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# Statistics

Guide
Frequency Distribution
What is an organized list of data that
aids in recognizing groups or patterns
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUITON
Write a horizontal/vertical frequency
distribution for the list of Psychology
classmates shoe sizes:
8, 8, 13, 7, 11, 8, 7, 8, 11, 9, 8, 10
7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11, 13
N
What represents the total number of
observations of scores?
N
What is this for our shoe sizes?
N=12
What are
Measures of
Central Tendencies?
Mean
The mathematical
AVERAGE of a set of
numbers.
The average is calculated
by adding up two or more
scores and dividing the
total by the number of
scores.
Consider the following
number set: 2, 4, 6, 9, 12.
The average is calculated
in the following manner: 2 +
4 + 6 + 9 + 12 = 33 / 5 = 6.6.
Average number set = 6.6.
Median
The score located at the
center of a distribution.
Consider this set of
numbers: 2, 3, 6, 8, 10.
The median of this
number distribution is 6.
For distributions with an
even number of scores,
take the average of the
two middle scores to find
the median.
#s need to
be ranked
from least to
greatest!
Mode
The most frequently occurring score
in a distribution.
Consider the following number
distribution of 2, 3, 6, 3, 7, 5, 1, 2, 3, 9.
The mode of these numbers would
be 3
3 is the most frequently occurring
number.
Calculate the measures of
central tendency for our shoes:
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
Mean: 9
Median: 8
Mode: 8
What are
Measures of
Variability?
Measure of Variability
Range: Difference between the lowest and highest
numbers in a distribution
What is this for the salary scales
39,000 (lowest); 98,000 (highest)
= 59,000
Variance: The measure of how different the scores
are from each other.
*MEASURES the ERROR in our SAMPLE!
Standard Deviation: The average distance from
the mean
*MEASURES the AVERAGE Error in our SAMPLE!
MOST IMPORTANT!
Steps
VARIANCE
1. Find the mean
(average)
2. Figure the diff. from
the mean for each
number
3. Square them
(3); (-1) to make
positive
5. Divide by N
(total number)
Standard Deviation
1. Find the mean
(average)
2. Figure the diff. from
the mean for each
number
3. Square them
(3); (-1) to make +
5. Divide by N
(total number)
Take square root
15.75 = 3.968
Lets find
Variance
and
Standard Deviation
Calculate the variance, and
standard deviation for shoe
sizes
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
N=12
Mean =9 (average)
Median = 8 (middle #)
Mode = 8 (frequently
occurring)
Range= 6
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
N
Shoe
sizes
#1
Find
the
mean
#2
Fig diff. from
mean to
each #
#3
(Square them)
Get rid of
negatives
#4
numbers from
#3
#5
Divide
by N
1 7 9
2 7 9
3 8 9
4 8 9
5 8 9
6 8 9
7 8 9
8 9 9
9 10 9
10 11 9
11 11 9
12 13 9
TOTAL ==
Variance = measure of error for sample
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
N
Shoe
sizes
#1
Find
the
mean
#2
Fig diff. from
mean to
each #
#3
(Square them)
Get rid of
negatives
#4
numbers from
#3
#5
Divide
by N
1 7 9 7-9=-2
2 7 9 7-9=-2
3 8 9 8-9=-1
4 8 9 8-9=-1
5 8 9 8-9=-1
6 8 9 8-9=-1
7 8 9 8-9=-1
8 9 9 9-9=0
9 10 9 10-9=1
10 11 9 11-9=2
11 11 9 11-9=2
12 13 9 13-9=4
TOTAL ==
Variance = measure of error for sample
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
N
Shoe
sizes
#1
Find
the
mean
#2
Fig diff. from
mean to
each #
#3
(Square them)
Get rid of
negatives
#4
numbers from
#3
#5
Divide
by N
1 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4
2 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4
3 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
4 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
5 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
6 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
7 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
8 9 9 9-9=0 (0)=0
9 10 9 10-9=1 (1)=1
10 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4
11 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4
12 13 9 13-9=4 (4)=16
TOTAL ==
38
Variance = measure of error for sample
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
N
Shoe
sizes
#1
Find
the
mean
#2
Fig diff. from
mean to
each #
#3
(Square them)
Get rid of
negatives
#4
numbers from
#3
#5
Divide
by N
1 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4
2 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4
3 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
4 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
5 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
6 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
7 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
8 9 9 9-9=0 (0)=0
9 10 9 10-9=1 (1)=1
10 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4
11 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4
12 13 9 11-9=4 (4)=16
TOTAL ==
38
38/12=
3.167 Variance = measure of error for sample
7,7,8,8,8,8,8,9,10,11,11,13
N
Shoe
size
#1
Find the
mean
#2
Fig diff. from
mean to each
#
#3
(Square them)
Get rid of
negatives
#4
together
numbers
from #3
#5
Divide by N
#6
Take
Square Root
1 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4
2 7 9 7-9=-2 (-2)=4
3 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
4 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
5 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
6 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
7 8 9 8-9=-1 (-1)=1
8 9 9 9-9=0 (0)=0
9 10 9 10-9=1 (1)=1
10 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4
11 11 9 11-9=2 (2)=4
12 13 9 11-9=4 (4)=16
TOTAL ==
38 38/12=
3.167
3.167 =
1.78
SD = measure the
AVERAGE of error for sample