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Solving DAEs - Lecture 9|Views: 3|Likes: 0

Published by jamesp

System modeling, Modelica, solving DAEs (differential algebraic equations)

System modeling, Modelica, solving DAEs (differential algebraic equations)

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/237625453/Solving-DAEs-Lecture-9

08/24/2014

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original

**Systems Realization Laboratory
**

Solving

Differential Algebraic Equations

(based on Continuous System Simulation by Cellier and Kofman)

Chris Paredis

G W Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

©2009, Chris Paredis

G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

Systems Realization Laboratory

Product and Systems Lifecycle Management Center

Georgia Institute of Technology

Lecture Overview

Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE

• Graph-based algorithm

Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops

• Tearing algorithm

Challenge 2: Structural singularities

• What is it? How to deal with it?

• Higher-index problems

Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

• Zero crossings

Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties

For more info refer to: Continuous System Simulation by Cellier and Kofman

2

DAE problems in Dymola

Object-oriented model results in implicit DAE system:

0 ( , , , ) F y y z t = &

Before solving, Dymola converts this into a semi-explicit DAE:

P bl th t d t b dd d

0

( , , )

( , , ) 0

(0)

y f y z t

g y z t

y y

=

⎧

⎪

=

⎨

⎪

=

⎩

&

0 ( , , , ) F y y z t = &

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

Problems that need to be addressed:

• Selection of state variables, y

• Causality assignment: For each equation determine which variable is the

dependent variable

• Order in which equations should be evaluated

Simple System – Convert to Explicit ODE

0

1 1 1

2 2 2

( ) u f t

u R i

u R i

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

0 1

L

L

C

C

C

di

u L

dt

du

i C

dt

u u u

u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

+

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

1 2

2

0 1

1 2

L

C

L

C

u u u

u u

i i i

i i i

= +

=

= +

= +

3

Causality Assignment and State Selection

State variables?

• Variables for which derivatives appear

• State variables can be considered as known

0

1 1 1

2 2 2

( ) u f t

u R i

u R i

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Which are the unknowns?

Causality assignment:

• If equation has only 1 unknown

it t l f k

0 1

L

L

C

C

C

di

u L

dt

du

i C

dt

u u u

u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

+

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

use it to solve for unknown

• If unknown appears only in 1 equation

use it to solve for unknown

1 2

2

0 1

1 2

L

C

L

C

u u u

u u

i i i

i i i

= +

=

= +

= +

Causality Assignment and State Selection

State variables?

• Variables for which derivatives appear

• State variables can be considered as known

0

1 1 1

2 2 2

( ) u f t

u R i

u R i

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Which are the unknowns?

Causality assignment:

• If equation has only 1 unknown

it t l f k

0 1 2 0 1 2

C L

L C

du di

u u u u i i i i

dt dt

0 1

L

L

C

C

C

di

u L

dt

du

i C

dt

u u u

u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

+

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

use it to solve for unknown

• If unknown appears only in 1 equation

use it to solve for unknown

1 2

2

0 1

1 2

L

C

L

C

u u u

u u

i i i

i i i

= +

=

= +

= +

4

Graph-Based Approach for Causality Assignment:

Tarjan Algorithm

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

Step 0: Connect Equations and Unknowns

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

5

Step 1: Identify Equations with Only 1 Unknown

Color Scheme:

• Acausal equation =only black and blue lines

• Causal equation =one red line

• Unknownvariable =only black and blue lines Unknown variable only black and blue lines

• Known variable =one red line

Algorithm – step 1:

f or al l acausal equations do

i f equation has only one black line t hen

number equat i on wi t h l owest f r ee number

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

number equat i on wi t h l owest f r ee number

col or l i ne r ed

f ol l ow l i ne t o var i abl e

col or al l ot her l i nes f or var i abl e bl ue

Step 2: Identify Variables in Only 1 Equation

Color Scheme:

• Acausal equation =only black and blue lines

• Causal equation =one red line

• Unknownvariable =only black and blue lines Unknown variable only black and blue lines

• Known variable =one red line

Algorithm – step 1:

f or al l unknown variables do

i f variable has only one black line t hen

number equat i on wi t h hi ghest f r ee number

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

number equat i on wi t h hi ghest f r ee number

col or l i ne r ed

f ol l ow l i ne t o equat i on

col or al l ot her l i nes f or equat i on bl ue

6

Final Result

(1)

(5)

(3)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅ (3)

(10)

(9)

(4)

(7)

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(2)

(8)

(6)

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

Final Result – Sorted & Causality Assigned

0 0

2 2

: ( )

:

: /

C

u f t u

u u u

i u R i

=

=

=

(1)

(2)

(3)

2 2 2 2

1 0 1

1 1 1 1

1 2

1 2

: /

:

: /

:

:

C

C C

L L

i u R i

u u u u

i i u R

i i i i

u u u u

=

= −

=

= −

= +

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

0 0 1

:

/ / : /

/ / : /

L

C C C

L L L

i i i i

du dt du dt i C

di dt di dt u L

= +

=

=

(8)

(9)

(10)

7

Lecture Overview

Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE

• Graph-based algorithm

Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops

• Tearing algorithm

Challenge 2: Structural singularities

• What is it? How to deal with it?

• Higher-index problems

Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

• Zero crossings

Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties

System 2 – Algebraic Loop

0

1 1 1

2 2 2

( ) u f t

u R i

u R i

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

2 2 2

3 3 3

0 1 3

1 2

L

L

L

u R i

di

u L

dt

u R i

u u u

u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

1 2

2 3

0 1

1 2 3

L

L

u u

i i i

i i i

=

= +

= +

8

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Step 0: Connect Equations and Unknowns

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Step 1: Identify Equations

(1)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

9

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Step 2: Identify Variables

(1)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

(10)

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

(9)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Step 1: Identify Equations – None Available

(1)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

(10)

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

(9)

10

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Step 2: Identify Variables

(1)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

(10)

(8)

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

(9)

STUCK!! – Algebraic Loop

(1)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

(10)

(8)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(9)

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

11

Algebraic Loop – Tearing Algorithm

6 equations in 6 unknowns

Simplify problem by assuming one of the unknown

variable to be known: e.g. i

3

variable to be known: e.g. i

3

• If we knew i

3

, we could compute i

3new

Guess i

3

, and iterate until the residual is zero:

i

3new

- i

3

= 0 (residual equation)

Also works for nonlinear equations

With symbolic differentiation,

It ti i f t

3 3 3

2 3

2 2 2

1 0 3

1 1

:

:

: /

:

: /

i

u R i

u u

i u R

u u u

i u R

= ⋅

=

=

= −

=

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

Iteration is very fast

Multiple tearing variables may be needed

Tricky part: How to choose the tearing variable?

can only be determined using heuristics

3 1 2

:

new

i i i = −

Tearing Algorithm

(1)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

(10)

(8)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(9)

tear

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

12

Tearing Algorithm

(1)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

(10)

(8)

(2*)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(9)

tear

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

Tearing Algorithm

(1)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

(10)

(8)

(2*)

(3*)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(9)

tear (4*)

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

13

Tearing Algorithm

(1)

(5*)

(6*)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

(10)

(8)

(6 )

(2*)

(3*)

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 0

0 1 3 1

1 2 2

( / )

L L L

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

u R i i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(9)

tear (4*)

residual

3 2 3

0 1

3 1 2 3

/

L L

u u i

i i i di dt

u i i i

=

= +

= +

Algebraic Loop Example – Summary

0

( , , )

( , , ) 0

(0)

y f y z t

g y z t

y y

= ⎧

⎪

=

⎨

⎪

=

⎩

&

0 ( , , , ) F y y z t = &

0

(0) y y

⎩

: /

L

L

di

u L

dt

=

3 3 3

2 3

2 2 2

:

:

: /

:

u R i

u u

i u R

u u u

= ⋅

=

=

0

: ( ) u f t =

1 2

0 1

:

:

L

L

u u u

i i i

= +

= +

Algebraic Equations

Differential Equation

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

dt

1 0 3

1 1

3 1 2

:

: /

:

i

new

u u u

i u R

i i i

= −

=

= −

Solve Iteratively

0 1 L

14

Lecture Overview

Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE

• Graph-based algorithm

Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops

• Tearing algorithm

Challenge 2: Structural singularities

• What is it? How to deal with it?

• Higher-index problems

Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

• Zero crossings

Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties

System 3 – Structural Singularity

0

1 1 1

2 2 2

( ) u f t

u R i

u R i

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

0 1

L

L

C

C

L

di

u L

dt

du

i C

dt

u u u

u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

+

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

1 2

2

0 1

1 2

C

L

C

L

u u u

u u

i i i

i i i

= +

=

= +

= +

15

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Step 0: Connect Equations and Unknowns

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

2 1 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

L

C

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

i u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C L

L C

C L

i u u

di dt i i i

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

Apply Both Rules

(1)

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

2 1 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

L

C

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

i u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

(10)

(9)

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C L

L C

C L

i u u

di dt i i i

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

(8)

16

STUCK! Structural Singularity

(1)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

(10)

(9)

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

2 1 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

L

C

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

i u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(8)

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C L

L C

C L

i u u

di dt i i i

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

What is the problem?

0

1 1 1

2 2 2

( ) u f t

u R i

u R i

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

0 1

L

L

C

C

L

di

u L

dt

du

i C

dt

u u u

u u u

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

+

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

1 2

2

0 1

1 2

C

L

C

L

u u u

u u

i i i

i i i

= +

=

= +

= +

17

Structural Singularity

Main approach – Pantelides Algorithm

• Use symbolic differentiation to remove singularity in equations

1. Determine constraint equation (could be hidden – use tearing)

2. Differentiate constraint equation and assign dummy derivatives

3. Remove corresponding integration equations remain square

• Details of algorithm are tricky…

(For details see: Continuous System Simulation by Cellier and Kofman)

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

Algorithm is also called an index reduction algorithm

What is an index?

Characteristic of DAE: Perturbation Index

Loosely defined:

The number of differentiations needed

to turn a DAE into a pure ODE

Examples:

• Pure ODE is index-0

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

• ODE with algebraic loop is index-1

• Structurally singular system index-2 (or larger)

18

Lecture Overview

Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE

• Graph-based algorithm

Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops

• Tearing algorithm

Challenge 2: Structural singularities

• What is it? How to deal with it?

• Higher-index problems

Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

• Zero crossings

Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties

Mixed Systems: DAE + Discrete event

mg

At impact: v -v*k

[…]

equation

Discrete Event

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

mg

equation

when height <=radius then

reinit( velocity, -k*pre(velocity) )

end when

end

19

Mixed DAEs

Hybrid systems require additional solver

capabilities:

1. Event Detection – solving for zero-crossings g g

Height changes continuously as function of time

step size needs to be selected such that height =radius

2. Event Handling

• Stop the integration algorithm

• Find a new state consistent with the algebraic constraints

• Restart the integrationalgorithm

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

Restart the integration algorithm

• Be careful!

• Event handling can be slow

• Chattering

Summary of Method Characteristics

Appropriate for DAE or only ODE?

Capable of finding initial conditions?

• Especiallyimportant for hybrid DAE • Especially important for hybrid DAE

Capable of solving Stiff systems?

• Stiff implies implicit method

Capable of handling overdetermined systems?

• More convenient than having to remove redundant constraints

manually

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

Order of method?

• Typically higher is better

20

Dymola Methods

Method Model

Type

Order Stiff Root

Find

Algorithm

DEABM ODE 1-12 No No Adams/Bashforth/Moulton; reliable, maybe slow

LSODE1 ODE 1-12 No No Adams/Bashforth/Moulton; faster than DEABM

LSODE2 ODE 1-5 Yes No Backward Difference Formulae; Gear method

LSODAR ODE 1-12, 1-5 Both Yes Adams/Bashforth/Moulton

DOPRI5 ODE 5 No No Runge-Kutta by Dormand and Prince

DOPRI8 ODE 8 No No Runge-Kutta by Dormand and Prince

GRK4T ODE 4 Yes No Linearly-implicit Rosenbrock

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

DASSL DAE 1-5 Yes Yes BDF; default choice in Dymola

ODASSL ODAE 1-5 Yes Yes Modified DASSL for overdetermined DAEs

MEXX ODAE 2-24 No No Special index-2 DAE; not for ODE!

Summary

Identify types and properties of ODE systems

Identify types and properties of ODE solvers

• Accuracy

• Convergence Convergence

• Stability

• Stiffness

Higher Order Methods and their properties

Causalization, tearing, index reduction

Complexities of mixed DAE problems

Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

Solver implementation is for Professionals Only

Do not try this at home

Not-so-fine print:

21

Step 1: Identify Equations with Only 1 Unknown

(1)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(2)

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

Solution for Example 1

Step 2: Identify Variables in Only 1 Equation

(1)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅

(10)

(9)

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(2)

(8)

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

Solution for Example 1

22

Repeat Step 1: Identify Equations

(1)

(3)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅ (3)

(10)

(9)

(4)

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(2)

(8)

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

Solution for Example 1

Repeat Step 2: Identify Variables

(1)

(3)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅ (3)

(10)

(9)

(4)

(7)

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(2)

(8)

(6)

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

Solution for Example 1

23

Repeat Step 1: Identify Equations

(1)

(5)

(3)

0 0

1 1 1 1

( ) u f t u

u R i u

u R i u

=

= ⋅

= ⋅ (3)

(10)

(9)

(4)

(7)

2 2 2 2

0

0 1 1

1 2 2

( / )

( / )

L L L

C C

C

L

u R i u

u L di dt u

i C du dt i

u u u i

u u u i

= ⋅

= ⋅

= ⋅

= +

= +

Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis

(2)

(8)

(6)

2

0 1

1 2

/

/

C C

L L

C C

u u i

i i i di dt

du dt i i i

=

= +

= +

Solution for Example 1

MIT8 01SC Problems27 Soln

MIT8 01SC Problems25 Soln

A3

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