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EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 1

The University of the West Indies – Open Campus

A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements of
EDID6505 - Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials
Trimester 2 – 2013-2014


Group Assignment: Final Project
Professional Development Workshop for Teachers – Composition Writing

Course Coordinator/Facilitator: Dr. Camille Dickson-Deane
Course Facilitator: Dr. Leroy Hill

Submitted by:
Colette Browne-Weekes – ID# 96723595
Laura Taylor – ID# 406002917
Meganne McNeil-Harry – ID# 00732113
Florette Williams – ID# 313500138
Terry Hall – ID# 94033128

Date Submitted: August 22, 2014
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 2


Table of Contents
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................... 2
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................ 3
Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 3
Needs Assessment .................................................................................................................................... 5
Problem Statement ............................................................................................................................................. 5
Optimals ................................................................................................................................................................ 6
Actuals ................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Feelings .................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Causes .................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Solutions ................................................................................................................................................................ 7
Task Analysis ........................................................................................................................................... 8
Procedural Analysis ........................................................................................................................................... 8
Task: Analyse and discuss the characteristics of a composition ...................................................................... 8
Task: Revise and edit a composition. ..................................................................................................................... 10
Prerequisite Analysis....................................................................................................................................... 11
Performance Objectives ....................................................................................................................... 12
Assessment .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Application Assessment .................................................................................................................................. 13
Assessment Items .......................................................................................................................................................... 13
Performance Rubric ........................................................................................................................................ 16
Instructional Strategies and Lessons ................................................................................................ 18
Learner/Contextual Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 18
Lessons ................................................................................................................................................................ 19
Workshop Schedule ......................................................................................................................................... 21
Instructional Strategies Table ....................................................................................................................... 22
References ............................................................................................................................................... 25
Appendix A: Task Selection Criteria Worksheet .......................................................................... 28
Appendix B: Learner/Contextual Analysis Worksheet ................................................................ 29


EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 3


Executive Summary
Composition Writing enhances language and expression skills when children are taught the
basics in the art of writing well-structured and expressive compositions. This workshop was
developed as a refresher course for teachers who are tasked with preparing children to write
secondary school entrance examinations. Several parents were also included in the workshop as
they have indicated an interest in assisting their children and providing at-home support for the
formal in-class instruction. To this end, a workshop was designed that enhances the skills of
teachers and parents in composition writing to facilitate instruction for children ages 9 to 12
years old. The key desired results include utilizing pre-writing strategies to plan and brainstorm
composition content, creating well-structured paragraphs and designing an editing checklist to
outline and/or evaluate compositions.

Introduction
The Wengerans (Terry, Colette, Florette, Meganne and Laura) have noted that skills in grammar,
syntax and other writing skills are necessary for good composition writing. This is an area of
constant focus throughout the Caribbean primary education system whereas the focus on
developing skills in creative writing is still lacking. Creative writing enhances the skill in
language and expression in young students and facilitates the developing of good use of English
and essay writing as children progress through the academic system progress as the child
develops.

A selection of teachers and parents who have demonstrated an interest in enhancing their
knowledge and skills in the writing process will participate in the workshop. On completion of
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 4


the workshop, the participants will assist their children and/or students at the targeted ages of 9
to 12 years, in the construction of expressive, well-structured compositions.

At this age, students will have gained skills in grammar, spelling and sentence formations, as a
basis for this topic. Learning theories to be incorporated include those taken from behaviourist
foundations – Positive Reinforcement, chaining and shaping and guided learning as well as
constructivist theories that look at situated learning. Schema Theory will also be utilized
participants will be required to draw on the mental constructs of students to draw out and
develop concepts and ideas.

Assessments will take the form of practice lessons during and after each lesson. A mini project
will also be undertaken which allows workshop participants to demonstrate and present the new
knowledge and skills before their peers. Both peers and the instructor will provide constructive
feedback throughout the workshop to assist with learning and provide instructor-student and
student-to-student support, guidance and interactive learning sessions.

Participants will be required to use advance organisers (e.g. bubble diagrams) and analogies to
break down strategies and concepts into visually appealing and manageable components. In
order to encourage creative thinking, participants will be required to engage in brainstorming,
free-writing strategies and in-class presentations to assist with drawing upon their prior
experiences, knowledge and abilities and in developing their abilities to instruct, guide and
develop the skills of their future students.
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 5


Needs Assessment
Problem Statement
It has been noticed that composition writing proves to be very challenging in the build up to the
examination and even on the day of the final examination. Declining results reflect students‟
inability to effectively construct creative, expressive and well-structured compositions. To this
end, a professional development workshop is designed for teachers who aim to sharpen their
skills in this area and for parents who hope to assist them in this venture.
This workshop addresses the teaching of essay writing skills by training teachers and parents
who will then tutor their students. Specifically, teachers and parents will plan and deliver lessons
to children ages 9 to 11 years who already have a good understanding of grammar, syntax and
the mechanics of writing and are preparing to write the Common Entrance Examination/Grade
Six Achievement Test.

Audience
This workshop is designed for teachers and parents / guardians of students in the final year of
elementary school who are preparing to enter secondary school. The targeted teachers are from
the elementary/primary school level and have taught students at this level for more than five
years. The parents involved are representatives of parents from the Home-school or Parent
Teachers‟ Association who work with their charges to follow up on what was done at
school. The parents all have achieved secondary level education and are seeking the skills
necessary to assist their children and support the formal in-class instruction done by the teachers.
The participants for this workshop include twenty teachers and ten parents from the school
district who are directly connected to students ages 9 -12 years who are entering their final year
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 6


of elementary or primary school and are preparing to write the Common Entrance Examination
or Grade Six Achievement Test for entry to high school.

Topic of Instruction
The topic for this workshop is Composition Writing. The focus is to provide teachers and
parents with the knowledge and skills necessary to motivate and engage pupils in essay writing
at the level required for mastery in the Common Entrance Examination (CEE) or the Grade Six
Achievement Test (GSAT).

Format
This workshop will take place over the course of five days in the school‟s audiovisual room
(A.V.). Desktop computers, projectors and internet access are provided since the programme
entails utilizing ICT tools such as Storybird and PowerPoint presentations for the construction of
a new approach to the composition writing process.

Optimals
 Teachers will master the creative writing skills in composition writing in preparation of
students for CEE and GSAT examinations.
 An observed improvement in the performance of students ages 9 to 12 years in
composition writing in the CEE and GSAT examination.

Actuals
 Teachers find it a challenge to engage students in essay/composition writing.
 Teachers are in search of interesting ways to motivate students in composition writing.
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 7



Feelings
 Teachers experience difficulty in the face of their inability to help students overcome or
negotiate writer‟s block.
 Negative associations are made by teachers about students with bad grammar and
sentence construction issues and their inability to execute well.
 A degree of frustration exists when teachers are unable to “reach” challenged students.

Causes
 English mechanics are frequently taught in isolation as teachers do not extend the use of
grammar and mechanics to paragraph construction which leads to good composition
writing.
 Students may be misunderstanding what is required in the question.
 The use of outlines / plans before the writing of a composition is not emphasized as a
form of brainstorming, planning and structuring the essay. The lack of plans can create
chaos for some learners (visual) and also lead them to struggle with abstract concepts.
 Teachers do not stress the importance of writing as a process.

Solutions
 Present creative and practical methods that teachers can use to engage and motivate
students to improve their writing skills.
 Design instructional units to incorporate these strategies in line with each step of the
writing process.
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 8


Task Analysis

All tasks identified and ranked in order of priority in the task selection criteria worksheet are to
be covered in the five-day workshop. The ranking was based on the criteria of criticality,
frequency, feasibility, standardization and difficulty. The tasks identified as being integral to the
achievement of the workshop objectives are associated with prewriting strategies, composition
structure and characteristics, composition writing, revision and editing. (See Appendix A)
To complete the task analysis, a prerequisite analysis has been prepared to illustrate the
knowledge and skills required to write a composition story and procedural analyses done for two
selected tasks.



Procedural Analysis


Task: Analyse and discuss the characteristics of a composition
Level 1
1. Comment on the structure of the composition
2. Analyse the storyline of the composition
3. Discuss the use of language in the composition



EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 9



Level II
1. Comment on the structure of the composition
1.1 Identify the beginning of the composition
1.1.1 Highlight language that captivates the reader
1.1.2 Locate the sentence(s) that clearly indicates the purpose / intent of
the composition
1.2 Identify the middle of the composition
1.2.1 Extract details of people, place and or events
1.2.2 Outline the plot of the composition
1.3 Identify the end of the composition
1.3.1 List details on lessons learned
1.3.2 List details on the importance of the events
1.3.3 Establish the link between the end and the beginning

2. Analyse the storyline of the composition
2.1 Extract the ideas and actions of the composition
2.2 Place ideas and actions in chronological order
2.3 Identify the resolution of the story

3. Discuss the use of language in the composition
3.1 Locate the images used in the composition
3.2 Identify the use of descriptive and sensory language
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 10


3.3 Comment on the use of syntax in the composition
3.4 Discuss the use of mechanics in the composition

Task: Revise and edit a composition.
Level 1
1. Review composition.
2. Edit composition.
Level II
1. Review composition.
1.1 Reread the composition.
1.2 Assess whether the composition addresses the given topic.
1.3 Determine whether the composition is easy to understand.
1.4 Examine the details of the composition.
1.5 Determine the need for more or less detail.
1.6 Rearrange details as necessary.
1.7 Assess appropriateness of word choice (descriptive and action words).

2. Edit composition.
2.1 Check composition for spelling errors and correct.
2.2 Check composition for grammatical errors and correct.
2.3 Check composition for correct use of mechanics and correct where
necessary.
2.4 Check composition for run-on sentences and correct.
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 11


Prerequisite Analysis













Write a
composition
Apply
knowledge of
basic structure
Arrange
sentences into a
paragraph
Compose a
sentence
Demonstrate
knowledge of
syntax
List the various
elements of
grammar
Demonstrate
knowledge of
mechanics
State the
features of
mechanics
Develop
storyline
Sequence ideas
Cluster ideas
Brainstorm
ideas for topic
Express
understanding
of the topic
Choose
descriptive
details
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 12



Performance Objectives

The design process continued with the establishment of the workshop‟s performance objectives
classified as terminal and enabling objectives.

Terminal Objective
On completion of the five-day Composition Writing workshop, participants will demonstrate
composition writing skills that adhere to the given rules of the 5-step writing process.

Enabling Objectives

1. After a session on pre-writing strategies, apply the techniques to a sample composition
topic with 90% accuracy. (Synthesis)
2. Given five composition samples, analyse and discuss the characteristics of a composition,
with a minimum of 90% accuracy. (Comprehension and Analysis)
3. From a given list of topics, prepare at least three types of compositions to reflect the
accurate usage of composition writing strategies. (Synthesis)
4. Rate provided sample compositions, using an agreed upon editing checklist created in
small groups with at least 90 % accuracy. (Evaluation)

EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 13


Assessment
Application Assessment
Assessment, according to Mikre (2010) „is a process of obtaining information … in order to
make decisions‟. Given its importance it was decided that assessment will be done at the end of
every lesson. This approach was adopted not only because there is an undeniable link between
instruction and assessment but also because it helps to confirm whether or not the goals set in the
objectives were met and if participants achieved the baseline set in those instructional objectives.
The application assessment items for each lesson took the form of scenario-based and multiple
choice questions. Performance rubrics have been designed detailing the criteria for further
assessment of the application assessment items.

Assessment Items
Lesson 1
Question: Select one (1) pre-writing strategy of your choice and show how you would use your
selection to develop five ideas to make a composition.
Lesson 2
Question: You have been presented with three (3) pictures that tell a story of children in the
playground. Place the pictures in the order that represents the beginning, middle and end of the
story and give the reasons for your choice.
Lesson 3
Question: Use the story given in the demonstration section of the lesson “Little Red Riding
Hood” as a guide and create your own story. Label the written document to highlight the
structure of the story and the composition writing strategies applied.
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 14


Lesson 4
Question: In groups of three (3), collectively design an editing checklist with at least ten (items)
to guide the review and edit of a composition story. Use the editing checklist to review and edit
the sample story provided.

Lesson 5
Question: On day five (5) of the composition writing workshop, participants (in groups of four)
will be required to act as instructors and demonstrate their understanding and application of
teaching composition writing strategies learned using the topic „At the Zoo at Night‟. The
Composition Writing Performance Rubric will list the assessment criteria for this assignment.

Scenario-Based Multiple Choice Questions
Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

1
The day dawned sunny and cool as we arrived at Riding Adventures.
2
I was finally getting my
wish – going horseback riding with my friends.

3
The first thing we did is picking out our own horses for the day.
4
My horse was a young, gentle
mare named Sugar, and after just a few simple turns in the corral, I was feeling confident riding
her.
5
We trotted steadily down the trails, heading for the picnic grounds to eat lunch.

6
The trails wound through a thick forest we had to go slowly.
7
Eventually, they led to a wide,
open field where I could let Sugar run fast.
8
I nudged her with my feet, and she took off like a
rocket.
9
I held on to the saddle horn with both hands.
10
Though I was afraid of falling off, it was
exciting.

11
Then I heard the hoof beats of my friends‟ horses.
12
Caught up as Sugar and I raced across the
field.
13
The day was turning out to be just as I had expected – wonderful and exciting.



Question: Choose the best first sentence to add to this story.
A. Have you been on a runaway horse like I have?
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 15


B. Horses have been helping humans for centuries.
C. My brothers and I were getting ready to go have some fun.
D. I woke up excited because the day was going to be special.

Question: Read the sentence.
„By the time we reached the trails, I knew Sugar was going to be a fun horse to ride‟.
Choose the best place to add the sentence to the story.
A. After sentence 2
B. After sentence 4
C. After sentence 7
D. After sentence 10

Question: What is the best way to express the idea in sentence 6?
A. We were going slowly, the trails wound through a thick forest.
B. We were going slowly and the trails wound through a thick forest.
C. The trails wound through a thick forest, so we had to go slowly.
D. The trails wound through a thick forest because we had to go slowly.

Question: Which change corrects the mistake in sentence 3?
A. Change picking to pick
B. Change is picking to was to pick
C. Change is picking to was picked
D. Change picking to could have picked

EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 16



Performance Rubric
Rubric - Lesson 1
Outstanding
4
Strong
3
Adequate
2
Minimal
1
Selection and
use of pre-
writing strategy
Use of selected
pre-writing
strategy is
appropriate all of
the time
Use of selected
pre-writing
strategy is
appropriate most
of the time
Use of selected
pre-writing
strategy is
appropriate in
a few cases
Incorrect use of
pre-writing
strategy selected
Development of
Ideas
Clear and distinct
development of
five ideas
Clear and distinct
development of
four ideas
Clear and
distinct
development of
three ideas
Clear and distinct
development of
one or two ideas


Rubric - Lesson 2
Exceed
expectation
4
Meets
expectation
3
Partially meets
expectation
2
Does not meet
expectation
1
Features of the
parts of a
composition
story (beginning,
middle, and end)
The reasons for
the storyline are
fully explained
with important
features
highlighted
Most of the
reasons for the
storyline are
fully explained
with important
features
highlighted
Some of the
reasons for the
storyline are
fully explained
with important
features
highlighted
The reasons for
the storyline are
not fully
explained and
lack detail





EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 17


Composition Story Performance Rubric - Lesson 3 and Lesson 5
Exemplary
4
Mature
3
Developing
2
Formative
1
Word Choice Perfectly
suitable and
creative words
selected
Appropriate
words selected
with some level
of creativity
Appropriate
words selected
with little
creativity
Irrelevant words
selected
Structure Ability to
formulate all the
sentences to
indicate the
beginning,
middle and end
of the
composition
Ability to
formulate some
of the sentences
to indicate the
beginning,
middle and end
of the
composition
Ability to
formulate a few
sentences to
indicate the
beginning,
middle and end
of the
composition
Little attempt to
formulate
sentences to
indicate the
beginning,
middle and end
of the
composition
Sentence and
Paragraph
Construction
Well-structured
sentences and
paragraphs
which show
coherency and
creativity.
Structured
sentences and
paragraphs
which show
some level of
coherency and
creativity.
Not enough
connection
between
sentences to
form a coherent
paragraph, little
creativity
Paragraph is
confused and
fragmented
Plot Work reflects the
effective use of
plot
development
strategies
Work reflects the
effective use of
some plot
development
strategies
Work reflects the
effective use of
few plot
development
strategies
There is sparse
evidence of use
of plot
development
strategies
Prewriting
Strategies
Excellent
connection of
ideas that reflect
a clear
understanding of
prewriting
strategies
Good connection
of ideas that
reflect a clear
understanding of
prewriting
strategies
Sufficient
connection of
ideas that reflect
an understanding
of prewriting
strategies
Ideas remain
fragmented with
limited
understanding of
prewriting
strategies




EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 18


Rubric - Lesson 4
Excellent
4
Good
3
Fair
2
Needs work
1
Review and Edit At least nine (9)
of the items on
the editing
checklist are
applied and
supported by
clear and concise
comments.
At least seven
(7) of the items
on the editing
checklist are
applied and
supported by
clear and concise
comments
At least seven
(5) of the items
on the editing
checklist are
applied and
supported by
clear and concise
comments
Less than half of
the items on the
editing checklist
are applied and
supported by
clear and concise
comments




Instructional Strategies and Lessons

Five short lessons have been designed for the workshop. The lessons are illustrated using the
power point tool and are accompanied by a table summarising the instructional strategies
incorporated in the design of the lessons. These strategies include the use of analogies and
advanced organisers to strengthen and focus the learning process of the participants.

Learner/Contextual Analysis

The learner/contextual analysis provided key elements to guide the development of this five-day
workshop. It highlighted the fact that participants are motivated to learn and armed with the prior
teaching skills where applicable, are sure to apply newly acquired skills to lesson planning and
implementation. Participants have demonstrated a willingness to transfer their knowledge to the
actual classroom and home environment as they seek to develop the writing skills of their
students/children. Additionally they have the support of the Parent Teachers Association and the
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 19


education ministries, which see the workshop as being beneficial to the education system, the
teaching environment and ultimately the students.


Lessons


Lesson 1
Lesson 1
Objective 1
Pre-Writing Strategies



Lesson 2

Composition Characteristics
Lesson 2






Lesson 3

EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 20


From a given list of topics, prepare at least three
types of compositions to reflect the accurate usage
of composition writing strategies. (Synthesis)



Lesson 4

Lesson 4
Editing and Evaluation



Lesson 5

ROL E REVERS AL
LESSON 5

EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 21




Workshop Schedule

Day Schedule
Day 1 ● Introduction to Topic
● Meet and greet of participants and facilitator
● Lesson 1 -Prewriting Strategies
Day 2 Lesson 2- Composition Characteristics
Day 3 Lesson 3- Sample Compositions
Day 4 Lesson 4- Edit, Review, Rewrite
Day 5 ● Lesson 5- Assessment and Feedback
● Overview of workshop
● Feedback Session


EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 22



Instructional Strategies Table

Several instructional strategies were incorporated into the workshop lesson plans to facilitate the performance objectives of this
instruction.
Instructional
Strategy
Location in Lesson Citations in Readings Rationale for Use
1. Brainstorming Lesson 4 -
Demonstration (slide
3)
Brainstorming is a large or small group activity
which encourages children to focus on a topic and
contribute to the free flow of ideas
(Saskatoon Public Schools, 2009).
Helps to postpone evaluation, discussion and
criticism until all ideas have been made; and
facilitates creativity, once the brainstorming process
is complete (Woolfolk, 2001, p. 121).
Maintains a focus and attention on the
selected topic.

Helps to generate a quantity of ideas.

Encourages the writers to take risks in
sharing their ideas and opinions.

Introduces the practice of idea
collection prior to beginning writing
tasks.

Facilitates the expansion of students‟
ideas as they construct their essays.

Promotes creative writing.
2. Advanced
organisers
Lesson 1 - Activate
(slide 4)
Lesson 2 (slide 4)
They serve to „bridge the gap between what the
learner already knows and what he needs to know‟
(Driscoll, p.138)
Focuses participants‟ attention on what
is to come in the lesson.
Provide visual elements for those who
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 23


Instructional
Strategy
Location in Lesson Citations in Readings Rationale for Use
are visual learners.
3. Drill and
practice
Lesson 3-
Integration (slide 5)
„students practice the newly learned knowledge or
skills under the teacher‟s direct supervision‟
(Huitt, Monetti, and Hummel p. 85)
To ensure that the strategies were well
understood and used, the drill and
practice was considered integral
throughout the workshop.
4. Independent
work
Lesson 2 -
Application (slide 7)
Independent practice allows students more time to
engage with newly acquired information and skills
(Huitt, Monetti and Hummel, p.85)
To foster self-actualisation and
motivates the participant throughout the
workshop.
5. Writing Lesson 2 -
Assessment (slide
10)
Lesson 3 -
Integration (slide 5)
„Learning from integration is enhanced when
learners create, invent, or explore personal ways to
use their new knowledge or skill‟ (Merrill, p.53)
To meet with the terminal objective of
“Composition Writing”, this strategy
was important.
6. Group work Lesson 1 -
Integration (slide 7)
Lesson 4 -
Activation (slide 2)
Lesson 5 -
Integration (slide 5)
„Although many students feel as though they can
accomplish assignments better by themselves rather
than in a group, instructors find that group work
helps the students apply knowledge‟ (Burke, 2011)

To encourage collaborative
contributions among the participants.
7. Modelling
activities by
teacher
(demonstrations)
thinking aloud
Lesson 1 -
Demonstrate (slide 4
- 5)
Demonstrations are valuable tools for teaching both
concrete techniques or skills and abstract concepts
or principles (University of Delaware, 2014).
To encourage oral discussion and
develop familiarity of participants to
share ideas.
8. Direct Lesson 1 - Direct instruction lessons are appropriate for To transfer the required skills for the
EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 24


Instructional
Strategy
Location in Lesson Citations in Readings Rationale for Use
instruction Demonstration (slide
5)
teaching basic skills, facts, concepts, strategies,
procedures, and knowledge which lends itself to
being presented in small sequential steps Northern
Arizona University (2000).
progress within the workshop.
9. Peer review
(peer editing)
Lesson 5 -
Application
Lesson 4 -
Application (slide 4)
„Peer review develops ...writing skills and … the
ability to look at one‟s work objectively‟ (Wilson,
2012).
To learn how to improve writing skills
through the use of constructive
feedback from peers.
10. Scaffolding Lesson 3
Lesson 5 -
Application (slide 5)
Supports learning and problem solving (Woolfolk,
2001, p. 49)
To aid in a systematic approach to
meeting the terminal objective.
11. Think, Pair and
Share
Lesson 2 -
Integration (slide 9)
The Think-Pair-Share strategy is designed to
differentiate instruction by providing students time
and structure for thinking on a given topic, enabling
them to formulate individual ideas and share these
ideas with a peer. This learning strategy promotes
classroom participation by encouraging a high
degree of pupil response. (ReadWriteThink, 2014).
To encourage collaboration, review and
sharing among the participants
12. Self-Review Lesson 2 - (Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009, p.38) To encourage reflection of individual
contributions



EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 25


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EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 26


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EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 27


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EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 28



Appendix A: Task Selection Criteria Worksheet



Criteria for
Composition
Writing Task
Selection
Worksheet
Criticality
40 pts
Frequency
10 pts
Feasibility
10 pts
Standardization
10 pts
Difficulty
30 pts
Total
100
pts
Notes Priority
TASKS #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8
Employ
prewriting
strategies
40 10 10 7 25 92 4
Describe the
basic structure
of a composition
40 10 10 10 20 90 5
Analyse and
discuss the
characteristics of
a composition
40 10 10 10 30 100 1
Illustrate
knowledge and
use of
composition
writing
strategies
40 10 10 8 30 98 2
Revise and edit a
composition
40 10 10 7 28 95 3





EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 29



Appendix B: Learner/Contextual Analysis Worksheet


Directions: Identify relevant factors in categories (only where and when appropriate) and indicate
the effect they will have by circling appropriate number.

-2 Greatly impedes
-1 Slightly impedes
+1 Slightly facilitates
+2 Greatly facilitates

Orienting Context
Learner Factors
Participants have the experience of interacting with their children/students to understand how
they think and how they learn -2 -1 +1 +2
All participants are willing to participate in the workshop -2 -1 +1 +2
All participants are motivated to apply the teachings to their lessons after the training
workshop -2 -1 +1 +2
The performance of students in the Essay section of the Secondary Entrance Exams will be
linked directly to the abilities of the participants of this workshop. -2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors
Participants have peer support as encouragement to succeed -2 -1 +1 +2
Participants have the support of the Parent Teacher Associations -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Participants have the support of the Schools and the Ministries for engaging in this training
which aims to enhance the writing skills of young students -2 -1 +1 +2
Training is seen as continuous learning and development for teachers -2 -1 +1 +2




EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 30


Instructional Context
Learner Factors
Participants have all achieved secondary education and thus bring certain skills and
prerequisites required to perform effectively in the workshop -2 -1 +1 +2
Most of the participants are teachers and thus understand the basic terms and techniques that
will be utilized in the workshop -2 -1 +1 +2
Since most of the participants are teachers and have the professional educational background,
then they can provide support and guidance to all peers to support instruction -2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors
The training room will be spacious -2 -1 +1 +2
Room setup will be done to encourage interactive discussions between instructor and
participants -2 -1 +1 +2
Instructors are experienced the equipment that they will be utilising -2 -1 +1 +2
Instructors are also well-trained and experienced to successfully deliver the training
-2 -1 +1 +2
Learning schedules have been designed to ensure that participants have adequate practice
time after each lesson -2 -1 +1 +2
Most participants are all familiar with the subject matter of the workshop and should be
comfortable and familiar with the content that will be covered during instruction -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
Instructors will engage in positive reinforcement to encourage learning from mistakes, and
discussing and correcting misconceptions -2 -1 +1 +2
Instructors are expected to engage in guided practice, interactive discussion and modeling
and, utilise creative strategies and ICT to facilitate learning -2 -1 +1 +2
The learning environment will be designed to encourage collaboration, peer critiques and
peer support to facilitate positive interactions and motivation -2 -1 +1 +2
Instructor will allow students to explore and utilize their prior knowledge and experiences as
scaffold for learning and integrating new material -2 -1 +1 +2

EDID 6505: Systems Approach to Designing Instructional Materials 31


Transfer Context
Learner Factors
The learners should be able to apply the teachings to their lessons as most of them have the
necessary backgrounds and motivation to do so -2 -1 +1 +2
Learners will have an enhanced knowledge and skills set to guide students with their lessons
-2 -1 +1 +2
Learners will be taught to apply the training effectively to ensure that learning is transferred
-2 -1 +1 +2

Immediate Environment Factors
All material delivered during the training is directly related to the subject matter and comes in a
format that can be easily applied to lessons -2 -1 +1 +2
Parents can offer knowledgeable and skilled homework assistance to support the teachings
gained at school -2 -1 +1 +2

Organizational Factors
The schools and Education Ministries will support the teachers and parents in their efforts to
enhance student development -2 -1 +1 +2
It is hoped that teachers and students will relay their teachings to other interested persons to
sustain the development of young students in their respective schools and communities
-2 -1 +1 +2