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3.1 3.1 Frame idealisation, Frame idealisation,
classification and classification and
analysis analysis
Frame modelling for Frame modelling for
analysis analysis
• •Frame components Frame components
– – Beams Beams
– – Beam Beam- -columns columns
– – J oints J oints
Beam
Beam-column
J oint
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Frame Idealisation Frame Idealisation
Reduction of 3-D framework to plane frames
Frame modelling for Frame modelling for
analysis analysis
• •Framing and joints Framing and joints
– – Continuous framing: Continuous framing: rigid joint rigid joint
– – Simple framing: Simple framing: pinned joint pinned joint
– – Semi Semi- -continuous framing: continuous framing: semi semi- -rigid joint rigid joint
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J oint modelling for frame J oint modelling for frame
analysis analysis
• •The main approaches are: The main approaches are:
– – the the traditional approach traditional approach in which the in which the
joints are considered as (nominally) pinned joints are considered as (nominally) pinned
or rigid or rigid
– – the the semi semi- -rigid approach rigid approach in which a in which a
more realistic model representing the joint more realistic model representing the joint
behaviour is used. It is usually introduced behaviour is used. It is usually introduced
as a spiral spring at the extremity of the as a spiral spring at the extremity of the
member it attaches (usually the beam). member it attaches (usually the beam).
J oint modelling for frame analysis J oint modelling for frame analysis
JOINT
MODELLING
BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS
MAJOR AXIS BENDING
BEAM
SPLICES
COLUMN
BASES
SIMPLE
SEMI-
CONTINUOUS
CONTINUOUS
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Global frame Global frame analysis analysis
• •Aims of global frame analysis Aims of global frame analysis
– – Determine the distribution of the internal Determine the distribution of the internal
forces forces
– – Determine the corresponding deformations Determine the corresponding deformations
• •Means Means
about the behaviour of the structure and its about the behaviour of the structure and its
component: component:
members and joints members and joints
Requirements for analysis Requirements for analysis
• •Basic principles to be satisfied: Basic principles to be satisfied:
– – Equilibrium Equilibrium throughout the structure throughout the structure
– – Compatibility Compatibility of deformation between the of deformation between the
frame components frame components
– – Constitutive laws Constitutive laws for the frame for the frame
components components
• •Frame model Frame model - - element model element model
– – must satisfy the basic principles must satisfy the basic principles
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Frame Frame behaviour behaviour
Frame
Displacement
Displacement parameter
Elastic limit
Full elastic
response
λ
Frame behaviour Frame behaviour
• •Actual response of the frame is non linear Actual response of the frame is non linear
– – Linear behaviour limited Linear behaviour limited
– – Non Non- -linear behaviour due to: linear behaviour due to:
• •Geometrical influence of the actual Geometrical influence of the actual
deformed shape (second order effects) deformed shape (second order effects)
• •J oint behaviour J oint behaviour
• •Material yielding Material yielding
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Second order effects Second order effects
P
H
δ
Δ
x
M(h) =Hh +P
M(x) =Hx +P δ
+P Δ x / h
Δ
P
H
h
x
M(h) =Hh
M(x) =Hx
Displacement
Frame
Sway
Consideration for second-order
moment
h
Fh +PΔ
Δ
P
F
F x h
P
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Second order effects Second order effects
• •P P- -Δ Δ effect : effect :
– – due to floor sway due to floor sway
– – 1st order frame stiffness modified 1st order frame stiffness modified
– – dominant effect dominant effect
• •P P- -δ δ effect : effect :
– – due to beam due to beam- -column deflection column deflection
– – 1st order member stiffness modified 1st order member stiffness modified
– – significant only for relatively slender significant only for relatively slender
members which is rare members which is rare
Imperfections Imperfections
Φ Φ
Frame imperfection
L
N
Member Imperfection
e
o,d
P P- -Δ Δ effect effect
P P- -δ δ effect effect
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Imperfections Imperfections
• •Frame imperfection Frame imperfection
– – always to be allowed for always to be allowed for
• •Member imperfection: Member imperfection:
– – only for slender members (rare) in sway only for slender members (rare) in sway
frames, otherwise it is covered in the frames, otherwise it is covered in the
relevant buckling curve relevant buckling curve
Use of Notional Horizontal Forces
frame imperfections such as lack of
verticality
2. NHF Alone: To test for sway
sensitivity
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(To allow for frame imperfections such as lack of frame verticality)
0.5% of (D+I))
4
0.5% of (D+I)
3
0.5% of (D+I)
2
0.5% of (D+I)
1`
φ= 0.005 or 1/200
(D+I)
1
(D+I)
2
(D+I)
3`
(D+I)
4
=
Notional horizontal forces should NOT:
a) be applied when considering overturning
c) be combined with applied horizontal loads
d) be combined with temperature effects
e) be taken to contribute to the net reactions at
the foundations.
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Minimum horizontal forces
1% of DL4
1% of DL3
1% of DL2
1% of DL1
Greater of DL4
DL3
DL2
DL1
Resistance to horizontal
forces
Resistance to horizontal forces may be
provided in a number of ways as follows:
a) triangulated bracing members.
b) moment resisting joints and frame action.
c) cantilever columns, shear walls, staircase
and lift shaft enclosures.
d) or a combination of these.
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(a)
Resistance to horizontal
force is provided by
concrete core
Can a braced frame be a sway frame? Can a braced frame be a sway frame?
Yes, when lateral deflection is large
Especially for high-rise building
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Classification of frames Classification of frames
Frames may be Frames may be
1. 1. Braced or unbraced Braced or unbraced – –
depends on how horizontal forces are depends on how horizontal forces are
transmitted to the ground. transmitted to the ground.
2. 2. Sway or non Sway or non- -sway sway - -
depends on significance or otherwise of P depends on significance or otherwise of P- -Δ Δ
effects. effects.
Purpose of classification of braced and Purpose of classification of braced and
unbraced frame unbraced frame
Central Core
Is the bracing
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Braced multi-storey frame
If frame B is braced by frame A
Stabilizing System to resist
Braced frame
designed to resist gravity load only
B
A
Independently Braced Frames (5.1.4)
a) The stabilizing system has a lateral stiffness
at least 4 times larger than the total lateral
stiffness of all the frames to which it gives
horizontal support (i.e. the supporting system
reduces horizontal displacements by at least
80%).
and
b) The stabilizing system is designed to resist
all the horizontal loads applied including the
notional horizontal forces.
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Classification of Braced and Unbraced Frame
Δ
A
Δ
B
8 . 0 1
B
A

Δ
Δ

Frame B is braced by Frame A if
If frame B is not braced by frame A
F F
α αF F (1 (1- - α α) )F F
The lateral force F should be distributed or resisted in accordance with
the relative lateral stiffness of the respective frame. The stiffer frame
will resist higher lateral force.
frame the of stiffness lateral the is K
K K
K
B A
A
;
+
= α
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Example of Simple Braced Example of Simple Braced
Frame Frame
Bracing Frame
Simple Frame
K =0
Sway Sway- -sensitive Vs Non sensitive Vs Non- -sway Frame sway Frame
Δ
P
• If second order effects (P- Δ) are significant –
sway sensitive frame
• If second order effects can be ignored in the
calculation – non-sway frame
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Non Non- -sway frame sway frame
Sway sensitive frame Sway sensitive frame
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Definition of Sway/non sway Frame Definition of Sway/non sway Frame
A frame can be classified as non A frame can be classified as non- -sway if its sway if its
response to in response to in- -plane horizontal forces is plane horizontal forces is
sufficiently stiff for it to be acceptably accurate sufficiently stiff for it to be acceptably accurate
to neglect any additional internal forces or to neglect any additional internal forces or
moments arising from horizontal displacements moments arising from horizontal displacements
of its nodes. of its nodes.
Classification of Sway / Non Classification of Sway / Non- -sway Frame sway Frame
A frame can be deemed to be non A frame can be deemed to be non- -sway if, sway if,
λ λ
cr cr
≥ ≥ 10 10
Otherwise it is a sway frame. Otherwise it is a sway frame.
λ λ
cr cr
can be determined using deflection method in can be determined using deflection method in
Annex F.2 of BS5950:Part1:2000 Annex F.2 of BS5950:Part1:2000
λ λ
cr cr
= = 1 / (200 1 / (200 φ φ
max max
) = h / (200 ) = h / (200 δ δ
max max
) )
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Annex F.2 – How to determine critical load
Ratio λ
cr
?
δ
0.5%(D+I)
0.5%(D+I)
0.5%(D+I)
0.5%(D+I)
1
δ
2
δ
3
δ
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(3) (3) Calculate Sway Index of each storey
φ
δ δ
s
u L
h
=

(1) (1) Apply notional horizontal loads
(2) (2) Determine inter-storey drift
(4) Compute λ
cr
=1 / 200 φ
max
For nonsway frame
λ
cr
=1 / (200 φ
max
) >10
or φ
max
<1/2000
Since φ
i
= Δ
i
/h
i
Δ
I
=inter-storey deflection,
h
i
=storey height
Δ
i
< h
i
/2000 for every storey
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Use Notional Load for Classification of Sway Frame Use Notional Load for Classification of Sway Frame
(2.4.2.6) (2.4.2.6)
Frame is non sway if Frame is non sway if
Δ Δ
i i
< h < h
i i
Effect of cladding is not considered in Effect of cladding is not considered in
calculating calculating Δ Δ
i i
Δ
1
Δ
2
Δ
4
Δ
4
NHL4
NHL3
NHL2
NHL1
Summary Summary
Notional loads Notional loads are used to allow for frame are used to allow for frame
imperfections such as lack of verticality and to classify imperfections such as lack of verticality and to classify
frames frames
Nonsway frame Nonsway frame: : λ λ
cr cr
≥ ≥ 10 10
Sway frame: Sway frame: λ λ
cr cr
< < 10 10
Braced frame: Braced frame: the horizontal supporting system the horizontal supporting system
reduces horizontal displacements by at least 80%. reduces horizontal displacements by at least 80%.
Braced frame needs to be designed for gravity load Braced frame needs to be designed for gravity load
only. The lateral load resisting system will resist all only. The lateral load resisting system will resist all
horizontal forces. horizontal forces.
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Example: Frame Classification Example: Frame Classification
Roof:
dr
=3.5 kN/m
2
ir
=1.0 kN/m
2
Floor:
df
=3.5 kN/m
2
if
=6.0 kN/m
2
Roof beam 305 x 127 x 37 UB in grade S275
Floor beam 406 x 178 x 60 UB in grade S275
Ground to 2nd floor columns 203 x 203 x 60 UC in grade
S275
2nd floor to roof columns 203 x 203 x 46 UC in grade S275
Bracing 168.3 x 6.3 CHS in grade S275
Consider the following three load combinations:
wind)
(3) 1.2 dead +1.2 imposed +1.2 wind
Roof: wr' =(3.5 X 1.4) +(1.0 X 1.6) =6.5 kN/m2
Floor: wf' =(3.5 x 1.4) +(6.0 x 1.6) =14.5 kN/m2
Roof: wr
2
=3.5 X 1.0 =3.5 kN/m2
Floor: wf
2
=3.5 x 1.0 =3.5 kN/m2
Roof: wr
3
=(3.5 X 1.2) +(1.0 X 1.2) =5.4 kN/m2
Floor: wf
3
=(3.5 x 1.2) +(6.0 x 1.2) =11.4 kN/m2
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Roof level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 6.5 =22.3 kN
Floor level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 14.5 =49.7 kN
The result of an elastic analysis on one braced bay (bare
frame only) under the action of the notional horizontal
forces is shown in Figure 2.
Ground – 1
st
floor
cr
3500
5.15
200 3.4
λ = =
×
2
nd
floor – 3
rd
floor
cr
3000
5.36
200 2.8
λ = =
×
Therefore,
cr
5.15 λ =
Since
cr
10 λ <
The frame is classed as "sway"
λ λ
cr cr
= 1 / (200 = 1 / (200 φ φ
max max
) )
= h / (200 = h / (200 δ δ
max max
) )
λ
Roof level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 Roof level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 kN kN
Floor level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 Floor level NHF = 0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 3.5 = 12 kN kN
Ground Ground – – 1st floor 1st floor
2nd floor 2nd floor – – 3rd floor 3rd floor
Therefore, Therefore,
Since , Since ,
the frame is classed as "non the frame is classed as "non- -sway sway
cr
3500
17.5
200 1.0
λ = =
×
7 . 16
9 . 0 200
3000
cr
=
×
= λ 7 . 16
9 . 0 200
3000
cr
=
×
= λ
cr
3000
16.7
200 0.9
λ = =
×
cr
16.7 λ =
cr
10 λ >
,
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Roof level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 5.4 =18.5 kN
Floor level NHF =0.005 x 0.5 x 28 x 49 x 11.4 =39.1 kN
Ground – 1st floor
2nd floor – 3rd floor
Therefore,
Since ,
The frame is classified as
"sway sensitive" for
cr
3500
17.5
200 1.0
λ = =
×
cr
3000
6.82
200 2.2
λ = =
×
cr
6.82 λ =
cr
10 λ <
Summary Summary
Consider the following three load combinations:
(1) 1.4 dead +1.6 imposed – Sway frame
overturning due to wind) - nonsway
(3) 1.2 dead +1.2 imposed +1.2 wind – sway
frame
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Methods of structural Methods of structural
analysis analysis
1st 1st- -order elastic analysis order elastic analysis
M
φ
M
Elastic
M
φ
Moment rotation characteristic of the section Moment rotation characteristic of the j
φ
φ
Mj
Elastic M
j
Indefinite linear elastic response of member sections Indefinite linear elastic response of member sections
and of joints and of joints
Equilibrium established for the Equilibrium established for the undeformed undeformed structural structural
configuration configuration
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2nd order elastic analysis 2nd order elastic analysis
Indefinite linear Indefinite linear- - elastic elastic
response of member response of member
sections and joints sections and joints
Equilibrium established Equilibrium established
for the for the deformed deformed
structure structure
Allows for P Allows for P- -Δ Δ effect effect
and, if necessary, for P and, if necessary, for P- -
δ δ effect effect
2nd order elastic analysis
Displacement parameter
λ
cr
M
M
Plastic hinge
Moment rotation characteristics of the member
pl.Rd
Moment rotation characteristics of the jo
Rigid plastic
M
pl.Rd
φ
p
M
pl.Rd
φ
p
M
M
j,Rd
φ
p
Rigid plastic
M
j,Rd
φ
p
j
Plastic hinge
Rigid Rigid- -plastic global analysis plastic global analysis
Rigid Rigid- -plastic member section behaviour plastic member section behaviour
Rigid Rigid- -plastic joint behaviour when plastic hinges are plastic joint behaviour when plastic hinges are
allowed there allowed there
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Rigid Rigid- -plastic global analysis plastic global analysis
Usually a first order Usually a first order
analysis analysis
Find critical mechanism Find critical mechanism
Easy application for simple Easy application for simple
frames e.g. industrial frames e.g. industrial
portal frames portal frames
Serviceability deflection Serviceability deflection
check check
Displacement parameter
Plastic mechanism
1
3
2
λ
LRP3
W
Beam mechanism
Φ Φ
1
Sway mechanism
Φ Φ
H
2
Δ
A
B
C
D
E A
B
D
E
h
H
W
Δ w
W
H
Δ
Φ Φ
Combined mechanism
3
plastic hinge location
A
B
C
D
E
h
Δ
w
Elastic Elastic- -perfectly plastic global perfectly plastic global
frame analysis frame analysis
Elastic Elastic- -perfectly plastic response of member perfectly plastic response of member
sections and joints sections and joints
M
φ
Plastic hinge
M
j.
M
φ
j
M
Plastic hinge
M
p
M
p
φ
φ
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Elastic Elastic- -perfectly plastic perfectly plastic
analysis analysis
2nd 2nd- -order order
analysis usually analysis usually
used used
in increments in increments
“ “Deterioration Deterioration” ”
of frame stability of frame stability
as plastic hinges as plastic hinges
form form
1st hinge
2nd hinge
Displacement parameter
branch 1
branch 2
branch 3
branch 4
λ
L2EPP
of deteriorated frame
Frame classification and type
of frame analysis
1st order
2nd order 2nd order
1st order
BRACING
BRACED UNBRACED
SWAY
LATERAL
DISPLACEMENT
NON SWAY
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Summary
• The frame has first to be idealised
• Then a frame classification is carried
out
⇒sway-non sway / braced-unbraced
• On the basis of the frame class, the
type of frame analysis is finally selected.
– Sway frame – second order analysis
– Nonsway frame – first order analysis