15-1

Communication Network of the Organization

15-2

The Vital link ………………
Communication provides the vital link between people and information whether a newcomer to the organisation or a seasoned employee you have information that others need in order to perform their functions…….. And others have information that is vital to you……………

15-3

A Complex Network…………….
A complex network looking over all of an organisation’s communication we can see an extremely complex network of Information flow. We see dozens, hundreds and even thousands of individuals engaging in untold numbers of communication events throughout each workday …….

Organizational Communication
Vertical

15-4

Communication

Communication that flows up and down the organization, usually along formal reporting lines.  Takes place between managers and subordinates and may involve several levels of the organization. Upward communication  Consists of messages from subordinates to superiors and is more subject to distortion. Downward communication  Occurs when information flows down the hierarchy from superiors to subordinates.

Organizational Communication (cont’d)
Horizontal

15-5

Communication

Communication that flows laterally within the organization; involves persons at the same level of the organization.
 Facilitates  Useful  Plays

coordination among independent units.

in joint problem solving.

a major role in communications among members of work teams drawn from different departments.

15-6

Formal Communication in Organizations

15-7

Informal Communication in Organizations
May

or may not follow official reporting relationships and/or prescribed organizational channels May have nothing to do with official organizational business. Promote a strong culture and enhance employee understanding of how the organization works.

15-8

Informal Communication in Organizations

15-9

Informal Communication in Organizations (cont’d)
Management

15-10

by Wandering Around

Managers keep in touch with what’s going on by wandering around and talking to people on all levels in the organization.

Informal

Communications

Informal exchanges among employees that take place outside the normal work setting.

15-11

Common Grapevine Chains Found in Organizations

Grapevine

An informal communication network that can permeate an organization. Types of grapevines are:

Source: From Keith Davis and John W. Newstrom, Human

Figure 15.3

Communication Networks in Groups & Teams

15-12

Wheel Network

Chain Network

Circle Network

All Channel Network

15-13

Communication Networks
Networks show information flows in an organization.
 Wheel

Network: information flow to and from one central member.  Chain Network: members communicate with people next to them in sequence.

Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction.

 Circle

Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, office location, etc.  All-Channel Network: found in teams, with high levels of communications between each member and all others.

15-14

Barriers to Effective Communication

15-15

Managing Organizational Communication

15-16

15-17

15.2 Barriers To Communication
WHAT ARE THE BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION?
Communication

barriers are anything that interferes with accurate communication between two people There are three types of barriers: 1. Physical barriers include things like time-zone differences, office walls, and crashed computers

15-18

15-19

15.2 Barriers To Communication
2. Semantic barriers occur when words can be interpreted in different ways Does “right away” mean today, tomorrow, in the next hour? The problem is intensified when jargon (terminology specific to a particular profession or group) is used 3. There are nine personal barriers that contribute to miscommunication:

15-20

15-21

15.2 Barriers To Communication
-variable

skills in communicating effectively Some people are naturally better communicators than others -variations in how information is processed & interpreted People use different frames of reference and experiences to interpret information -variations in trustworthiness & credibility Communication is often flawed when there is a lack of trust between the sender and receiver

15-22

15-23

15.2 Barriers To Communication
-oversized

egos Egos influence how we treat each other and how receptive we are to be influenced by others -faulty listening skills Sometimes, people simply fail to listen properly -tendency to judge others’ messages People judge others’ statements from their own point of view -inability to listen with understanding It can be hard to put yourself in someone’s else’s shoes and really listen

15-24

15-25

15.2 Barriers To Communication
-stereotypes

& prejudices Stereotypes consist of oversimplified beliefs about a certain group of people and can influence communication -nonverbal communication Gestures and facial expressions are an important part of communication

15-26

15-27

Formal Channels of Communication

15-28 0

Exhibit 13.5

12/06/09

28

15-29

15-30 0

Downward Communication
Messages 1.

from Top Management

2. 3. 4. 5.

Implementation of goals and strategies Job instructions and rationale Procedures and practices Performance feedback Indoctrination
30

12/06/09

Upward Communication

15-31 0

Messages transmitted from managers and employees 1. Problems and exceptions 2. Suggestions for improvement 3. Performance reports 4. Grievances and disputes 5. Financial and accounting information

12/06/09

31

Downward Communication Problems
Drop
 

15-32 0

Off

Distortion Loss of message content

Dealing
 

with Drop Off

Use right communication channel Consistency between verbal and nonverbal messages Active listening
32

12/06/09

Upward Communication

15-33 0

Messages transmitted from managers and employees 1. Problems and exceptions 2. Suggestions for improvement 3. Performance reports 4. Grievances and disputes 5. Financial and accounting information

12/06/09

33

Upward Communication Problems
Barriers to accurate upward communication:

15-34 0

Managers may resist hearing about employee problems Employees may not trust managers sufficiently to push information upward

12/06/09

34

Horizontal Communications
Messages among coworkers 1. Problem solving 2. Coordination 3. Change
Particularly important in learning organizations

15-35 0

12/06/09

35

15-36 0

Team Communication Channels
Team communication considerations:

The extent to which team communication is centralized

Complex and difficult team activities - share information in a decentralized structure Simple problems - centralized communication structure

The nature of the team’s task
36

12/06/09

Effectiveness of Team Communication Networks

15-37

Exhibit 13.6

12/06/09

37

Personal Communication Channels

15-38 0

  

Exist outside formal authorized channels Do not adhere to organization’s hierarchy of authority

Primary way information spreads 12/06/09

38

Developing Personal Communication Networks
Build Never Make Focus

15-39 0

it before you need it eat lunch alone it win-win on diversity
39

12/06/09

Personal Communication Channels
Personal Networks Grapevine Management By Wondering Around

15-40 0

  

12/06/09

40

Ways to Overcome Communication Barriers
Exhibit 17.9

15-41 0

Barriers Individual
Interpersonal dynamics Channels and media Semantics Inconsistent cues

How to Overcome
Active listening Selection of appropriate channel Knowledge of other’s perspective MBWA Climate of Trust, dialogue Development and use of formal channels Changing organization or group structure communication needs to fit

Organizational
Status and power differences Departmental needs and goals Communication network unsuited
Lack of formal channels

Encouragement of multiple channels, formal and informal Feedback and learning

12/06/09

41

15-42
Deal with global issues proactively
What are the issues you face in communicating globally?

PERCENT OF RESPONDENTS RANKING THESE ISSUES IN TOP 3 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 The Need to Differences inLeadership Language Tailor Communication Perceptions of Communication Styles Communication CATEGORY
Source: Towers Perrin/IABC “Future Trends” Study. 34 32 28 2 3 51

Cost

15-43

15-44

15-45

COMMUNICATION NETWORK

15-46

15-47

Information Loss In Downward Communication
100% Board 63% Vice presidents 56% General managers 40% Plant managers 30% Supervisors 20% Workers

15-47

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