diri and before the verb. (except when there are other particles) Examples (waray / diri with I Class personal pronoun) Diri pa Diri na (Not yet) (Not now. no Waray pa. Waray na. Diri pa. Diri na. Waray pa Waray na (Not yet) (Not now, no more) (Not yet) (Not now, no more) (Not yet) (Not now, no
1. Waray hira maampo ha Dios. 2. Diri ko makadto didto. 3. Waray hiya pumalit hin prutas. 4. Waray kamo masarig ha akon. 5. Diri kita malingkod dinhi.
They did not pray to God. I will not go there(far). He did not buy fruit. You(pl) did not trust me. We(incl) will not sit here.
Waray / Diri with I Class General Pronoun or I Class Marker The word order for a negation response with I Class General Pronoun or I Class Markers is as follows: Waray + Um –Verb or Ma- AFV + I Cl Gen Pro/I Cl Marker + rest… Diri + particles + Ma – Verb + I Cl. Gen Pro/I Cl Marker If the subject of the sentence is marked by a I Class General Pronoun (ini, iton, adto), or a I Class Marker (hi, hira, an, an mga), the verb comes after the waray or diri (except when there are particles). The subject then follows the verb. Examples (waray/diri with I Cl Gen Pro/ I Cl Markers) 1. Waray makadto hi Bebbie ha merkado. Bebbie did not go to market. 2. Diri masimba iton nga babaye. That(far) woman will not worship. 3. Waray maupod iton nga bata ha akon. That child did not accompany me. 4. Waray lumuhod iton nga tigurang. That old person did not kneel. 5. Diri mabisita ini nga doctor ha imo. This doctor will not visit you(sing).
Double Negator In English, a double negator is often used to answer a question. For example: Q: A: Are you going to church? No. I’m not going to church today.
The double negator is also often in Waray. This adds emphasis and more explanation. For example: Q: Matan-aw ba kamo hin sine? A: Diri. Diri kami matan-aw hin sine. Q: Nahatag ba hi Gener hin mangga ha imo? A: Waray. Waray humatag hi Gener hin mangga ha akon. Waray and Diri negators with Particles One of the most difficult things for a non-native Waray speaker to learn is where to put the small particles in the sentence. This becomes even more difficult when the sentence is negated. Thus, in order to get all the particles in the sentence, the sentence sometimes comes out looking like this: INCORRECT: Waray hira Jim hi ngan Jmaes makadto liwat pa ba? CORRECT: Waray pa ba liwat makadto hira hi Jim ngan James? If I Class Personal Pronouns are used, the pronoun precedes the verb (as before). However, the particle comes after waray/diri. w/ I Class Personal Pronouns Waray/ Diri + (ka) + PARTICLES + I Cl Per Pro + Ma- AFV + rest.. (excepy ka)
The particles that you have learned will usually be placed in a sentence in th following order: na ba pa ba ba liwat/gihapon na liwat/gihapon pa liwat/gihapon Examples (wala/dili with particles and I Class Pronouns) 1. Waray na hiya makadto ha eskwelahan. He did not already go to school. [or] He has not already gone to school. 2. Diri pa ako mabayad ha akon utang. I will not yet pay my debt. 3. Waray pa ba hira tumanom hin mais? Have they not yet planted corn? [or] Have they still not planted corn? 4 .Diri na ba kita masimba? Will we 9incl0 not worship now? 5. Waray ka ba liwat mabisita ha imo uyab? Have you (sing) not visited your girlfriend again? [or] Have you also not visited your girlfriend? *Remember that ka is a VIP word that comes before the particles. **These sentences may be translated more than one way. The meaning will be determined by the context and the inflection of the voice. If I Class General Pronouns or I Class Markers are used, the verb precedes the general pronoun or marker (as before). The particle again comes after waray/diri. W/ I Class General Pronouns na ba liwat/gihapon pa ba liwat/gihapon
Waray + particles + Um-Verb or Ma-AFV + I Cl Pro/Marker + rest… Diri + particles + Ma – Verb + I Cl Gen Pro/Marker + rest… Examples (waray/diri with I Cl Gen Pro/I Cl Marker) 1. Waray na liwat maupod hi Jane kan Luz. Jane did not go with Luz again. [or] Jane also did not go with Luz. 2. Diri pa liwat maluto an aton kabulig. Our (incl) helper will not yet cook again. 3. Waray pa ba gihapon umuli adton nga mga bata? Have those (far) children also not returned home yet? [or] Have those (far) children still not returned home again? 4. Diri nab a liwat mawali iton pastor? Will that pastor not now preach again? [or] Will that pastor also not now preach? 5. Waray pa ba masunod inin tawo ha panday? Did this man not yet follow the carpenter? [or] Did this man still not follow the carpenter?
Mag – Actor Focus and Verbalizing Nouns This focus is used the same way as Ma – Actor Focus, the Topic of the Mag – Actor Focus sentence is the actor, or the doer of the action (the subject of the verb). The following chart shows the verb root, the past/present form, the future form, and the command form of some common mag- actor focus verbs. Root Past Tense Nag + root Present Tense Nag + reduplication of Future Tense Mag + root Command Pag + root
the 1st syllable -dara Nagdara Nagdadara Magdara Pagdara -bantay Nagbantay nagbabantay Magbantay Pagbantay -trabaho Nagtrabaho Nagtratrabaho Magtrabaho Pagtrabaho -aram Nag-aram Nag-aaram Mag-aram Pag-aram -mando Nagmando Nagmamando Magmando Pagmando -ukoy Nag-ukoy Nag-uukoy Mag-ukoy Pag-ukoy -asawa Nag-asawa Nag-aasawa Mag-asawa Pag-asawa -andam Nag-andam Nag-aandam Mag-andam Pag-andam -siring Nagsiring Nagsisiring Magsiring Pagsiring -hulat Naghulat Naghuhulat Maghulat Paghulat -lirong Naglirong Naglilirong Maglirong Paglirong -kinahanglan Nagkinahanglan Nagkikinahanglan Magkinahanglan pagkinahanglan Some verbs in Waray usually use the mag- prefix, while other verbs usually use the ma- prefix. However, some verbs use either of the two prefixes depending on the intended meaning. The ma- verbs usually intend to show action that is of short duration. Many times, these are related to motion or movement. For example: matindog, malingkod, madagan, or malakat. The mag-verbs, on the other hand, usually intend to show action that is being done over a longer period of time. The word order for Mag – Actor Focus sentence is the same as the Ma –Actor Focus. Mag – Verb + I Cl Actor + II Cl Object + III Cl L/D/B
Examples (mag – Actor Focus Sentence) 1. Nagdara liwat an abugado hin mangga para ha iya pamilya. The lawyer brought mango again for his family. 2. Mgbantay pa hiya ha balay nira ni Rhoda ngan Romulo. He will still guard Rhoda and Romulo’s house. 3. Pagtrabaho na ha uma ni Tacio didto ha bukid. Work now on Tacio’s farm there (far) in the mountain. 4. Nagmamando hi Jesus ha iya mga tinun-an. Jesus is commanding his disciples.
5. Mag-aram pa ba hira hin Tagalog ha Manila? Will they still learn Tagalog in Manila? Verbalizing Nouns Filipinos are fond of verbalizing nouns with nag-/mag-prefixes. That is, a noun is made into a verb by prefixing it with nag-, mag-, or pag-. English nouns are often also verbalized, especially when there is no common Waray word. Verbalized nouns are often used as a short-cut. For example: (verbalized nouns) Mag-computer ako. Nag-TV kami. Mag-guitar hi Josh. Nag-CR an mga bata. Pagpiano! Nagbabado hi Erin. Magkape kita. Pagbus paingon ha Makati. Nagdyaket an maestra. Nag-aadobo hi Gener. SPECIAL VERBS Karuyag, Buot, Kinahangla, Pwede, Mahimo Karuyag, Buot, Kinahangla, Pwede, Mahimo are called special verbs, or pseudo-verbs. These special verbs have many functions as verbs themselves. For example: Karuyag ko hin tubig. I would like some water. I will use the computer. We (excl) are watching TV. Josh will play the guitar. The children used the CR. Play the piano! Erin is wearing a dress. We (incl) will drink coffee. Ride the bus going to Makati. The teacher wore a jacket. Gener is cooking adobo.
Karuyag nimo? Nakaruyag hiya kan Inday. Ako la an magbuot hiton. Nagkinahanglan ako hin bulig. Pwede bw kamo? Mahimo ba?
Do you (sing.) want to? He likes Inday. I will be the one to decide that. I need help. Can you (pl)? Is it possible? [or] Can it be?
However, these special verbs are most often linked to other verbs in a sentence as an “auxiliary” to the man verb of the sentence. Used in this way, these special verbs have the following meanings: Special Verbs KARUYAG/BUOT KINAHANGLAN PWEDE/MAHIMO “like to, want to, or wish to (do something)” “need to, have to, must (do something)” “can, may, able to, it is possible to (do something)”
In the following examples these special verbs are linked to another main verb of the sentence. Examples: 1. Karuyag hiya magpalit hin sapatos. He wants to buy shoes. 2. Buot magmulay an mga bata. The children wish to play. 3. Kinahanglan kita magtrabaho. We (incl) must work. We (incl) need to work. 4. Pwede magkadto hi Felix ha iyo.
Felix can go to your (house). Felix will be able to go to your house. 5. Mahimo kami magtrabaho buwas. We (excl) will be able to work tomorrow. What is noticeable in the example above is that the special verbs are used with another main verb. All the main verbs are future tense there is no reduplication of the first syllable of the root.The main verbs are translated in English like infinitives most of the time. (to buy, to play, to work, to go). The sentences begin with the special verbs. WORD ORDER The formulas below will show the word order for sentences using special verbs. there are two common ways of arranging the words – the subject before the main verb, or the subject after the main verb. Either way is acceptable though Waray often prefer one or the other.
BSUBJECT BEFORE MAIN VERB. Special verb + I Cl Subject + Future Verb (no redup.of the 1st syll.of the root + rest…
ECEPTION W/ KINAHANGLAN, PWEDE, MAHIMO Special verb + I Cl Marker + Future verb (no redup.) + rest… I CL Gen Pro
SUBJECT AFTER MAIN VERB
Special verb + Future verb (no redup.) + I Cl Subject + rest…
Note: Examples will be given using both formulas, or word orders above. Both are used depending upon location and personal preferences. KARUYAG/BUOT “likes to, want to, wish to, will to (do something)” Karuyag and buot mean same thing and may be used in the same way. The more common usage is karuyag, but buot is also used. Examples (karuyag and buot) 1. Karuyag ko magpalit hin karne ha merkado. [or] Karuyag magpalit ako hin karne ha merkado. I want to buy meat at the market. 2. Buot hiya maglakat ha siyudad. [or] Buot maglakat hiya ha siyudad. She wants to go to the city. 3. Karuyag hi Debbie magbisita ha iya tiya. [or] Karuyag magbisita hi Debbie ha iya tiya. Debbie wishes to visit her aunt. 4. Buot an mga bata magkaon hin sorbeti. [or] Buot magkaon an mga bata makaon hin sorbeti. The children would like to eat ice cream. 5. Karuyag iton nga tawo mag-alagad ha Dios. [or] Karuyag mag-alagad iton ng tawo ha Dios. That man wishes to serve God. KINAHANGLAN “need to, have to, must (do something)”
Examples (kinahanglan) 1. Kinahanglan ako magtrabaho. [or] Kinahanglan magtrabaho ako. I must work. 2. Kinahanglan ka magluto hin manok. [or] Kinahanglan magluto ka hin manok. You (sing) need to cook a chicken. 3. Kinahanglan nga hi Jose magsimba. [or] Kinahanglan magsimba hi Jose. Jose needs to go to church. 4. Kinahanglan ini nga mga bata mag-eskwela. [or] Kinahanglan mag-eskwela ini nga mga bata. These children must go to school.
PWEDE/MAHIMO “can, may, able to, it is possible to (do something)” Pwede and mahimo mean the same thing, and may be used in the same way. Pwede is actually Spanish word that is commonly used by Waray. It is the more ommon of these two in most places. Examples (pwede an mahimo) 1. Pwede hira magbantay ha iyo balay. [or] Pwede magbantay hira ha iyo balay. They can watch your (pl) house. 2. Mahimo ba kamo maghulat ha amon? [or]
Mahimo ba maghulat kamo ha amon? Would it be possible for you (pl) to wait for us (excl)? 3. Pwede kaba magdara hin asukar? [or] Pwede ba magdara ka hin asukar? Would you be able to bring sugar? 4. Mahino hi Felix magtukar hin sista. [or] Mahimo magtukar hi Felix hin sista. Felix may play the guitar. 5. Pwede adto nga panday magbuhat hin bodega. [or] Pwede magbuhat adto nga pantay hin bodega. That carpenter “over there” can make a warehouse.
Question/Interrogative Words Question Words HIN-O? NGAIN? HAIN? DIIN? TAGPIRA? PIRA? SAN-O, KAKAN-ON? KAY ANO? UNAN-O? ANO? How to use the question words: ANO and HIN-O. WHO? WHERE? WHERE? /WHICH? WHERE? HOW MUCH? HOW MANY? WHEN? WHY? HOW? WHAT?
ANO? Ano + I Class words Examples: Ano an imo ngaran? Ano man ini ha Waray? Ano an “pencil” ha Waray? Ano an imo rabaho? What is your name? What is this in Waray? What is “pencil” in Waray? What is your work?
Notice in the examples above that the I Class Markers an is used, and also the I Class general Ponoun ini. The ano question word always is followed by a I Class word: I Class Personal Pronoun (ako, ikaw, hiya, etc.) I Class General Pronoun (ini, iton, adto) I Class Markers (an, hi) Man is a particle commonly used with the question words. It has no direct translation. It sometimes gives emphasis to the question; at other times, it somewhat softens the question (makes it more polite). Thus, you may say: Ano man ini ha Waray? [or] Ano ini ha Waray? What is this in Waray? Either way is acceptable, but it doesn’t hurt to add the man of the time. The ano b question word asks what something is. The response, then, should be an identification of what a thing or person is. Responses to ano questions do not have to begin with a I class word. Hin-o responses, on the other hand, begin with a I Class word. The first word of the response is usually the object or person which answers the ano question.
Examples (ano with responses) 1. Q: Ano man ini? R: Kamatis ini. 2. Q: Ano man iton/? R: kasilyas iton. 3. Q: Ano it imo ngaran? R: Ako hi Bebbie. [or] R: Bebbie an akon ngaran. Bebbie is my name. 4. Q: Ano ngaran an imo maestra? R: Willim. [or] R: Willim an iya ngaran. 5. Q: Ano man ini ha Waray? R: Libro ini. [or] R: Ini an libro. What is this? This is tomato. What is that? That is a restroom (CR). What is your (sing) name? I am Bebbie. Bebie is my name. What is your teachers name? William. William is his name. What is this in Waray? This is a book. This is a book.
Responses to ano questions do not require a hi or an marker. Occasionally, ano is used as a special verb also. In actor focus, it may be prefixed by mag- or nagMag ano man kamo didto? (What will you do there? Nag-ano man ka? (What have you been doing? HIN-O? The question word ano asks “what something is,” while the question word hin-o hin-o asks “who someone is”. It is used in askng names or identifies of people.
For Example: Hin-o hiya? Hin-o man hi Edgar? Hin-o an imo agaron? Hin-o an iyo lider? Hin-o man iton? Hin-o liwat ka? Hin-o + Class words Notice in the examples above that hin-o also requires I a Class word. (I Class Personal Pronoun, I Class General Pronoun, or I Class Marker). Notice too, that the particle man is also used with ano. Other particles are placed in the same order as before. Examples (hin-o with responses) 1. Q: Hin-o hiya? R: Hi Cindy Hiya. 2. Q: Hin-o man hi Pastor Tabay? R: An pastor ha amon simbahan. [or] R: Hiya an amon pastor. 3. Q: Hin-o man an iyo mga kabulig? R: Hira Ging-ging ngan Gener. 4. Q: Hin-o an iyo diyakono dinhi? R: An bugto Palomar an amon nga diyakono dinhi. 5. Q: Hin-o man adto? R: An sangkay nakon adto. [or] R: Hiya an akon sangkay. Who is that “over there.” That’s my friend “over there.” He is my friend. Who is she? She is Cindy. Who is Pastor Tabay? The pastor of our (exl) church. He is our (excl) pastor. Who are your (pl) helpers? Ging-ging and Gener. Who is your (pl) deacon here? Brother Palomar is our deacon here. Who is he? Who is Edgar? Who is your (sing) boss? Who is your (pl.) leader. Who is that? Who are you (sing) also.
Numbers Native numbers are used for numbers one through ten. From eleven onwards, Spanish numbers are exclusively used in Waray today, their native counterparts being almost unheard of by the majority of native speakers. Some, specially the old ones, are spoken alongside the Spanish counterparts. ENGLISH One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twenty Thirty Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Eighty Ninety One Hundred One Thousand NATIVE WARAY Usá Duhá Tuló Upat Limá Unom Pitó Waló Siyám Napúlô (Napúlô kag usá) (Karuhaan) (Katloan) (Kap-atan) (Kalim-an) (Kaunman) (Kapitoan) (Kawaloan) (Kasiaman) (Usa ka Gatus) (Usa ka Yukut) BORROWED FROM SPANISH Uno Dos Tres Kuwatro Singko Siez/says Siete/syete Ocho/otso Nuebe/nueve Diez Onse Baynte Trenta Kwuarenta Singkwenta Siesenta Setenta Ochienta Nobenta Cien Mil
Grammar Waray language has no exact equivalent to the English Phrase structure. That’s why explaining the Waray Language Phrase Structure would be difficult as there are some irregularities especially in word inflection. Fortunately, a general pattern of saying sentence is noticeable in them, though it doesn’t apply in general. Such pattern can be
considered their basic. Like for example: “I threw the ball to Bob”; an English sentence that if transcribed to its phrase structure would look like: S N NP Pron. Aux. T past I throw the ball to VP V det. NP N PP prep. NP N Bob
If translated to Waray, the word distribution in the sentences won’t be at the same plotting, and so the Phrase Structure would be different. To show it in a less confusing way, we illustrate the sentence pattern to: “A O V L/R” where V=Verb, A=Actor, O=Object, L/R=Location/Receiver. English is normally spoken in “A O V L/R” format. On the other hand Waray is generally spoken in the following format: “V A O L/R”.
Examples: English – I threw the ball to Bob. A V O L/R Waray – threw Ginlabay V I ko A the ball an bola O to kan Bob. Bob. L/R
English – The students read books in the library. A V O L/R Waray – Nagbasa an mga estudyante hin libro ha librari. V A O L/R English – The technician repaired the broken computer in the shop. A V O L/R Waray – Gin-ayad ha teknisyan an ruba nga kompyuter ha shop. V A O L/R