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Solving DAEs - Lecture 9

Solving DAEs - Lecture 9

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System modeling, Modelica, solving DAEs (differential algebraic equations)
System modeling, Modelica, solving DAEs (differential algebraic equations)

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1

Systems Realization Laboratory
Solving
Differential Algebraic Equations
(based on Continuous System Simulation by Cellier and Kofman)
Chris Paredis
G W Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
©2009, Chris Paredis
G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
Systems Realization Laboratory
Product and Systems Lifecycle Management Center
Georgia Institute of Technology
Lecture Overview
Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE
• Graph-based algorithm
Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops
• Tearing algorithm
Challenge 2: Structural singularities
• What is it? How to deal with it?
• Higher-index problems
Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
• Zero crossings
Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties
For more info refer to: Continuous System Simulation by Cellier and Kofman
2
DAE problems in Dymola
Object-oriented model results in implicit DAE system:
0 ( , , , ) F y y z t = &
Before solving, Dymola converts this into a semi-explicit DAE:
P bl th t d t b dd d
0
( , , )
( , , ) 0
(0)
y f y z t
g y z t
y y
=


=


=

&
0 ( , , , ) F y y z t = &
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
Problems that need to be addressed:
• Selection of state variables, y
• Causality assignment: For each equation determine which variable is the
dependent variable
• Order in which equations should be evaluated
Simple System – Convert to Explicit ODE
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
( ) u f t
u R i
u R i
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
0 1
L
L
C
C
C
di
u L
dt
du
i C
dt
u u u
u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
+
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
1 2
2
0 1
1 2
L
C
L
C
u u u
u u
i i i
i i i
= +
=
= +
= +
3
Causality Assignment and State Selection
State variables?
• Variables for which derivatives appear
• State variables can be considered as known
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
( ) u f t
u R i
u R i
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Which are the unknowns?
Causality assignment:
• If equation has only 1 unknown
it t l f k
0 1
L
L
C
C
C
di
u L
dt
du
i C
dt
u u u
u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
+
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
use it to solve for unknown
• If unknown appears only in 1 equation
use it to solve for unknown
1 2
2
0 1
1 2
L
C
L
C
u u u
u u
i i i
i i i
= +
=
= +
= +
Causality Assignment and State Selection
State variables?
• Variables for which derivatives appear
• State variables can be considered as known
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
( ) u f t
u R i
u R i
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Which are the unknowns?
Causality assignment:
• If equation has only 1 unknown
it t l f k
0 1 2 0 1 2

C L
L C
du di
u u u u i i i i
dt dt
0 1
L
L
C
C
C
di
u L
dt
du
i C
dt
u u u
u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
+
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
use it to solve for unknown
• If unknown appears only in 1 equation
use it to solve for unknown
1 2
2
0 1
1 2
L
C
L
C
u u u
u u
i i i
i i i
= +
=
= +
= +
4
Graph-Based Approach for Causality Assignment:
Tarjan Algorithm
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
Step 0: Connect Equations and Unknowns
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
5
Step 1: Identify Equations with Only 1 Unknown
Color Scheme:
• Acausal equation =only black and blue lines
• Causal equation =one red line
• Unknownvariable =only black and blue lines Unknown variable only black and blue lines
• Known variable =one red line
Algorithm – step 1:
f or al l acausal equations do
i f equation has only one black line t hen
number equat i on wi t h l owest f r ee number
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
number equat i on wi t h l owest f r ee number
col or l i ne r ed
f ol l ow l i ne t o var i abl e
col or al l ot her l i nes f or var i abl e bl ue
Step 2: Identify Variables in Only 1 Equation
Color Scheme:
• Acausal equation =only black and blue lines
• Causal equation =one red line
• Unknownvariable =only black and blue lines Unknown variable only black and blue lines
• Known variable =one red line
Algorithm – step 1:
f or al l unknown variables do
i f variable has only one black line t hen
number equat i on wi t h hi ghest f r ee number
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
number equat i on wi t h hi ghest f r ee number
col or l i ne r ed
f ol l ow l i ne t o equat i on
col or al l ot her l i nes f or equat i on bl ue
6
Final Result
(1)
(5)
(3)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅ (3)
(10)
(9)
(4)
(7)
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(2)
(8)
(6)
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
Final Result – Sorted & Causality Assigned
0 0
2 2
: ( )
:
: /
C
u f t u
u u u
i u R i
=
=
=
(1)
(2)
(3)
2 2 2 2
1 0 1
1 1 1 1
1 2
1 2
: /
:
: /

:
:
C
C C
L L
i u R i
u u u u
i i u R
i i i i
u u u u
=
= −
=
= −
= +
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
0 0 1
:
/ / : /
/ / : /
L
C C C
L L L
i i i i
du dt du dt i C
di dt di dt u L
= +
=
=
(8)
(9)
(10)
7
Lecture Overview
Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE
• Graph-based algorithm
Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops
• Tearing algorithm
Challenge 2: Structural singularities
• What is it? How to deal with it?
• Higher-index problems
Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
• Zero crossings
Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties
System 2 – Algebraic Loop
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
( ) u f t
u R i
u R i
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
2 2 2
3 3 3
0 1 3
1 2
L
L
L
u R i
di
u L
dt
u R i
u u u
u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
1 2
2 3
0 1
1 2 3
L
L
u u
i i i
i i i
=
= +
= +
8
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Step 0: Connect Equations and Unknowns
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Step 1: Identify Equations
(1)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
9
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Step 2: Identify Variables
(1)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
(10)
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
(9)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Step 1: Identify Equations – None Available
(1)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
(10)
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
(9)
10
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Step 2: Identify Variables
(1)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
(10)
(8)
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
(9)
STUCK!! – Algebraic Loop
(1)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
(10)
(8)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(9)
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
11
Algebraic Loop – Tearing Algorithm
6 equations in 6 unknowns
Simplify problem by assuming one of the unknown
variable to be known: e.g. i
3
variable to be known: e.g. i
3
• If we knew i
3
, we could compute i
3new
Guess i
3
, and iterate until the residual is zero:
i
3new
- i
3
= 0 (residual equation)
Also works for nonlinear equations
With symbolic differentiation,
It ti i f t
3 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
1 0 3
1 1
:
:
: /
:
: /
i
u R i
u u
i u R
u u u
i u R
= ⋅
=
=
= −
=
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
Iteration is very fast
Multiple tearing variables may be needed
Tricky part: How to choose the tearing variable?
can only be determined using heuristics
3 1 2
:
new
i i i = −
Tearing Algorithm
(1)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
(10)
(8)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(9)
tear
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
12
Tearing Algorithm
(1)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
(10)
(8)
(2*)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(9)
tear
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
Tearing Algorithm
(1)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
(10)
(8)
(2*)
(3*)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(9)
tear (4*)
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
13
Tearing Algorithm
(1)
(5*)
(6*)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
(10)
(8)
(6 )
(2*)
(3*)
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 0
0 1 3 1
1 2 2
( / )

L L L
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
u R i i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(9)
tear (4*)
residual
3 2 3
0 1
3 1 2 3
/
L L
u u i
i i i di dt
u i i i
=
= +
= +
Algebraic Loop Example – Summary
0
( , , )
( , , ) 0
(0)
y f y z t
g y z t
y y
= ⎧

=


=

&
0 ( , , , ) F y y z t = &
0
(0) y y

: /
L
L
di
u L
dt
=
3 3 3
2 3
2 2 2
:
:
: /
:
u R i
u u
i u R
u u u
= ⋅
=
=
0
: ( ) u f t =
1 2
0 1
:
:
L
L
u u u
i i i
= +
= +
Algebraic Equations
Differential Equation
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
dt
1 0 3
1 1
3 1 2
:
: /
:
i
new
u u u
i u R
i i i
= −
=
= −
Solve Iteratively
0 1 L
14
Lecture Overview
Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE
• Graph-based algorithm
Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops
• Tearing algorithm
Challenge 2: Structural singularities
• What is it? How to deal with it?
• Higher-index problems
Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
• Zero crossings
Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties
System 3 – Structural Singularity
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
( ) u f t
u R i
u R i
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
0 1
L
L
C
C
L
di
u L
dt
du
i C
dt
u u u
u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
+
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
1 2
2
0 1
1 2
C
L
C
L
u u u
u u
i i i
i i i
= +
=
= +
= +
15
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Step 0: Connect Equations and Unknowns
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
2 1 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
L
C
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
i u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C L
L C
C L
i u u
di dt i i i
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
Apply Both Rules
(1)
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
2 1 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
L
C
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
i u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
(10)
(9)
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C L
L C
C L
i u u
di dt i i i
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
(8)
16
STUCK! Structural Singularity
(1)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
(10)
(9)
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
2 1 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
L
C
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
i u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(8)
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C L
L C
C L
i u u
di dt i i i
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
What is the problem?
0
1 1 1
2 2 2
( ) u f t
u R i
u R i
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
0 1
L
L
C
C
L
di
u L
dt
du
i C
dt
u u u
u u u
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
+
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
1 2
2
0 1
1 2
C
L
C
L
u u u
u u
i i i
i i i
= +
=
= +
= +
17
Structural Singularity
Main approach – Pantelides Algorithm
• Use symbolic differentiation to remove singularity in equations
1. Determine constraint equation (could be hidden – use tearing)
2. Differentiate constraint equation and assign dummy derivatives
3. Remove corresponding integration equations remain square
• Details of algorithm are tricky…
(For details see: Continuous System Simulation by Cellier and Kofman)
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
Algorithm is also called an index reduction algorithm
What is an index?
Characteristic of DAE: Perturbation Index
Loosely defined:
The number of differentiations needed
to turn a DAE into a pure ODE
Examples:
• Pure ODE is index-0
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
• ODE with algebraic loop is index-1
• Structurally singular system index-2 (or larger)
18
Lecture Overview
Converting implicit DAE into semi-explicit DAE
• Graph-based algorithm
Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops Challenge 1: Algebraic Loops
• Tearing algorithm
Challenge 2: Structural singularities
• What is it? How to deal with it?
• Higher-index problems
Challenge 3: Handling Discrete Events
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
• Zero crossings
Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties
Mixed Systems: DAE + Discrete event
mg
At impact: v -v*k
[…]
equation
Discrete Event
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
mg
equation
when height <=radius then
reinit( velocity, -k*pre(velocity) )
end when
end
19
Mixed DAEs
Hybrid systems require additional solver
capabilities:
1. Event Detection – solving for zero-crossings g g
Height changes continuously as function of time
step size needs to be selected such that height =radius
2. Event Handling
• Stop the integration algorithm
• Find a new state consistent with the algebraic constraints
• Restart the integrationalgorithm
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
Restart the integration algorithm
• Be careful!
• Event handling can be slow
• Chattering
Summary of Method Characteristics
Appropriate for DAE or only ODE?
Capable of finding initial conditions?
• Especiallyimportant for hybrid DAE • Especially important for hybrid DAE
Capable of solving Stiff systems?
• Stiff implies implicit method
Capable of handling overdetermined systems?
• More convenient than having to remove redundant constraints
manually
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
Order of method?
• Typically higher is better
20
Dymola Methods
Method Model
Type
Order Stiff Root
Find
Algorithm
DEABM ODE 1-12 No No Adams/Bashforth/Moulton; reliable, maybe slow
LSODE1 ODE 1-12 No No Adams/Bashforth/Moulton; faster than DEABM
LSODE2 ODE 1-5 Yes No Backward Difference Formulae; Gear method
LSODAR ODE 1-12, 1-5 Both Yes Adams/Bashforth/Moulton
DOPRI5 ODE 5 No No Runge-Kutta by Dormand and Prince
DOPRI8 ODE 8 No No Runge-Kutta by Dormand and Prince
GRK4T ODE 4 Yes No Linearly-implicit Rosenbrock
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
DASSL DAE 1-5 Yes Yes BDF; default choice in Dymola
ODASSL ODAE 1-5 Yes Yes Modified DASSL for overdetermined DAEs
MEXX ODAE 2-24 No No Special index-2 DAE; not for ODE!
Summary
Identify types and properties of ODE systems
Identify types and properties of ODE solvers
• Accuracy
• Convergence Convergence
• Stability
• Stiffness
Higher Order Methods and their properties
Causalization, tearing, index reduction
Complexities of mixed DAE problems
Overview of Dymola solvers and their properties
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
Solver implementation is for Professionals Only
Do not try this at home
Not-so-fine print:
21
Step 1: Identify Equations with Only 1 Unknown
(1)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(2)
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
Solution for Example 1
Step 2: Identify Variables in Only 1 Equation
(1)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅
(10)
(9)
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(2)
(8)
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
Solution for Example 1
22
Repeat Step 1: Identify Equations
(1)
(3)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅ (3)
(10)
(9)
(4)
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(2)
(8)
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
Solution for Example 1
Repeat Step 2: Identify Variables
(1)
(3)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅ (3)
(10)
(9)
(4)
(7)
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(2)
(8)
(6)
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
Solution for Example 1
23
Repeat Step 1: Identify Equations
(1)
(5)
(3)
0 0
1 1 1 1
( ) u f t u
u R i u
u R i u
=
= ⋅
= ⋅ (3)
(10)
(9)
(4)
(7)
2 2 2 2
0
0 1 1
1 2 2
( / )
( / )

L L L
C C
C
L
u R i u
u L di dt u
i C du dt i
u u u i
u u u i
= ⋅
= ⋅
= ⋅
= +
= +
Systems Realization Laboratory ©2009, Chris Paredis
(2)
(8)
(6)
2
0 1
1 2
/
/
C C
L L
C C
u u i
i i i di dt
du dt i i i
=
= +
= +
Solution for Example 1

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