The Jat People & Dhillons in History

“Know Thy Roots”

By

Amarjit Singh Dhillon ( Dr. )

The Jat People & Dhillons in History
“Know Thy Roots” By Amarjit Singh Dhillon ( Dr. ) First Edition Jan., 2010 Copy Right Open

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Publisher: Indo-Canadian Friendship Society Printer : Western Printers, Anardana Chauk, Patiala

The Jat People & Dhillons in History
“Know Thy Roots”

By

Amarjit Singh Dhillon ( Dr. )

Dedicated to the “Sons for The Soil” everywhere and their well-wishers

Contents
Introduction Page

SECTION I
The Jat People 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Chapter 1
Etymology & Jats in Ancient Literature

Chapter 2
Origin & Lineage

Chapter 3
Various Writers on Origin of Jats

Chapter 4
Jat People Demographics

Chapter 5
Jat Kingdoms in Ancient India

Chapter 6
Jat Kingdoms in Medieval India

Chapter 7
The Rise of Jat Power & Jat Kingdoms in Early Modern Era

8. 9.

Chapter 8
The Jat People Today

Chapter 9
Some Important Dates
[about the lives of some Jat People]

Section II
10. Chapter 10
Brief Description of

Some Jat-Sikh Sub-Castes(Gote) ( From A to J )

11.

Chapter 11
Brief Description of Some Jat-Sikh Sub-Castes(Gote) ( From A to J )

SECTION III
Dhillons 12. 13. 14. 15. Chapter 12
Dhillons: Origin & Growth

Chapter 13
Religion & Geographical Distribution of Dhillons

Chapter 14
Some Historical & Prominent Dhillons

Chapter 15
Delhi Founded By Dhillons

SECTION IV
Dhillons of Punjab 16. 17. 18. Chapter 16
Sikh Misls (including Dhillons’ Misl)

Chapter 17
Sikh States & Sikh Principalities of Jats

Chapter 18
Dhillons of Punjab

19.

Chapter 19
Some Dhillons Shifted to Lakhi Jungle Area

Bibliography

Introduction
The Jat People everywhere in the world are the sons of the soil in the true sense of the word. There are various theories of there origin. I have tried to cover each and every view point about their origin---some rational and some mythical. I have focused on the Jat People of India and particularly of Punjab. There seems to be a natural urge in evarybody to “Know One’s Roots” My intention is not to create a schism in the Society while writing on Jat People .It is rather an effort to see the social fabric of Indian Society and its ramification. It is an effort to see the working of common bonds within a section of the Society. The Scholars of India and abroad have worked very hard on it.Sociologically speaking, it is an important segment of Social Stratification. This book has been divided into Four Sections. Section I includes a general and historical study of The Jat People, its etymology, origin & lineage as well as Jat Kingdoms in Ancient, Medieval, Early Modern Era, Rise of Jat Power and Jat People Today. This Section also includes some important dates. Section II describes some JatSikh Sub-Castes(Gotras) preceeded by remarks about Jat-Sikhs by foreign writers of 18th Century.. Section III of the Booklet is about Dhillons in general, their origin & growth, religion & geographical distribution, some historical & prominent Dhillons upto the modern times. This Section also deals with the view that Delhi was founded by Dhillons Section IV discribes The Dhillons of Punjab in particular. It also narrates Sikh Misls (including Dhillons’Misl), Sikh States and Sikh Pricipalities. Last but not least portion of this Section deals with the fact of history that some Dhillons shifted permanently to the Lakhi Jungle area of Punjab.Special space has been given to a Dhillon Family of Haryana. The writer of this small Book on The Jat People is grateful to’ The Computer’ which has provided all the relevant material about the Jat People in general and about Dhillons in particular. Naturally, the writer is obliged to all authors and unknown scholars who had put their works/views on different Websites. The writer of this Book is responsible for the mistakes, if any, and also for the deficiencies left therein. Amarjit Singh Dhillon (Dr.) Malton (ON), CANADA 30 August, 2009

The Jat People & Dhillons in History
“Know Thy Roots”

SECTION I
The Jat People

Chapter 1
Etymology & Jats in Ancient Literature Etymology of Jat
The etymology of the name Jat is from the Middle Indic term jatta and ultimately from the Sanskrit jartika, which was the name of a tribe. Sir Alexander Cunningham noted that the early Arab writers upon their arrival in India called the Jat people Zaths. Archaeologists and writers have identified the Jat people with the ancient Getae and Scythian Massagetae.Sir Alexander Cunningham, former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India, connected the name of the Scythian Xanthii. He considered the Jat people to be the Xanthi, who he also considered very likely to be called the Zaths (Jats) by early Arab writers.

Jats in Ancient Literature

Bhim Singh Dahiya states that the Jat people find a mention in Mahabharata and other ancient Indian literature. Mahendra Singh Arya believe that the shloka Jat Jhat Sanghate in famous Sanskrit scholar Panini's Astadhyayi refers to the Jat People as a Federation.

G. C. Dwivedi writes that the Persian Majmal-ut-Tawarikh mentions Jats and Meds as the descendants of Ham (son of Noah), living in Sind on the banks of the river Bahar.S.M. Yunus Jaffery believes that the Jat people have been mentioned in Shāhnāma, a well-known Persian epic.

The Jat People are a 31 million strong ethnic group of people native to South Asia in mainly the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. Other regions include Balochistan,

NWFP, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra. They are a kind of ethnic group, race, tribe and a people. The Jat People are considered to be descendants of Indo-Aryans, Indo-Scythian tribes of the region, merging to form the Jat People. The Jat People were designated by the British Empire as a Martial Race. Martial Races were races & peoples that were naturally warlike and aggressive in battle, and possess qualities like courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness, hard working habits, fighting tenacity and have military strategy. The British Empire recruited heavily from these Martial Races for service in their Armies. A strategy that is still used today (21st century) in Armies of South Asian countries e.g. The famous Jat Regiment & The Gurkha Regiment. Many uneducated or semi-educated people think Jat means farmer-caste (caste = social group) but Jat really means race (race = ethnic group), which is very different. There are over 900 million farmers in south Asia and if Jat meant farmer then all of them would call themselves Jats but they don't. This is because of the fact that by Jat we mean race/ethnic group. In order to be a Jat you have to have the Jat DNA markers in your genetics. Therefore, the fact is that Jat means race/ethnic group, if some say "Jat means farmer-caste" correct them and their ignorance on the subject by telling them, that "Jat means race/ethnic group not farmer-caste".

“Jat as a Caste Theory” is a misconception
The biggest misconception regarding the term "Jat" is defining it as a "Caste" as per standards set by the Indian Caste System. Nothing can be far away from truth as this misconception. The fact that Jat is a Race has been widely supported by both historians and raciologists working in this field and has been discussed in detail by them.. When we use the word Caste while describing Jat-Sikh Sub-Castes, we mean Gote and certainly not a part of Cast-System as such. The Jat People follow different faiths and are engaged in different professions. They have a discrete and distinct cultural history that can be historically traced back to ancient times. Some have moved to Western countries for economic and family reasons. There some have risen to prominence among the immigrants in the West. Muslim Jat People in Pakistan The Jat are large tribal grouping, who are also found throughout the Punjab region of Pakistan . A significant numbers of Jats began to convert to Islam from the middle ages onwards Historically, Muslim Jat clans predominated in western Punjab, in areas which now are found in Pakistan. Traditionally, the districts of Gujranwala, Shaikhupura, Lahore, Sialkot and Gujrat were seen as strongholds of the Jats. Major Jat clans, the Cheema,

Chatha, Sandhu, Gill, Ghuman, Kahloon, Dhillon, Bajwa, ,Sidhu,Randhawa and Waraich predominated in this region. In the 19th Century, the British settled several Jats from central Punjab, including many from Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Jalandhar, into the Bar region, creating the modern canal colony districts of Faisalabad and Sahiwal. In south of Punjab, there were several Seraiki speaking Jat clans, such as the Jakhar, Khar, Daha, Dhandla, Makwal, Bohar, Ghallu, Kanju, Samtia and Sandhila. In what is now Haryana, there were communities of Mulla Jats, who were said to get their name from the local Haryanwi phrase. They were said to be unfortunate, on account of their alleged forced conversion to Islam during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Major Mulla Jat clans included the Malik, Godara,Nain, Khatri, Dandiwal, Bacchal and Ahlawat. Almost all the Mula Jat emigrated from Haryana, at independence. Both Jats and Rajputs from Haryana, are collectively referred to as Ranghar in Pakistan [ Kamboj and Sainis: Though thry are very close to the Jat People but their story is different which needs a separate Booklet ] There are now many Books on The Jat People Some of the important landmarks in History of Jat People are :It was in 1925 that Prof. Kalika Ranjan Quanungo’s “History of the Jat” appeared. It is a scholarly, but not an inspired work. Thakur Deshraj produced his book on Jat History in Hindi “Jat Itihasa” in 1934. It is a well-researched book and still serves as a reference book. It has not yet been translated in to English. Ram Swarup Joon has written another well researched book "History of the Jats" in Hindi in 1938 which was translated in English in 1967. In the last 80 years quite a few other books in Hindi came on the subject; notably by Kaviraj Dr. Yogender Pal Shastri, Capt. Dilip Singh Ahlawat,Hukam Singh Pauria, Dharmpal Dudi, Bal Kishan Dabas, etc. Bhim Singh Dahiya was a historian and civil servant belonging to the Indian Revenue Service (IRS). In 1982, he wrote the monumental book- "Jats the Ancient Rulers", published by Dahinam Publishers, Sonipat, Haryana. This book is a reconstruction of the History of Jats from time immemorial. His linkage of the clan names/ Gotras to the existence of the Jats in Central Asia, and Europe, put a stamp on the histiography of the Jat History, for the people who could not have access to the works in Hindi or Urdu. He brought out to the layman reader, that Chandragupta Maurya, the Kushans, the Second Guptas, and Harshavardhana were Jats. He showed how the G letter represented the J sound, as the J letter did not exist in the ancient Greek alphabet. The significance was that the Getae, whom the Chinese and Western and most Indian Historians know as the Yuezhi, are Jats, of whom Kushans were just one clan Kaswan, not a people unto themselves. In 1992, he brought out his next book- Rig Vedic Tribes and Aryans, published by Dahinam Publishers, Sonipat, Haryana. Here he demonstrated how over 80 Jat Goths, Gotras, clans could be traced back to the Rig Veda.

His third great work in the history is in the form of Book- History of Hindustan Vol. I, II, III. Dahinam Publishers, Sonipat, Haryana also published it. Dr Natthan Singh has written a very good book on Jat History in Hindi “Jat Itihasa” which is published by Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad Gwalior in 2004. He was also editor of second edition (1992) of the book on Jat History “Jat Itihas” written in 1934 by Thakur Deshraj.

Chapter 2
Origin & Lineage

1. Indo-Aryan Lineage

Jat Habitations Vedic Period The Indo-Aryan Origin of Jats has been advocated on the basis of ethnological, physical and linguistic standards by many historians like E.B.Havell, Qanungo,C.V.Vaidya, Sir Herbert Risley, Thakur Deshraj, Dr Natthan Singh , Mangal Sen Jindal etc. On the basis of historical facts the Jats are reported to be present in India from 3102 BC. Dr Natthan Singh writes that Jats were the Aryans and their original homeland was 'Saptasindhu'. They had to migrate from India on economic, social and political reasons after Mahabharata War for some period but they returned back to India. In the migration also they did not leave their language and cultural traditions. This view is also supported by Thakur Deshraj who writes that on the basis of ethnological, physical, cultural and linguistic characters Jats Aryans who inhabited the areas on the banks of Ganga-Yamuna or Sarswati-Sindhu during Vedic Civilization. Thakur Deshraj also tells that after the great Mahabharata war Krishna formed a democratic federation or Sangha of Clans known as Jñātisangha . Initially Vrishni and Andhaka clans were included in this Sangha and later many clans joined it. Due to political situations Jats had to migrate

from India. They went up to Iran, Afghanistan, Arab, Turkistan. . Chandravanshi Kshatriyas known as Yadavas spread to Iran Sindh, Punjab, Saurashtra, Central India and Rajasthan. In north-east they went upto Bihar etc.. Even they went to Mongolia and Siberia. Greeks call themselves descendants of Krishna and Baladeva. China vanshi also consider themselves descendants of Aryans. The same people return to India in later periods with the names Shaka, Pahllava, Kushan, Yuezhi, Huna, Gujar The Sinsinwar Jat Rulers of Bharatpur have been recorded as Yadav, by Prakash Chandra Chandawat. Historian UN Sharma has mentioned the chronology of Krishna in which starting from Sindhupal in 64th generation of Krishna to Bharatpur ruler Maharaja Brijendra Singh (1929-1948) all the rulers are mentioned as Yaduvanshi Jats. Sidhu Jats are also Bhatti Rajput in origin, and thus Yaduvanshi in origin.

2.Indo-Scythian Lineage
Indo-Scythian Origin

Map of area around the Oxus River valley (modern name Amu Darya)

Asia in 323 BC, showing various Central Asian tribes including the Massagetae, Scythians, Dahae and their neighbors.

Map showing Scythia, including the Indo-Scythian region

The Sindh Valley is at the base of the Zojila Pass Through which people from Central Asia came

The Jat People are considered to be the descendants of Indo-Scythian tribes of the region, merging to form the Jat People. DNA studies have proved that Jat people are Indo-Scythian The original home of the Jats was in Central Asia near the country we now call Ukraine. Many recent DNA studies have provided scientific confirmation & proof that the Jats came from Ukraine, due to them having many Ukrainian DNA markers & Genes. DNA studies have proved that Jat People are Indo-Scythian. Professor B.S. Dhillon states that Jat People are mainly of Indo-Scythian Lineage with composite mixing of Sarmatians, Goths & Jutes in “History and Study of the Jats”. Historian James Tod agreed in considering the Jat People to be of Indo-Scythian Stock. Moreover, Sir Alexander Cunningham, Former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India, also considered the Jat People to be the Xanthii (a Scythian tribe) of Scythian stock who he considered very likely called the Zaths (Jats) of early Arab writers. He stated "their name is found in Northern India from the beginning of the Christian era." These people were considered by early Arab writers to have descended from Meds and Zaths. Sir Cunningham believes they "were in full possession of the valley of the Indus towards the end of the seventh century. Sir Alexander Cunningham held that the Rajputs belonged to the original Scythian stock, and the Jats to a late wave of immigrants from the north west, of Scythian race. There is also a mythlogical theory about the Origin of Jats which may be described briefly as under and also the reason behind it :-

Origin of Jat People from Shiva's Lock
The mythological account of Origin of Jat people from Shiva's Locks was propounded by the author of Deva Samhita. Deva Samhita, is a collection of Sanskrit

hymns by Gorakh Sinha during the early medieval period. Devasamhita records the account of Origin of the Jats in the form of discussion between Shiva and Parvati . There is mention of Jat people in Deva Samhitā in the form of powerful rulers over vast plains of Central Asia. When Pārvatī asks Shiva about the origin of Jat people, their antiquity and characters of Jat people, Shiva tells her like this :"They are symbol of sacrifice, bravery and industry. They are, like gods, firm of determination and of all the kshatriyā, the Jat people are the prime rulers of the earth.”. Shiva explains Parvati about the origin of Jat people as under: "In the beginning of the universe with the personification of the illusionary powers of Virabhadra and daughter of Daksha's gana's womb originated the caste of Jat people." Pārvatī asks, in the shloka-17 of 'Deva Samhitā' about the origin and exploits of the Jat people, whom none else has so far revealed, Shiva tells Parvati that: "The history of origin of Jat people is extremely wonderful and their antiquity glorious. The Pundits of history did not record their annals lest it should injure and impair their false pride and of the vipras and gods. We describe that realistic history before you." Brahmanical legends of Origin of the Jats The two ethnologists, Russel and Hira Lal, give a different version of the above anecdote in the "Brahmanical legends of origin of the Jats", which is reproduced below: "The Jats relate the legend thus. On the occasion when Raja Daksha, father-in-law of Mahadeva (Shiva) was performing a great sacrifice, he invited all the gods to present except his son-in-law Mahadeva. The latter's wife, Parvati, was, however, very eager to go; so she asked Mahadeva to let her attend, even though she had not been invited. Mahadeva was unwilling to allow her, but finally consented. Daksha treated Parvati with great want of respect at the sacrifice, so she came home and told Mahadeva about her plight. When Mahadeva heard all this he was filled with wrath and untying his matted hair (jata) dashed it on the ground, whence two powerful beings arose from it. He sent them to destroy Daksha's sacrifice and they went and destroyed it. From these were descended the race of Jats, and they take their name from the matted locks (jata) of the Lord Shiva. Another saying of the Jats is that the ancestors of the Rajputs was from Kashyapa and that of the Jats from the Shiva. In the beginning these were the only two races in India." It is also mentioned that after the destruction of Daksha's sacrifice by Virabhadra and his ganas, the followers of Shiva, the defeated gods sought Brahma and asked his counsel. Brahma advised the gods to make their peace with Shiva. Shiva accepted his advice and restored the burnt head of Daksha and the broken limbs were made whole.

Then the Devas thanked Shiva for his gentleness, and invited him to sacrifice. There Daksha looked on him with reverence, the rite was duly performed, and there also Vishnu appeared. A compromise was achieved between Vaishnavas and followers of Shiva. The above account was set afloat during the medieval age which is marked by ascendancy of powerful Rajput warriors. It was a period of unhealthy growth of blind superstitions, the decay and death of adventure in science and thought in practical life. It was a period during which "the fairy of the fortune of the Jats, particularly after Harsha Vardhana, had gone to sleep." The account cast a spell on the mind of the simple Jat folk and soon became popular with them. They were taken by pious fraud that they were born from the highest bodily part (jata) of the highest god (Shiva) where as all others are born of the lower part of Brahma. The Brahmanical accounts wrongly interpret word jata as 'locks'. Since Jats were strong followers of Shiva and were his ganas. Word 'Jata' should be understood as a federation of clans in the light of Panini's Ashtadhyayi. The Linguistic and Religious Etymology about the origin of the word, 'Jata' is that it finds mention in most ancient Indian literature like Mahabharata, Ramayana and Rig Veda. Over sixty clans are named in the Rig Veda.[8] In the Mahabharata as they are mentioned ‘Jartas’ in ‘Karna Parva’. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini (traditionally dated 520-460 BCE, with estimates ranging from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE) has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as “Jata Jhata Sanghate” This means that the terms 'Jata' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous. He has mentioned many Jat clans as settled in Punjab and North west areas. They are mentioned in the grammar treatise of Chandra of the fifth century in the phrase sentence “Ajay Jarto Huṇān” , which refers to the defeat of Huns by two Jat rulers under the leadership of Yasodharman. Other Jat ruler who fought with him was Baladitya. Reasons behind this account According to Y.P. Shastri the account was propounded to win back the Jats, who had en masse embraced Buddhism, to Neo-Hinduism preached and propagated by Shankaracharya and his followers. This account seemed to work wonders as there are no followers of Buddhism in Jats. Whereas Y.P. Shastri hints at religious purpose of the account, A.B. Mukerjee, an ethno-geographer stresses its political and social purpose. According to him " at the end of the ancient period of Indian History great instability prevailed in the social structure of the people and great political changes were effected. The Rajputs became the rulers and Jats their subject, a fact very well borne out by historical data (Denzil Ibbetson:1916) consequently, the social status of the latter groups declined and they were regarded as of lowly ranks. Of course, after the fall of Harsha Vardhana of the Virk gotra, the political and social status of the Jats especially in Rajasthan, had declined to a great extent. Possibly to counteract the intolerable superiority assumed by the Rajputs, this account might have been invented. Bhim Singh Dahiya points to yet another purpose of the account. According to him "Something must have happened in the sixth or seventh century AD, during the course of the revival of orthodox Brahmanism, which made these people (Jats) persona non grata with the new orthodox. That is why when the Puranas were revised, their historical

details and even their names were removed therefrom. It is perhaps to this state of affairs that the Deva Samhita refers when it records that " nobody has published the truth about the origin and activities of the Jat race." At another place he assumes that "the Jats were the first rulers in the vast central Asian plains as per Deva Samhita." The account is obviously figurative and its use is simply allegorical. The meaning it conveys is that there were so many ganas of warrior tribes at the command of Virabhadra or Kartikeya, the son of Shiva, whose abode was the Sivalak mountain. The function of this mythological account may be to ensure a more honourable antiquity and status to the Jats in comparison with others. Historians Kephart, Hewitt and Waddel count the Jats among the ruling races of prehistoric times in India.

Chapter 3 Various Writers on Origin of Jats

Sir Alexander Cunningham, (Former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India) wrote: The Xanthii (a Scythian tribe) are very probably the Zaths (Jats) of the early Arab writers. As the Zaths were in Sindh to the west of the Indus. This location agrees very well with what we know of the settlement of the Sakas (Scythians) on the Indian frontier. Sir John Marshall, (Former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India) wrote: "These Scythian invaders came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae (Great Jats), Sacaraucae, and Dahae (still exists as a Jat clan of Punjab)], whose home at the beginning of the second century B.C. was in the country between the Caspian Sea and the Jaxartes river (Central Asia) Arthur Edward Barstow wrote: "Greeks of Bactria (partly modern Afghanistan), expelled by the hordes of Scythians, entered India in the second and first centuries BC and are said to have penetrated as far as Orissa (an Indian province in southeast). Meanwhile the Medii, Xanthii, Jatii, Getae and other Scythian races, were gradually working their way from the banks of the Oxus (River valley in Central Asia) into Southern Afghanistan and the pastoral highland about Quetta (a Pakistani city), whence they forced their way by the Bolan Pass, through the Sulaiman Mountains into India, settling in the Punjab about the beginning of the first century AD. It is from these Scythian immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly descended." A.H. Bingley wrote: "It is from these Scythian Immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly descended." Professor J. Pettigrew wrote: "Another view holds that the Jats came from Asia Minor and Armenia in the successive invasions during the period 600 B.C. to A.D. 600."

Professor H.S. Willliams wrote: "The extent of the Scythian invasion has been variously estimated. Some scholars believe that they virtually supplanted the previous population of India (means Punjab), and there seems little doubt that by far the most numerous section of the Punjab population is of Scythian origin." Professor P.S. Gill wrote: "There is a general concensus of opinion that Jats, and with them Rajputs and Gujjars were foreigners who came from their original home, near the Oxus, Central Asia." Professor T. Sulimirski wrote: "The evidence of both the ancient authors and the archaeological remains point to a massive migration of Sacian (Sakas) & Massagetae (Great Jats) tribes from the Syr Darya Delta (Central Asia) by the middle of the second century B.C. Some of the Syr Darya tribes also invaded North India. H.A Rose wrote: "Many of the Jat tribes of Punjab have customs which apparently point to non-Aryan origin. Suffice it to say that both Sir Alexander Cunningham and Colonel Tod agreed in considering the Jats to be of IndoScythian Stock. The former identified them with the Zanthi of Strabo (Greek Geographer of the ancient times) and the Jatii of Pliny (Roman writer) and Ptolemy (Another Greek Geographer of the ancient times); and held that they probably entered Punjab from their home on the Oxus (in Central Asia) very shortly after the Meds or Mands (still exist as one of the Jat clans of Punjab), who also were Indo-Scythians, and who moved into Punjab about a century before Christ." Sir H.M. Elliot wrote: "These ignorant tribes (Jats) pointing to the remote Ghazni (Afghanistan) as their original seat, the very spot we know to have been occupied by the Yuechi, or, as Klaproth says, more correctly, Yuti, in the first centuries of our era, after the Sakas (a Scythian tribe) were repelled back from the frontiers of India, and left the country between India and Persia open for their occupation. The Jat tribes no doubt emigrated, not all at once, but at different times, and it is probable that those in the North-West are among the latest importations." I. Sara wrote: "Recent excavations in the Ukraine and Crimea finds points to the visible links of the Jat and Scythians." C.J. Daniell wrote: "Jats, who describe their ancestors as being immigrants from the west." Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff wrote: "My conclusion, therefore, is, that the Jats may be of Scythian descent." U.S. Mahil wrote: "Jat were called Scythians; because they were the inhabitants of the ancient country of Scythia. The Jats who invaded Punjab and conquered India upto Benares were called Indo-Scythians."

J.F. Hewitt wrote: "Further evidence both of the early history and origin of the race of Jats, or Getae, is given by the customs and geographical position of another tribe of the same stock, called the Massagetae, or great (massa) Getae." Sir George MacMunn (Sir and Lt. General) wrote: "Alexander came to India in his capacity as the holder of the Persian throne. From his camp near Kabul (Afghanistan), the Macedonian (Alexander) summoned those chiefs whom Skylax (Persian general) had conquered in the old time before, to come and renew their homage to their ancient Persian overlord in the person of himself. Several obeyed his summons, others did not, and it has been surmised that those who did were later arrivals, of Jat or Scythian origin, outside the normal Aryan fold as late comers to India." S.M Latif wrote: "A considerable portion of the routed army of the Scythians settled in Punjab, and a race of them, called Nomardy, inhabited the country on the west bank of the Indus (river). They are described as a nomadic tribe, living in wooden houses, after the old Scythian fashion, and settling where they found sufficient pasturage. A portion of these settlers, the descendants of Massagetae, were called Getes, from whom sprung the modern Jats." Dr. G Singh wrote: "The Jats of Panjab, are Scythians in origin and came from Central Asia, whose one branch migrated as far south in Europe as Bulgaria. " N Singh wrote: "The Scythians appear to originate from Central Asia. They reached Punjab between 50 B.C. and A.D. 50. It seems probable that the Scythian ancestors of the Jats entered the Sindh Valley (presently in Pakistan Kashmir) between 100 B.C. and A.D. 100."

Chapter. 4 Jat People Demographics

The Jat People Religious Demographic

The Jat People are mainly concentrated in the greater Punjab Region

The Punjab Region is the old land which includes Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Punjab State and Pakistan Punjab Provinc.

South Asian Map distribution of Jat people. Jat people, in South Asia, are mostly concentrated in the greater Punjab Region

The census in 1931 in India recorded population on the basis of ethnicity. In 1925, according to Professor Qanungo the population of Jatts was around nine million in South Asia and was made up of followers of three major religions as shown below. Religion Hinduism Sikhism Islam Jat Population % 47% 20% 33%

Professor B.S. Dhillon, states by taking population statistical analysis into consideration the Jatt population growth of both India and Pakistan since 1925,

Professor Quanungo's figure of nine million could be translated into a minimum population statistic (1988) of 30 million. The 1931 census in India (the most comprehensive source of information about Jat People Demographics) recorded population on the basis of ethnicity. Based on this number and on figures for population growth rates, the Jat population for 1988 has been estimated at 30 million. According to earlier censuses, Jat People accounted for approximately 25% of the entire Sindhi-Punjabi speaking area. A regional break down of the total Jat population is given in the following table. Demographically, A.H. Bingley noted, "The Jats have sent a very high percentage of their eligible men to the army". Approx Percentage 73 % 12 % 9.2 % 2% 1.2 % 1% 0.7 % 0.6 % 0.3 % 0.3 %

Name of region

Jat Population 1931 Jat Population 1988

Punjab Region* Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Balochistan

6,068,302 1,043,153 810,114 148,993 93,726

22,709,755 3,651,036 2,845,244 581,477 369,365 302,700 216,139 187,072 98,473 104,972

North-West Frontier Province 76,327 Bombay Presidency Delhi 54,362 53,271

Central Provinces and Berar 28,135 Ajmer-Marwar 29,992

Total

8,406,375

31,066,253

100 %

*The Punjab Region includes Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab (India), Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Chapter 5

Jat Kingdoms in Ancient India

K.R. Kanungo writes that when Muhammad bin Qasim invaded Sindh, the Kaikan Region in Sindh was in independent possession of the Jat People. In addition to frequent interaction with Jats (who for them represented Indians), the first Arab invasions of Persia and Sindh were met by the Jat People. According to Thakur Deshraj and Cunningham, Jat People of the Panwhar Clan ruled Umerkot in Sindh prior to Mughal ruler Humayun. Thakur Deshraj also mentions that the Susthan Region in Sindh was ruled by Chandra Ram, a Jat of Hala Clan. Chandra Ram lost his kingdom (known as Halakhandi) to the Muslim invaders sent by Muhammad bin Qasim. There is no information of any important Jat State in a period of two centuries following Kushan Rule. However, in the beginning of fifth century, there is evidence of the Jat Ruler Maharaja Shalinder ruling from "Shalpur" (the present-day Sialkot); his territory extended from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthan. This is indicated by the Pali inscription obtained by James Tod from village Kanswain Kota State in year 1820 AD. Some Jat historians and other writers have mentioned in various references about the Ancient Jat Kingdoms. Some of them are listed below:•

, Chandragupta Maurya [Born-340 B.C.. R ule 320B.C. -298B.C.]

He was the founder of The Maurya Empire. Chandergupta succeeded in bringing together most of the Indian sub-continent. As a result, he is considered thr first unifier of India and the first genuine emperor.

Ashoka Maurya [ Born 304 B.C.-Rule 273 B.C. to 232 B.C.] He is often cited as one of India's, as well as the world's, greatest emperors. Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquestsHis reign was headquartered in Magadha (present-day Bihar, India). He embraced Buddhism from the prevalent Vedic tradition after witnessing the mass deaths of the war of

Kalinga, which he himself had waged out of a desire for conquest. He was later dedicated to the propagation of Buddhism across Asia and established monuments marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha. Ashoka in human history is often referred to as the emperor of all ages. Ashoka was a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism. Ashoka is remembered in history as a philanthropic administrator. In the history of India Ashoka is referred to as Samraat Chakravartin Ashoka- the Emperor of Emperors Ashoka.

Samudragupta: ( 335-380 A.D. ) He was ruler of the Gupta Empire and successor to Chandragupta I, is considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses in Indian history, and sometimes also called the 'Napoleon of India'. His name is taken to be a title acquired by his conquests (Samudra referring to the 'oceans'). Samudragupta is believed to have been his father's chosen successor even though he had several older brothers. Therefore, some believe that after the death of Chandragupta I, there was a struggle for succession in which Samudragupta prevailed. Chandragupta II: ( 375-413/15 A.D. ) He (very often referred to as Vikramaditya or Chandragupta Vikramaditya) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta Empire. During his rule the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith. The period of prominence of the Gupta Dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. He attained success by pursuing both a favorable marital alliance and an aggressive expansionist policy. In this his father and grandfather set the precedent. Kanishka ( 78 A.D.-103 A.D.-the latest research put as 123 A.D.-151 A.D. ) He was a king of the Kushan Empire in Central Asia, ruling an empire extending from Bactria to large parts of northern India in the 2nd century of the common era, and famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. His main capital was at Peshawar (Purushpura) in northwestern Pakistan, with regional capitals at the location of the modern city of Taxila in Pakistan, Begram in Afghanistan and Mathura in India. Yasodharman( early part of the 6th Century A.D.) He was the king of Malwa, in central India, during the early part of the 6th century. The Gupta empire had been weakened by the attacks of the Indo-Hephthalites, known in India as the Hunas, towards the end of the 5th century, which caused it to break up into smaller states. Yasodharman defeated a Huna army in 528 and their ruler Mihirakula, which checked the Huna expansion in India Harshavardhana : (606 A.D.-647 A.D.) After the downfall of the Gupta Empire in the
middle of the sixth century AD, North India was again split into several independent kingdoms. The Huns established their supremacy over the Punjab and certain other parts of Central India. The northern and western regions of India passed into the hands of a dozen or more feudatories. Gradually, one of them, Prabhakar Vardhana, the ruler of Thanesar, who belonged to the Pushabhukti family, extended his control over all other feudatories.

Prabhakar Vardhan was the first king of the Vardhan dynasty with his capital at Thanesar now a small town in the vicinity of Kurukshetra in the state of Haryana nearly 150 km. from Delhi. After his death in A.D. 606, his eldest son, RajyaVardhan, ascended the throne. He was killed in a battle which he won against Devagupta who had killed Grahavarman, the husband of his sister Rajyashri and usurped the throne of Kannauj. Harsha ascended the throne at the age of 16. Though quite a young man, he proved himself a great conqueror and an able administrator. After his accession, Harsha first rescued his sister just as she was going to commit Sati. At the request of his sister, he united the two kingdoms of Thanesar (Kurukshetra) and Kannauj and transferred his capital from Thanesar to Kannauj. Harsha waged many wars. he defeated Sasank of Bengal. He also brought the five Indies i.e. Eastern Punjab (present day Haryana, Kannauj, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa under his control. He conquered Dhruvasena of Gujarat. He also conquered Ganjam, a part of the modern Orissa State. His empire included territories of distant feudal kings too. Harsha governed his empire on the same lines a the Guptas. The kings he conquered paid him revenue and sent soldiers when he was fighting war. They accepted his sovereignty, but remained rulers over their own kingdoms. Harsha's ambition of extending his power to the Deccan and southern India were stopped by Pulakesin II, the Chalukya king of Vatapi in northern Mysore. His reign is comparatively well-documented, thanks to his court poet Bana and Hieun Tsang. Bana composed an account of Harsha's rise to power in 'Harshacharita'. Hieun Tsang was a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who came to India during this time to collect Buddhist literature and to visit places connected with Buddhism. He wrote a full description of his journey in his book 'SI-YU-KI'. Harsha died in the year 647 AD. He ruled over India for 41 years. He was the last empire builder of ancient India. Harsha supported the development of philosophy and literature and wrote three well-known plays Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika. After Harsha's death, apparently without any heirs, his empire died with him. The kingdom disintegrated rapidly into small states. The succeeding period is very obscure and badly documented, but it marks the culmination of a process which had begun with the invasion of the Hunas in the last years of the Gupta empire. Meanwhile, the kingdoms of the Deccan and the south became powerful.

Chapter 6

Jat Kingdoms in Medieval India
There were several small Jat States in what is now Rajasthan. The Bikaner Region (then known as Jangladesh) in the desert region of western India was dominated by the Jat People. At what period the Jat People established themselves in the Indian desert is not known. By the 4th century they had spread up to Punjab in India. The small Jat population in the region were Jat Clans ruled by their own chiefs and largely governed by their own customary law There were several Jat rulers of small areas in North India. These included the Garhwals of Garhmukteshwar, Kaliramnas (who ruled near Mathura), Khirwars of Brij and Narsinghpur, Nauhwars (who ruled the area surrounding the Noh lake area near Mathura), Koīls of Kampilgarh (the area that is now Aligarh), Halas, Kuntals, Pachars, Thenuas, Toouts, and Thakureles.

The Jat People also dominated the Malwa Region, under rulers such as Harshavardhana, Shiladitya, Singhavarma, Vishnuvardhan and Yasodharman. Gohad According to the Rajputana Gazetteer, the Jagir of village Bamrauli near Agra, was transferred to the Chauhan and Kachwaha Rajputs of Bairath (near Alwar), during the rule of the Tomar Rajputs in Delhi in the 11th century. During Firuz Shah Tughluq's regime, his satrap in Agra, Muneer Mohammad, forced the Jats of Bamrauli to leave the village in 1367. The Bamraulia Jats moved to the region of Gwalior beyond the Chambal River. According to Cunningham and William Cook, the Bamraulia Jats founded the city of Gohad near Gwalior in 1505. Later it developed into an important Jat State that continued till Indian Independence. The Jat rulers of Gohad were awarded the title of Rana. Dholpur The present town of Dholpur, which dates from the 16th century, stands somewhat to the north of the site of the older town built in the 11th century by Raja Dholan (or Dhawal) Deo, a Tomara Rajput Chieftain; it was named as Dholdera or Dhawalpuri after him.Modern research says in 10 th century Jats took over the control of Dhaulpur. Before Jats the Yadavs were rulers in buddha time. After that, Tomer of Gwaliar won Dhaulpur but Jats remain there Emperor. In 1450, Dholpur had a Raja of its own. However, the fort was taken by Sikander Lodi in 1501 and transferred to a Muslim Governor in 1504. In 1527, after strenuous resistance, the fort fell to Babur and came under the sway of the Mughals along with the surrounding country. It was assigned by Emperor Akbar to the province of Agra. A fortified Sarai built during the reign of Akbar still stands in the town, within which is the fine tomb of Sadik Mohammed Khan, one of his generals.

Chapter 7
The Rise of Jat People Power

& Jat People Kingdoms in Early Modern Era

: Expansion of the Jat Power (1680-1707) The rise of Jat Power has always taken place against tyranny, injustice, economic and social exploitations and was never overawed by claims of racial or tribal superiority. They have always stood in ancient as well as medieval times like rock in the face of invaders seeking to ravage the motherland. Whenever the occasion arose they beat their ploughshares into swords and taking advantage of feeble & worn-out political structure, they laid the foundations of political power under several tribal chiefs. They have shown in all times – whether against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, or against Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali – the same propensity to fall upon the rear of a retreating army undeterred by the heaviest odds, or the terror-inspiring fame of great conquerors. When encountered they showed steady courage unmindful of the carnage on the field or of the miseries that were in store for them after defeat. In 1669 this race of warrior-agriculturists, the Jats, rose against the narrow and over-centralised despotic regime of Aurangzeb. The Jat Power under the leadership of Churaman took a big leap forward during the rule of the imbecile successors of Aurangzeb.

Bharatpur

In the disorder following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Jat resistance resumed, organized under the leadership of Churaman (1695–1721). The Jat Power under the leadership of Churaman took a big leap forward during the rule of the imbecile successor of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb left behind a host of serious problems for his weak successors to deal with people highly agitated like Jat People. Churaman's nephew, Badan Singh (1722–1756), established a kingdom centered at Deeg, from which he extended his rule over Agra and Mathura.

Kuchesar
In the mid-eighteenth century the Dalal Jats of Mandoti, Haryana, built the mud fort of Kuchesar in Uttar Pradesh.Mud Fort of Kuchesar famous for tourism now a days.

Ballabhgarh
The founders of the Princely State of Ballabhgarh were Tewatia Jats, who had come from village Janauli, which is more than 2000 years old. The Tevatia Jat Sardar Gopal Singh left Janauli in 1705 (in Palwal) and got settled at Sihi, a village of Tewatia Jats in Ballabgarh at a distance of about 5 km from Ballabhgarh. Charan Das's son, Balram Singh, rose to a powerful king in this dynasty. Princely State of Ballabgarh is after his name. He was brother- in- law of Maharaja Suraj Mal and mama of Jawahar Singh. Raja Nahar Singh (1823–1858) was a notable King of this Princely State. The forefathers of Jat Raja Nahar Singh had built a fort here around 1739 AD. The small kingdom of Ballabhgarh is only 20 miles from Delhi. The name of the Jat Raja Nahar Singh will always be highly regarded among those who martyred themselves in the 1857 war of independence.

Patiala
Patiala was a state of Siddhu Jats ancestry in Punjab. Its area was 5932 sq. mile and annual income Rs 1,63,00,000/-. The rulers of the erstwhile states of Patiala, Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to Jat Sardar Phul of Siddhu ancestry. Apparently the appellation of dynasty "Phulkian" is derived from their common founder. One of the sons of Phul, Ram Singh had a son Ala Singh, who assumed the leadership in 1714 when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce battle against the Mughals. Ala Singh carved out an independent principality from a petty Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a large state, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers while confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances.

Nabha
Nabha was a state of Siddhu Jats founded by grandson of Chaudhary Phul Singh. Chaudhary Phul Singh had six sons namely, 1.Tiloka 2.Ram Singh 3.Rudh 4.Chunu 5. Jhandu and 6.Takhtmal. Annual income of Nabha state was Rs 1,50,000/-. Phul, was Chaudhri of a country located at the south east of Delhi. Phul’s descendants founded 3 States: Patiala, Jind and Nabha. Nabha was founded by the great-grandson of Phul in 1755.

Jind
Jind State in Haryana was founded by descendants of Phul Jat of Siddhu ancestry. Chaudhary Phul Singh. Chaudhary Phul Singh had six sons namely [as we have seen above], 1.Tiloka 2.Ram Singh 3.Rudh 4.Chunu 5. Jhandu and 6.Takhtmal. Tiloka had two sons namely, 1. Gurditta 2. Sukh Chain. Sukh Chain's descendants ruled Jind State and Gurditta's descendants ruled Nabha State.Area of the state was 1259 sq mile and annual income of Jind State was Rs 30,00,000/-. According to another version stating descent from Jaisal, founder of the State of Jaisalmer in 1156. The founder of this Sikh Dynasty, Phul, was Chaudhri of a country located at the south east of Delhi. Phul’s descendants founded 3 States: Patiala, Jind and Nabha as stated earlier. By the nineteenth century, Jats ruled the states of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Gohad, Kuchesar, Ballabhgarh, Patiala, Nabha and Jind. The Jats established a reputation of being determined and sturdy.

Faridkot
Faridkot state was founded by Jat Sikh of Brar gotra during Akbar's rule. Area of the state was 643 sq mile and annual income was Rs 18,00,000/-. Their ancestor was Rao Khewa.

Mursan
Mursan State of Thenua Jats was located in the Hathras (Mahamaya Nagar) district in Uttar Pradesh. The most well-known ruler of this estate was the Jat nobleman, Raja Mahendra Pratap (1886–1979), who was popularly known as Aryan Peshwa. The third son of Raja Ghansyam Singh, he was adopted by Raja Harnarayan Singh of Hathras. Mahendra Pratap married a lady from a Jat Sikh family based in the princely state of Jind in Haryana.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab)
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab) (1780–1839) was from Sandhawalia Jat clan of Punjab and became the Sikh Emperor of the sovereign country of Punjab . Ranjit Singh's father Maha Singh was the commander of the Sukerchakia Misl and controlled a territory in west Punjab based around his headquarters at Gujranwala.

Ranjit Singh succeeded his father at the young age of 12. After several campaigns, his rivals accepted him as their leader, and he united the Sikh factions into one state. He conquered vast tracts of territory on all sides of his kingdom. From the capture of Lahore in 1799, he rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab and became undisputed ruler of northern India and the land of the five rivers. To secure his empire, he invaded Afghanistan, and severely defeated the Pathan militias and tribes. Ranjit Singh took the title of Maharaja on April 12 1801 (to coincide with Baisakhi Day). Lahore served as his capital from 1799. In 1802 he took the city of Amritsar. In the year 1802, Ranjit Singh successfully invaded Kashmir.

Other States
• • • • • • •

Saidpur (Bulandshahar)[British sources of 1857 Revolt] Peshawa (now in Aligarh)[Now a Days Royal family live in this fort,famous in world for exporting horses] Nanda Devi in Garhwal Nandraj Jat built temple of Nanda Devi. Jat of Garhwal called as Nanda Jats Dungarpur of Rajasthan - it was Jat State in ancient times Firojbad, UP - in 1739, Jats of Mahavan attacked on Firojabad and killed the faujdar of Firojabad then rooled over it more than 30 years. Alwar - In the age of Maharaja Surajmal, Jawahar Singh (son of Maharaja) won the fort of Alwar for a brief period. Gwalior - Jat rulers Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana (1707-1756) and Maharaja Chhatar Singh Rana (1757-1782) occupied the Gwalior fort twice, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana from 1740 to 1756, and Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana from 1780 to 1783. During this period they constructed historical monuments in the Gwalior Fort Agra- many years Jats ruled Agra. After a seize of one month Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774. After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under residentship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort. There is a haveli in the name Maharaja Nawal Singh in Agra Fort and also a Chhatri of Maharaja Jawahar Singh built in right side of Khasmahal near the Chhatri of Rosanara-Jahanara.

Chapter 8 The Jat People Today
Jat People in India
Jat People are considered a forward class in all the States of India with those of Punjab or Haryana origin. Some specific clans of Jat People are classified as OBC in some states, e.g. Jat Muslim in Gujarat and Mirdha Jat People (except Jat Muslims) in Madhya Pradesh. Land reforms, particularly the abolition of Jagirdari and Zamindari Systems, Panchayati Raj and Green Revolution, to which Jat People have been major contributors, have immensely contributed to the economic betterment of the Jat People.

Adult Franchise has created enormous social and political awakening among Jat People. Consolidation of economic gains and participation in the electoral process are two visible outcomes of the post-independence situation. Through this participation they have been able to significantly influence the politics of north India. However since demise of Charan Singh and Devi Lal and rise of OBC and Bahujan Samaj Party, their influence seems to be on decline. Economic differentiation, migration and mobility could be clearly noticed amongst the Jat People. Today, the largest population centre is located in the Punjab Region, and there are smaller distributions across the world, due to the large immigrant diaspora. In the immigrant diaspora major populations centres include the U.K., U.S., Canada and Australia.

Jat People in Pakistan
A large number of the Jat People live in Pakistan and occupy dominant roles in public life in Pakistan Punjab in particular and Pakistan in general. In addition to the Punjab, Jat communities are also found in Pakistani accupied Kashmir, in Sindh, particularly the Indus delta and among Seraiki speaking communities in southern Punjab, the Kachhi region of Baluchistan and the Dera Ismail Khan District of the North West Frontier Province.

Jat People Immigrant Diaspora
A large number of the Jat people emigrated from South Asia in search of opportunities abroad starting from the early 1960s. Large immigration took place to the U.K. and U.S. during the post World War 2 labour demand. Recent immigration has taken place to Australia and Canada, with Canada being a major destination point in recent years.The Immigrant Jat Diaspora have adopted many professions such as Sweet Shops, Grocery Stores, Meet Shops, Resturants, House Costructions etc.

Chapter 9 Some Important Dates
[ about the lives of some Jat People]

Important Dates
Name of person Baba Shahmal Jat Bhim Sen Chaudhary (Beniwal) Bigga Ji Jakhar Date of Birth 5 January 1925 1301 Date of death 2000 1336

Bahadur Singh Bhobia Baldev Ram Mirdha(Rahd) Bhim Singh Dahiya Chaudhary Bansi Lal (Legha) Chaudhary Bhinya Ram Sihag Chaudhary Charan Singh (Tewatia) Chaudhary Devi Lal (Sihag) Chaudhary Gulla Ram (Benda) Chaudhari Kumbharam Arya (Sunda) Chaudhary Mool Chand Sihag Cheti Lal Verma (Nauhwar) Chhajju Ram Dhanna Bhagat (Harchatwal) Dr. Sahib Singh Verma (Lakra) Foolabai (Manju)

30 June 2007 1682 bhadrapada Ganga Das (Munder ) 1823 krishnashtami 1913 Garib Das (Dhankar) 1717 1778 Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon 18 March 1914 6 February 2006 Hari Singh Burdak 1884 1966 Hira Singh Chahar 17 January 1901 30 June 1993 Harveer Singh Gulia 1376 1398 Jetha Ram Dudi 13 July 1939 19 August 1994 Justice Mahavir Singh (Panwar) 14 September 1920 11 August 1997 Karmabai (Dudi) 20 January 1615 25 July 1634 Karni Ram (Meel) 2 February 1914 13 May 1952 Lothoo Nitharwal 1804 1855 Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab) (Sandhawalia) 1780 1839 Maharaja Suraj Mal (Sinsinwar) 13 February 1707 25 December 1763 Maj Hoshiar Singh (Dahiya) 05 May 1936 Raja Mahendra Pratap (Thenua) 1 December 1886 29 April 1979 Pandit Jagdev Singh Sidhanthi (Ahlawat) October 1900 27 August 1979 Raja Nahar Singh (Tewatia) 21 April 1823 9 January 1858 Ram Dev Singh Gill 1922 13 May 1952 Ranabai (Dhoon) vaishakh shukla 3 sv falgun shukla 13 sv

1882 17 January 1889 29 September 1940 26 August 1927 14 September 1891 23 December 1902 25 September 1914 30 september 1883 10 May 1914 paush krishna 6 sv 1944 (1887 AD) 2 June 1921 1861 baisakh badi 3, samvat 1472 15 March 1943 1664

1 June 1924 2 August 1953 13 May 2000 28 March 2006 October 1954 29 May 1987 6 April 2001 12 October 1968 26 October 1995 21 January 1978 18 January 2000 7 April 1943

Nathuram Mirdha (Rahd) Pratap Singh Kairon Ramdan Dookiya Sir Chhotu Ram (Ohlan) Sardar Bhagat Singh (Sandhu) Sardar Harlal Singh (Dular) Swami Gopal Das (Kaswan) Swami Indravesh (Dhaka) Swami Keshwanand (Dhaka) Swami Omanand Sarswati (Khatri) Tejaji (Dhaulya) Tara Chand (Saharan) Thakur Deshraj

1561 (1504 AD) 20 October 1921 1 October 1901 15 March 1884 24 November 1881 28 September 1907 1901 1822 13 March 1937 1883 1910 29 January 1074 6 June 1913 shravan shukla 11, samvat 1952 (1895 AD)

1627 (1570 AD) 30 August 1996 6 February 1965 24 October 1963 9January 1945 23 March 1931 1936 12 June 2006 13 September 1972 23 March 2003 28 August 1103 12 March 1958 1971

Section II
Chapter 10 Some Jat-Sikh Sub-Castes ( Gote )
In Alphabetical Order [ From A to J [ Inroductory: Significant Remarks By Foreign Writers of 18th Century About Jat-Sikhs A British Officer, Captain Falcon, in his Handbook on Sikhs wrote, in 1896, "The back-bone of the Sikh People is the great Jat Race, divided and sub-divided into numerous clans. The Jats are thoroughly independent in character, and assert personal and individual freedom, as against communal or tribal control, more strongly than any other people". As far the origin of the Jat Sikhs or in that matter other Jats, Major

Barstow remarked in 1928, "It is from these Scythian immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly descended. They thus colonized the Punjab, Northern Rajputana (modern Indian state of Rajasthan), and the western half of the Gangetic Doab (western part of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pardesh in northern India), and a considerable proportion of the inhabitants of these countries are undoubtly of Scythian origin". Regarding the characteristics of the Jat Sikhs Captain Bingley quoted Thomason in 1899, "they are manly without false pride; undemonstrative; independent without insolence; reserved in manner, but good-natured, light-hearted, and industrious. No one could be associated with them for any time without conceiving both respect and liking for them". Approximately one third of Jats in South Asia, according to Bingley, follow Sikhism. They make up the majority of Sikhs. Even though there are no up to date accurate available statistics, some people say their number is as high as 85%. As per the A.D. 1888 census returns figure for the total number of baptised Sikhs in India was 1,706,909 and the Jats accounted for 66%. Their association with Sikhism is deeply rooted. For example, two of the well known followers of Guru Nanak (born in 1469), the founder of Sikhism, were Jats: Bala (a Sandhu Jat ) and Bhai Buddha (a Randhawa Jat). The world reknown Professor Ellsworth Huntington of Yale University remarked that most of the original Sikhs belonging to the Jat background is supported by several European eyewitness account writers of the eighteenth century: Colonel A.L.H. Polier (died in A.D. 1795) wrote, "Originally and in general the Siques (Sikhs) are zemindars (landowners) or cultivators of land, and of that tribe called Jatts (Jats) which, in this part of India, are reckoned the best and most laborious tillers, though at the same time they are also noted for being of an unquiet and turbulent disposition. This tribe of Jatts (Jats) is very numerous and dispersed in all the country from the Sind (presently, a province of Pakistan or river Indus) to the southward far beyond Agra (a city in northern India). In another document Polier said, "But what is more to be admitted is that those Seik (Sikh) Sirdars (Chiefs), whose territories border on the King's were but very lately of the Jauts (Jats) and of their race and tribe ---- they have put on their iron bracelet, fifty of them are enough to keep at bay a whole battalion of the king's forces, such as they are". Griffiths, J. (his document dated February 17, 1794 A.D.) said, "The Jaats (Jats) are said to observe some institutions similar to the Seiks (Sikhs), wear their hair and beards in the same manner, and are part of the same people, who under Swrudge Mul (Suraj Mal---a powerful king of the Jats), etc., formerly possessed many of the countries in the North India---". Francklin, W. (Documented during A.D. 1798-1803) wrote, "Considerable similarity in their (Sikhs) general customs may be traced with those of the Jauts (Jats); though these, in some districts, apparently vary, the difference is not material, and their (Sikhs) permitting an interchange of marriages with the Jauts

(Jats) of the Doab and Harrianah (probably same as the modern Haryana state) amounts almost to a conclusive proof of their affinity of origin. The Seiks (Sikhs) allow foreigners of every description to join their standard, to sit in their company, and to shave their beards, but excepting in the instances of the Jauts (Jats), they will not consent to intermarriages----. If indeed some regulations which are in their (Sikhs) nature purely military ----be excepted, it will be found, that the Seiks (Sikhs) are neither more or less than Jauts (Jats) in their primitive state". Browne, J. (Major and who wrote the first book in English on Sikhs "History of the Origin and Progress of the Sikhs" in A.D. 1788) said, "The people known by the name of Sicks (Sikhs), were originally the common inhabitants of the provinces of Lahore and Multan (now both in Pakistan), and mostly of the Jaut (Jat) tribe ----". Francklin, W. (documented during A.D. 1798-1803) wrote, "The Seiks (Sikhs), in their person, are tall, and of a manly erect deportment; their aspect is ferocious, their eyes piercing and animated; and in tracing their features a striking resemblance is observable to the Arabs who inhabit the banks of the Euphrates (river in modern Iraq)". This is an interesting observation on and appears to have some historical connection because General Sir Sykes says in his book that a large number of Jats from the Indus Valley were taken to the marches of the Tigris (river in modern Iraq) in eighth century A.D. Regarding the founding of Khalsa (baptised Sikhs or saint soldiers in A.D. 1699) by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhs, Lt. General Sir MacMunn wrote, "The Jats of the Punjab, sturdy and quarrelsome, flocked to the new brotherhood (Khalsa), and he (Guru Gobind Singh) soon had a force which enabled him to try conclusions… …with the forces at Delhi (Emperor of India's). A strong religious sense did animate these warlike, muscular Jats…. The Jat tribes about the Sutlej and the Ravi rivers hastened to join the faith…. No longer would they turn the cheek to their persecutor, and they began to group themselves by tribes and confederacies known as Misals…".

Now we proceed on to Sub-Castes ( Gots )

Antal
Antal, known in classical writings as the Amateans or Antixenes , is a gotra of Jats found in India. Antal is a gotra in Kashyap Rajpoot also. The Jat historian Thakur Deshraj identifies them with the Amatae People of Sindh described by Megasthenes. . Antal Jats are mainly found in the Ambala District of Haryana.Major villages being Balana, Chaur Mastpur, Lautan (Khurchanpur), Naneola, Ratangarh in Kurukshetra District; Makhmailpur, Alipur, Khalaspur, Sular, Pur (Mandi), Hadana , Majauli in Patiala District and Soonkh in Ropar District, Punjab. Notable People of Antal Clan

Brigadier Jarnail Singh Antal,

Sena Medal, Vishist Seva Medal, Chaur Mastpur, Ambala, India. ( Ex Commandant Assam Regimental Centre, and Executive Director Corporate Affairs, SIS (India) Ltd.Prof. Gurbux Singh Antal, Ex prof. of Zoology Khalsa College Amritsar, from Vill. Lautan, Ambala, India Bara Singh Antal, freedom fighter from vill. Naneola, Ambala, India

Atwal
Atwal or Atval or Attwal or Athwal or Ant is a clan name or Gotra of Jats from Punjab, India. Members of the clan were originally based in villages in northwest India. They are also found in Gujarat where they call them as Ant. Due to emigration during the 20th century, members can be found around the world, including in the the United Kingdom, the U.S.A. and Canada. Originating villages are Shankar and Hakim Pur, in the Doaba region of Punjab. They are Punjabi Sikh Jats. The Mahabharata Tribe - Atavisavara may be identified with Jat Gotra - Atval of Jats from Punjab. There is unanimity among historians that Atwals used to husband camels, so they were originally known as the Oonth Wala, which changed over time to Atwal. They inhabited the Ambala, Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Patiala districts of the Punjab, some settling as far west as Sialkot, Multan, Jhang, Montgomery, Muzaffargarh and Bahawalpur in West Punjab, what is now Pakistan. After settling in West Punjab, many Atwal Jats converted to Islam although most Atwals in India are Sikh. Atwals are also found in large numbers in Amritsar and Gurdaspur. H.A. Rose considers Atwals to be descendants of the Panwar and that they came to East Punjab from Multan. Jats, Khatris, Rajputs and Dalits have a common background and Atwal is a well-known and ancient sub-caste of Jats.

Aulakh
Aulakh , Aulukya , Olak , Olakh Ola , Aula is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. They are descendants of Uluka. Mahabharata mentions a country called Uluka. As per grammar rules the Jat clan name name Aulakh, is derived from Uluka, the name of the country and King. Perhaps the Iranian Uruk, Indian Uraga was their country. Majority of this clan people are Sikhs in Punjab. There are many villages of this gotra in Ambala district. Hindu jats of this gotra write Ola in Rajasthan. Aulak population is 7,620 in Patiala district. In Amritsar the population of Aulak Jats is 17,841. It is mostly to be found in the area around the town of Ajnala and around the village of Shabazpur in Tarn-Tarn sub-district where the clan owns a cluster of 9 villages. In Ludhiana the Aulak population is 2,055. In Gurdaspur district the Aulak population is 2,817. In Firozpur district the Aulak population is 4,200. Notable person from this gotra

Arjan Singh Aulakh : The Marshal of The Indian Air Force

Bains
Bains or also sometimes pronounced Wainse is a gotra (clan) of Jats found in Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan There are a number of theories as to the origin of the Bains. According to one of the tradition, they are by origin Janjua Rajputs, and claim descent from Bains, who lived at the time of Emperor Firuz Shah Tughlaq. In Multan, the tribe also claims to be Janjua Rajputs, who came from Sakesar, and settled in the region, also interestingly during the reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq. In Sialkot, another tradition makes Wais one of the 22 sons of Sanpal. In Multan, and generally in the Seraiki speaking areas, the correct pronounciation is Wains, and not Bains. The majority of the Bains in East Punjab converted to Sikhism in the 18th Century. While those in western Punjab started to convert to Islam from the 14th Century onwards.

Bajwa
Bajwa is said to be a name of a Rajput (?) guy who liked Falcons, i.e. Bazwala or Bajwala…later on butchered by Jats. Others (like Ibbetson) say that the joint JatRajput Bajwas claim descent from Bajwat Hills in Sialkot, which is also highly likely, as Bajwat may have been named after the Falconer. Bajwas are still found mainly in Sialkot, but have spread all the way to Patiala. It is suspected that they have some degree of Greek blood as Sakala was Greek Center in ancient times. Bajwa is a prominent Jatt clan of the Punjab. They claim Suryavanshi descent. The place of Bajwas' origin is Bajwat in the Sialkot and Narowal districts of Pakistan. This place is located in the Shiwalik foothills and is quite near the Indian border as well as the city of Jammu. At one time, Bajwa Jats had eighty-four villages in the Sialkot area. The founder of the Bajwa clan, Bajwat (or Wajab) used to live in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan. From there, he migrated to Sialkot and Gujranwala. One of his descendants became the ruler of Multan. The Bajwa ruler Raja Shalip, who owned a large estate in Multan, was ousted from Multan at the time of Sikandar Lodhi by the local Governor with whom he had quarreled. Shalip had a number of sons who were killed fighting with him, but two sons named Kals and Yas managed to escape. Both used to rear hawks (baaz) and are reputed to have left their father's fort disguised as falconers, thereby providing the clan name. Bajwa today can come to mean "the bravest".

Bal
Bal ,Bala ,Balyan is a gotra of Jats found in Haryana, India. They are descendants of Raja Bali. According to Bhim Singh Dahiya, name of the country Bulgaria is after the Bal Jat clan. Bulgaria means the land of the caravan (wagons) of the Balls. Mahabharata Shalya Parva in Sanskrit mentions Balas.

This gotra traces its origin from Ghazni (now in Afghanistan). People belonging to the Bal gotra claim to be descendants of Suryavanshi Raja Bali. But according to Bhagvat Dutt they belong to the Anu Dynasty. According to the Mahabharata (Chapter -Adi Parva) King Bali is called the grandson on the maternal side of Raja Daksha. According to "Deva Samhita", some Jats are the descendants of the daughter of Raja Daksha. Many historians regard Bali as the descendant of Yayati. Bhagwat Dutt has proved that the Baluchies (of Baluchistan) are the descendant of Anu. Several people belonging to this gotra are are found in Haryana. The Sikh Jats belonging to this gotra are found in several big villages like Sathila, Batala

Bandar
Bandar or Vanar is gotra of Jats. This gotra started from place called Bandra .
Village in Sirsa District isGigorani Bandars have a population of 3,180 in Patiala district and 2,316 in Amritsar district in Punjab.

Basra
Basra is gotra of Jats. This gotra started from their ancestral people who came grom Basra [Iraq ] Other sources however say its name originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together" Other sources however say its name originates from the Persian word Bas-rāh or Bassorāh meaning "where many ways come together"

Bassi is Gotra of Jats. These people are mentioned by Aitreya Brahmana as Vasha. They are the same as Basae of Herodotus and Vaisi of Assyria, one of the Medians tribes. Bassis are now a Jat as well as Khatri clan. Aitereya Brahmana places them in Madhyadesa. Kausitaki Upanisad places them with Matsyas; and Gopatha Brahmana Shows them with the Ushinaras (Sibiyas). Bassi/Basi is a Jat Gotra found in Punjab. According to B S Dhillon the population of Basi clan in Jalandhar district is 5,700 Bath is a Jat clan found mainly in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India including Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and in Punjabi migrant communities in United Kingdom, Canada and United States of AmericaIt is considered to be one of the oldest Jat tribes.

The Indian Batth people belong to the Sikh religion. The Batth people in Pakistan belong to Islam. In Punjab (India) there are many villages with name Batth. The Sikh people who are Batth use Batth word with their full name at the end eg: Sh Harbans Singh BatthThe famous villages of Batth community in Punjab are: Booh, Harike, Batth, Mughalwala, Manihala Jai Singh Wala, Kulla, Kacha Pakka, Ahmedpur. These villages are located in Distric tTaan Taaran near Patti. The Batth people are found in large number in the Gurdaspur District. Some batth people also write their name as 62 on their bikes or cars. A huge number of Batths are living in the Australia, UK and they are spreading our Punjabi culture and virsa throughout the world.

Beniwal
Beniwal , Veniwal , Venhval , Benhival , Vainiwal , Bhainiwal , Bahinwar, Veniwal , is a clan or gotra of Jats in Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in India. They were rulers in Jangladesh, Bikaner. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [1] They are Nagavanshi kshatriya. There are (4,440) Bhainiwals in Patiala district. Dighawali, Kular, Pitampura (Rohini) Please Note:- There are few SC families(not Jats) in Delhi who write Beniwal as gotr/surname because they lived in Beniwal gotr villages.

Bhangu
Bhangu or Bhangoo or Bhango is a Jat gotra or clan mainly found in Punjab state of North India, Sindh and Punjab Province of Pakistan. The Bhangoo tribe was mentioned by the Greek historians, at the time of Alexander's invasion in 4th century B.C. The Greek historians mention a ruler Phegelas or Phegus of a native tribe when Alexander approached the river Hyphasis (Beas) in 326 B.C. The name is translated to Sanskrit as Bhagala or Bhagoo. The tribe also finds mention during the Arab attack on Sindh in the 7th century A.D. The ruler of the lands at the time of Mohammad Bin Kasim’s invasion of Sindh was the chief of the Bhangoo tribe called Kaka The Bhangoos were the lords of territory known as "Budhiya" around present day Sehwan, Sindh, Pakistan. Kaka was the son of Kotal, and grandson of Bhandargu Bhangoo, a Jat of the Bhangoo tribe. The members of the Bhangoo tribe were the follower of the Buddhist faith as most of the Jat tribes were around the 7th century AD. In the census reports of Punjab from 1883 and 1892; the Bhangoos have been described as one of the original Jat tribe and the earliest inhabitants of the Jhang district. The Bhangoo tribe held the area around Shorkot. The Bhangoos were later displaced by the migration of Sials into Jhang. The Sials were subjects of the Bhangoo chiefs until the beginning of the 16th century AD. Several members of the Bhangoo clan have rendered their lives to the service of the Khalsa. In 1740 Bhai Mehtab Singh Bhangoo slained Massa Ranghar and help liberate the Golden Temple from the Mughal clutches. He later achieved martyrdom in Lahore. In 1841 his grandson Bhai Rattan Singh Bhangoo finished the writing of the first documented history of Sikhs. Undoubtedly, it is claimed that without his book "Prachin Panth Parkash" the history of Sikhs would have gone untold. The expert in guerrilla warfare Gen. Shabeg Singh orchestrated the

fortification in the defense of Sri Akal Takht. He laid downed his life on June 6th that year defending the premises of Golden Temple. The Bhangoos in general they do not claim Rajput ancestry. As per Jat historian Ram Sarup Joon the Bhangoos are said to be related to “Heir” tribe which migrated from the Central Asian region of Turkistan. The Bhangoo (Bhangu) Jats are not related to the powerful Bhangi Misl of Sikhs. The existence of the Bhangoo tribe has been reported by ancient historians well before the Khalsa came to power in Punjab. The descendants of Mehtab Singh Bhangoo were the part of Karor Singhia Misl not the Bhangi Misl. In 1890 Sardar Harnam Singh, a Bhangu Jat Sikh is listed in the “Chiefs and Families of Note in the Delhi, Jalandhar, Peshawar and Derajat Divisions of the Panjab” he is described to be residing in Moron village. Sardar Harman Singh was considered the chief of the Bhangu clan during his time. The Bhangoo clan is found in Amritsar, Patiala, Ropar, Ludhiana, Fatehgarh Sahib, Sangrur (Sunam, Barnala), Gurdaspur, Jalandhar, Mansa and Hoshiapur districts of Indian Punjab. In the Punjab Province of Pakistan they are in Sialkot, Narowal, Montgomery, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura and Jhang districts. The Bhangoos hold large villages in the district of Amritsar [12]. In the Sindh province of Pakistan the Bhangoo are found in Khairpur district.

=Sub Divisions
The Bhangoos in some areas in Punjab are also known Bhangoo(Bhangu)-Hira, Bhangoo-Hir or Hira. Bhangoo can be known as Rajpanggoo. "Raj" is the minor family name. Prominent Bhangoos  Bhai Mehtab Singh Bhangoo, Shaheed. He took upon himself to execute the notorious Major General Shabeg Singh Bhangoo, Shaheed. He was an expert in guerrilla warfare.

Massa Ranghar/Masse Khan Ranghar, who had taken over the Harmandir Sahib 1n 1740.  He trained the Mukti Bahini in the Bangladesh Liberation War and Sikh separatists in Operation Blue Star.   S. Gurdial Singh Bhangu, Sportsman, Coach of Indian national women's hockey team Bhai Rattan Singh Bhangoo, Grandson of Bhai Mehtab Singh Bhangoo, author of

Prachin Panth Prakash. A foremost and greatest of the Sikh historians. Without Rattan Singh Bhangoo's contributions Sikh history would have passed untold. 

Bhati
Bhati or Bhatti is a clan name found in Rajputs, Jats and Muslims in India. They are found in Gujarat and known as Bhatiya. People coming from the side of Bhatinda were

called Bahttis. There was a great poet of the name Bhatti in the court of Darasena IV. Bhatis were initially Yadavas. When the people were driven away from the fertile lands of Brij, Ghazni, Herat and Punjab they came to desert area of Jangladesh. Jangladesh was infertile and there was scarcity of water everywhere in this region. The people had to wander from here to there in search of water and food. These people were known as Bhatis. The word Bhati is derived from Hindi word 'Bhatkana'. Bhatis had come to Jangladesh prior to 4th century when the Buddhism was at peak. Later when the influence of Buddhism came down and Hindu religion was spreading, Bhatis got divided into two categories namely 1. Rajput Bhati and 2. Jat Bhati. Third category came into existence, Muslim Bhati, under the influence of Islam. Jat Bhatis ruled Bhatner, presently Hanumangarh, and Bhatinda. Bhatner was historically important because it was situated on route of invaders from Central Asia to India. Rajput Bhatis ruled Jaisalmer

Bhatthal
Bhattal is gotra of Jats. This gotra started from their ancestral people who came from Bhatinda. They are related to Bhatis. Bhattal population is mostly in in Patiala, Sangrur and Bathinda Districts.

Rajinder Kaur Bhattal was the the Chief Minister of Punjab from January 21, 1996 to February 12, 1997 & later Dy. CM & then M.L.A.

Bhullar
Bhullar(also spelled Bhuller or Bhular,is a Jat gotra or clan found in the Punjab Region of (North) India and (East) Pakistan. There are different views on how the Bhullars entered the Punjab. According to Nijjar (2008), the Jat clans moved from Central Asia to India during the period between the 5th and the 9th century. According to Tod (1829), for centuries a few Jat tribes lived in co-existence in the current Punjab, while a large number of Jat tribes moved from Rajasthan to Punjab and other areas of India. Ibbetson (2002) noted that Bhullars are believed to be the original settlers of the Punjab, along with the Maan, and Hayer (Heir) gotras without entering Punjab through the Rajasthan route as done by the other Jat gotras.Sir Lepel Griffin (1865) was of the opinion that the Bhullars came into the Punjab region from the present Central Asia. Most of the Jat tribes entered the Punjab in the 5th century. Historically, Bhullar were settled mainly in the current Majha region of Punjab in large numbers, but were found in the area around Lahore (in Pakistan) and Amritsar. Bhullar population in the current Majha region of Punjab India remained constant. Bhullars have ancestral place of worship called ‘Mari’ in Jind Riast currently district in Haryana, and in the Sangrur and Rampura in Bathinda District of Punjab India

In Punjab (India) Bhullar village name is common and found in various districts such as Muktsar, Jalandhar, Moga districts. Bhullars are evenly distributed in the state of Punjab with large concentration in Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Gurdaspur, Ferozpur, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Muktsar, Moga, Faridkot, Bathinda, Sangrur, and Patiala. Bhullars have a huge

concentration in the Majha region mostly around the city of Amritsar in Punjab (India). In Pakistan Bhullars are found in the Punjab, places such as Lahore and Narowal district. In Sialkot Bhullars have large concentration in Pasrur, Daska, Bhullar Mairay Wala, Bhular Rohi Wala, Bhullar Sharif and Bhullar.

Boparai
Boparai are the Jat people living mostly in northern India. They are primarily from the villages Khudani Kalan, Khudani Khurd, Sahnewal, and in some other parts in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. Boparais are one of the five brothers, along with Deol, Sidhu, and Gill, who migrated in the 12th century from central India (Madhya Pradesh) and settled in the catchment area of the 5 rivers. There was a Hindu Jat king in Madhya Pardesh in 12th Century Raja Jagdeyo who came to Punjab after conquering the kingdoms on the way from M.P. to Punjab and settled his kingdom at Jarg. Among Raja Jagdeyo's sons there was a son named 'Bopa Rai' ('Bopa' and 'Rai' will be read separately) and Bopa Rai is the clan's ancestor. The village Ghudani was almost 100% wiped out in 16th century due to land rivalry. In the attack, only one young Boparai survived and he went into exile for some years only to return to claim what was his property. So he did, and we Kudani Boparais are all his descendents. Boparai largest village Boparai Kalan in Ludhiana Punjab, India is the largest village for the clan.

Buttar
Bhuttar is Jat Gotra in Punjab. Buttar is a Jat clan. Its members live in the Pakistani and the Indian Punjab. Buttars in India follow Sikhism, they were one of the first groups of people to adopt Sikhism. BHAI TARA SINGH the eighteenth century Sikh martyr, was a Buttar Jatt of the village Van, popularly known as Dall-Van because of its proximity to another village called Dall, in present day Amritsar district of the Punjab. His father, Gurdas Singh, had received the rites of the Khalsa in the time of Guru Gobind Singh, and had taken part in the battle of Amritsar (6 April 1709), in which Bhai Mani Singh led the Sikhs and in which Har Sahai, a revenue official of Patti, was killed at his (Gurdas Singh's) hands. Bhuttar population is 1,380 in Patiala district. In Gurdaspur District the Bhuttar population is 1,146. In Firozpur District the Bhuttar population is 3,600..

Chatha
Chatha (also spelt as Chattha) is a Punjabi Jatt tribe that inhabit parts of Punjab in India and Pakistan. Chathas are believed to be descendants of Indo-Scythian tribes. Historically the Chathas were big landlords and considered to be influential persons in society. There

are many villages in Punjab bearing the Chattha name for example: In Pakistan, there are six prominent Chattha villages in Sahiwal. Chatha A Jat tribe apparently confined to Gujaranwala in which district they hold 81 villages . They claimto be descended from Chattha , a grandson of Prithi Rai Chauhan .the Chauhan King of Delhi , and brother of the ancestor of the Chima .In the 10th from Chattha , as otherwise stated , some 500 years ago , Dahru came from Sambhal in Moradabad , where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live , to the banks of the Chenab and married among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala .They were converted to Islam about 1600 AD . they rose to considerable political importance under the Sikhs ; and the History of their leading family is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at page 402 ff of his Punjab Chiefs . Chatha A Jat tribe apparently confined to Gujaranwala in which district they hold 81 villages . They claimto be descended from Chattha , a grandson of Prithi Rai Chauhan .the Chauhan King of Delhi , and brother of the ancestor of the Chima .In the 10th from Chattha , as otherwise stated , some 500 years ago , Dahru came from Sambhal in Moradabad , where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live , to the banks of the Chenab and married among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala .They were converted to Islam about 1600 AD . they rose to considerable political importance under the Sikhs ; and the History of their leading family is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at page 402 ff of his Punjab Chiefs .

Chahal
The Chahal Jats are one of the largest Jat tribes in the Punjab of India and Pakistan. In India they are found in greatest numbers in Patiala but are numerous in Ambala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Dhariwal, Jalandhar and in Pakistan they are found mainly in Gujranwala and Sialkot. Legend suggests that Manpreet Agarsen Surajbansi had four sons: Chahal, Chhina, Chima and Sahi and that the four Jatt tribes bear these names are sprung from them. Their original home was Malwa. In Amritsar they say that Chahal was a son of Raja Khang, who once saw some fairies bathing in a tank. He seized their clothes and only restored them on condition that one of them became his bride. The queen of the fairy agreed to be his wife on one condition also, that he would never raise his voice to her, he agreed and they got married. They later had a child ‘Joga Singh’ and not soon after he was born, His mother once left him at home while she went to the local bazaar, on her return she found her husband not happy that she had left him alone. As you can imagine he shouted at her and to his horror she floated back to the sky’s. He pleaded with her to stay but she only came back from the sky just to feed her child. The Chahal migrated to Pakhi Chahilan near Patiala and there founded Rala Joga or Joga Rala in the Malwa. The Chahil affect Joga Singh, originally Joga, son of Rajpal, who is said to have been killed after fighting with the Mughals. Joga Singh who is said to be the guru (preceptor) of Chahal jats. It is said that during the times of Mughal rule, Joga Singh fought with the forces of Mughal rulers. During the battle, his head was chopped off, but his headless body kept on fighting until it fell down dead. This village also called Bhopal. The people were deeply touched by the sacrifice of Joga Singh and got a Samadhi constructed here. The Chahal Community used to gather yearly at

Joga Singh's Samadhi to worships and to tribute their salute for his Sacrifice for the Community. This Yearly gathering of community at Joga Singh's Samadhi is celebrated as 'Chauth'. Another story also says that once a few persons were going to some place for business purpose, and night befell them. They stayed under a grove of trees in the premises of the Samadhi. They felt pangs of thirst at night, but there was no source of water where from they could quench their thirst. A heavenly voice which was believed to be that of Joga Singh was heard: “ why do you die of thirst? Pick out abrick from the pond and take water”. They did likewise, found water from underneath the brick they picked up and thus they quenched their thirst.

Cheema
Cheema (also spelt Chìma) is a Jat clan found in Punjab, Pakistan and Punjab, India . They are believed to be descendants of Indo-Scythian tribes Cheemas are found among Muslim and Sikh populations. While in Pakistan Cheemas are Muslim, in India the predominant section of Cheemas are Sikhs. Historically Cheemas followed local Peer-E-Tariqat (The head of a Sufi order), and Jathera (Ancestor worship) as well as previously, Buddhism. Most of them are either Sikh, Muslim, Agnostic or Atheist in their modern religious or non-religious affiliations It is one of the largest Jat tribes in the Punjab . They say that some 25 generations back their ancestor Chima , a Chauhan Rajput from Delhi after the defeat of Rai Tanura (Prithi Raj , by Muhammad of Ghor first to Kangra in the Delhi district and then to Amritsar , where his son Chotu Mal founded a village on the Bias in the time of Ala-ud-din .His grandson was called Rana Kang , and the youngest of his eight sons Dhol ( the name appears among the Hingra )was the ancestor of the present clans Dogal , Mohtil , Nagara and Chima . The Chima have the peculiar marriage customs described under the Sahi Jats , and they are said to be served by Jogis instead of Brahmins , but now a days Bhania purohits are said to perform their ceremonies . They are said to marry within the tribe as well as with their neighbours . The bulk of the tribe embraced Islam in the times of Feroze Shah and Aurangzeb , but many retain their old customs . They are most numerous in Sialkot , but hold 42 villages in Gujaranwala , and have spread both eastwards and westwards along the foot of the hills .

Chhokar
Chhokar is a Rajput caste of Yaduvanshi Clan of Chandravansh. It is a branch of Jadaun Rajputs. There are around 80 villages in Aligarh and Bulandshahar in U.P.. There are some Chhokar Rajput villages in Palwal District of Haryana as well.Chhokar Rajputs claim descent to Jadaun Raja of Karauli. Jagas have a historical record about their migration from Karauli. There are also some Chokars who belong to the Sikh Jatt clan. Those are from various parts of Punjab such as "Pasla" a district of JLD, and "DUMNA" in the district of Ropar, Punjab

Baldev Singh Dumna, First Defense Minister of India was Chhokar. He was using his village name as Dumna, District Ropar, Punjab, India. A search on Baldev Singh could elaborate more on his achievements to India's independence and politics. Baldev Singh was involved many commissions and projects for India's independence with British Raj. He died in 1961.

Chinna
The Chinna are a Jat clan, found in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan.[1] The Chhina Jat claim common descent from the Wattu tribe. Their common ancestor was a Uchchir, who had two sons, Jaipal, the ancestor of the Chhina, and Rajpal, the ancestor of the Wattu. Pheru, 18th in descent from Jaypal, was converted to Islam by the famous Sufi, Baba Farid. According to other traditions, the Chhina came originally from Sindh, and settled in Sialkot. In Bahawalpur, the Chhina have three septs, Tareka, Mahramka and Azamka.

The Chhina at times are confused with the Cheema, another famous Jat clan, but the two clans are entirely distinct.
In Haryana they are found in Hissar, Jind Kaithal and Bhiwani. Their main villages are Budana, Mirachpur and Kithana. In Punjab, they are found mainly in Amritsar District. Their villages in that district include Chhina Bidhi Chand (Birth Place of Baba Bidhi Chand), Harsha Chhina (Vichla Kila, Ucha Kila) and Chhina Karam Chand. There are two villages in Jagraon, Jandi and Rasalpur. These villages are completely dominated by the Chhina. Jhandi's sarpanch (headman) was Kirpal Singh Chhina who was well known through out Punjab, India. In Haryana they are found in Hissar, Jind Kaithal and Bhiwani. Their main villages are Budana, Mirachpur and Kithana

Deo
The Deo or Dev are a gotra (clan) of Jats, found in the Punjab Region of India and Pakistan. According to the traditions of the tribe, Sankatra was their ancestor, and point to the town of Zafarwal, in Pakistan, as the seat of their original settlement. Their ancestor is said to be a Mahaj, who came from an area they describe as "Saki Jungle", in North India. Of his five sons, Sohal, Kom, Deol, Aulakh and Deo, all of who gave their names to Jat tribes. According to another tradition, they are descended from Jagdeo, a Suryavanshi Rajput. The Deo are distinct from the Deol clan of Jats, although both claim descent from a common ancestor.They are found throughout the central districts of Punjab. In Pakistan, Sialkot is a stronghold of the tribe. The Deo are Muslim in Pakistan, and Sikh in India.

Deol
Deol is a warrior clan of the Jat people found in India Punjab, Haryana, Saharanpur UP (India) and Pakistan. Deols are mostly Sikh Jats. Deol is the alternate name of the place 'Diraval' after which the gotra Deol gets the name. They are primarily from the villages Boparai Kalan,Benra, Paani, Khandoor, Sahnewal, Chak, Dangon, and some parts of Raikot in the Ludhiana district of Punjab, Haripur (near Adampur Doaba), Khichipur, Narangpur, Mesumpur, Bagga Kalan & Talwandi are also Deol villages In Jalandhar district. Most of the Deol jat population is found in the district of Jalandhar,Sangrur, Ludhiana and in other districts in the Malwa region of Punjab. Some Deol families moved to west Punjab during 1910-20. They participated in the

reform movement for liberation of Gurdwara from clutches of mahants and some of them became martyrs.
Sub-Clans of Deols

Deols were once known for being one of the largest jat clans in the early 1800's,but the clan was divided into five more sub-clans such as Boparai, Buttar, Sekhon, Rakkar, and Deo Jat. Many of these clans can be found mostly in the Malwa areas of Ludhiana, Moga, and Faridkot. On the other hand the Rakkar clan can be only found in the Doaba area mainly Jalandhar along with dozens of Deol villages surrounding Rakkar villages which share a bound with one another of background,and family linege

Dhall
Dhall or Dhull or Dhal or Dhul is gotra of Jats and is related to Dhillon. They are the Dahala of Indian History and literature. Their King Dahaladhisa (king of the Dahalas) is mentioned in Bilhan’s Vikramanka Deva Charita. In Gujarat they are called as Dal, Dhal (Del). Dallan was the name of a scholiast on Susrauta. Delhi is called the capital of Saka emperor (Sakadhipa Rajadhani)

Dhaliwal
Dhaliwal is a caste in the Jat Sikh community in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. The community got its name from the village named Dhaliwal. Most people from the village used to add Dhaliwal to the end of their names. Many relocated from Dhaliwal to various parts of the world and kept the Dhaliwal surname. Dhaliwals are descendants of the hindu jat rulers of Dhaulpur jat kingdom in Rajasthan. Dhaliwals got their last name from the first ruler of Daulpur Maharana Deo Dhalwal. Some Historians believe that the Dhaliwal people originated from afghanistan. Earlier they were known as Dhaulpal. The name changed to Dhaliwal in Doaba as well as Malwa, and Dhariwal in Majha. After leaving Dhar, Dhaliwal people settled in Jodhpur and Bangar of Rajasthan Ghaggar banks were inhabited by a Muslim section called Pachahda who were often clashing with Dandwalis and Gills and some times went ahead to disturb the Chahals of Khiala village. Once, the Pachahda attack got really intense and the Chahals went to their maternal grandfather Sidh Dhaliwal in Bangar. They came back with his hordes and met Pachahdas near Sardulgarh. The Pachahda chief Baba Dalla was slain in the ensuing battle. Baba Sidh’s army also suffered heavily and Pachahdas kept following his army. At last Baba Sidh was also slain near village Bhama. The remaining members of Sidh’s army founded Bhame Kalan, Bhamme Khurad, Ramanandi, Bajewala villages and later Dhaula and Tapa. Then they founded Nihal Singh Wala, Dhalliwal Bet in Kapurthala and Dhariwal in Gurdaspur. The population of Dhaliwal in Patiala district is 54,000. It appears that this clan has settled in this area around 12th or 13th century A.D. from Jaisalmer (in the modern

Indian state of Rajasthan) and claims Rajput origin [5]. Dhaliwals are mainly to be found in the sub-districts of Bhatinda and Bhikhi and their important septs are Mani, Rureka, Ramana, Udi, and Dina. Dhaliwal have a population 32,454 in Ludhiana district. This clan holds many villages around the towns of Pakhowal and Jagraon and claim their ancestor was a Rajput (son of king) from Jaisalmir, Rajasthan province to the south of modern Punjab.
Dhanna Bhagat was a Dhaliwal Jatt. General Baghel Singh Dhaliwal, who conquered Delhi thrice, was also a Dhaliwal. Dhaliwals also trace their descent from the Chandirvanshi Rajput Rawals of Jaislmer.

Dhami
Dhami is also a popular Sikh last name. Dhami surname is from the Jat caste. Most of the people with Dhami last name can be found around Hoshiarpur district of Punjab and Himachal Pardesh in India. Though since 1940's many have migrated to UK, Canada & US. Sikhs with this last name are in villages such as Singriwala, Dhamian, Chack Gujran, Piplanwala, Dagana Kalan and other villages around Hoshiarpur District. There are 21 villages in Hoshiarpur that have the same last name.

Dhanda
Dhanda , Dhandha gotra Jats found in Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Rajasthan. It is also a Sikh Jat Gotra. Bhim Singh Dahiya mentions that a couple of Jat tribes are also mentioned in Kasika. While mentioning the six members constituting the Trigarta confederacy, the Kasika identifies two tribes as Kaundoparatha and Dandaki. Their modern descendants are still called by these names and they are the Kundu and Dandha Jats in India

Dhanoa/Dhnoa
Dhanoa/Dhnoa is gotra of Jats found in Distt Moradabad in Uttar Pradesh and Amritsar in Punjab. Salamatpur is a village in District Jyotiba Phuley Nagar (Amroha) in Uttar Pradesh. Jats of Dhanoa gotra live in this village. Dhanoa population is 3,360 in Amritsar District of the largest and most important Jat
Tribes. They also live in Patiala District.

Dhillon
Ve ry large Jat tribe. found in Gujranwala and Lahore and also large amounts in Delhi area, andt everywhere. Dhillons are very progressive Jat tribe with many famous names;

Bhangi Misal, Partap Singh Kairon, PS Badal, etc. However, with regard to the origin, It is believed that the Dhillons also have Central Asian origin as European Dillons are found in England and France; thus probably an Alanic influence similar to Gill, Mann, etc.We will dicuss it in greater detail in the later section of this Booklet.

Sometimes known as the "Raja Jats" (King Jats), this mainly due to the large number of Kings, royalty and warriors that have come from this tribe throughout history. It is considered to be one of the oldest Jat tribes with history dating back over 4000 years The Dhillons are called the descendants of Karna , the famed royal warrior mentioned in the great Hindu epic, the Mahabharata and he was also the eldest son of Queen Kunti. There was a King Karna in the Bhin-baroliya gotra too. Most Dhillons today trace their history back to Prince Dhillon, the first Dhillon, the grandson of Karna and great grandson of Queen Kunti.[Dhillons will be discussed in greater details later]

Dosanjh
Dosanjh is a surname with origins in Punjab, India. Dosanjh represents Jats who are from an Indo-Scythian background. Notable people named Dosanjh
• •

Ujjal Dosanjh, Canadian politician Grace Dosanjh, Canadian Nationally recognized Dietician and Actress/Model

Ghumman
Ghuman (also spelt Ghumman) is a clan of Jats found in Indian State of Punjab and in Pakistan. Ghumans are descended from Raja Sanpal.who was a Rajput Janjua PrinceRaja Sanpal, was the younger son of Raja Jodh, the conqueror of Makhiala. Raja Jodh was the son of Raja Mal, the ruler of Malot Fort in Chakwal, originally hailing from Raja Dalip of Delhi. Raja Sanpal married many wives and had many sons, who founded various sub tribes and clans. His youngest son, Ghumman, took service in Jammu during the rule of Sultan Firuz Shah of Delhi. Ghuman's tribe eventually primarily settled in Sialkot and remained as Jagirdars and a powerful tribe in the area. Ghumans also settled in the Gurdaspur district and the Sangrur districts of Punjab in India. The Ghuman village in Gurdaspur is mentioned in the Sikh history. There is a group of twelve villages inhabited by Ghumans in Sangrur district. The main and most well known villages of that group are Nagre and Gharachon. Sometime during the mid-18th century some people migrated from Nagre-Gharachon area of Sangrur to establish Sarwarpur in the Samrala tehsil of Ludhiana District. There are a significant number of Ghumans in Pakistan, in the area around Sialkot, in the late 19th century many of Ghumans settled around Sargodha and Faisalabad after the establishment of an irrigation system.

There are significant number of Ghumans in India in the area around Bhawanigarh (Dist.Sangrur) Punjab. Village Retgarh (5 km from Bhawanigarh) is a signifiacant and famous Ghuman village. The Retgarhia family is a premier family in Patiala. General Raja Gurdit Singh of the said family was General Commanding Patiala State forces and also Prime Minister (Wazir) of Patiala State during the reign of Maharaja Rajinder Singh and Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala. Ghumans are relatively good looking people and stand out for their strong character.. The Ghumans in Pakistan are Muslims. Ghumans in Punjab in India are Jatt Sikhs.

Gill and Shergill
T his is one of the largest and most important Jat Tribes. They are found throughout Punjab. They are said to be descend from the Raja of Garh Mithila. The Shergills are said to have come from this great tribe. One view is that the Gill Jats are from the Caspian Sea area, homeland of Massagetae. As the Caspian Sea was once known as the Sea of Gillan, per Sir Sikes. The plural of Gill in Punjabi is Gillan, ie Gillan De Munde. Moreover, the Gill and Gillian presence in England may well be the result of Alanic (Massagetae) settlement in 400s A.D. [see next Shergill]

Goraya
Gorya , Goriya , Goria , Goraya , Gaur , Ghor , Gauru , Goru , Gaurlia is gotra of Jats. This gotra Jats are found in Punjab, Gujarat and also in Mandsaur district in Madhya Pradesh. As per Manusamhita Yuvanashwa king married to a girl Gauri of matinara Chandravanshi clan. Samrata Mandhata was born from them. After Gauri's name the title of Mandhata became Gaur. According to Bhim Singh Dahiya, This clan can be traced back to the third century BC. Ptolemy has referred to country named Goruaia and to a town named Goraya. Strabo has also mentioned it. This country was situated in Pamir mountains, between Badakhshan and Khotan in central Asia. As per W.W. Tarn, Goruaia was a part of Menander's empire in second century BC. After their arrival in India, these people of Gorayā clan of Jats, founded another town on GT Road, between Ludhiana and Jalandhar and named it after old principal city in Central Asia as Gorāyā. These people are still residing in the same area. Possibly the Gaur/Gauru/Grauri Jats are same as Goraya because Ptolemy says that it was irrigated by Gauraya river (Gaur/Ghor) of the Puranas.[4] Markandeya Purana mentions the Ghora and the Guruha separatel.

Grewal

They have held important positions in British and India- military, civil, police services, and politics. Grewal or Garewal. This clan hold 75 villages in Ludhiana Area. The Grewal Jats of Kila Raipur, Gujarwal (probably named after Grewals, as per B.S. Dhillon), and Naurangwal are the proudest of the Grewal Jats. Many Grewals freely entered British service and made great soldiers. They claim descent from Raja Rikh or Rick as per Barstow. The other Jats in Ludhiana area called these Grewal Sahu meaning they were of more nobility probably since they were generally more well-to-do and their women did not work in the field with men. Grewals are generally confined to the areas mention in Ludhiana block of 75 villages. Major Barstow writes in 1928, the Garewal families of Kila Raipur, Gujarwal, and Naurangwal has a sort of local authority at the close of the 18th Century, and are in consequence the proudest of the Jats. This means that they were probably the most wellsettled Jats in this area, even today these Grewals own most of the land in these villages.

Hans
Hans (surname), a

Jatt surname from Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. Being most commonly found within Germany, it is one of four Punjabi surnames that are unique in that aspect: Hans, Gill, Mann, and Häyer. An aryan, and more broadly, scythic backround is generally associated with the these four surnames, although not restrained to only these Jatt surnames Hans tribe is said to of Quraisi origin. The Hans were one of the many tribes that occupied the upland of the Neeli Bar before the start of colonization of the Punjab by the British Imperial authorities in the 19th century.It is also said that they emigrated from Arabia to Afghanistan, thence to Punjab, where they settled in Pukka Sidhar in what is now Pakpattan District. In the time of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, the Hans tribe under their chief Shaikh Qutab, attained independent rule over a portion of that district, and retained their independence till the time of the Sikhs, when about the middle of the 18th Century the streams that fertilised their country dried up.

There are quite a few HANS villeges near JAGRAON in ludhiana some of them are-: HANS KALAN,HANS KHURD,SUJAPURMEERPUR HANS,KILLA HANS AND OTHERS.

,(TIGERJEET SINGH HANS WRESTLER FROM CANADA HAILS FROM VILLEGE SUJAPUR) Hans is also a section of the Khatri and Ramgarhia tribe

Hayer
Hayer also spelled as Hayre (pronounced Hae-ur) or sometimes also pronounced Heer are a Jat gotra (clan) found in the region of Punjab shared by India and Pakistan. They are one of the few "Asl Jatts" (pure) and boast to be one of the original clans of the Jat people They are known to be brave and ferocious warriors .

Hayer or Hayre is generally used in the Doaba and Malwa(cities and towns of Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur,Ferozepur ,Zira ,Hollanwali) region of Punjab. Majority of Hayers originate from the village of Littran, Jalandhar District. Hayers or Hayres from this region were among the first Punjabis to immigrate to Canada, England and U.S.A. In Pakistan :They are found mainly in Gujrat, Sialkot, Mandi Bahauddin, Gujranwala, Narowal, Kasur, Okara, Faisalabad and Lahore districts.

Hundal
Hundal is a clan or gotra of Jats, found in Haryana, Punjab (India), Punjab (Pakistan). They are also found among the South Asian immigrant communities in the UK ,US, Canada, Hong Kong and in other parts of the world. Like many other Jat gotras, Hundals claim to belong historically to Suryavanshi lineage of Rajputs. It is commonly understood that the boundaries between Rajput and Jat clans are rather arbitrary and have changed over time. Most scholars thus subscribe to the view that Rajputs, Jats, Khatris and other groups of clans belong to the Kshatriya varna. Like others in the varna, Hundals are of deemed to be of Scythian stock. In Pakistan, most of the families belonging to this gotra of Jats originate from a village called Behlolpur, near Qila Sobha Singh, District Narowal (Previously District Sialkot) and after the settlement in and around District Faislabad, in a village of same name, Behlolpur, situated near Sangla Hill. Over generations, most families have emigrated to and settled in the bigger cities of Lahore and Faisalabad. Most Hundals in India are Sikhs, though there are some Hindus and Muslims. Hundals in Pakistan are mostly sunni Muslims. Legend has it that they embraced Islam through a sufi saint based in district Sialkot

Jakhar
Jakhar or Jakhad is a gotra of Jats. One of the ancestors in Vais vansh was named Jakhar who gave the name to this gotra. They are also considered to be descendants of King Jakhabhadra , son of Virabhadra. They belong to satwat vans of Chandravanshi Kshatriyas. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. They are found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi. According to Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jakhars are the Jāguda of Mahabharata period mentioned as saffron growing people That places them in the north of Kashmir or beyond, further in the north i.e. Central Asian region of Balkh, famous for its saffron since ages. They are the Jakhad clan people. [12] The Mahabharata Tribe - Jaguda is mentioned in Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 48 verse 21 along with Takhar, Sindh, Moond Jat clans

Mr. W. Crook in his book "Castes of North-west states and Avadh" has mentioned that the king of Dwarika had a huge bow and arrow and he proposed that whoever breaks this would be given a status above the king. The Jakhar King tried but failed. The failure made him leave his state and settled in Bikaner that was known as Jangladesh. This finds a mention by Pandit Amichand Sharma in his book "Jat Varna Mimansa". Ram Swarup Joon has given the chronology of this gotra, obtained from the records of the Bards of Dholpur, in his book ‘History of the Jats’ (1938, 1967) as under: In the branch of Puru there was ‘Sanyati’ whose son was Virabhadra. Virabhadra had four sons 1. Pon Bhadra 2. Kalhan bhadra 3. Atisur Bhadra and 4. Jakh Bhadra.
• • • •

Pon Bhadra is the originator of Punia gotra. Kalhan Bhadra is the originator of Kalhan gotra. Atisur Bhadra had Ajanta Jata Shankar and his son Dahi Bhadra in the lineage. Dahi Bhadra is the originator of Dahiya gotra. Jakh Bhadra is the originator of Jakhar gotra. Brahma Bhadra was in the branch of Jakh Bhadra is the originator of Bamraulia gotra, the rulers of Gohad and Dholpur

They are found in Panchkosi village. Jakhar population in patiala district is 1,200. Panchkosi or Panjkosi is a village of Firozpur district in Punjab. It is the birth place of Dr Balram Jakhar (b. Aug 23, 1923), who is a well known Parliamentarian and Governor of Madhya Pradesh. He was born in Jakhar Jat family of Panchkosi village of Firozpur district in Punjab. His father's name is Chaudhari Rajaram Jakhar and mother's name is Patodevi Jakhar.

Jawanda
Jawanda is a Jat surname traditionally found in Northern India particularly in Punjab (India). Most Jawandas are Punjabis of the Sikh faith or born to Sikh parents. According to author H.S. Duleh ("History of the Jatt Clans", translation by Gurjant Singh): The Jawanda clan derives its name from their ancestor named Jawanda. They are from the lineage of Dusal, the brother of King Rawal Jaisal of Jaisalmer. In the 12th century, the Jawandas settled in Bathinda, Mansa and Sangrur. In the 17th century, when ninth Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur, visited Malwa to popularise Sikhism, there were 22 villages of Jawandas. (Guru visited Malwa during his three successive trips to Kiratpur.)

Some time later the Jawandas were ruined by Muslim Sheikhs. Uprooted, some of the Jawandas went towards Saharanpur while others went to Bathinda (founded by Rao Bhatti), Mansa, Muktsar, Faridkot and Ludhiana. Presently they are settled mostly in the areas of Sunam, Barnala and Malerkotla. Bhai Dharam Singh Ji, the second of Guru Gobind Singhji's Panj Piare (five beloved followers) was a Jawanda belonging to Hastinapur (Delhi). Before being baptized his name was Dharam Chand Jawanda. Sucha Singh Soorma, who lived in the village of Sumau (near Sangrur in the Malwa Punjab) is a Jawanda. Sucha Singh is considered a folk legend (one of the famous Punjabi Kisse). He is widely admired in Punjabi culture for upholding the honour of his family by killing his sister-in-law Balbiro and her extramarital lover Ghukkar, who at one time was his own best friend. Many Jawandas now live in Canada, United States and England. For example Rashpal Singh, Amrik Singh (former kabaddi player of Gravesend), Jaspreet Singh, Teja Singh, Daljit Singh, Gurpreet Singh and many more all live in England. Also, Chand Singh Jawanda of pind Kokri Butraan now resides in Surrey, BC, Canada. Gurcharan Singh Jawanda who lives in Brampton, Ontario, Canada, and his son Onkarpreet Singh Jawanda One of the first of the Jawandas to come North America was Gurdit Singh Jawanda, who arrived in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1906, the same year the Khalsa Diwan Society was formed in Vancouver with its first temple on 1866 West 2nd Avenue. Gurdit was from the village of Haripur Khalsa, in Punjab (India). More precisely, this village is in Jalandhar District (this part of Punjab is also known as Doaba). The village is just west of the town of Phillaur, slightly north of the Sutlej River, which also serves as the border with Ludhiana District, which is also in Punjab (India).

Johal/Johl
Johal ) or Johl Johal (also known as Jovals, Jauvla, Jauhal Jauhla) is a prominent Jatt family clan originally from from modern Pakistan and North India. The Johals are Jat found both in Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. Most of the Johal clan/family members now reside in England, Canada, and United States. They are considered to be one of the most affluent Sikh families in Europe, Asia, and N. America. Johals are cohal direct descendent's of Hepthalites, also known as White Huns. White Huns were a division of the Massagetae, who invaded North India during A.D. 460-470. Thomas Watters (British Acting Consul General in Korea from (1887-1888) writes "----country (North-West of India) was conquered by the Yeta (White Huns), i.e., the Yets or Gats apparently near the end of our fifth century. The Yeta, who were a powerful

people in Central Asia, in the fifth century, are also said to have been of the Yue-Chi (Kushan) stock---". The leader of the White Huns called "Toramana" was throned in A.D. 495 and established his capital at Sakala (modern Sialkot, Punjab). According to Inscriptions, the full name of the king was Maharaja ("Great King) Toramana Shaha JAUVLA (Jauhal). Later, In A.D. 510, Mihirakula succeeded his father as the "Great" king. Sir Cunningham says Jauvla was the name of their tribe or clan. According to him, the name of the Jabuli tribe of the White Huns is still preserved in Zabulistan (land of Jauvla, today's Zabul) and their language called "Zauli" also still existed in the tenth century A.D. . Furthermore, White Huns or Jauvla are the direct ancestors of dark-age times Jat clan name called "Jauhla" and modern days "Johals". A few of Johals converted to Sikhism during the period of the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev Ji, during his four journeys. As time passed, more and more converted to Sikhism but Sikhism became a "official" religion of Johals during the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjab). Most of Johals now-a-days are Sikhs

Chapter 11 Some Jat-Sikh Sub-Castes [Gote]
In Alphabetical Order(cont.) [ From K to W [

Kahlon
Kale , Kalon , Kahlon is gotra of Jats. This clan name is known today under all the three forms. They are mentioned in the Mahabharata, as Kaleya. It is called an Asura Jati with eight kings. The Mahabharata expressly makes the prophecy that the Mlecchas from Kamboja country will be kings (In India) in the Kali Age. Mann and Kahlon are mentioned in the Markandeya Purana together as Mana, Kalaha, Kohalakas (Kohlis) and Mandavyas (Mandas) The original name is Kahl, the German Kohl..

Kaler
Kaler or Kler or any other variation which remains phonetically identical is a clan of Jats found in northern areas of India and Pakistan. They belong to the Sikh and Islam faith. In India they are found in Punjab (more particularly Amritsar and Tarn Taran), the Meerut district in Uttar Pradesh and the Sikar district in Rajasthan, Bhiwani and Karnal district in Haryana. Balkara is a village in CH. Dadri of Bhiwani district known as Kalheran Ka Gaam (A village of Kalher's). In Pakistan they are based in the district

Gujrat, Gujranwala of Punjab. They can also be found in Abbottabad and Faisalabad in Punjab, Pakistan. Kaler,) Kalher , Koleron gotra Jats are found in Sikar district of Rajasthan, Distt Meerut in Uttar Pradesh, Bhiwani in Haryana. People who came from the side of kalakuta mountain were known as Kaler. According to Dr Pema Ram the Churu town in Rajasthan was founded by Kaler Jats and it was earlier known as Kalera Bas.

Kang
Kang , Kangri is gotra (clan) of Jats found in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and rajasthan in India. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mention it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. They were inhabitants of Kanyaka forest country, who dwel now in Punjab Most of the people of this tribe(Kang) live in north India, mostly in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. It is believed by many local people of Pubjab and people of Jat (Kang) tribe that their Ancestors were based at village Dholi-Moli near Balachor- just close to the Chandigarh-Jalandhar highway in Punjab about 70 kms from Chandigarh. They also have a place of worship at this village which is only for Kang people. Twice every year they have a ceremony (one at very next day of diwali and one in year when all other people go to their ancestor place) at this village where they even have public lunch and bull races to praise their ancestors Kang village is in the Jullundur District of Punjab and its main occupants are the Kang Jats. Almost all of the village land is owned by them.

Khangura
The Khanguras are a gotra of Jats from the Punjab region in India. They are mostly found in the Ludhiana and Kapurthala districts of Punjab, and have accordingly 15-25 villages. They have traditionally, like many Jats, been farmers. Recently many Khanguras have emigrated to Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and there are a few in New Zealand and Italy. The Khangura clan is almost all adherents of Sikhism. Many Sikhs have originated from villages in Punjab (e.g. Bhadla (near Khanna), Aitiana, Latala, Malikpur) and have gone to foreign countries to earn money and build a better future for them and their children. There also is a village named Khangura, in Punjab. There is a Gurdwara named Gurdwara Baba Khabe Aana Sahib in the village. Moreover there is a cement pipe factory in the village which distribute cement pipes for underground irrigation in all over Punjab. There is one govt school, playgrond, three Gurdwaras (two inside and other one outside the village). The village is situated very near to Phagwara bypass and National highway 1 (GT Road). The village is approximately 5 km away from Phagwara to Jallandar side.

Khera.Khaira
Khera , Kheda, Kha The Khaira : are a Jat gotra (clan) found in Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab. Alternate transliterations include Khera, Khara, Khehra or Khahra. Khaira are a Jat clan that hail from the historical Majha area of Punjab. Clan members are commonly found near Khadoor Sahib town of Amritsar. They are also found in other places of Punjab like Patiala.

Khosa
Khosa / Khosar is gotra of Jats found in Punjab. Bhim Singh Dahiya writes about Khosar that in the history of Mauryas when they were attacking southern India we come across a warlike people who are named 'Kosar'. In fact these Kosar people were the vanguard of the Mauryan army as per Tamil literature. Like the Mauryas, they were also from the north and not from the south. They are to be identified as the Khosar clan of the Jats. In Firozpur district the Khosa population is 9,000.They are also found in other Districts of Punjab and in foreign countries.

Kullar
Kullar , Kular is a gotra of Jats. They are descendants of Kulika , Naga. In the Sixth century A.D. they were fighting the Holy Roman Empire, along with the Bals and the Utars. Kular is also a town in Punjab, Pakistan. Latitude: 31.01667 Longitude:72.78333, Latitude (DMS): 31° 1' 0 N Longitude (DMS):72° 46' 60 E. It is inhabited by Jats of clans:: Beniwal Bhadu and Saran.

Lidhar
The Lidhar are a Jat clan found in the Punjab province of Pakistan, and Punjab (India) state of India. They claim descent from Lidhar, a Rajput nobleman, who said to have married a Jat, and as such his descendents became part of the Jat community. The Lidhar are Muslim in Pakistan and Sikh in IndiaIn Pakistan, they are found mainly in Mandi Bahauddin, Gujrat and Sialkot districts. Their main villages are Lidhar in Gujrat District and Lidhar in Mandi Bahauddin District.The Sialkot Lidhar claim descent from a Kilas, a descendent of Lidhar.

In India, they are found mainly in Jalandhar District, their main villages being Ghugh, Lidhar Kalan, Lidhar Khurd and Thalla.

Mahi
Mahi is a Jat Gotra in Punjab. In Firozpur district the Mahi population is 1,740.

Mahil/Mahal
Mahil /Mahal is gotra of Jats. This gotra originated from place called Mahanargarh (मह Mahils have a population of 2,169 in Patiala district. This clan also claims its origin from the Tur Rajputs and came from the Delhi area. The clan owns four villages: Shahpuri Khurd and Shahpuri Kalan, Namol (all of these three in Sunam sub-district), and Khanpur (in Dhuri sub-district). Mahils have a population of 7,020 in Amritsar district. According to B S Dhillon the population of Mahil clan in Jalandhar district is 4,350.In Hoshiarpur district the Mahil population is 840. In Firozpur district the Mahil population is 1,110.

Malhi
The Malhi is a Jat Gotra or clan from the North Indian state of Punjab and Pakistani Punjab,Earlier based in the region around Sialkot (now in West Punjab, Pakistan), the Malhis were mostly rich landlords. One of the earliest Jat clans, the majority of Malhis migrated to Indian Punjab during the Partition of India in 1947. It is believed that there were twelve villages of the Malhi clan in the undivided Punjab between 1850-60 during British Rule. One such village is Kotli Soorat Malhi, a village in Gurdaspur District. [1] From a historical standpoint, the Malhi clan is most famous for its association with the death of Alexander the Great. One of the theories concerning Alexander the Great's death has to do with the possibility of an infection of an arrow wound he suffered two years before his actual death in Persia, during a sally against a Mahli fortified town. Ancient writers such as Diodorus, Arrian and Strabo tell us that during Alexander's invasion of Punjab, the area around Multan, an ancient city now in Pakistan, was occupied by Malli (Malhi) people. Thus, as per Professor McCrindle, "The Malloi (Malli or Malhi) occupied the district situated between the lower Akesines (modern Chenab river), and the Hydraotes (modern Sutlej river), which in Alexander's time joined the former river below Multan-a city which owes its name to the Malloi (Malli)". Even today Malli or Malhi Jats exist in Punjab. The present Member of Canadian Parliament, G.S. Malhi, also belongs to this Jat clan.

"Multan" is the shorter version of the word "Malli-stan". The word "Stan" or "Sthan" in Sanskrit (ancient language of the Hindus) means place. Thus, Mallistan or Multan means a place where Malli live.

Mann, Rai
Maan or Mann is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh in India. Maan is considered to be a branch of Bhati Jats. They are Suryavanshi kshatriyas. Shankpati, the father of Bhakt Puranmal, was married to these people. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mention it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. They are called Manar in Gujarat - The Mann Tribe of Jat is quite interesting. This is a Shiv-gotra or according to Hindus are descended from Shiva’s hair? We all know this is not the case. Mann Jats are found throughout Punjab and we all know of the English and German Manns. Moreover, the Mann last name is quite frequent in the modern Ukraine! Thus this may also be the case of Gills that the Manns may well be part of Late Massagetae or Alans! These people were also known as Saka Triguada or Pointed hat Scythians! Or even part of Goths, a partly Scythic partly Germanic (Teutonic) people. Rai is an interesting name and is found amongst Khatri, Rajputs, etc. It seems that it is more of a Title for them; like Rao. The Ruler of Sindh was a Jat of Rai Clan, called Sahasi Rai, which is confirmed by B.S.Dhillon, Banerjee, Cunningham and upon reading of document Chachnama – regarding the Brahmans taking the Jat throne from Rai through treachery.

Majhail
The designation Majhail is associated mainly with the Jat clan of ferocious warrior Sikhs belonging to the Majha region of the North Indian state of Punjab. Many of these sikhs relocated from Majha to various parts of the world and kept the Majhail surname. The Majhail Sikhs are the descendants of "Kathians" who were known for their highest reputation for courage and skill in the art of war and whose whose legend goes back to the time of Pauravas in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. [1] The "Majhails are the stout-hearted inhabitants of the Majha belt dominated by Jat Sikhs, whose forefathers had borne the brunt of every foreign invasion from the north-west, losing courage against the indiscriminate killings." [2] The Majhail's were famous for their strong build and their hard-working attitude because they worked in the army or very far away from their homes in farms.[3] The forefathers of the modern Majhails are the back-bone of the Sikh people. They are daring, courageous and honest people who worked hard in their land. These brave and fearless people fought many battles during the formation of Sikhism and were known for their fighting skills. The greatest sacrifice in the Sikh history was made by Majhails known as the 'Wadda Ghalughara' or the 'Great Holocaust'.

The Majhails are known for their bravery and the sacrifices they have made in the history. Today people from the Majha belt known as Majhhis are very proud of the Majhails.

Mangat
Mangat is a gotra of Jats dwelling in Punjab, India and Pakistan. Mangat is a town, now in Pakistan, owned Punjab and from its name, it may be said that the town was founded by the Jats of Mangat clan. Today, Mangat is a well known Jat clan name, at least among the Jat Sikhs In the Tang period of Chinese history, the Chinese called the Mongols as Mengu Pronounced as Mung-nguet. It is this word Mung-nguet which is now written as Mongait In Russia , e.g. A.L. Mongait, author of the Archeology in USSR, Pelican series, London (1961) and is written as Mangat (a Jat clan) in India, This clan’s name appears in Mahabharata as Manonugat-a country in Kroncha Dvipa, east of Pamirs. This has almost exact similarity with the Chinese form.

Nagra
Nagras – said to be offshoot of Chimas. Some found in Doaba some in Patiala.

Nat
Nat or Natt is Jat Gotra found in Ludhiana in Punjab. According to 1911 census, the Natt Muslim Jat clan had a population of 755 in Pakistan.Nat Jat Gotra in Punjab had population l,860 in Patiala district.

Nijjar
Nijjar is a Jat clan from the Northern Indian state of Punjab. Most of the members of this clan are Sikhs by religion. Nijjars are found mostly in the Doaba area of Punjab. Fatehpur, Chomon, Nijjaran, Gobindpur, Kurali, Bhar Singh Pura, Raipur Arian, Massanian, Kathar, Diantpur, Nijjaran Di Pandori are among prominent villages (pinds) in district Jalandhar of Nijjars. Domeli (Kapurthala district) near Phagwara is also a prominent village of Nijjars. The four Nijjar [also spelt as Nijjher, "Nijhar" or Nijjer, and in a rare alternate spelling "Nijor"] villages of Dianatpur, Masanian, Kathar and Dhepur were first settled by people from village of Domeli [Kapurthala district] near Phagwara. Most likely the village of Dianatpur was settled during the Mogul times around 1775 when the Sikh Missals [confederations] were also in the ascendancy. The forefathers of Dianatpur village used to say that two brothers from the village of Domeli used to bring their animals in the area for grazing and built huts to stay for months at a time. In due

course they started cultivating the land and settled down and the village of Dianatpur came into being.It is said that the Nijhar families of Dianatpur, Kathar and Dhepur were tormented by the local muslim jolahas [weavers]. The families invited the jolahas for a meal and surrounded them and set them on fire killing them. The place where this event took place was called “masan” and later on when people settled near the place the village was called Massanian!

Pannu
Pann , Pannu, Pannam , Paanoo , Panu is gotra of Jats found primarily in the Northern Indian States of Haryana, Rajasthan and Punjab, mainly located in the Doaba and Majha region. Pannu's are also found in the Malwa region specifically Ludhiana. Most of them are Sikhs by religion. Pannu is also a common surname in Finland. They are descendants of Nagavanshi ancestor Pannaga . Pannu , Pannam - Jat gotra is also found in some villages of Hansi in Haryana and Gwalior region of Madhya Pradesh.

Purewal
Purewal is a gotra or clan of Jats found mainly in the state of Punjab in India.Ihey descended from Saroya Rajputs.The villages of origin of the Purewal clan are Shankar, Kalewal Fattu and Hakim Pur. It is reported that three brothers travelled to the aforementioned villages, and settled down, after seeing them in a state. These three brothers became the founders of the Purewal clan. T hey are adherents of the Sikh faith, originating from Punjab Due to migration over the last forty years, members of the clan can be found in many countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Spain. Prominent People: Sawarn Singh[Purewal] who held various Portfolios in Indian Govt.

Rai
Rai , Ray gotra Jats live in Jaipur district in Rajasthan. They are also found in Amritsar and Firozpur districts in Punjab. The Rai Dynasty rulers of Sindh were Buddhists of the Mauryan clan Jats. Rai was their title. Their capital was at Alore. Their state extended from Kashmir and Kannauj in the east, Makran and Kewal port in the west, Surat port in south, Kandahar, Sistan, Suleyman, Ferdan and Kekanan hills in the north.

Randhawa
Randhawa is a gotra of Jats found in Punjab, Maharashtra. They used to attack with great courage in the war

Randhawa, Saran, Kajla are gotras of Jats related with each other. The Saran gotra is a branch of Bhatti gotra and the Saran Jats are associated with the royal dynasty of Jaisalmer. Their capital was in Bikaner State, which was later occupied by the Rathors. The Sarans live in this area even today. In the history of Saran gotra there have been two famous men named Kajal Singh and his son Randhir Singh. Kajal Singh is the forefather of the Kajla gotra of the Jats who mostly live in Bikaner and Haryana. Randhir Singh founded the village of Jhandiala in 1580 in the Punjab and his descendants are called Randhawa. His grandson Targha adopted the Sikh religion and while serving as Jathedar in Phulkian Misl ruled over Targha Pargana. Randhawa have a population of 6,960 in Patiala district. Randhawa have a population of 42,480 in Amritsar district. This clan owns 116 villages and its main strength is in along the Batala border and around Mahta village in the area close to the Amritsar city. According to B S Dhillon the population of Randhawa clan in Jalandhar district is 3,300. In Hoshiarpur district the Randhawa population is 1,125. In Firozpur district the Randhawa population is 930. Notable persons from this gotra
• •

Baba Buddha Dara Singh

Sahi
Sahi / Shahi / Saj / Sand is a very old jat gotra. The people belonging to Saj and Sand gotras consider themselves to be the descendants of Mann gotra. Jat Muslims belonging to these gotras are found in Multan and Gujarat districts of the Western Punjab in Pakistan. Tor Dheri inscription mentions a person, "Yola Mira Śhāhi". Here Shahi is a Jat clan. Shahi are also from the Clan of Gills. Bhim Singh Dahiya has described about the history of this clan along with lohar Jat clan. This clan is famous in Kashmir history and gave it a whole dynasty called Lohar dynasty. Their settlement in India was Loharin, in Pir Pantsal range. The Lohar Kot-fort of Lohars-is named after them. The famous queen Dida, married to Kshemagupta, was daughter of Lohar Kong Simha Raja, who himself was married to a daughter of Lalli (Jat Clan) Sahi king Bhima of Kabul and Udabhanda (Und, near modern Attock) Thus Didda was a Lohariya Jat scion, and a granddaughter of Lalli Jats of Kabul baseless called Brahmans. The descendants of their ruling family are still called Sahi Jats.

Sahota
Sahota or Sahote is a gotra of Jats found in Himachal Pradesh. The Puranic expression, “Hūnā Darvā Sahudakā“ contains their name as Sahuda or Sahuta. Their association with Hunas, explains their foreign origin. Sahota are mentioned as Sahodara, a people, alongwith the Shura, Bhadra (Madra), Bodha, Salva clans in Mahabharata. These people are stated to have taken refuge in the west for fear of jarasandha of Magadha. Again Suhota was the name of a famous king grandson of Bharata. In Hoshiarpur district the Sahota population is 750 They also live in Hosiarpur Ditrict.Many of Sahotas shifted to U.K. Canada and U.S.A.

Samra
Samra is a gotra of Jats. This clan was settled at one time in the lower Indus. They are mentioned by Farishta, who says on ancient authority, that the Samras had a kingdom in Sindh and were in fact one of the two main Zamindars (landlords) of Sindh, up to 1380 A.D. when many of them embraced Islam [1] The remaining Samras are now followers of Sikhism. Megasthenes says about them that Samarabriae (Samra), along with, Sambruceni, Bisambritae, Osii (Asii), Antixeni (Antal), and the Taxillae (Taxak) had a famous city, if we cross to the other side of the Indus and follow its course downward we meet them . 'Samra' is a common surname of Jat Sikhs from the Indian Punjab. There are entire villages of Samra clan in the Jullunder District and in Ludhiana district of Indian Punjab. Pohir Village in the Ludhiana District is almost entirely inhabited by the Samras

Sandhawalia
Sandhawalia is a very small tribe from Punjab. In the 1881 Census it was listed as one of the smallest of the Jat tribes. Sir Lepel Griffin cites the origin of the Sandhwalias to be of Sansi Caste (a nomadic caste descended from Rajputs) Sandhawalia is a small royal clan consisting of landowners. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of Punjab, and his family asserted lineage from this trib that originated from their ancestor Raja Shah (Salvahan), son of Raja Gaj Singh of Jaisalmer. The Sandhawalia tribe was not famous before Raja Randhir Singh and Ranjit Singh.[10][11][12] Preminder Singh Sandhawalia records the family's genelogical history in his book. According to several reputed scholars, Maharaja Ranjit Singh was also from this tribe. According to Sir Lepel Griffin the Sandhanwala's were descended from the Sansi Caste "...and from Sansi the Sindhanwalias and the Sansis have a common descent. The Sansis

were the theivish and degraded tribe [sic] and the house of Sindhanwalia naturally feeling ashamed of its Sansi name invented a romantic story to account for it. But the relationship between the nobles and the beggars, does not seem the less certain and if history of Maharaja Ranjit Singh is attentively considered it will appear that much his policy and many of his actions had the true Sansi complexion".

Sandhu
Sandhu is one of the most well known Jat clans originating from Punjab in India and Pakistan. In the 1881 Census, Sandhus numbered at 135732 and today it is one of the largest Jat tribes in the world. According to a theory, the word Sandhu could be a corruption of the word Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the Indus river. In the Mahabharata, Jayadratha, known as Sindhu Naresh or "king of the Sindhus" ruled over Sindh and is believed to have been a Sandhu Jat.

Sir Lepel Griffin's opinion is that the Sandhus came into the Punjab region from northwestern Rajputana (modern Rajasthan). The noted historian, K.C. Yadav says that most of the Jatt tribes came to the Punjab in eleventh century during the days of Mahmud of Ghazni. Sandhus too are believed to have migrated to the province at this time. The German Writer Maqsood Ahmad Naseem said that Sindhus migrated since Aariyaas migrated thousands of years ago from Middle Asia to the North-West of Indian SubContinent. H.A. Rose writes in his book that the Sandhus have eighty-four branches. According to the Sialkot Gazette of 1883-84, there were five main branches of Sandhus.
The Sandhu clan was the second-largest Jat clan during the 1881 census in Punjab after the Sidhu-Brars. Sandhus today Today, the Sandhus are found throughout Punjab (India), Haryana, Uttar Pradesh Uttranchal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan. The Sandhus are found in twenty-two villages in the area of Sirhali. This area is also known as Bahia. They have seventeen villages in the area of Bhakna. The Narli family which is one of the most known and widespread families of Punjab also belongs to the Sandhu clan. It is seen that like the Narli Sandhu family many such Sandhus have moved travelled abroad, mostly to the UK, USA, australia and Canada. Sandhus are settled on both sides of the Satluj river in the Trans-Sutlej and the Cis-Sutlej areas. In Malwa, along the Satluj and from Faridkot to Muktsar, the Sandhus have the prominent villages of Manuke( not be confused with Manuke near Moga), Ramoowala Navan, Jhok Mohra, Jhoke Tehal Singh Wala,Maneet Sandhu, Saian Wala, Chughe Kalan, Kohar Singhwala (Near Guru Harsahai) Bharana (Ferozpur) Vire Wala, Bhag Singh Wala, Marh, Sakkawali,Nohara, Patiala Kanianwali, Marar Kalan (Kotkapura-Muktsar Road, Muktsar District)", Koharwala (Kotkapura), Kammeana (Faridkot), Sukhanwala (Faridkot). The village of Sandhvan in Faridkot was also founded by Sandhus but later occupied by Brars. There are many villages of the Sandhus in Ludhiana. Some Sandhus went further to Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur in Doaba. Some of the Majhail Sandhus migrated to the Bathinda and Mansa areas after repeated disturbances created by Muslim invaders.A town named Valtoha near Amritsar is inhabited predominantly by Sandhus,many of them migrated to Amritsar and Gurdaspur,the Sandhus migrated from Valtoha settled in Shankerpur Gurdaspur) (one of the oldest village of Sandhu Jatts near Batala, in Gurdaspur) Other villages in Gurdaspur area are Bal Purian, DuniaSandhu, Sandhuaana, Misharpura. In Jalandhar the prominent Sandhu town is Rurka Kalan. Presently, the Sandhus are spread all over Punjab. In Haryana, Sandhus are found in large numbers in Ambala, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Yamunanagar, Pehowa. In Rajashtan, sandhus are found in large numbers in Ganaganagar, Hanumangarh districts and in teh. Karanapur.

In Pakistan, they are spread up to Sialkot and the hill areas of Gujranwala. The village of Kanah is owned by the Sandhu Jatts which is in Lahore. The Sandhu tribe is a brave tribe in Pakistan known for their accomplishments in agricultureIn Gujar Khan Tehsil, the village of Mohra Sandhu and neighbouring hamlets are held by the Sandhus.

Sangha
Sangha is a Jat gotra with origins in Punjab( India ) and Punjab( Pakista )n. Sangha represents Jats who are from an Indo-Scythian background. Most of the Sangha jats lives in and around Moga, Jalandhar,Ferozepur, Kapurthala, Sialkot, Muridke, Multan and Kharian. There are some villages name populated with Sangha jat:.Wara Bhai (Frozepur) Dosanjh, Daroli Bhai, MogaJandu Singha (Jalandhar), Kala Sangha (Kapurthala), Sanghe Khalsa (Jalandhar), Sanghe Jagir (Jalandhar), Sanghe (Ludhiana), Sanghe (Tarn Taran)Sanghe Wala (Sialkot) Sanghe Mere Wala (Muridke) Sanghe Kotshah (Kharian)

Sanghera
Sanghera is a gotra of the Jat people. In India, members of the Sanghera gotra are found in the states of Punjab and Haryana. Sanghera's are settled in large numbers in Gurdaspur, Delhi, Chandigarh, Amritsar, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Fatehgarh, Patiala, Sangrur, Nabha, Ludhiana, Malerkotla, Moga, Ferozepur, and Bathinda. There are also Sangheras from many villages, cities or maybe countries. But the most of them belongs to Bilga (the biggest village of Panjab).Sangheras have migrated to all corners of the globe with significant populations having settled in parts of Malaysia, Canada, the United States, Singapore, the United Kingdom and Australia.

Sekhon
Sekhon is a Punjabi Jatt clan found in the Punjabs region of India and Pakistan. The people of the Sekhon clan are descendants of a Ponwar Rajput named Shesh Ram. The name Sekhon is derived from his nickname, which was Shekho. His people came to Punjab from the Rajasthani area of Marwar around the 1100s. They are also responsible for settling the Sangrur city and vicinity. Some came from the village Tandi. In Sargodha, the pronounciation of the clan is Sekhu. Sekhons in India are found mainly in Ludhiana District. In Amritsar Sekhons can be found in Patti. Sekhons in Pakistan are found mainly in Gujranwala and Sargodha districts. Quite a few Sekhons are settled overseas in the United States, England, Australia and Europe. People from the Sekhon gote[sub-caste] are known for valor and honor in battle and have been decorated in the Indian Armed Forces.

Shergill
The Shergill Jatt / Jat Clan is from Punjab, India. Many Shergills also use the surname Gill as they have descended from Gill clan of Jats. The word Sher means lion in Persian. Shergill was one of the sons of Gillpal, he settled in the Zira area and gave rise to the elite Shergill Jat clan of the Punjab. This is one of the largest and most important Jat tribes found throughout Punjab. Its believed that they have descended from the Raja/King of Garh Mithila. The Shergills are said to have come from this great tribe. My belief is that the Gill Jats are from the Caspian Sea area, homeland of Massagetae. As the Caspian Sea was once known as the Sea of Gillan, per Sir Sikes. Moreover, the Gill and Gillian presence in England may well be the result of Alanic (Massagetae) settlement in 400s A.D. Gilla was a son of Hercules, from whom the name Gill derives. The Rulers/Maharajas of the Nishanwalia Misl, Sukha Singh and Mehar Singh were Shergills. The Majithia Rulers/Maharajas of Majha were also Shergills. SR Daljit Singh Shergill has been the longest leading president in the uk of Guru Nanak Gurdwara Smethwich,one of the first gurdwara's in England. Shergill ji has given 20 years of seva to the sikh panth and is still a sikh leader today in uk. World famous painter Amrita SherGil who was the daughter of Sikh Aristocrat Umrao Singh Sher-Gil Majithia, also belonged to Shergill jats. She trained as a painter at Paris, first at the Grande Chaumiere under Pierre Vaillant and later at École des Beaux-Arts, In the year 1933 her painting 'Young Girls'led to her election as an Associate of the Grand Salon in Paris, the youngest ever and the only Asian to have received this recognition. Village Distribution of Shergill Jatts Patiala District :As per my knowledge there are two villages of Shergills in Patiala i.e pind Behal and Majaal. in sangrur district of punjab there are two famous villages of shergill's i.e. jamsher and moranwali in Jallandhar/Nawan Shaer district is Langeri.

Sibia
Sibia [ Shivi/Sibi] is a gotra of Jats. The descendants of Shiva ere called Shivi. Samrat Ushinara's son was Shivi. Shivi was the name of a King and a gana in ancient India, ruled by democratic system of administration known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Sibia were the people descendants of Sibi. Shivis formed a sangha with a big federation or sangha known as Jat, which is clear from Panini's shloka in grammar of Aṣṭādhyāyī The Jat historian Bhim Singh Dahiya has provided proofs of Sivi being Jats. The first proof is of course the name itself. Sibi or Sivi, is the original name of their ancestor and Sibiya/Sibia is derivative meaning the descendants of Sibi. This clan name is only found in the Jats and in no other population group of India. These Sibia Jats are still existing. Shri Gurbax Singh Sibia, ex-minister in Punjab Cabinet was a scion of this ancient clan. The second proof is in the name of their city - Jattararur (Chittor) - which is based on the

word Jatta-city of Jats. Incidentally, this is another proof of the fact that Mewar was under the Jats for very long time. Hence the names of its cities like Jaisalmer, Sikar, Sirohi, etc. The last two are names of the Jat clan also.

Sidhu, Brar [ for details see Appendix I ]
The Bhattis were originally its own Central Asian Tribe, (as documented by Arab writers), and later married with Jats and became Jats. They later became Rajputs, which they claim descent from Lord Krishna. Cunningham think they are from Kashmir and their Capital at Gajnipur (Rawalpindi) and they are Indo-Scythians. Incidentally, the town of Bhatinda according to B.S. Dhillon was Bhatti–da and became Bhatinda. Moreover, the clan name Sidhu is said to have come from Bhatti Rajputs. Brar is said to have come from Sidhu. They are known by some as the most aristocratic of Jats due to their Rajas; Patiala, Nabha, and Jind States. Also many famous Sidhu-Brars – Sham Singh Attariwala, Dalla Brar, Sant Jarnail Singh Binderanwala, etc.

Sira/Toor/Tur
Sira and Khosa are from the same origin... that is Toor's. They were all Toor way back. Two diffrent clans emerged out of Toor. Khosas were fighters. and (Sirha) Siras, were name given to Toor Rulers near Delhi, after they lost to revolt against them. Theirr ancester was brought out of the area on a Seedi, as a dead man by well wishers and loyal soilders...( this information has been given by Sumrinder Singh Sira of Patiala ).

Toor Jats claim Tomar Rajput ancestry. In fact, Toor is a shortened form of Tomar. Most of the Toor Jats, were found in Amritsar and Jalandhar. These are now found mainly in Lahore, Gujranwala and Faisalbad. Toor or Tur gotra Jats are found in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. Toor is an Agnivanshi Jat clan included in Chauhans. Bhim Singh Dahiya has identified the Tur Jat clan with the Rigvedic Tribe - Tura : Turvas is also mentioned as a king . Turan are noted as ancient King Tura . . Zimmer and McDonnel, took this tribe as one of the five main Aryan tribes. They are justified also because the Avesta mentions these five tribes as Arya, Turya, Dahi, Shor,and Sarmat. All these five tribes can be identified with the five tribes of the Jats, who are now known as Arya, Tur, Dahiya, Sheoran, and Aulan/Sarmata respectively. In the Rigveda, they are expressly called Panca Jatah i.e. five Jats. ) . Mohan Singh Tur, once a member of Indian Parliament, belonged to this clan. .

Sohal
Sohal is a Jat gotra (clan) found in both Punjab, India and Punjab Pakistan. They are mainly Sikh in India, and Muslim in Pakistan. The Sohal Jatts are said to be of Turkish, Tatar and Greek origin, their ancestor Sohal settled originally in a place called Mahag. Sohal is a last name used by Jat people of states of East Punjab, India and West Punjab, Pakistan. In Indian Punjab, Sikhs write this last name as "sohal" for its pronounced as such when written in Gurmukhi. In Europe a similar last name is written as "Sohl",primarily with people of German ancestry.Many Americans in USA tracing German ancestry have this last name. In Indian punjab there are many villages named "Sohal" in the district of Amritsar & Gurdaspur.(Its interesting all inhabitants of these villages, many of them non-jats like Tarkhans, Khatri, Majhabi sikhs or Christians write this as their last name,thus claiming a Jat decent. This is the case with other Jat castes as well.e.g all over punjab we find villages named "Mannawala" all inhabitants claim themselves to be Mann and thus Jatt, which is shameless on part of these people, to say the least) One of the biggest villages is located on Amritsar Pathankot GT road few miles north of the town of Dhariwal in District Gurdaspur. It also has a Train Station on AmritsarJammu rail line. Sohal Jat sikhs are considered cousins of Aulakh Jat Sikhs and they do not marry each other. The great Kushan King "Kanishka" is said to have belonged to Sohal Jat tribe. In Pakistan, the Sohal are found mainly in Faisalabad District, but most originate from Amritsar and Gurdaspur District in Punjab, India. There are also a small numbers found in Gujrat District and Sialkot District. Hameedpur Kalan is an old village Sohal Jat village in Gujranwala District, while the village of Sohal Kalan, Sohal Khurd and Sohal are found in Gujrat District. In India they are found in mainly in Jalandhar District, with their main villages being Sohal Jagir, Athoula, Sohalpur and Sohal in Nakodar Tehsil, and Chak Bilga in Nawanshahr District.

Sohi
Sohi is Jat Gotra in Punjab. Sohi population is 9,000 in Patiala district

Thiara
Thiara is the name of a Jat clan, people of Northern India and Pakistan. Thiara clan people are residenting in and around Doaba and Malwa region of Indian Punjab including Villages of Hoshiarpur, Amritsar, Ludhiana and Jalandhar like Khanpur Thiara, Muradpur Naryal, Talwara, Phagwara, and a lot more. Thiaras have spread across the world in countries such as Canada, USA, UK, and Australia and a lot of other countries.

Thind
Thind is the most prominent clan name found among the Kamboj,Jat people living in Greater Punjab. The Thind Kambojs are well known in the areas of agriculture, military, sports and Punjabi literature. Thind Kambojs are numerously found as Sikhs, Hindus and the Muslims. Over 95% of the total Thinds of Punjab, India belong to Kamboj clan.  Thind clan name is also said to exist in two villages in Ludhiana/Patiala district (one of

the villages is Rachhin which is about 10 km from Ahmedgarh) belonging to the Jat brotherhood and another village is Mohie 7 km from Mullanpur (Ludhiana). In fact, these Jat Thinds are believed to have initially been Kamboj and, at a point in time in not too distant past, they shifted from the tribal domain into caste domain under social, geographical and temporal exigencies and therefore, they eventually merged into the greater Jat brotherhood. There are many Kamboj clan names which overlap with those from the Jat brotherhood-again for similar reasons Besides the Jats, numerous Kamboj clan names also overlap with other occupational castes like the Rajputs, Kshatriyas, Brahmins, Arains etc ---again for similar reasons.  Thind clan name is also said to be found among the Saini community.

Famous Kamboj Thinds The great patriot, soldier, saint and spiritual missionary of twentieth century, Dr Bhagat Singh Thind; Ex Deputy Chief Minister of Panjab, Sardar Balwant Singh Thind; Ex Revenue/Finance Minister, Sardar Atma Singh Thind; current Education Minister Punjab, Dr Upinderjit Kaur Thind; Prof Kulwant Singh Thind, Bhupinder Singh Thind IPS, Additional Director General of Police (ADGP); Lieutenant General Rajendar Singh Thind; Brigadier J S Thind; Dr Amardeep Thind, M.D., Ph.D; are some of the well known Thinds of recent past. The world-famous Olympian Sardar Prithipal Singh field hockey fullback, was also a Thind. World renowned scientist of Biological Sciences Dr Kartar Singh (Panjab University) and the foremost Panjabi intellectual and writer Dr Karnail Singh (Guru Nanak Dev University) are also Thinds. A. S. Thind (Saidpur) I.A.S., former Excise and Taxation Commisioner (Delhi); Hardial Singh Thind (Saidpur), former Session Judge, Punjab; Principal Dr R. S. Thind; Principal Dr V. K. Thind, Khalsa College for Women, Civil Lines, Ludhiana; R. S. Thind, retired Deputy Chief Vigilance Officer, Northern Eastern Railways are some other distinguished Kamboj Thinds.

Colonel Lal Singh Thind (Turna) , a very big landloerd of Rudurpur city, District Rampur now Udham Singh Nagar District in Uttar Pradesh and Sardar Balwant Singh Thind, another big and progressive landloerd of Ganga Nagar, Rajasthan, were the first Indian farmers to have been awarded Padma Shri and the Krishi-Pandit honors respectively for progressive and scientific farming by the Government of India. They both belong to Doaba Thind Kamboj lineage. All the above named Thinds belong to the Kamboj lineage.

Tiwana
Tiwana is a Jat caste that hails from the Punjab region of Pakistan and India. Tiwana is strictly a Rajput and Jat clan. Tiwanas from Punjab in India are Sikhs, while Tiwanas from Punjab in Pakistan are Muslim Rajputs. The 1882 census notes that the Tiwana Rajputs were the rulers of the country at the foot of the Shahpur Salt range. Tiwanas claim their ancestry from Raja Bhoj (Parmar Rajput Clan) who ruled India and had capital at Bhojpur in Madhya Pardesh, India. It is believed that Tiwanas settled in the Punjab region, in search for a fertile lands after the fall of Parmar kingdom. During the Bhakti movement in the 15th century, followed Guru Nanak's {Founder of Sikhism} teachings and became Sikhs at the time.Those who settled in the western Punjab became Muslims by accepting Islam at the hands of Hazrat Baba Fariduddin Shakarganj. Commonly known as Baba Farid , he was a 12th century Sufi preacher and saint of Punjab. Tiwanas, like many other Sikhs have been part of the western migration during the last 60 years since Indian Independence. They have found opportunities in the West and made countries such as Canada, UK, USA and Australia as their homes. Tiwanas can be Sikh or Muslim based on if they are from Punjab, India or Punjab, Pakistan.

Prominent Tiwana in India

Gurcharan Singh Tohra (Tiwana) "Pope of the Sikhs" famously known as "Tohra"

named after his village in Punjab, was President of SGPC (the Sikh gurdwara ruling body) for 27 years until his death in 2004. He served as a member of Lok Sabha (lower house) and Rajya Sabha (upper house) of Indian Parliament during his long political career. He worked for the common public 24x7 and was respected and honoured by people from all walks of life.  Dr Dalip Kaur Tiwana, Leading Punjabi novelist, most popular and productive female

writer of all times hails from Punjab. Dr. Tiwana is considered one of the founders of modern Punjabi literature.  Harpal Singh Tiwana, one of the most prominent Punjabi playwrights of all time, and a

Punjabi play and film long da lishkara maker/director. He performed "Bhangra" dance in various Hindi Bollywood films.

Sardar Sadhu Singh Tiwana who was the first Sikh Tiwana Sessions Judge in Patiala

State.He belonged to the renouned Chinarthalia family of Patiala State. He was well known throughout the erstwhile Patiala state for his integrity and acumen.  Justice Charan Singh Tiwana,son of Sardar Sadhu Singh Tiwana, legendary Judge of

the Punjab and Haryana High Court who authored the famous Tiwana Commission Report that exposed police torture in the 1980s   Tiwana Bros. USA Fresno Justice Iqbal Singh Tiwana,son of Sardar Sadhu Singh Tiwana, reputed Judge and

brilliant lawyer of the Punjab and Haryana High Court who had also served as Acting Chief Justice at the time of his demise.     Sardar Teja Singh Tiwana son of Sardar Sadhu Singh Tiwana. Sardar Dilawar Singh Tiwana of Toronto Canada son of Sardar Sadhu Singh Tiwana. Mrs Noelle Tiwana Wheeler of California daughter of Sardar Dilawar Singh Tiwana. Justice Kulwant Singh Tiwana, retired judge from Punjab and Haryana high

court.reputed Judge and a virtuoso lawyer.Headed the Tiwana panel to discuss the All-India Gurdwara Bill,1999.The Tiwana panel draft was accepted by the executive as well as general house of the SGPC. Hardeep Singh (Mohali) Tiwana member SGPC since 1996 from Mohali town adjoining to Chandigarh and a renowned historical filmmaker. To his credit are films Amar Khalsa, Dharm di Chaadar and Shaheedan de Sirtaj (www.sikhfilms.net).  Ajitpal Kaur Tiwana is the first woman of Indian origin to join as an officer with the Royal

Canadian Mounted Police. Sahib Bahadur Sardar Harmohinder Singh Tiwana of Chinarthal Kalan(1927-2005) belonging to the well known respected Sardar family of the village .He stayed member Panchyat of the village for at least 20–25 years.  Sardar Sukhvinder Singh Tiwana son of Late S.B. Sardar Harmohinder Singh Tiwana

of Chinarthal kalan , a renound personality of both the Chinarthals as well as Patiala.

Prof. Gurmit Singh Tiwana is an established writer, with his first book titled "Akhin Ditha

Samajvadi Cuba" about travels and the history of Cuba. He is also a prominent lecturer in British Columbia, Canada and is highly respected by his peers. 

Tung
Tung , Tunga , Tang is gotra of Jats. This gotra originated from Raja named Tunga of the country named Tunga settled on the river Tunga.

Uppal/Opal
Uppal is a Jat, and Khatri surname found in India and Pakistan. Uppal Jat, and Khatri are found among Muslims ,Sikhs and Hindus of Punjab (both in India and Pakistan) and Haryana. Utpal or Opal is a gotra of Jats. Raja Partha purchased food grains at higher rates and sold it at rates hundreds of times higher, his son was Unmattavanti . They are also found in Gujarat where they are called as Uplana. Opal population is 3,044 in Amritsar district. Notable person from this clan

Hari Singh Nalwa was from this clan.

Hari Singh Nalwa
Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa (1791-1837?), the great Uppal gotra Jat warrior was born at Gujranwala and was the Commander-in-chief of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. His father was a warrior in Maharaja Ranjit Singh's Army. Sir Henry Griffin called Nalwa the "Murat of the Khalsa". In 1816, Tits and Bits wrote an editorial piece in Britain, in which it was asserted that had Nalwa the resources and the artillery of the British, he would have conquered the East entirely. This most famous of the great Sikh Generals can count the following conquests: Kasur (1807), Sialkot, Kashmir (1814), Multan (1818), Peshawar (1827). He held Kashmir and Peshawar as its Governor in 1834. Nalwa was the only person whose name was minted on the currency of Punjab; today the Hari Singh rupee can be found in museums in India.

Virk

Virk is a Jat clan. The clan is spread across the Punjab region in Pakistan and northern India.

According to the Patanjali Bhashya , Ashtadhyayi , Mahabhasya and Kashikavarti, Raja Virk Vardhan built many forts.
According to Thakur Yugendrapal, the Virks are the Vahilkas (they are believed to be the founders of Bahawalpur) who are mentioned in the Mahabharata and who took one-sixth of the income of the King Shalya, who was the king of the Madras and ruled over Madradesa (modernday Sialkot). In the 4th century AD, they had a powerful kingdom. They were the contemporaries of the Gupta rulers. According to Brij Indra Bhaskar, in 428 AD, the Virk rulers performed a big Yagya near Bayana and constructed a pillar, on which they mentioned themselves as Virks. Rock inscriptions of Yasodharman have been found in Mandsor. Their reign in Malwa came to an end in 462 AD. The Bijayagadh Stone Pillar Inscription of Vishnuvardhana shows that Yasodharman, the father of Vishnuvardhana, was a king of Virk gotra. Thakur Deshraj and CV Vaidya have concluded that the inscription of Bijaygarh and Mandsaur prove that Yasodharman, the ruler of Malwa, was a Jat king of the Virk gotra ( clan).. Sheikhupura According to the historians, the present-day city of Sheikhupura in the province of Punjab (Pakistan), was the site of Virkgarh till the Mughal emperor, Jahangir built the city of Sheikhupura. The epical ancestor of Virks, Raja Virk Vardhan, was a ruler of the area with its capital being the present-day city of Sialkot, Punjab (Pakistan). The eastern extent of his Raj included [Amritsar] (India) which still belongs to the Virks.Haji Shah Muhammad Virk of nabipur (virkan) Sheikhupura.He was great politicion of this area and he was one of the biggest landloard of Punjab at that time and after his death in London his wealth was distributed amongst his two sons Haji Abdulkarim Virk and Haji Maqbool Hussain Virk,Virks are still strong in this area politicaly and economicaly.There are 132 villages in this area which belongs to virk family. Whether Muslim or Sikh, Virks always took pride in being members of the Great Jats. The majority of Virks on the western side of Punjab converted to Islam while the majority of Virks on the eastern side of Punjab converted to Sikhism. The famous Virk chieftan, Nawab Kapur Singh founded the Dal Khalsa and, later, divided it into twelve Misls. He belonged to "Fyzallapur" village which remained his headquarters. This village was, later, renamed as Singhpur. The Misl that he headed was, consequently, known as the Singhpuria Misl. Virks Today Today, one can find Virk Jats on both sides of the Punjab and also in foreign countries (US, Canada, Australia, England). In Punjab (Pakistan), a majority of Virks live in the Sheikhupura district and some are scattered in Sialkot District. There is a small village "Virk" in Sialkot inhabited by Virk Jats. Virks still control the city of Sheikhupura (the ancient Virkgarh) both, politically and economically. In India, Virks are mainly concentrated in the Karnal district of Haryana. Majority and some very prominent Virk Families are concentrated in villages around Tehsil Assandh, District Karnal and few are temporarily living in Patiala district. Prominent Virks  Prabhjot Virk, remained Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of United Punjab province

from 1926 to 1946. He could never had his own children. He adopted his nephew, Waheed-udin Virk, who first served in the World War II as a commissioned officer under Royal British Army, and later on became a famous lawyer in Pakistan. His children and grandchildren live in Lahore, Punjab.

Nawab Kapur Singh Virk, was famous Jat Sikh Misl warriors leader in the 18th century in Karora Singh Virk, was a famous Jat Sikh Misl leader of warriors in the 18th century in Jathedar Teja Singh Chuharkana was a fighter against British Rule and one of the few

Punjab.  Punjab.  responsible for India's freedom from the British.  Sardar Chattar Singh Virk Ex Chief Manager, Punjab National Bank was most educated

person of his era  Sardar Nishan Singh Virk(village Balu, Karnal), one of the prominent freedom fighters in

Haryana received several recognition awards from recent Presidents of India. The final recognition came in on Oct 26, 2008 when his body was given state honor by the government when he died at the age of 105.  Kulwant Singh Virk is known as the emperor of Punjabi short story genre. Among several

awards, he also won the Indian president's prestigious Sahitya Akedemi award for Punjabi literature in 1967. His works have been published in Russian and Japanese.   SS Virk, Former DGP Punjab, now Maharashtra chief of police Vikram Virk ,Navjot Singh Virk And Harmandeep Singh Virk Belongs To Royal Family

India Haryana Thari  Sardar Bahadur Buta Singh Virk was a prominent lawyer from Sheikhupura and the

deputy speaker of United Punjab. His family currently resides in Karnal and Chandigarh

Gurbaksh Singh Virk is well known jouralist from punjab presently Chief Editor of Des Pardes Weekly in U.K.

Waraich
Waraich ( also spelt Varaich) is a warrior ethnic clan found in Jatts/rajputs of India and Pakistan who are descendants of Indo-Scythian tribes. Also, but less commonly it can be spelt (Baraich, Braich, Varaitch, Varaich, and Warraich) depending on which Punjabi dialect is being used. According to historians the Sakas were the ancestors of the present day Jatt/rajput/ Waraich / Varaich clan (also spelt Wraich & Braich). The Indo-Scythians were named "Shaka" in India, an extension on the name Saka used by the Persians to designate Scythians.Waraich were valiant warriors of Indian Subcontinent same like Rajputs. The Waraich clan population was 38,070, in Amritsar district, during the 1911 British Punjab Census and in the Patiala district it was 19,950 during the 1911 British Punjab Census.

The Waraich clan is mostly found in western Punjab, Pakistan in two districts Gujrat and Gujranwala. They occupy 141 villages in Gujrat and 84 villages in Gujranwala. In eastern Punjab in India the clan is found in large numbers in the Majha and Malwa region. Historically they are known as land owners and tenant farmers but are also considered by some as fearless warriors and to date there are large numbers of this clan are employed by both Indian and Pakistani armies. In Indian Punjab the clan consists about 315 villages. After 1947 a large number of waraich clan took stay in (now) Haryana State. This clan.80% of residents of village Bhai Bakhtaur in dist bathinda are Waraich. Famous People:

Maharaja Ranjit Singh [ some call him Sandhanwalia, some Sansi ]

Note : Inspite of my best efforts there is a scanty information about Bassi, Bhatthal, Dhanda, Dhami Dhnoa, Khaira, Khosa, Kular Mahi, Nagra, Nat, Rai, Sohi,Sira/Toor/Tur, Thiara, and Tung. And no information about the Sub-Castes Aujla, Baidwan, Bhinder, Biling, Chohan/Chauhan, Dhalla, Dhandly, Dhesi, Dhuga, Dullet, Dulay/Dulai, Garcha, Gosal, Hansra, Heera, Hothi, Jatana, Jhajj, Kalkat, Kakh, Khatra, Khrour/d, Kohar, Kooner/Cooner, Mand, Mander, Mundi, Padda, Pahil, Pander, Pooni, Puar, Punia, Rahal, Ratol, Riar, Romana, Sra, Srao, Somal, Thandi, and Wander.

SECTION III Dhillons Chapter 12
Dhillons: Origin and Growth
Origin The Dhillons are called the descendants of Karna the famed royal warrior mentioned in the great Hindu epic, the Mahabharata and he was the eldest son of Queen Kunti. There was a King Karna in the Bhin-baroliya gotra too. Most Dhillons today trace their history back to Prince Dhillon the first Dhillon, the grandson of Karna and great grandson of Queen Kunti. According to the family tree of Dhillons of Amritsar, Prince Dhillon was the grandson of Mahabharat famed Karna and son of Loh Sen Karna the famed warrior mentioned in the great Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. Karna was killed at Kurukshetra. After Karna was killed at the Battle of Kurukshetra, his descendants first went to Rajasthan and then to Bhatinda in present-day Punjab. Even now, Dhillons are settled in

large numbers in the areas of Bhatinda. They are also settled in the area of Moga, Sangrur, Ropar, Patiala and abroad. In addition, Dhillons are linked to the royal house of the Pandavas. Yudhishtra, ruler of Hastinapur and Indraprastha, later known as Delhi. The third ruling Jat dynasty in this line was Dhillon whose descendants are the present Jat gotras. Dhillon, Dhilwal and Dhill. Swami Dayanand Saraswati, the founder of the Arya Samaj, has in his book "Satyarth Prakash" ("The Light of Truth"), quoted from the famous book "Chadrika Pushtika" that from Yudhishtra to Harsha Vardhan, 124 rulers ruled for 4257 years 9 months and 14 Days Six dynasties ruled during this period. The first three dynasties had their capitals in Hastinapur, Indraprastha and Kausambi. During the reign of the fourth generation, the capital was changed to Magadha. It is also mentioned that during the reign of the fourth generation of Yudhisthra, Hastinapur was destroyed due to changes in the course of the River Ganga. The Dhillon Dynasty founded Delhi and ruled there from
800 BC to 283 BC (about 450 years). It is from the name of Dhillon that we have the word Dhilli or Delhi. A ruler of the Dhillon Dynasty, Raja Dhilu (King Dihlu) founded Delhi and the dynasty ruled from there from 800 BC to 283 BC. According to Radhe Lal, who quotes 'Waqiate-panch Hazarsala, 800 years before Christ, 13 rulers of Dhillon gotra - ruled for about 450 years:-

Some of their names are:
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Raja VirMaha (817 BC - 800 BC) Mahabal or Swarupbal (800 BC - 744 BC) Sarvdutt or Swarupdatt (744 BC - 708 BC) Virsen (708 BC - 668 BC) Singdaman or Mahipal (668BC - 624 BC) Kalink or Sanghraj (624 BC - 595 BC) Jitmal or Tejpal (595 BC - 515 BC) Kaldahan or Kamsen (515 BC - 506 BC) Shtrumardan (506 BC - 481 BC) Raja Jiwan (481 BC - 455 BC) Virbhujang or Hari Rao (455 BC - 424 BC) Virsen II (424 BC - 389 BC) Udaybhat or Adityaketu (389 BC - 372 BC)

This book describes the Dhillon Jat Rule from 800 BC to 350 BC. Dhillon is a big Jat gotra and is not found in any other community. A major part of this gotra adopted the Sikh faith. Dhillon Jats ruled Delhi again in the 8th century. They are from among the Saroa Rajputs according to another view. In 8th century, Tomara/Toors had seized the throne and power of Delhi from Dhillons and their kinsman Sanghas, Malhis, Dosanjhs and Dhindsas who were descendants of Shah Saroa. Leaving Delhi, they moved towards Rajasthan. After some time they migrated to the Bangar areas of Sirsa in Haryana and Bhatinda. Some of them went beyond to Ludhiana and Ferozepur. Most of the Dhillons

from Ferozepur went into Majha. Dhillons from Ludhiana went further into Doaba. Some of the Dhillons went as far as Gujjranwala. The Dhillon Sikh Dynasty and their clan founded the Bhangi Misl, who ruled and governed in the 18th century over most of the major cities of Punjab, including Amritsar, Lahore, Multan, Chiniot, Jhang, Bhera, Rawalpindi, Hasan Abdal, Sialkot, Gujarat and large areas of central and western Panjab.

Chapter 13
Religion & Geographical Distribution of Dhillons
Religion Dhillon Jats are mostly Sikhs and also Muslims. Dhillon Sikhs founded the Bhangi Misl. In Punjab (India) and Haryana, Dhillons are mostly Sikh. In Punjab (Pakistan), they are mostly Muslim. Majority of the Dhillons in Sirsa, Hisar, Ambala and Karnal areas of Haryana are Sikhs. Some of the Dhillons in Sialkot, Lahore and Gujranwala had converted to Islam. Among Rajputs Dhillon is also a gotra among Saroa Rajputs who were descendants of Shah Saroa of Delhi, the ruler of Delhi in the 8th century. They chose to join and merge with the Dhillon Jats over 1000 years ago.

Among Hindus
DHILLONs in KANWARI [ Hissar ]

A daughter of Kanwari village from Duhan gotra (maiden surname), who was married into Dhillon family, became widow at a very young age and she had one son only. Instead of staying at her in-laws place, she returned to Kanwari to live with her parents. Her brothers and father gifted her young son land to live in village as well farming land. Though name of that young man is not known. One of his earliest known descendent was Khayali Ram Dhillon (that son could have been Khayali Ram himself or may be his ancestor). Several future generations of Ch. Khayali Ram Dhillon had only one son. Ch. Khayali Ram's son was C. Jodha Singh Singh. Ch. Jodha Singh Dhillon's son was Ch. Dei Ram Dhillon. Ch. Dei Ram Dhillon had 3 sons. They were Ch. Ramji Lal Dhillon, Ch. Lahri Singh Dhillon and Ch. Ram Chander Dhillon (eldest's name first). Legacy of these simple, hard working ancestors of Dhillons still continue to live in the form of their offsprings, ancestral land and a very old ancestral sword passed from one k generation to other. As per, stories from our ancestors, this sword is at least from or before the times of Dada Jodha Singh. Now this ancestral sword is under the safe

custody of Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon, nicely framed and proudly showcased in their lounge/drawing-room at Amardeep colony in Hissar (as of 2009).
Dhillon's are also called "Dhyani Ki Aulad" (offsprings of widowed daughter who live in same village as their mother). Though residents of Kanwari are nana and mama to Dhillons but over the generations Dhillons have been so assimilated in this village that they now call other villagers as dada, chacha, tau, etc. Those who are interested can see the Genealogy of Dhillons of Kanwari at Appendix II.

Secondary Dhillon Jat Names Due to the age and size of the ancient royal Dhillon clan, it has some small number of derivative secondary family names that keep Dhillon as their main surname but have minor village name before main Dhillon surname. The Sikh Dhillon Jats of the village of Kairon take on the name of the village and keep the main royal Dhillon name as their fourth name. The most famous Dhillon 'Kairon' is probably Pratap Singh Kairon Dhillon.

Geographical Distribution of Dhillons Punjab Population of Dhillons in Patiala was 31,500. This clan claim its descent from "king Karn" and the Dhillons are mainly to be found in the sub-district of Gobindgarh as well as in scattered villages of sub-districts Bhikhi and Fatehgarh. There are many villages named Dhillon or Dhilwan( district (Kapurthala) in Punjab. For example, Harnam Singh Wala is a village with almost 95 percent have their last name as Dhillon. This village is 13km from Rampura Phul in Bhatinda District. The village is known for growing some of the best wheat and peas in Punjab. These peas are especially delicious in late winter. Majara Dingarian is a village situated in District Hoshiarpur, Punjab. Another word for Dhillon Jats in the Punjabi language is "Dingaria". Almost all of the village land is owned by Jats, particularly Dhillon clan. In Punjab (British India), the majority of Dhillons inhabited Amritsar and Gujranwala. In joint Punjab, majority of Dhillons were in Amritsar and Gujjranwala. In the 1881 Census, Dhillons numbered at 86563 (one of the largest amongst the Jat tribes). Dhillons are a very influential section of Jats. Majority of the Dhillons in Sirsa, Hisar, Ambala and Karnal areas of Haryana are Sikhs. Majority of the Dhillons in Sialkot, Lahore and Gujranwala have converted to Islam. Most of the Jats in Sialkot, Lahore and Gujranwala are believed to be Dhillons.

A few Dhillon tribes in Hisar, Ambala, Karnal, andKurukshetra districts of Haryana, in India speak Punjabi, however follow Hinduism. Today, Dhillons are settled in large numbers in Bhatinda, Moga, Sangrur, Rupnagar and Patiala in Punjab (India) as well as Sirsa, Hisar, Ambala and Karnal areas of Haryana.Most of Dhillons from Ludhiana and Doaba have migrated to foreign countries e.g. Canada, US, UK and etc. In Amritsar District the Dhillon population is 44,202: This clan as per Captain Falcon holds 140 villages in the district. Some of the Dhillons' villages are Kasel, Dhand, Jhabal, Kairon, Padri, Gaggobua, Panjwar, Lijan, and Gandiwind. In Ludhiana District Dhillon population is 9,858: This clan is scattered all over the district and claims coming from the west of the Sutlej river. According to B S Dhillon the population of Dhillon clan in Jalandhar district is 9,000. In Firozpur district the Dhillon population is 22,500.

Rajasthan Dhilon Jats live in villages in Jaipur District: Gopalpura Jhadala , In Jaipur they are located in Bagruwalon ka Rasta, Jawahar Nagar, Purani Basti. Dhillon Khap has 4 villages in Agra District. [ Khap and Sarv Khap was a system of social administration and organization in the republics of Northwestern states like Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in India since ancient times. Khap is a term for a social - political grouping and used in a geographical sense. Other parallel terms are Pal, Ganas, Ganasangha, Janapada or republic. According to Bhim Singh Dahiya, the word Khap is perhaps derived from the Saka word Satrapy or Khatrapy, and means an area inhabited by a particular clan. For some reasons the political unit of Khap was defined as a group of 84 villages. This unit of measure is found as far back as the Saka migrations/invasions circa 500 BCE into the Indian subcontinent. The concept of Khap is quite ancient. Written references are found as far back as the Rig Veda times circa 2500 B ].

Chapter 14
Some Historical and Prominent Dhillons

(a)
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Historical Dhillons Mai Bhago, famous Sikh warrior and Sikh saint.
Chaudhary Bhai Langah of village Jhubal, district Amritsar, one of the three of Patti pargana, revenue collector over 84 villages, uncle of the celebrated Sikh woman warrior Mai Bhago, became a devoted Sikh of the fifth Guru Arjan Dev, donated Bir Budha Sahib for the cattle of the gurughar, was in attendance of the fifth Guru at the time of his execution, appointed the first Commander of the first Sikh army raised by the sixth Guru Hargobind, insisted on hosting the marriage of Bibi Veero in his fortress during the first Sikh war of Amritsar at the cost of his office and jagir.

• • • • •

Chhajja Singh Dhillon, famous Sikh warrior & Leader of Jathâ. Bhuma Singh Dhillon, Raja of Dhillon Principality (misl) & famous Royal Sikh warrior. Hari Singh Dhillon, Maharaja of Dhillon Principality (misl) & famous Royal Sikh warrior. Jhanda Singh Dhillon, Maharaja of Dhillon Principality (misl) & famous Royal Sikh warrior. Ganda Singh Dhillon, Maharaja of Dhillon Principality (misl) & famous Royal Sikh warrior. Prominent Dhillons
Dr Anup Singh Dhillon (1903-1969), MP, Rajya Sabha, Indian Independence Freedom Fighter, M, A., Ph. D. (Harvard-U.S.A.); Congress (Punjab); s. of Shri Jai Singh; b. March 5,1903; m. Shrimati Iqbal Kaur, 1 d.; Member, Rajya Sabha, 3-4-1952 to 2-4-1954, 3-4-1954 to 2-4-1960, 3-4-1982 to 22-11-1962 and 3-4-1964 to 28-1-1969; Chairman, Punjab Public Service Commission, 1960; Author of "Nehru-Rising, Star of India"; Died. Obit. on 17-2-1969. After Indian Independence he was the 'First Public Relations Officer' in the Indian Embassy in Washington DC. Chairman of the UN Commission on Korea from 1949-50. Leader of the Indian Delegation to the Afro- Asian Solidarity Committee in Cyprus in 1967. Chairman of Punjab Public Service Commission from 1960-61. Ph.D from Harvard thesis on "India in the League of Nations and in the International Labor Organization.

(b)

• •

Air Commodore Sawarnjt Singh Dhillon(Retd.), 1972 Indo-Pak War Veteran

Late Major General Narinder Singh Dhillon, Director Military Operations 1965 Indo-Pak War Major General Muhammad Javed Dhillon, former Pakistan army General, currently Chairman Pakistan Steel Mills. Brigadier General Zulfiqar Ahmad Dhillon, former Minster of Education for Punjab and prominent Member of the National Assembly of Pakistan. Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, famous Sikh Indian independence movement leader and prominent member of the Indian National Army. Giani Pritam Singh Dhillon, famous close associate of Netaji and member of the Indian National Army.

• • • •

Lieutenant Colonel Chanan Singh Dhillon (retd), Punjabi Indian World War II hero & Veteran, and president of the ex-services league (Punjab & Chandigarh).

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Pratap Singh Kairon, famous Sikh Indian Independence Movement leader and former Chief-minister of Punjab (India). Parkash Singh Badal, Chief-minister of Punjab (India) and former head of the Shiromani Akali Dal. Maheshinder Singh Badal, a prominent public figure,village Badal,District Mukatsar. Manpreet Singh Badal, Finance Minister,Punjab, 2009 Hardipinder Singh Badal, a prominent public man village Badal Gurtej Singh Badal, a prominent public man village Badal. Pritam Singh Ghudda(Dhillon), 1st Police Officer from village Ghudda. Atma Singh Dhillon, 1st Diary Farm Manager of Patiala State from village Ghudda. Balwant Singh Dhillon, 1st B.A. B.Com, from village Ghudda. Kuldip Singh Dhillon, 1st Full Col. From village Ghudda Amarjit Singh Dhillon(The Writer), 1st M.A. Ph.D from village Ghudda Vic Dhillon, Canadian politician and current member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
Dr. Sarbjit Singh Dhillon, D.D.S., prominent and well respected dentist. Treating the most Punjabi patients in North America through only one dental facility, Brampton, Ontario, UDM-DDS 1997 Dr. Harmohinder Singh Dhillon, M.D., a well respected in Elyria (Ohio), U.S.A. and Gold Medalist in M.B.B.S., Govt. Medical College, Patiala (Punjab India)

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• • • • • • •

Sharanjit Singh Dhillon, Indian Politician and Member of Indian Parliament. Amrik Singh Dhillon, Indian Politician and Member of the Punjab Legislative Assembly. Dr. Gurdial Singh Dhillon, was Speaker of Parliament of India and Union Minster of Agriculture. Gaurav Dhillon, famous and highly successful international businessman. He is the founder and former CEO of Informatica Corporation, worth over a billion dollars, 2006, in Nasdaq. Bob Singh Dhillon, famous and highly successful international businessman. He is a Punjabi Indian-Canadian Sikh billionaire property businessman (the first Indo-Canadian billionaire). Kulwinder Dhillon, was a award-winning, internationally famous popular Punjabi Indian Singer. Mangal Dhillon, famous Actor, Writer & Producer-Director. Poonam Dhillon, famous Bollywood actress. Lieutenant Colonel Chanan Singh Dhillon (retd), Punjabi Indian World War II hero & Veteran, and president of the ex-services league (Punjab & Chandigarh). Lieutenant General Joginder Singh Dhillon, Indian and Sikh military war hero. Lieutenant General Sarabjit Singh Dhillon, Indian General Commander of Kashmir (GoC) and Master General of the Ordnance of the Indian Army. Air Vice Marshal Satinder Singh Dhillon, Indian and Sikh military war hero.

• • • • •

Gurinder Singh Dhillon, present Guru of the Radhaswamis of Beas. Baljit Singh Dhillon, Olympic Games Indian Hockey Team Captain. Baltej Singh Dhillon, first Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer to successfully legally challenged and was allowed to wear a turban in Canada. Professor Baldev Singh Dhillon, he is an internationally famous Agricultural Scientist and former Director of Research at Punjab Agricultural University. Professor B.S. Dhillon is a world famous scholar on the Jat People and Chairman of Mechanical Engineering and Director of the Engineering Management Program at the University of Ottawa. Professor Gurpreet Singh Dhillon, famous scholar and author, Professor of Information Systems, Author of "Principles of Information Systems Security" (Wiley) and Editor of Journal of Information System Security. H. S. Dillon, famous Person of Indian Origin Indonesian Indian Sikh Politician.

Chapter 15 Delhi founded by Dhillons
Delhi was the site of the magnificent and opulent Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata, founded around 5000 BC. Hindu texts state that the city of Delhi used to be referred to in Sanskrit as Hastinapur, which means "elephant-city". A village called Indraprastha existed in Delhi until the beginning of the 19th century. The British demolished the ancient village to make way for the construction of New Delhi in the late 19th century. Archaeological evidence suggests that Indraprastha once stood where the Old Fort is today. Excavations have unearthed shards of the grey painted ware (c. 1000 BC) that some archaeologists associate with the age of the Mahabharata, but no coherent settlement traces have been found. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya Period (c. 300 BC); since then, the site has seen continuous settlement. In 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273-236 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Two sandstone pillars inscribed with the edicts of Ashoka were later brought to the city by Firuz Shah Tughluq in the 14th century. The famous Iron pillar near the Qutub Minar was commissioned by the emperor Kumara Gupta I of the Gupta dynasty (320-540) and transplanted to Delhi during the 10th centur.

Delhi was founded by Dhillon Jats:
• •

According to BS Dhillon the naming of Delhi has been done after Dhillon Jats. Professor Qanungo has written, "It is not unlikely that this famous city derives its name from the Dhillon Jats, who are still found in large numbers in Delhi district". Bhim Singh Dahiya also supports Qanungo's assertion by adding, "Its (Delhi's) old name was Dhillika as is recorded in the inscription of Someswara Chauhan, in 1169 A.D. Later on the suffix "ka" was deleted and the city was named Dhilli".

A well known Indian Historian, Romila Thapar, indirectly said that Delhi in the earlier times was called "Dhillika". As per Ferishta, a Persian writer of the early seventeenth century; "---Dehloo (Dhillon in Punjabi is pronounced as "Dhilon" or "Dhilo") the uncle of the young king, aided by the nobles, having deposed him, ascended the Musnud. This prince, as famous for his justice as for his valour devoted his time to the good of his subjects, and built the city of Dehly". General Sir A. Cunningham, Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India, conducted a comprehensive study in 1860s and published his report in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Sir Cunningham wrote,"According to a popular and well known tradition, Dilli or Dhilli (Delhi) was built by Rajah (king) Dilu or Dhilu, whose date is quite uncertain. This tradition was adopted by Ferishta. I confess, however, that I have but little faith in the dates of any Hindu traditionary stories, unless they can be supported by other testimony. That the city Dhilli was founded by a Rajah of similar name is probable enough, for it is the common custom in India, even at the present day, to name places after their founders". Taking all of the above factors into consideration, and being aware of the fact that in India, non-Jats never have clan names such as Dhilu, Dhilo, or Dhillon, it is probably safe to conclude that the city of Delhi was built by a Dhillon Jat king and also Dhillon Jats claim their origin from a king as per Rose."

.

SECTION IV
Chapter 16 Dhillons of Pujab

While describing Dhillons of Punjab, we need to narrate briefly The Sikh Misls and Sikh States & Sikh Principalities :-

The Sikh Misls

After Banda Bahader’s Rule, the Chief Sardars conquered different regions of the Punjab with the help of their followers and established, small kingdoms, which were known by the name of Misls. All these Misls were conquered later by Maharaja Ranjit Singh The Arabic word misl means 'like'. The Sikh misls were 'alike', in the sense that they were considered equals. The Misls were smll companies of Sikhs , some numbering a few hundred while others could field tens of thousands of men. Each Sikh was free to join any Misl he chose, and every Misl was free to act in any way it wished in the area under its control. Only matters affecting the community as a whole were they to take orders from the Supreme Commander Nawab Kapur Singh . It is estimated that the total force which the Dhal Khalsa (army of veterans) could put in the field was about seventy thousand Sikhs. The misldhar system was ideally suited to the conditions of the time and worked well under leaders like Nawab Kapur Singh and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. It combined freedom of action with the discipline of a unified command; it channeled the energies of the fiercely independent Khalsa soldier in the service of a cause which he held dear - the expulsion of hostile foreigners from the Punjab and the fulfilment of the prophecy of Guru Gobind Singh Ji of the establishment of a Sikh state.

The Sikh Misls

1. The Bhangi Misl –It was Dhillons Misl and the leader of this Misl was Sardar Hari Singh Dhillon. The Bhangis derive their name from their addiction to 'Bhang'. The capital of this Misl was Amritsar. Poothvar, Jhung, Pindi ghep, Bheerakhusab, Rawalpindi, Hazara, Chinyiot, Gujral, Multan, Sharanpure, Jagadhri, Daodkhel, Dholia, Jidran, Dera Ismail Khan, Bhawalpur, Sunehra, Suryati, Beerwal and Karnala were included in his kingdom. Jhanda Singh Dhillon son of Hari Singh crossed River Attak and defeated the Pathans. The heavy gun of Ahmed Shah Abdali, which was in the possession of the Subedar of Lahore, was snatched away from the pathans and was brought to Amritsar. This was called 'Bhangian di-Tope’. The last chief of this Misl was Sardar Gujar Singh who was defeated by Ranjit Singh. 2. The Kanhaiya Misl - Kanhiya Singh was the leader of the Misl. Bhrewal was its stronghold. The territory of Jammu and Pathankot was under his rule. The annual income from this Misl was forty Lakhs. Kalanaur, Bhatala, Sohiyan Fathegarh, Ajnala, Pathankot, Gurdaspur were also the important possessions of the Kanhiyas. Ranjit Singh was married into this Misl. 3. The Nakkai Misal - The leader of this Misl belonged to Nakkai, Bhunewal, was its capital. Hira Singh Sidhu was the founder of this Misl. This Misl had a large army numbering sixty thousand Ranjit Singh was married into this Misl also. Ranjit Singh took this territory away from a careless chief and handed it over to his nephew Kharak Singh. 4. The Dale walia Misl - Tara Singh Gheba was the founder of this Misl. He was a far-sighted man He had predicted that the young man (Ranjit Singh) would disembody all the Misls. In view of this he began to give charity to the poor and needy persons. He had an army of 6,000 soldiers and annual income from the Misl was twenty Lakh Rupees. The important possessions of this Misl were Kheri Khamane, Sialiba, Adhran, Rupar, Dharam kot, Ghanghorana, Bundewal, Beccani, Siahkot, Nakodar. The Chief of this Misl plundered the territories across

River Jamuna. They took many guns from the Red Fort of Delhi. This Misal was also annexed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. 5. The Kapurian Misl - The leader of this Misl was Kapura Singh. He hailed from village Sarki. The founder of this Misl was Sham Singh. The annual income of this Misl was forty Lakhs and the standing army was thirteen thousand. Sardar Sham Singh invaded Nadir Shah and occupied the territory across River Sutlej. He defeated the Nawabs of Jalalabad and Loharu. He also fought against George Thompson and having crossed the River Jamuna. invaded and plundered Koil, ( Aligarh) Hathras. Ghaziabad, Rampur, Bareilly, KashGanj, and Chandosi etc. Sardar Bhughail Singh got his territory back from Raja Amar Singh of Patiala after a long and tough fight. He received fifty thousand Rupees cash from Akbar and received the royal word, to get the Gurudwara Sis Ganj completed. Bhugail Singh remained peacefully in Haryana till his last days with Kaithal as his Capital. 6. The Karoria Misl - This Misl was a branch of Larsian. The founder of this Misl was Sardar Gurbax Singh of Ralsian Village. His son was Jodh Singh. 7. The Faizalpuria Misl - The leader of this Misl was Chaudhary Daleep Singh who was a true follower of the Panth, The annual income of this Misl was five Lakh. Daleep Singh, himself received Pahul from Guru Gobind Singh. His son Kapura Singh converted all the Jats of these territories into Sikhs. His son Budh Singh constructed the sacred tank of Taran Taran at a cost of Rupees one lakh. 8. The Ramgarhia Misl - The leader and founder of this Misl was Jassa Singh Tarkhan, Ramgarhia, This misl was as big as the Bhangi Misl. Sardar Jassa Singh was very vain and haughty. Maharaja Ranjit Singh put him into prison but later pardoned him and gave him a high rank in his army. 9. The Nishanawalia Misl - The leaders of this Misl were brave and fearless. During the invasions they led the army as an advanced guard with the insignia of the Panth. Their strong hold was Ambala. They got Lakhs of Rupees annually as the share of the Government. Singhwala, Khanna, Doraha, Sandm, Zika, Ambala, Jhoran, Shahabad and Lashkari Khan were their Parganas. 10. The Shaheedan Misl - Eight chiefs of this misl were killed one after an-other while serving the Panth. They helped Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Bahadur whole heartedly against Nawab Jehan Khan. Deep Singh Sindhu, Gurubax Singh, Suddha Singh, Buddha Singh, Sher Singh, Durga Singh, Basant Singh and Hira Singh were the chiefs who laid their lives for the Panth. 11. The Ahluwalia Misl - The leader of this Misl was Sadhu Singh, a Jat of the 'Kalal' or distiller caste. But the true founder was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia so this Misl was named after him as Ahluwalian Misl. This Misl lost its existence after the war of the Sikhs with the British. 12. The Sukarchakia Misal - Begha Mal Bhathi belonged to Suker Chak village. He was the founder of this Misl. Afterwards, Budha Singh, Charat Singh, Sardar Maha Singh held the reins of 'Sardari'. The most powerful of the Sukar Chakia Misl was Ranjit Singh son of Maha Singh. He conquered all the Misls and founded the Sikh State with Lahore as its Capital. He was called the 'Lion of the Punjab'. Budha Singh was the first Sikh who receieved Pahul from Guru Gobind Singh. Donda Singh was the second brother of Charat Singh, whose heirs were known as Sandhan Wala.

13. Phulkian Misl- The Four Ruling Chiefs of Patiala, Nabha , Jind and Farid Kot were the descendents of this Misl and ruled under British Protection over territories conquered by their ancestors.

Chapter 17
Sikh States and Sikh Principalities of Jats
(a) Phulkian Dynasty[ narrated earlier also in different context ]

The gotra of this royal dynasty is Siddhu. Sidhu Brar belonged to the Bhati gotra. According to their history, their ancestors, having been ousted from Ghazni, had come to India [ in Yudhishthiri Samvat 3008.] The leader was either Bhattrak, the founder of Bhati gotra, or his father. Bhatinda and Bhatner( Bhatnair) were named after him. Among the successors of Sidhu, Phool was a lucky man and his decendants founded various states like Nabha, Patiala, Jind, Bhadaur, Bhalaur, Nodhgarh, Faridkot, Malaudh etc.

Patiala State
Patiala was one of the four big states of India. When the leaders of the Sikh Panth, taking advantage of the weakness of the Mughul Dynasty, became determined to extend their power, one of their leaders was Ala Singh, son of Chaudhary Rama, who fought against Ahmed Shah Abdali. 20,000 of his followers were killed. To earn his friendship Ahmed Shah returned his territory. After Abdali's return to Kabul, Ala Singh annexed the territory of Sirhind also. His son, Sardar Amar Singh, got the title of Raja from Kabul. Raja Karam Singh of this dynasty helped the British to suppress the 1857 uprising. As a reward, states Kaithal and Baghat and several Parganas belonging to Nawab of Jhajjar were given to him. Maharaja Bhupinder Singh, seventh in the dynasty occupied a high place among other princes. He brought about improvement in all spheres. The Patiala forces secured high position in games under his leadership. After his death, his son Yadvendra Singh succeeded to the throne and proved to be a very good ruler and administrator. During his rule the State merged in the Indian Union.

Jind State
Phool's grandson, Sardar Gajpat Singh, was the founder of this state. He married his daughter who was the mother of Ranjit Singh to Sardar Mahan Singh Sukharchakiya. In 1772 AD Emperor Shah Alam gave him the title of Raja. In 1773 he was victorious in the battle of Sirhind and annexed certain parts of Sirhind. Later he also seized Rohtak and

Dadri. As a reward of helping the British in the 1857 uprisisng, Lord Lake granted him various parganas of Gohana.

Nabha State
Sardar Hamir Singh, in the fourth generation of Phool, obtained a Jagir in Kapurgarh and Sangrur belonging to Chaudhary Taloka. After the conquest of Sirhind the pargana of Molaudhgarh came into his share. The Annual income of this State was Rs. 1,30,000.

Faridkot State
Faridkot State came into existence in the 12th generation of Phool and was founded, in 1600 AD by Kapur Singh. His grandson, Amir Singh, extended the territories. He fought two wars against Ranjit Singh. The annual income of this state was Rs 3,54,800.

(c)Sikh Principalities
Randhawa Chiefs of Talwandi
In 1640 AD Chaudhary Randhir Chand founded the village Bhandahi on arrival from Rajputana( Rajastana) and his grandson Targha founded Talwandi. In the fourth dynasty Pradhan Chand's son Santosh Singh adopted Sikhism. Working in the Jatha of Sardar Jai Singh he obtained Banga Talwandi as a Jagir.

Randhawa Chief of Khundha
The ancestor of this dynasty, Randhawa, was very famous in Rajasthan. His son Kajal Singh, became the leader of a Jatha in Patiala and worked with enthusiasm and occupied the Parganas of Kowshera, Jafarwal, Khurha and Shahpur.

Mann Chiefs of Bhaga
Chaudhary Amar Singh Mann, resident of Bhaga joined the Kanhaiya Misl and annexed the Pargana, of Sokalgarh, Sujanpur Dharmakot and Dharampur.

Mann Chiefs of Mughal Chak
Chaudhary Ladha Mann of this dynasty, came from Sidipur Lowa in Rohtak district and settled down in Gujaranwala. He founded a small village named Maina. Thereafter, he became the Chaudhary of 22 villages. Sardar Mahatab Singh of this

dynasty occupied 82 villages due to the weakness of the Mughal Emperor. He was a member of the Bhangi Misl.

Siddhu Chief of Saranwali
The leader of this dynasty, Hasan, fought fierce battles against the people of Kariya community. Later, they settled down in Gurdaspur and his widow daughter was married to Ranjit Singh's elder son Kharak Singh. The annual income of this Jagir was Rs. 36,000.

Sandhu Chiefs of Badala
Sardar Mochal Singh, leader of this dynasty, founded the village of Mochal near Uska. After several generations Chaudhary Durga Das was appointed Chaudhary on behalf of the Moghals. Later Sardar Mehtab Singh occupied 82 villages due to the weakness of the Mughal Emperor. He was a member of Bhangi Misl.

Chiefs of Kalas Bazwa
Chaudhary Manga was a famous leader of this dynasty. Both Sikh and Muslim descendants of Chaudhary Manga worship at his fortress. His son, Kalas, obtained a Jagir. Dewan Singh son of Jai Chand Jogi, in this dynasty adopted Sikhism and was an important leader of the Bhangian Misl. Sardar Hari Singh Dhillon adopted him as his Dharmputra. In 1816 AD the daughter of Sardar Jodh Singh was married to Ranjit Singh, son of Kharak Singh.

CHAPTER 18 Dhillons of Punjab
The Dhillon Sikh Dynasty and their clansmen founded the Bhangi Misl,as we have described earlier, who ruled and governed in the 18th century over most of the major cities of Punjab, including Amritsar, Lahore, Multan, Chiniot, Jhang, Bhera, Rawalpindi, Hasan Abdal, Sialkot, Gujrat and large areas of central and western Punjab. Dhillon Jats are mostly Sikhs. There is a small number that are Hindu in the Hissar[as noted before] & Kurukshetra districts. Dhillon Jats founded the Bhangi Misl. In Punjab (India) and Haryana, Dhillons are mostly Sikh .

[Dhillon is also a gotra among Saroa Rajputs who were descendants of Shah Saroa of Delhi, the ruler of Delhi in the 8th century. They chose to join and merge with the Dhillon Jats over 1000 years ago] In Punjab due to the age and size of the ancient royal Dhillon clan, it has some small number of derivative secondary family names that keep Dhillon as their main surname but have minor family name before main Dhillon surname. The Sikh Dhillon Jats of the village of Kairon and Badal take on the name of the village and keep the main royal Dhillon name as their fourth name. The most famous Dhillon 'Kairon' is probably Pratap Singh Kairon Dhillon and Dhillon ‘Badal’ is Prakash Singh Dhillon.

Geographical Distribution
There are many villages named Dhilwan in District Karputhla and Gurdasspur in Punjab. For example, Harnam Singh Wala is a village with almost 95 percent have their last name as Dhillon. This village is 13 km from Rampura Phul in Bhatinda District. The village is known for growing some of the best wheat and peas in Punjab. These peas are especially delicious in late winter. In Punjab (British India), the majority of Dhillons inhabited Amritsar and Gujranwala. In joint Punjab, majority of Dhillons were in Amritsar and Gujjranwala. In the 1881 Census, Dhillons numbered at 86563 (one of the largest amongst the Jat tribes) Dhillons are a very influential section of Jats. Majority of the Dhillons in Sirsa, Hisar, Ambala and Karnal areas of Haryana are Sikhs.[ The Hindu Dhillons of Hisar have been mentioned earlier in detail.] Today, Dhillons are settled in large numbers in Bathinda, Moga, Sangrur, Rupnagar and Patiala in Punjab (India) as well as the Sirsa, Hisar, Ambala and Karnal areas of Haryana. Dhillons from Ludhiana and Doaba have migrated to foreign countries e.g. Canada, US, UK etc. In village Chehlan in Fatehgarh Sahib District where 90% of residence are Dhillons and in village Ghungrana of District Ludhiana where are 97% of residence are Dhillons. Sardar Gurnam Singh Ghungrana Dhillon was a renowned figure of the area who used Ghungrana and kept Dhillon as fourth name. Dhillon and Deol both share the same desent warriors during the Sikh Rule. Both clans have many villages in the Ludhiana district consisting 60 combined together. Some of The Dhillons of Punjab, due to certain reasons shifted to the Lakhi Jungle area which will be discussed in the next Chapter.

Chapter 19
Some Dhillons Shifted to Lakhi Jungle

The 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries were very difficult for the people of Punjab. These were the years of active rule of The Mughals in India and Punjab.The Sikh Guru Period coincided with this.The former was known for its tyranny, despotism and autocracy and the latter a typical form of struggle for freedom, justice and human values. The Mughal Rulers during these years, particularly Jahangir’times had adopted various despotic means to deal with the Non-Muslims by which the lives of common people became very difficult.in the region of what is called Majha area of Punjab. The 5th Guru of the Sikhs Guru Arjan Dev was tortured to death in 1606 A.D. on flimsy grounds , the 6th Guru, Guru Hargobind was imprisoned in about 1617 A.D. It was this period that some people, including the members of Dhillon Community had to leave their houses and had come to the difficult terrain called ‘Lakhi Jungle’where there was forest all around. A section Dhillons from the village Sur Singh, near Taran Taaran, came to a place called “Wanger” a small village, which is still there near Talwandi Sabo. This being a small village, some Dhillons started shifting to other places. [ even in 2009 there are total 100/125 households in Wanger, the Dhillons are having about 30 houses only ] Therefore, some Dhillon families , got out of Wanger and established new villages like Ghudda, Bhara, Fatta etc. Some Dhillons went to villages which were already established like Bajak, Bhukhian Aali, Dhnaula and Bombiha.. Baba Ghudda, the ancestor of Parkash Singh Badal [ and of the writer of this Booklet---both are in 8th geration of Baba Ghudda] established a village after his name sometime during 1660-65 A.D. Village Ghudda is 17/18 Kilometers from Bathinda on the Ghudda-Badal Road. Baba Ghudda had three sons,namely, Gahoo, Ladha and Chanda. Ladha had two sons-Kapur Singh and Take Singh. Take Singh had two sonsDeva Singh and Mahan Singh.Mahan Singh’s son Fateh Singh had three sons-Buta, Ranjit Singh and Jagjit Singh. Ranjit Singh Had two sons-Raghuraj Singh and Gurraj Singh. Raghuraj Singh had two sons-Prakash Singh(Badal)and Gurdas Singh (Badal ). They have one son each-Sukhbir Singh and Manpreet Singh.{this family attaches Badal as suffix to their names-Badal being a village purchased by Ghudda family in 1830 A.D.] Ladha’s second son Kapoor Singh had one son Bahadur Singh who had five sons —Bela Singh,Sohat Singh Mohat Singh Mehtab Singh and Khzan Singh. Khazan Singh had three sons—Keta Singh, Bishan Singh and Arjan Singh.Kheta Singh had four sons & two daughters—Pritam Singh,Atma Singh,Karnail Singh,Balwant Singh,Jas Kaur and Pritam Kaur. Pritam Singh had one son-Harchand Singh who had two sons-Jitmohinder & Jessi; Atma Singh had four sons & four daughtersKarmjit,Surjit,Baljit,Sukhjit,Gurbakhshish,HarbakhshishNirmaljit and Sandal; Karnal Singh had one son-Harjitpat & four daughters-Davinder,Rajinder,Gurinder,and Jaswinder;Harjitpal had one son-Jagjit who had one daughter Sandip. Balwant Singh had one son-Amarjit who has one son Harmohinder & two Daughters-Satinderjit and Deepinderjit. Harmohinder has one son-Nanak & one Daughter Nimrit. The entire Genealogy of Baba Ghudda will be shown in Charts in the Appendix.

It is not less than a miracle that the only one Central University has been established in village Ghudda for which 544 acres= land has been acquired by the Punjab Government. The Bill for this and other Central Universities was passed by the Parliament on Feb.25,2009 & it became an Act on March 20,2009 when signed by the President of India. Its 1st Vice Chancellor Dr. Jai Roop Singh,son of a renouned Punjabi writer Professor Pritam Singh of Patiala, was appointed by the Govt. of India who is working very hard to make this University as one of the best University of India.

Ragu

Appendix I

Sidhu and Brar Clan
Origin and history
Sidhus are the descendants of Bhatti Rajputs. They claim Yaduvanshi descent. At one time, the Bhattis ruled over the lands of Northern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, from Mathura to Ghazni. Ghazni and Lahore were seized by the king of Bukhara (in today's Uzbekistan) after a long period. The Bhattis migrated and settled in the area of Bhatner (Hanumangarh in present-day northern Rajasthan).

Devraj, Jaisal, and Hemraj
A Bhatti chieftain named Devraj founded Devgarh. Rao Jaisal from his lineage was a renowned king who founded the state of Jaisalmer in Rajasthan. His son, Rao Hemraj had a dispute with his brothers which led to his settlement in Hisar in 1180. When Mohammed of Ghor invaded India, he was given maximum support by Rao Hemraj and his followers. Rao Hemraj was rewarded with the control of the Sirsa, Hisar and Bathinda areas. Rao Hemraj built a fort in Hisar. He ousted the Panwar Rajputs from the area of Muktsar. He died in 1214.

Jondhar, Mangal Rao, and Khiva Rao
Rao Hemraj's son Jondhar had twenty-one sons, each of whom founded a new clan. One of his grandsons, Mangal Rao, rebelled against the Delhi government, but was killed. Khiva Rao, a grandson of Mangal Rao, had no issue. He married a girl from a Sarao Jat family. He was discarded by his community and built Khiva Khota.

Sidhu
Khiva Rao sired Sidhu Rao in around 1250. Sidhu Rao's descendants merged back with the Jat community. Sidhu is the founder of the Sidhu Clan. Sidhu was also married into a Gill Jat tribe. He sired six sons from this marriage: • Dahar's descendants are know as Bhaike of Kainthal and Jhumba.Dhar's descendants are know as Pirkotias.Roop's progeny are Rosse of the village of Tehna in Faridkot.Suro's progeny are know as Meharmia.Mano's descendants are settled in Malkana and Naurang villages and known as Manokes.Bhura's descendants are known as Harikas and Brars.Hari Rao was born in the family of Sita Rao, the elder son of Bhura. He was the founder of the Harkike Sidhu branch. Kaonke, Attari, Harike and Fattanke belong to this lineage. They are not of Brar lineage. • Jarth, the second son of Sita Rao, sired Brar who founded the Brar Clan.

Thus, Sidhus have nine sub-clans: 1. Brar.2Harike3.Bhaik4Pirkotiye5Rosse6Jaid7Manoke8Bains9Johl

[A descendant of Sidhu married into a Dalit family and his progeny merged with Dalits. Sidhus thus, are also found among backward castes such as Dalit castes such as Mazhabi Sikhs.]

The Brars
Brar was the fifth generation descendant of Sidhu. He was a known marauder and warrior. He regained Bathinda after defeating the Bhattis. He also rebelled against the Delhi government. He made Bidowali in Bathinda as his stronghold. He died around 1415 BC in Bidowal. During Timur's raid on Northern India in 1398, the Brars robbed Timur in the area of Tohana in today's Haryana. After marauding, the Brars used to take shelter in the jungles of the area. The enraged Timur started deforestation on a large scale. Timur killed a large number of Brars and avenged his losses. Brar had six sons but only Dull and Paur could attain fame. Brar had three brothers whose descendants also call themselves as Brars. The Harike Sidhus also claim to be Brars although they are not. Faridkotiye and Sangharke belong to the lineage of Dull while Phoolke, Mehrajke and Ghurajke are from the lineage of Paur. They are mostly settled in the Bahia area of Bathinda. Dull sired four sons named Ratan Pal, Lakhan Pal, Binay Pal and Sehan Pal. Ratan Pal's descendants are settled in the villages of Abloo, Daan Singh Wala, Kotli, Kili, Mehma Sarja and Kundal. Lakhan Pal’s descendants are called Deonke. Sehan Pal's progeny is settled Nagedi Sran and Fidde while Binay Pal’s in Matta, Doda, Kauni, Bhagsar and Jhutti Patti of Bathinda. Sanghar from the lineage of Binay Pal attained eminence. He had fourteen sons including Bhallan.

Sidhus and Brars during the lifetime of the Sikh Gurus Balhan
Akbar appointed Bhallan Brar as Chaudhry of his area. He died in 1543. Bidowali (or Bidowal) is the original village of the famed Sidhu-Brars. The sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Har Gobind, along with his family, were granted a visit to Mohan in Vikrami Samvat 1688.

Mohan and Kala
According to the Bathinda Gazette, the Choudhar (landlordship) of this area was given by the Mughals to a Sardar (Chief) named Bairam of Brar lineage. After his death in 1560, the same was handed over to Mehraj. Mehraj’s grandson Mohan was pestered by Muslim Bhattis and he left Bidowali for some time in 1618 and came to the Bathinda area. According to one description, Mohan and his son Roop Chand laid their lives in 1632 during a fight with Muslim Bhattis. Mohan’s son Kala was also an ardent follower of the sixth Guru. When Shah Jehan’s army attacked the Guru in 1635 at Lehra near Mehraj, Kala along with his clan sided firmly with him. The Guru ended victorious. A happy Guru Har Gobind asked Kala Brar to fence as much land he wanted to. By evening, Kala had marked twenty-two villages and put his fence (Morhi) into the ground. The Bhullar Jats, who considered themselves to be the original dwellers and owners of this area removed his fence and threw it into a well. When Kala complained against this to the

Guru, he remarked: "Bhai Kala, your roots have reached to the other world." Hence, Kala founded a village and named it as Mehraj.

Phool
When Guru Har Rai visited this area, Kala along with his cousins, Phool and Sandal appeared for his service. The Guru blessed Phool and Sandal with the privilege of affording to take his horse to the Ganges and Yamuna rivers for drinking water. On growing up, Phool founded the village of Phool and captured the areas surrounding it. Chowdhary Phool sired Tarlok Singh and Ram Singh who avenged his death from Nawab Isa Khan. They were baptized at the hands of the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. During Guru Gobind Singh's time, the Brars dominated the Malwa region of the Punjab. Aurangzeb too dreaded the Brars and did not dare enter Malwa. Guru Gobind Singh in his Zafarnama referred to the Brars saying that all the Brars supported him.

Sidhu and Brar kingdoms[Patiala, Nabha, Jind & Faridkot also discussed elsewhere in detail ]
Sidhus and Brars had five principalities of their own in the Malwa region of the Punjab prior to the Partition. These were Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kaithal and Faridkot. After the Partition, Patiala, Nabha, Jind and Faridkot, along with three other princely states (Kapurthala, Malerkotla and Kalsia) formed the short-lived Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), with the Maharja of Patiala, Yadavindrah Singh as the Rajpramukh and the capital at the city of Patiala. PEPSU was later incorporated into the new state of Punjab, from which Himachal Pradesh and Haryana were later separated due to the reorganization of Indian states on a linguistic basis.

Patiala, Nabha and Jind
The descendants of these two brothers ruled over the principalities of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. These three were known as the Phoolkian principalities after Phool Brar. Among these three, Baba Ala Singh expanded his principality far and wide. He was an ardent Sikh and a statesman of high calibre. He was the Misldar of the Phoolkian Misl. Baba Ala Singh died in 1765.

Faridkot
The ancestor of the Faridkot principality, Bhallan was also an ardent follower of Guru Har Gobind. He had also helped the Guru in the battle of Mehraj. He died issueless in 1643. Kapura, who was a nephew of Bhallan, succeeded him. Kapura founded the town of Kot Kapura in 1661. Kapura was the Chaudhry of eighty-four villages. He was also a Sikh but did not want to earn the ire of the Mughals. In the battle of Muktsar in 1705, Kapura helped Guru Gobind Singh ji in an underhand manner. Kapura was slain by Isa Khan Manj in 1708. He had three sons named Sukhia, Sema and Mukhia. Mukhia killed Isa Khan and took control of the entire area. Sema was also killed in this battle in 1710. Kapura’s elder son Sukhia again came into power in 1720. In 1808, Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured the principality of Faridkot up to Muktsar. Ranjit Singh vacated this area on the behest of the British. That is why the ruler of this principality, Pahara Singh sided with the British during the Anglo-Sikh Wars.One of the Deputy Commissioner's of Faridkot(S.Bhagat Singh)during his visit to Fresno CA, USA, when asked about the famous things in Faridkot , answered that Faridkot is famous for TALL BRARS.

Kaithal
The principality of Kaithal (today in Haryana), was founded by Bhai Bhagtu(he was also revered as saint). This state had wide areas in its control. Due to the 1857 Mutiny, the British took over this principality in 1858. The villages of Bidowali, Jhumba, Kot Bhai, Channu, Faqaarsar, Thehri in the Tehsil of Muktsar were part of this principality. after the anexture of the state ,royal linage came to settle in The prominent villages of Bhaike Sidhus included Fafre, Chakk Bhaika, Bhucho, Selbrah, Dialpura, Bambiha Bhai, Thehri, Bhaika Kera and Kot Bhai.each of the villages were the manor of a greater cluster of smaller villages.for example the three brothers from bhucho had close to 73 villages which included fatenwala,kundal,dabwali etc a majority of the villages were still closer to there homeland in kaithal till after independence and the cealing act.The Bhaika's also presented themselves as feudal lords and hence helped sustain masses under them throught times of economical and social distress.The presented malwa with an option of governace,which was later picked up by the British as revenue generation module and the sardars of prominent villages were taxed rather than the entire populations.the lords in turn generated enough income to sustain themselves and their people primarily throught economy of scale in large scale agriculture practices.

Villages
The progeny of Baba Jalal, a Sidhu-Brar founded the villages of Aaklia, Gurusar, Bhodipura, Koir Singh Wala, Hakamwala, Hamirgarh and Ramuwala. Besides three Sidhwans, Sidhus have also many villages in the tehsil of Jagraon in the Ludhiana district. Sidhus also have their villages in the area of Moga and Bagha Purana.

Religion
All the Brars in Punjab are Sikhs. Sidhus are also found in a minority among Hindu Jats as well as Dalit and backward classes. In the 1881 Census, Sidhus were counted at 155,332 and the Brars at 53,344. By the 1991 Census, the number of Sidhu Brars had reached up to three million[4]. Sidhu-Brars are more in number than other Jat clans.

Sidhus and Brars today
Presently, Sidhu and Brar Jats are settled all over the world.

Appendix II
GENEALOGY OF DHILLONs of KANWARI (8 generations)

1. Ch. Khayali Ram Dhillon (Khayali means Dreamer or Visionary) son of UNKOWN 2. Ch. Jodha Singh Dhillon (Jodha means Brave Heart Warrior) son of Ch. Khayali Ram Dhillon 3. Ch Dei Ram Dhillon (Dei means Giver or Generous) son of Ch. Jodha Singh Dhillon 4.1. Ch. Ramji Lal Dhillon , eldest son of Ch. Ch Dei Ram Dhillon. He died at a young age after fathering a son called Daryav Singh Dhillon. 4.2. Ch. Lahri Singh Dhillon, middle son of Ch Dei Ram Dhillon. He died at a young age after fathering a son called Sunder Singh Dhillon.4.3 Ch. Ram Chander Dhillon, very handsome, very fair-skinned youngest son of Ch Dei Ram Dhillon. He died at a young age after fathering a son called Mahavir Singh Dhillon.4.1.1. Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon, only son of Ch. Ramji Lal Dhillon and Mrs. Nani Bai Dhillon. Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon is very industrious and successful person who worked hard, at very tender age his father, uncles and grandfather all died when he was a small boy and being eldest among all his cousins he found himself as head of the family. Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon is his younger brother, born to same mother but different father. He is now retired and spends his time in Bhiwani and Kanwari. His philanthropic legacy can be seen in the girl's school of Kanwari where he built a water tank for students and water tank still bears his name.4.2.1. Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon, son of Ch. Lahri Singh Dhillon and Mrs. Nani Bai Dhillon. He is married to Mrs. Harpayari Devi Dhillon (maiden surname Jaglan, daughter of Mr Hans Ram Jaglan of Bidhwan village, near Jhumpa in Bhiwani District of Haryana). Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon's wife (Mrs. Harpayari Devi Dhillon) and his brother Ch. Daryav Singh's wife (Mrs. Saraswati Devi Dhillon) are real sisters i.e. two brothers married two sisters. Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon served in Indian army. He is now retired and lives in Hissar, Haryana. Mother of Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon, Mrs Nani Bai Dhillon was first married to Ch. Ramji Lal Dhillon, who died at young age after fathering Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon. Following the jat tradition, Nani Bai was then married to younger brother (Ch. Lahri Singh Dhillon) of her late husband Ch. Ramji Lal Dhillon. From this marriage she bore a son in 1947 named Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon. Mrs Nani Bai Dhillon was a simple, innocent woman from Naurang Pura Village, Rajgarh Tehsil in Churu District of Rajasthan. She died in her 80s in May 1996 in Kanwari village under the care of her son Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon and serving & obedient daughter-in-law Mrs. Saraswati Devi Dhillon.4.3.1. Ch. Mahavir Singh Dhillon, son of Ch. Ram Chander Dhillon. He was a very handsome, jovial and emotional person who died in 1996/97 of heart attack in his 40s. 4.1.1.1. Dr. Dharamvir Dhillon son of Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon. He is a veterinary doctor, former President of Association of Veterinary Doctors of Haryana. He is current President of Association of Veterinary Doctors of India ( 2009). He holds Masters in Science from Kurukshetra. He also studied in village school in Kanwari as well as Senior Model Public School (Rajgargh Road, Hissar, Haryana, India). He also holds Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSC) from Haryana Agricultural University,Hissar. His name used to be on merit list of matric toppers (now erased) of school in Kanwari..4.1.1.2 Krishna Devi daughter of Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon. She has 2 daughters and one son. Daughters are married and son is settled in Sydney Australia. 4.1.1.3. Mrs Saroj Sindhu daughter of Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon and Mrs. Saraswati Devi Dhillon. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Government College Hissar, she did her schooling from Kanwari village in Haryana and her name sue to be on merit list of matric toppers (now erased). She married to Captain Rudra Sen Sindhu (Retired) of Sainik Aryan Group www.sainikaryangroup.com/promoters.html. She has 3 daughters (Gudiya alias Surabhi, Malu and Gappi) and a son4.2.1.1. Vishal Dhillon son of Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon and Mrs Harpayari Devi Dhillon. Nick name Guttu B.Engg (Amravati), M.Computing (W. Sydney), MBA (Deakin Uni, Victoria), PhD (Uni of South Australia.He was born in Kanwari village in 1971. He is now an Australian citizen and Singapore permanent resident.He went to government school in Kanwari village. Completed Bachelor of Computer Engineering from BN College of Engineering (Pusad, Yeotmal District in Maharashtra, India) under Amravati university. Later moved to Australia in 1995 and completed Master of Computing from University of Western Sydney, MBA from Deakin

University (Melbourne, Australia) and Doctor of Business Administration (University of South Australia). He is greatly influenced and inspired by his mother towards pursuit of academic excellence and also influenced by his father-figure/uncle/tau (Ch. Daryav Singh Dhillon) in terms of connection to his roots i.e. Kanwari and Dhillon ancestors. He works in IT industry as Regional Head/Director of Asia for large American global multinational company (as of 2009). 4.2.1.2. Mrs. Vaishali Godara daughter of Ch. Sunder Singh Dhillon and Harpayari Devi Dhillon. Nick name Titu. She married to Luitanent Colonel Rakes Godara (as of 2009) and has a daughter Vishwani Godara (born in Hissar in 1999). Her nick name is Titu. Class 11 and 12 from jat college, Bachelors of Art from Govt College Hissar. Post Graduate Diploma in Sports Coaching from NIS Patiala, Master of Sports from Kurukshetra University. She holds Black Belt in Judo and has won several national level Gold medals in Judo. She was facilitated (honoured) by Panchayat of Kanwari Village in 1987 for bringing yash (honour) to Kanwari village and Haryana State. She has been awarded several honours from state government (of Haryana) as well for her services to sports (Judo).4.3.1.1. Late Azad Singh Dhillon son of Ch. Mahavir Singh Dhillon. Azad died in early 90s.4.3.1.2. Nutan Devi daughter of Ch. Mahavir Singh Dhillon. Married and now lives in Rohtak district. Nick name is Nuta.4.3.1.3. Shakti Singh Dhillon son of Ch. Mahavir Singh Dhillon. Azad died in early. Married and now lives in Bhiwani and has business interests in Chhatis Garh. A sensible, respectful, very decent, emotional and extremely responsible person. Nick name is Leela.4.3.1.4. Jitendra Dhillon son of Ch. Mahavir Singh Dhillon. Married and now lives in Bhiwani. Quiet and shy youngest baby of Dhillon brothers (Dharamvir, Vishal, Azad, Shakti and Jitendra). Nick name is Jitu.4.1.1.1.1 Captain Ankur Dhillon (retired) son of Dr. Dharamvir Dhillon and Mrs Bimla Dhillon. He joined Indian Army on short service commission and retired soon after. Now he runs business empire inherited from father. Based in Ludhiana, married and has a son Arayaveer.4.1.1.1.2 Dr. Dipti Solanki daughter of Dr. Dharamvir Dhillon and Mrs Bimla Dhillon. She is a medical doctor, MBBS from AFMC Pune. Married into Solanki family of Delhi. Nick name Dipi.4.1.1.1.3 Samridhi Dhillon daughter of Dr. Dharamvir Dhillon and Mrs Bimla Dhillon. She is currently studying in Pune. Married into Solanki family of Delhi. Nick name Basanti (given by Guttu Anna).4.1.1.1.1.1 Aryaveer Dhillon son of Capt. Ankur Dhillon. Born in 2006. 4.2.1.1.1 Yash Dhillon son of Vishal Dhillon and Mrs Seema Dhillon. Nick name is Sneaky (given by parents as he sneaked into their lives as a pleasant blessing of god). Born 16 Sept 2005. Other names Monkey, Cutea, Siki, Nonu, etc. Lives in Singapore (2009).

Bibliography
This section contains Jat history books or books related with or useful for Jats in English

I. Online Jat History Books on Jatland Wiki
Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study) - On line book on Jatland Wiki by Bhim Singh Dahiya, IRS Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, AB/9 Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-110064, 1980 History of the Jats - On line book on Jatland Wiki by Ram Swarup Joon , 1938, 1967 History of Bharatpur - On line book on Jatland Wiki By Jwala Sahai Printed by Lall Singh, in Moon Press, Agra, 1912 James Todd Annals - James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II (On line part of book on Jatland Wiki) (With a Preface by Douglas Sladen), First Indian Edition 1983 (Originally Published in 1829-32), Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 54, Jhansi Road, New Delhi-1100055 History and study of the Jats - On line book on Jatland Wiki By Professor B.S Dhillon Beta Publishers, Canada, 1994 The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki Dr Girish Chandra Dwivedi, Edited by Dr Vir Singh 2003. Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. e-mail: lpp@nde.vsnl.net.in, url: http://www.lppindia.com, © Surajmal Memorial Education Society ISBN 81-88629-08-1 (H.B.) Price Rs 325/-& ISBN 81-88629-11-1 (P.B.) Price Rs 160/History, Caste and Culture of the Jats and Gujars - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki by Bingley, A.H., reprinted by the Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, India, 1978,first published in 1899 History of the Jats:Dr Kanungo - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki by Dr Kanungo 1925 History of the Jats - Prof Kalika Ranjan Qanungo, 2003. Edited and annotated by Dr Vir Singh Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. e-mail:

lpp@nde.vsnl.net.in, url: http://www.lppindia.com, © Surajmal Memorial Education Society (H.B.) Price Rs 240/-& (P.B.) Price Rs 150/Antiquity of the Jat race, 1954 - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki by Ujagar Singh Mahil, Delhi The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki by Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) Publisher - Manthan Publications, Rohtak, Haryana, 1993 Aryan Tribes and the Rig Veda - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki by Bhim Singh Dahiya, IRS Publisher - Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana, 1991 Political and Social History of the Jats - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki by Bal Kishan Dabas Publisher - Sanjay Prakashan, January 2001 291 p., $28. Ranas of Gohad in British Records The Harsha Charita of Bana - Book is Online on Jatland Wiki Abhidhana Chintamani - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki Mani Mekhala - Some content Online on Jatland Wiki

II. Books with info on Jatland Wiki
Bharatpur upto 1826 (A Social and Pilitical History of the Jats), Jaipur, 1970 By Ram Pande Publisher - Rama Publishing House, E 131 Atish Market, Jaipur-2 History of Haryana saravkhap Martyrs & freedom fighers, 2006. By Dharmpal Singh Dudee Publisher - Shaheed Dham Trust ; Bharat Nagar Bhiwani, Haryana , India, Price Rs 300/Demographic Differentials among the Rajputs and the Jats - A Socio-Biological Study of Rural Haryana by Shashi Prabha Gupta Publisher - Classical Pub. House History of Hindustan (Translated from Persian by Alexander Dow, ESQ. Edited by Bhim Singh Dahiya) Publisher - Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.I, 2004. Ed. by Dr Vir Singh

Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. e-mail: lpp@nde.vsnl.net.in, url: http://www.lppindia.com, © Surajmal Memorial Education Society (H.B.) Price Rs 180/ (P.B.) Price Rs 140/The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.II, 2006. Ed. by Dr Vir Singh Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. e-mail: lpp@nde.vsnl.net.in, url: http://www.lppindia.com, © Surajmal Memorial Education Society (H.B.) Price Rs 525/-& (P.B.) Price Rs 265/The Jats - Their Role and Contribution to the Socio-Economic Life and Polity of North and North West India, Vol.III, 2007. Ed. by Dr Vir Singh Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. e-mail: lpp@nde.vsnl.net.in, url: http://www.lppindia.com, © Surajmal Memorial Education Society (H.B.) & (P.B.) The Life and Times of Raja Mahendra Pratap, 2005 Edited by Dr Vir Singh Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. e-mail: lpp@nde.vsnl.net.in, url: http://www.lppindia.com, © Surajmal Memorial Education Society (H.B.) Price Rs 160/-& (P.B.) Price Rs 80/My Life Story - Raja Mahendra Pratap 1886-1979 Vol.I (1886-1941) Edited by Dr Vir Singh Publisher - M/S Originals (an imprint of low priced publications), A-6, Nimri commercial Centre, Near Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV, Delhi-110052. e-mail: lpp@nde.vsnl.net.in, url: http://www.lppindia.com, © Surajmal Memorial Education Society (H.B.) Price Rs 400/-& (P.B.) Price Rs 200/Reminiscences of a Revolutionary- Raja Mahendra Pratap, 1999 Edited by Dr Vir Singh Publisher - Books India International, 2/35, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, Delhi 110002, H.B. Price Rs 100/- P.B. Price Rs 50/Maharaja Suraj Mal by K. Natwar Singh Maharaja Suraj Mal, 1707-1763 - His Life and Times by Kunwar Natwar Singh Publisher: Rupa, 2001,

http://www.indiaclub.com/html/8674.htm

Rise of the Jat Power by Raj Pal Singh Publisher - Harman Pub. House Sir Chhotu Ram in Thoughts and Deeds by Balbir Singh, 1930 Publisher Jat Samaj Sewa Trust (regd.), c1994 History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats) By Mangal Sen Jindal (1992) Publisher - Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002 Agrarian Movements in Rajasthan By Dr Pema Ram Publisher - Panchsheel Prakashan, Chaura Rasta Jaipur

The Jats - Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration By Hukum Singh Pawar (Pauria) (1993) Publisher - Manthan Publications Rohtak,

Jats and Gujars Origin History and Culture By Rahul Khari Publisher: Reference Press, New Delhi Date Published: 2007

Bharatpur a Saga of Invincible Courage By CS Verma Publisher: Konark Publishers, Delhi Date Published: 2004

III. Some More Books on Jats
1. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The Modern History of Jats), Agra 1998 2. Satyarth Prakash - Swami Dayananda Saraswati. 3. History of the Jatt Clans - H.S Duleh (Translation from Original Punjabi Work "Jattan da Itihas" by Gurjant Singh).
• • • •

Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934. Dhillon, B. S., History and Study of the Jats, Beta Publishers, Canada, 1994. Bhim Singh Dahiya : Jats the Ancient Rulers, Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana History of the Jats : Contribution to the History of Northern India (Upto the Death of Mirza Najaf Khan, 1782)/Kalika Ranjan Qanungo. Edited and annotated by Vir Singh. Delhi, Originals, 2003, xiv, 226 p., $12. Historical Evidence Chapter 1:Scythic Origin of the Rajput Race by Mulchand Chauhan Rattan Singh Bhangoo. Prachin Panth Parkash, Punjabi, Published in 1841. Bal Kishan Dabas. Political and Social History of the Jats". Sanjay Prakashan, 2001. . Dharampal Singh Dudee. Navin Jat History. Shaheed Dham Trust, Bhiwani, Haryana, India. Kanungo. History of the Jats. Natthan Singh. Jat-Itihas. Jat Samaj Kalyan Parishad, Gwalior, 2004. Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria). The Jats: Their Origin, Antiquity & Migrations. Manthan Publications, Rohtak, Haryana. K. Natwar Singh. Maharaja Suraj Mal. Prakash Chandra Chandawat. Maharaja Suraj Mal Aur Unka Yug (1745-1763). Jaypal Agencies, Agra. 1982. (in Hindi) Aadhunik Jat Itihas. Dharmpal Singh Dudee & Mahinder Singh Arya. Jaypal Agency, Agra. 1998. Ram Swaroop Joon. History of the Jats. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihasa Maharaja Suraj Mal. Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi. 1936. (in Hindi) Girish Chandra Dwivedi The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire. Surajmal Educational Society, New Delhi, India. Atal Singh Khokkar. Jaton ki Utpati evam Vistar. Jaipal Agencies, 31-1 Subashpuram, Agra, UP, India 282007. 2002. Chaudhary Kabul Singh. Sarv Khap Itihasa (History of the Jat Republic). Shoram, Muzzafarnagar, U.P. India. 1976.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Nihal Singh Arya. Sarv Khap Panchayat ka Rastriya Parakram (The National Role of the Jat Republic of Haryana). Arya mandal, B 11 Om Mandal, Nangloi, New Delhi, India. 1991 Mangal Sen Jindal. History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats). Sarup & Sons, 4378/4B, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-11 0002 .

IV.Books on Jat Sikhs
There are at least four books which are fully or partially devoted to the subject of Jat Sikhs. All of those books were written by western authors: Captain Falcon (A.D. 1896), Captain Bingley (A.D. 1899), Major Barstow (A.D. 1928), and Professor Pettigrew (A.D. 1975). 1.Captain Falcon Under the orders from the British India Government, Captain Falcon prepared his handbook on Sikhs for the use of regimental officers. This is a 142 page book and is divided into six chapters: Introductory and explanatory (Chapter 1), The Sikh religion (Chapter 2), On Race as affecting Sikhs (Chapter 3), Manners and Customs (Chapter 4), Districts (Areas), Race, and Tribes, with relation to their value for military purposes (Chapter 5), and Notes on recruiting (Chapter 6). All the chapters of the book cover substantial amount of material on Jat Sikhs and in particular Chapter 5 encompassing about one third of the book, is devoted to Jat Sikhs and provides information on Jats in all the districts of Punjab. The information covers Jat clan names and their location, population, a number of villages belonging to specific clans, and so on. 2.Captain Bingley In 1899 Captain Bingley compiled, under the orders of the Government of India, another handbook for the Indian Army on Sikhs. The book is made up of 121 pages and is divided into five chapters plus an appendix: History and Origin (Chapter 1), Classification and Geographical Distribution (Chapter 2), Religion Customs, Sects, Festivals, and Fairs (Chapter 3), Characteristics (Chapter 4), Recruiting (Chapter 5), and List of districts and tehsils (sub-districts) with their relative value as recruiting grounds and the principal tribes (Jat clans) found there in (Appendix A), and List of the principal fairs held in the Sikh recruiting area (Appendix B). Throughout the book, the emphasis is on Jats and also traces the history of the Jats from their forefathers, the Scythians of the Central Asia. Also the book provides information on over thirty principal Jat clans (Gill, Mann, Her, Bains, Dhillon, Virk, Bhullar, Bal, Bath, Chima, Chahil, Deol, Dhaliwal, Grewal, Chaman,

Goraya, Hinjra, Hundal, Khaira, Kang, Malhi, Khosa, Pannun, Randhawa, Sahi, Sahota, Sohal, Sansi or Sindhanwalia, Sidhu, Sandhu, Tarar, Varaich, Chung, Bajwa, and Aulak) and names of Punjab districts occupied by various Jat clans.

3.Major Barstow In 1928, Major Barstow revised the handbook on Sikhs by Captain Bingley upon the request of the Government of British India. Major Barstow's book is composed of ten chapters plus an appendix divided into six parts. This is certainly a comprehensive book on Sikhs and again its emphasis is on Jat Sikhs. The chapters of the book are entitled Introductory (Chapter 1), Origin of Sikhism and its History (Chapter 2), Distribution of Sikhs: Ethnological and Ethnographic Glossary of Castes (Chapter 3), Salient Features of the Lives of the Gurus (Founders of the Sikhism) (Chapter 4), The Sikh Religion (Chapter 5), Sikh Sects and Sub-Divisions of the Jat Sikhs (Chapter 6), Customs (Chapter 7), Characteristics and Matters pertaining to village life (Chapter 8), Agricultural (Chapter 9), and Recruiting (Chapter 10). Similarly, the appendices are entitled List of districts, etc., showing relative value of Sikh recruiting grounds (Appendix 1), Description of the "Adi Granth" (Sikh holy book) and "Daswen Padshah ka Granth" (holy book written by the tenth Guru of the Sikhs) (Appendix 2), Rites of initiation in Sikhism (Appendix 3), The Sikh Gurdwara (Church) Act, 1925 (Appendix 4), The Caste System (Appendix 5), and The Tankha Nama, or letter of fines or restrictions on Sikhs (Appendix 6). The book covers briefly the history of the Jats from their Scythian origin, Jat clans of various districts of Punjab and their population in each district as per the Census returns of A.D. 1911, Jat characteristics, etc. The districts covered are Ludhiana, Ambala, Patiala state, Nabha state, Ferozepore, Faridkot State, Hissar, Amritsar, Lahore, Sialkot, Gurdaspur, Gurjarnwala, Jullundur, Kapurthala State, Hoshiarpur, and Jind State. 4.Professor Pettigrew The book by Professor Pettigrew published in 1975 is totally devoted to Jat Sikhs. It contains 272 pages in Seventeen Chapters, and an appendix divided into eight sections. The chapters are grouped into three parts: Part I: The Environment (Chapter 1), Part II: Sikh Jats (Chapters, 2-5), and Part III: Factionalism (Chapters 6-17). The titles of the chapters are Introduction (Chapter 1), Perspective on Community Studies (Chapter 2), Significant events in Jat History (Chapter 3), Patterns of Allegiance I (Chapter 4), Patterns of Allegiance II-Sikh Jat Families (Chapter 5), The Structure of Coalitions-Factions at all levels (Chapter 6), Vertical links of a state Leader with a National Leader (Chapter 7), The Relationships of the Chief

Minister (of Punjab) at state level (Chapter 8), The Kairon-Rarewala (two powerful Jat Politicians) Rivalries (Chapter 9), The General Nature of Factional Rivalries in Rural Areas (Chapter 10), Factional Participants in the local area (Chapter 11), Vertical links between leaders of the faction in the local area and those at state level (Chapter 12), The factional attachments of village participants (Chapter 13), Relationships between village participants and local area leaders (Chapter 14), Factions in competition (Chapter 15), Assessment (Chapter 16), and Personal postscript: real people and images (Chapter 17).

A Rare Set of Books for General Interest

The History of Herodotus
By Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson
The History of Herodotus has been divided into the following sections: Book I [299k] Book IV [230k] Book VII [286k] Book II [249k] Book V [162k] Book VIII [179k] Book III [221k] Book VI [174k] Book IX [168k]

)

Amarjit Singh Dhillon (Dr.)

Brief-Biodata Place of Birth : Recorded Date of Birth : (A) Education 1. Education upto B.A. 2. M.A. (Pol.Sc.) 3. M.A. (History) 4. M.A. (Pub.Admn.) 5. Gyani(Hons.in Punjabi) 6. Ph.D. (Pub.Admn.) (B) Academic Work 1. Lecturer Village Ghudda, Dist. Bathinda(Pb.)
(Now a seat of Central University of Punjab)

15 December, 1935 Balbir High School & Birjindra College, Farid Kot Mohindra College, Patiala Mohindra College, Patiala Private(Pb.Univ.Chandigarh Private(Pb.Univ.Chandigarh Pbi.Univ. Patiala

(1958) (1960) (1964) (1953) (1987)

Guru Nanak College, Guru Tegbahadur Garh (1960-61) 2. Lecturer Khalsa College, Patiala (1961-71) 3. Principal Khalsa College,Patiala (1971-74) 4. Director Pbi.Development Punjabi University, Patiala( 1974-93) 5. Dean of Colleges Punjabi University,Patiala (1993-97)

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