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How to Write an Introduction

How to Write an Introduction

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A guide on how to write a proper introduction for subject Technical Communications.
A guide on how to write a proper introduction for subject Technical Communications.

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Published by: MohdKhairiAbdulKahar on Aug 23, 2014
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Report Writing

TECB213
aliciaphilioslides
Science Research Writing for Non-Native Speaker of English
LESSON OVERVIEW
This lesson is divided into 3 parts:
 PART A
 WRITING THE INTRODUCTION
 PART B
 GRAMMAR AND WRITING SKILLS
 TENSE PAIRS
 SIGNALING LANGUAGE
 PASSIVE/ACTIVE VOICE
 PARAGRAPHING
 THE VOCABULARY/ WORD CHOICE
 PART C
 VOCABULARY (WORD CHOICE FOR INTRODUCTION)

Introduction to report
writing
aliciaphilioslides
Science writing report:
what you did(Methodology), what you
found (Results)
Central of the report
Do you know what are the structure for
writing report?
Had experience writing the introduction of
the report?
STRUCTURE
ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
METHODOLOGY
What you did/used
RESULT
What did you found/saw
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION
CENTRAL
REPORT
SECTION
Writing The I ntroduction
Report writing
aliciaphilioslides
The Four basic components
1 Establishing significance

2 Previous and /or current research and
contributions

3 Gap/problem/question/prediction

4 The present work

Component 1 : Establishing
significance
UNIVERSE
• Accepted statements
• The importance of “Polylactide”
GALAXY
• Subarea that includes the topic
• What it is and the usage of “Polymer”
EARTH
• Indicate the general problem / research
focus
• “too weak to be used commercially”
AN EXAMPLE:
The synthesis of flexible polymer blends
from polylactide and rubber

Polylactide (PLA) has received much attention in
recent years due to its biodegradable properties,
which offer important economic benefits. PLA is a
polymer obtained from corn and is produced by the
polymerisation of lactide. It has many possible uses
in the biomedical field [1] and has also been
investigated as a potential engineering material
[2][3]. However, it has been found to be too weak
under impact to be used commercially[4].
Component 2 :Previous research
[1]
[3]
IDENTIFY
One way to toughen polymers is to incorporate a
layer of rubber particles [5] and there has been
extensive research regarding the rubber modification
of PLA. For example, Penney et al. showed that PLA
composites could be prepared using blending
techniques [6] and more recently, Hillier established
the toughness of such composites [7].
Order of Citations
COMBINATION
AN EXAMPLE: COMBINATION
[5]
[4]
[1]
[9]
[7]
COMPONENT 3: THE GAP
To signal the end of literature review
To sum up the review – pointing a gap
Only 1 or 2 sentences
3 Alternatives
Indicate
inadequacy


Indicate
unresolved
conflict

Indicate
extension of the
topic

AN EXAMPLE
• However, there is little information available on
the thermal behaviour especially during
transient conditions.
Indicate
inadequacy
• Numerous studies have shown that natural
driven air change rates are difficult to assess
and hence, it would seem difficult to extend the
results reported to existing buildings.
Indicate
unresolved
conflict
• Both measurements of small ion concentration
and atmospheric PG fluctuations have been
used to assess the impact of HV power lines on
the electrical environment, but the relationship
between the two is yet well understood.
Indicate
extension of
the topic
COMPONENT 4: THE PRESENT PAPER
The specific objective(s) of your research
report
Answer the need expressed in Component 3

• The main objective of this paper is to
propose and to test a simple experimental
technique which will help to improve a
classic single-node pressure model.

AN EXAMPLE
The present paper presents a set of criteria for selecting
such a component. On the basis of these criteria it then
describes the preparation of a set of polymer blends using
PLA and a hydro-carbon rubber(PI). This combination of
two mechanistically distinct polymerisations formed a
novel copolymer in which the incorporation of PI
significantly increased flexibility.
PART B: GRAMMAR AND WRITING
SKILLS
TENSE PAIRS
SIGNALING
LANGUAGE
PASSIVE/ACTIVE
VOICE
PARAGRAPHING
TENSE PAIRS
 PRESENT SIMPLE/PRESENT CONTINUOUS






Present simple tense = accepted facts
and truth
The writer considers that research
findings have status of a fact= state in
Present Simple
a)I live in Beijing Present Simple
b) I’m living in
Beijing
Present
Continuous
Past Simple/ Present Perfect
what it means












• Difference between (a) and (b) : time of the verb
• Event in (d) is considered more relevant to the
situation now than event in (c)

Past Simple:
(a)I lived in Tokyo
for five years
but I don’t live there
anymore
Present Perfect:
(b)I have lived in Tokyo
for five years
and I still live there
NOW
Past Simple:
(c)I broke my glasses
but it doesn’t matter/ I
repaired them
Present Perfect:
(d)I have broken my
glasses
and so I can’t see
properly NOW
HOW CAN I USE THIS IN THE INTRODUCTION?
We found that pressure increased as the
temperature rose which indicated that
temperature played a significant role in the
process.
We found that pressure increases as the
temperature rose which indicated that
temperature plays a significant role in the
process
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO
SENTENCE?



Penney et.al showed that PLA composites could be prepared
using blending techniques[6] and more recently, Hillier
established the toughness of such composites [7]. However
although the effects of the rubber particles on the
mechanical properties of copolymer system was
demonstrated over two years ago, [8] little attention has been
paid to the selection of an appropriate rubber component.

o Where does the tense change?
o What does it indicate?
o What happens if the writer forgets to change
tense and continues in the Past Simple?

However, although the effect of rubber particles on the
mechanical property of copolymer system was
demonstrated over two years ago, [8] little attention was
paid to the selection of an appropriate rubber
component.

Now, what do you understand of this sentence?

Tense changes are always meaningful, signal
change in the function of the information.
SIGNALLING LANGUAGE
Sentence Connection
Common errors in writing: failing to connect
one sentence/ idea to the next.
The space between a full stop and the next
capital letter is a dangerous space for you and
your reader.
Connecting sentences and concepts is good,
help develop ideas logically.
HOW TO CONNECT SENTENCES?
Overlap: repeat something from the previous

sentences
The pattern of inflammation during an asthma attack is
different from that seen in stable asthma. I n stable asthma the
total number of inflammatory cells does not increase.

One way to toughen polymers is to incorporate a layer of
rubber particles. As a result, there has been extensive research
regarding the rubber modification of PLA
Use pronoun (it, they) or pro-form (this
method, these system) to glue the sentences
together.

Many researchers have suggested ways of reducing cost
without affecting the quality of the image. These methods
rely on data structures built during a preprocessing step

On the basis of these criteria it then describes the
preparation of a set of polymer blends using PLA and a
hydrocarbon rubber (PI ). This combination of two
mechanistically distinct polymerisation formed a novel
copolymer in which the incorporation of PI significantly
increased flexibility.
Join sentence with a semicolon or relative
clause
 Joining sentences with a semicolon works well when two sentences
are closely related and one of them are quite short
The procedure for testing whether components are
operationally safe usually takes many hours; this means
that test are rarely repeated.

It has received much attention over the past few decades
due to its biodegradable properties, which offer important
economic benefits. semicolon

relative clause
Sentence Connector
Indicate relationship between one sentence and
the next:
 Therefore, however
Signals the functions of the information in the
sentence.
Expand your vocabulary of signaling words
 Cause: due to , on account, in view of because, since
 Result: therefore, consequently, hence, as a result, which is
why, so

 Contrast / difference: however, whereas, but, on the
other hand, while, by contrast
 Unexpectedness: although, even though, though, despite,
in spite, nevertheless, however, yet, nonetheless
 Addition: in addition, moreover, furthermore, also,
secondly
PASSIVE/ ACTIVE VOICE
Can we use pronoun ‘we’ in the research article?
Can, to refer to research team but not to refer to
people or humanity in general.
If referring to people, use construction ‘it’
Do not use ‘I’ when writing your thesis instead write
it in passive.
 Use word : here, in this study.
 Use ‘dummy’ subject (personify) :
This article describes…
The present paper….
AN EXAMPLE
Agent Action Object /
Receiver
The policeman caught John
Object /
Receiver
Action Agent
John was caught by The
policeman.
John was caught
ACTIVE
PASSIVE
IDENTIFY
I know that…
It is known that..
The problem was identified to address
the solution
The problem was identified by them
I will present …
This paper presents
PARAGRAPHING
Why is paragraphing important?
The more you know what you are reading, the more
effectively you read
How do you do it?
Skimming: find out quickly what it is about, where
various piece of information is located
Skimming may help me read but how
does it help me write?
• Look quickly at the first paragraph < topic
sentence: main idea of the paragraph, other
sentences: discuss it, describe it, define it, argue it,
give example
• The more aware you are of the way other writer
structure paragraph, the easier to do it yourself


VOCABULARY
• A major current focus in population
management is how to ensure sustainability
of…
• Numerous experiments have established
that ionising radiation causes…
ESTABLISHING SIGNIFICANCE
• This phenomenon was demonstrated
by…
• The algorithm has been proposed for
these application
PRESENT PREVIOUS AND/OR
CURRENT RESEARCH AND
CONTRIBUITION
• Few researchers have addressed the
problem of…
• An alternative approach is necessary
GAP/QUESTION/PROBLEM/CRITI
CISM
THE PRESENT WORK
•This study investigate the use of…
•The paper focuses on…

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