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PIPELINE MANUAL

CHEVRON RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COMPANY


RICHMOND, CA
November 1994
Manual sponsor: For information or help regarding this manual,
contact T. (Tim) Sheckler (510) 242-2298
November 1994 Chevron Corporation
Printing History
Pipeline Manual
First Edition November 1989
First Revision January 1990
Second Revision January 1991
Third Revision May 1993
Fourth Revision November 1994
The information in this Manual has been jointly developed by Chevron Corporation and its Operating
Companies. The Manual has been written to assist Chevron personnel in their work; as such, it may be
interpreted and used as seen fit by operating management.
Copyright 1988, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994 CHEVRON CORPORATION. All rights reserved. This docu-
ment contains proprietary information for use by Chevron Corporation, its subsidiaries, and affiliates. All
other uses require written permission.
Restricted Material
Technical Memorandum
This material is transmitted subject to the Export Control Laws of the
United States Department of Commerce for technical data. Furthermore,
you hereby assure us that the material transmitted herewith shall not be
exported or re-exported by you in violation of these export controls.
Chevron Corporation November 1994
List of Current Pages
Pipeline Manual
The following list shows publication or revision dates for the contents of this manual. To verify that your
manual contains current material, check the sections in question with the list below. If your copy is not
current, contact the Technical Standards Team, Chevron Research and Technology Company, Richmond,
CA (510) 242-7241.
Section Date
Front Matter November 1994
Table of Contents November 1994
References November 1994
Section 50 November 1994
Section 100 November 1988
Section 200 November 1988
Section 300 November 1994
Section 400 November 1994
Section 500 November 1988
Section 600 November 1988
Section 700 November 1994
Section 800 November 1988
Section 900 November 1994
Section 1000 May 1993
Section 2000 November 1994
Company Specifications
PPL-MS-1050-H May 1993
PPL-MS-1564-D January 1990
PPL-MS-1632-E November 1988
PPL-MS-1800-G November 1990
PPL-MS-4041-B May 1993
PPL-MS-4737-A November 1994
PPL-MS-4807 January 1990
Data Sheets
PPL-DS-4737 November 1994
PPL-DS-1050 May 1993
PPL-DS-4041 May 1993
PPL-DS-4807 January 1990
All other Data Sheets November 1988
Data Sheet Guides
PPL-DG-1050 November 1994
PPL-DG-4041 November 1994
PPL-DG-4807 January 1990
All other Data Sheet Guides November 1988
Standard Drawings and Forms All specifications, drawings, and forms are
marked with thier latest revision dates.
GE-L99880 November 1988
Appendix A November 1988
Appendix B November 1988
Appendix C November 1988
Appendix D November 1988
Appendix E November 1988
Appendix F November 1988
Appendix G November 1988
Appendix H January 1990
Appendix I November 1994
1 PC Disk November 1994
Disk(s) Information Sheet November 1994
Section Date
Chevron Corporation November 1994
Maintaining This Manual
Pipeline Manual
If you have moved or you want to change the distribution of this manual, use the form below. Once you
have completed the information, fold, staple, and send by company mail. You can also FAX your change
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Send this completed form to: Document Control, Room 50-4328
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The Chevron Research and Technology Company (CRTC) is a full-service, in-house engineering organi-
zation.
CRTC periodically publishes a Consultants Card listing primary contacts in the CRTC specialty divi-
sions. To order a Consultants Card, contact Ken Wasilchin of the CRTC Technical Standards Team at
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Chevron Corporation November 1994
Reader Response Form
Pipeline Manual
We are very interested in comments and suggestions for improving this manual and keeping it up to date.
Please use this form to suggest changes; notify us of errors or inaccuracies; provide information that
reflects changing technology; or submit material (drawings, specifications, procedures, etc.) that should
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Feel free to include photocopies of page(s) you have comments about. All suggestions will be reviewed
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Chevron Corporation November 1994
This document contains extensive hyperlinks to figures and cross-referenced sections.
The pointer will change to a pointing finger when positioned over text which contains a link.
Pipeline
Manual Sponsor: G. B. Kohut / (510) 242-3245 / E-mail: gbko@chevron.com
List of Current Pages
50 Using This Manual 50-1
100 General Information 100-1
200 Route Selection 200-1
300 Pipe and Coatings 300-1
400 Design 400-1
500 SCADA Systems 500-1
600 Construction 600-1
700 Inspection and Testing 700-1
800 Operations and Maintenance 800-1
900 Offshore 900-1
1000 Guidelines for Low Pressure Buried Fiberglass Pipe 1000-1
Appendices
Appendix A Conversion Tables
Appendix B Directional Drilling
Appendix C Offshore Pipelines
Appendix D Operating Plan Guidelines
Appendix E Field Inspection Guidelines
Appendix F Development of Depth of Burial Diagrams
Appendix G Subsea Valves
Appendix H Guidelines for Weight-Coating on Submerged Pipelines
Appendix I Calculation of Bending Stress in Buried Pressurized Pipeline Due to External
Loads
References
Chevron Corporation 50-1 Novermber 1994
50 Using This Manual
Abstract
This section tells you how this manual is organized. A Quick-Reference Guide
(Figure 50-1) is provided to highlight key areas of the manual. A cross-reference
chart (Figure 50-2) relates the manual to others in the set.
50 Using This Manual Pipeline Manual
Novermber 1994 50-2 Chevron Corporation
Scope and Application
The Pipeline Manual, written for convenient reference by Company personnel
engaged in technical work on pipelines, is directed to technical personnel regardless
of experience. This manual should never substitute for sound engineering judg-
ment.
This manual contains guidelines and specifications for use by Company personnel.
The material may be used as is, or modified for local organizational or geographic
preferences, priorities, or experiences.
The intent is to provide practical, useful information based on Company experi-
ence. Therefore, forms have been included in the front of the manual for your
convenience in suggesting changes. Your input and experience are important for
improving subsequent printings and keeping this manual up-to-date.
Organization
The Pipeline Manual is part of a set of manuals produced by Chevron Research &
Technology Company in cooperation with all Operating Companies in the Corpora-
tion. Several of these manuals contain information directly related to pipelines.
Piping
Insulation and Refractories
Fluid Flow
Instrumentation and Control
Coatings Corrosion Prevention
Welding
All the manuals are interrelated; therefore, a list of cross references (at the end of
this section.) has been developed to assist you in finding related subject matter. The
index also aids in locating information in other manuals.
Each manual is organized using different-colored tabs to assist users in finding the
appropriate information quickly:
White tabs are for table of contents, introduction, appendices, PC disks, index
and general purpose topics.
Blue tabs denote Engineering Guidelines.
Gray tabs denote Specifications, Data Sheets, Data Sheet Guides, and related
industry standards (API, ANSI).
A Red tab marks a place for you to keep documents developed by your organi-
zation.
Pipeline Manual 50 Using This Manual
Chevron Corporation 50-3 Novermber 1994
Part I - Engineering Guidelines
This part of the manual contains: (1) material selection guidelines; (2) design princi-
ples and Corporation suggested practices; (3) construction techniques; (4) inspec-
tion criteria; (5) operational information.
Part II - Specifications
This part of the manual contains: (1) general instructions for using specifications;
(2) model specifications, data sheets, and data sheet instructions that can be copied
or modified to local preferences; and, (3) industry standards (API, ANSI).
Change Bars, vertical black lines, have been used in the margins of the master speci-
fications to indicate where information has been added, changed, or deleted in refer-
ence to the last edition of the manual.
Other Company Manuals
The text sometimes refers to documents in other Company manuals. These docu-
ments carry the prefix of that manual. The prefixes are defined here:
Prefix Company Manual
CIV Civil and Structural
CMP Compressor
COM Coatings
CPM Corrosion Prevention
DRI Driver
ELC Electrical
EXH Exchangers and Cooling Towers
FFM Fluid Flow
FPM Fire Protection Manual
HTR Fired Heaters and Waste Heat Recovery
ICM Instrumentation and Control
IRM Insulation and Refractory
MAC General Machinery
NCM Noise Control
PIM Piping
PMP Pump
PPL Pipeline
PVM Pressure Vessel
TAM Tank
UTL Utilities
WEM Welding
50 Using This Manual Pipeline Manual
Novermber 1994 50-4 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 50-1 Quick Reference Guide
Task Pipeline Manual Sections
Learn background information
Hydraulics 400
Design 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 900
Offshore 900
Specifying and purchasing
Line pipe 300, 2000
Induction bends 300, 2000
Cement-lined pipe 300, 2000
Troubleshooting
Hot-tapping 800
Hydrates 800
Developing a Purchase Specification Model Specifications, Specification disk
Filling Out a Data Sheet Data Sheet Guides
Selecting the Best
Line pipe 310, 400
Pipeline route 200
SCADA system 500
Coating 340, 350, 440
Selecting appropriate inspection and testing for pipe-
lines
700
Selecting appropriate inspection and testing for line
pipe
300, 700, Data Sheet Guides
Locating information related to pipelines (components,
coatings, welding, insulation)
See Cross-Reference List
Pipeline Manual 50 Using This Manual
Chevron Corporation 50-5 Novermber 1994
Fig. 50-2 Manuals Cross Reference Chart (1 of 2)
PPL PIM FFM COM CPM WEM IRM ICM
Abandonment X
Anchors X X
Coatings
External X X X
Insulation X
Internal X
Selection Chart X X
Weight X
Components
API 5L Line Pipe X
ASTM A106 Pipe X
Instruments X
Insulation X
Valves and Fittings X X
Computer Programs X X
Construction
Cathodic Protection X
Coating X X X
Inspection X X X X
Offshore Methods X X X X
Testing X X X
Welding X X X
Design
ANSI/ASME B31.3 X
ANSI/ASME B31.4
ANSI/ASME B31.8 X
Hot Oil X X X
Metering X
Pipeline X
Plant Piping X
SCADA X
Expansion X X
Hot Tapping X X
50 Using This Manual Pipeline Manual
Novermber 1994 50-6 Chevron Corporation
Hydraulic Calculations X X
Inspection and Testing X
Installation
Crossings X
Pipeline X
Plant Piping X
Pipe Cleaning X X
Plant Piping X
Pulsation Control (Surge) X
Row Cleanup X
Specifications
C.S. Piping Fabrication X
Cement-Lined Pipe X
External FBE Coating X
Induction Bonding X
Internal Coating Tubular X
Insulation X
Line Pipe X
Pressure Testing of Plant Piping X
Radiography X
Sour Line Pipe X
Startup X
Surveying X
Troubleshooting X
Fig. 50-2 Manuals Cross Reference Chart (2 of 2)
PPL PIM FFM COM CPM WEM IRM ICM
Chevron Corporation 100-1 November 1988
100 General Information
Abstract
The Pipeline Manual is a guide for the basic design and construction of pipeline
systems. It focuses on design fundamentals, guidelines for practical installations,
and specification and purchase of materials and services. It is applicable to small
gathering pipelines, large transmission pipeline systems and offshore pipelines. Its
guidelines encompass the experience of the Corporations Operating Companies.
The manuals broad applicability makes it useful to both engineers and operating
personnel.
The Pipeline Manual is concerned only with pipelines. It does not provide design
information for pump stations, compressor stations or tank terminals, even though
these facilities may be covered by the pipeline design codes. The manual includes
certain topics related to operations and maintenance, but not a comprehensive
description of these functions.
The Pipeline Manual organizes in one place much of the Companys information on
pipelines, presented in guideline form. It includes Company specifications which
are easily used by any Operating Company. Industry standards are also included.
For some subjects it advises reference to the more complete discussions in other
ETD manuals.
Contents Page
110 Contents 100-2
120 Code Compliance 100-2
130 Legal Requirements 100-3
140 Engineering Judgment 100-4
150 Mandatory and Recommended Practice 100-4
100 General Information Pipeline Manual
November 1988 100-2 Chevron Corporation
110 Contents
The Pipeline Manual is organized into two parts:
Part I - Engineering Guidelines
Section 100 provides a road map for the entire manual, and background infor-
mation on engineering style.
Section 200 describes how to select a pipeline route.
Section 300 describes the selection of the physical parts of a pipeline: the pipe,
components and coating.
Section 400 explains pipeline design and the Companys preferred methods.
Section 500 tells how to monitor your pipeline system by using SCADA
systems.
Section 600 discusses pipeline construction activities and contracting.
Section 700 tells you how to ensure a good product through careful inspection
and testing.
Section 800 explains some operations and maintenance considerations that
help produce practical designs.
Section 900 covers the subject of offshore pipeline design and construction,
discussing the differences and recapitulating the similarities between onshore
and offshore pipelines.
Part II - Specifications
Section 2000 introduces the Specifications part of the manual and tells you
how to use the documents contained there.
The Company Specifications section contains model format specifications with
comments and their corresponding data sheets.
The Standard Forms and Drawings section contains forms and drawings that
pertain to the pipeline guidelines in this manual.
The Industry Codes and Practices section provides the industry specifications
and practices that the Guidelines and Company Specifications reference.
The Appendices provide references, conversion tables, sample specifications,
sample guidelines, and background design calculations.
120 Code Compliance
The various pipeline codes (such as ANSI/ASME Codes B31.4 and B31.8 in the
United States) contain practices necessary for safe pipeline systems, but are not
intended to be complete specifications for all phases of design. The Company recog-
nizes this fact, and the guidelines and specifications in this manual provide the
Pipeline Manual 100 General Information
Chevron Corporation 100-3 November 1988
supplemental requirements normally needed to obtain economical systems for basic
fluid services. A few requirementswhere experience has shown them to be better
choicesare more stringent than code minimums. Engineers responsible for design
and construction of pipelines are expected to be familiar with and to comply with
the appropriate codes even though some of their provisions may not be specifically
included in this manual.
130 Legal Requirements
In general, pipelines which conform with ANSI/ASME Codes B31.4 and B31.8
will meet the legal requirements in the USA for gas and liquid pipelines and facili-
ties such as pump stations and compressor stations. See Section 400 for elaboration.
In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) is mandatory.
Other countries have similar legislation. For general petroleum industry piping, the
major effect of OSHA is on construction safety and to forbid the use of regular cast
iron for flammable or combustible liquids having a flash temperature below 200F
or a temperature within 30F of their flash temperature. Steel, ductile cast iron or
malleable cast iron are required. The details of OSHA regulations are still
changing, and the most recent revision should be reviewed where the economic
effect of this requirement is considerable.
Pipeline activities in Canada are governed by the CAN3-Z183 and CAN/CSA-Z184
pipeline codes, and the CAN3-Z245 line pipe code.
Some states and localities in the United States have adopted some sections of
ANSI/ASME Code B31; however, it is not a legal requirement in most states.
OSHA regulations strongly encourage use of Code B31 by stating that compliance
with Code B31 and specific OSHA rules is prime facie evidence of compliance
with OSHA basic requirements.
The United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 192 and Part 195 (49
CFR 192 and 195) cover interstate and continental shelf oil piping and essentially
all gas transportation piping. They define the minimum design requirements for oil
and gas pipelines. Pipelines regulated by 49 CFR 192 and 195 are the responsibility
of the Department of Transportation (DOT). 49 CFR 192 does not incorporate Code
B31.8 by reference, while 49 CFR 195 does incorporate Code B31.4 by reference.
However, Codes B31.4 and B31.8 contain supplemental design information and
their use is recommended. In case of conflict, the applicable part of 49 CFR will
govern.
The United States Code of Federal Regulations, Title 30 Part 250 (30 CFR 250)
covers oil, gas, and sulfur operators in the continental shelf. Pipelines regulated by
30 CFR 250 are the responsibility of the Department of the Interior (DOI). 30 CFR
250 covers flowlines, platforms, separation facilities, pumps, and compressors
upstream of the first flange on the sales pipeline, which is usually a DOT responsi-
bility pipeline. See Section 900 for explanation.
Engineers responsible for design and construction of pipelines in the United States
are expected to determine which codes are legally required and if there are any
other federal, state, or local regulations governing such construction. The Company
100 General Information Pipeline Manual
November 1988 100-4 Chevron Corporation
requires compliance with the most stringent practice. For installations outside the
United States and Canada, the engineer responsible for piping design and construc-
tion should determine if there are national and local regulations pertaining to piping
design. The ANSI/ASME codes remain good guidelines where no other regulations
exist.
140 Engineering Judgment
The use of these Guidelines does not eliminate the need for sound engineering judg-
ment. A few examples of special cases that are not covered by these guidelines and
that should be given special consideration are:
Extraordinary service conditions such as earthquake, high wind, other unusual
dynamic loadings, or unusual superimposed dead loads
Cold climates that may require special materials to avoid brittle fractures
High H
2
S concentrations that may place restrictions on valve trim and weld
hardness
Consider upgrading of Class 150 flanges to Class 300 flanges where frequent
blinding is required
It is necessary that the user of this manual realize that its use does not release him
from his responsibility to use sound judgment in the selection of materials,
fittings, valves, and other piping items to meet safety and economic considerations.
No attempt has been made to provide for all the in-between or gray areas.
Some examples of areas where variations could apply:
Use of lighter wall pipe for low pressure systems
Use of higher yield strength materials when economics dictate
Variation in corrosion allowance or selection of material for handling of corro-
sive/erosive material
150 Mandatory and Recommended Practice
For the most part, this manual covers RECOMMENDED practice. However,
certain codes govern some activities and require that the design and materials
conform to a specific standard. These codes are therefore mandatory.
MANDATORY in this context means that the engineer and/or operating
personnel selecting equipment must conform to the selections as required by
the governing code in order to meet minimum safety standards and govern-
ment requirements.
The following definitions also apply throughout this manual:
SHALL and IS REQUIRED mean mandatory per code and/or Company require-
ments.
Pipeline Manual 100 General Information
Chevron Corporation 100-5 November 1988
SHOULD means advisory guidelines that are to be adhered to where no overriding
objections are apparent. An advisory guideline represents a design which is appli-
cable in most cases and represents the experience and expertise of the Company.
PREFERRED and RECOMMENDED mean guide-lines which are generally and
successfully used within the Company, but there are other choices and methods
which are acceptable.
MAY means acceptable or permitted options.
The above definitions are the same as those used in the Companys Safety-in-
Designs Manual.
Chevron Corporation 200-1 November 1988
200 Route Selection
Abstract
This section focuses on the route selection decisions and activities that occur at the
beginning of a pipeline project and influence the character of the entire project.
Issues covered include preliminary route selection, project planning, regulatory and
jurisdictional research, surface considerations, environmental and technical surveys,
and final alignment and surveying. Careful and complete project planning mini-
mizes project cost and duration. This section was developed with a large cross-
country pipeline in mind, but most of the concepts can also be applied to smaller
jobs and offshore pipelines.
Contents Page
210 Preliminary Route Selection 200-3
211 Hydraulic Profiles and Pump Station Locations
212 Input on Right-of-Way and Permitting Procedures
220 Project Planning 200-4
230 Jurisdiction, Permitting, and Rights-of-Way 200-6
231 Governmental Jurisdictions
232 Land Jurisdictions
233 Permitting
234 Private Right-of-Way Acquisition
240 Surface Considerations 200-9
241 Surface Conditions
242 Environmental Surveys
243 Technical Surveys
250 Alignment, Surveying, and Mapping 200-11
251 Published Maps and Aerial Photography
252 Surveying and Mapping Services
253 Aerial Photography and Photogrammetry
254 Field Surveying and Mapping
200 Route Selection Pipeline Manual
November 1988 200-2 Chevron Corporation
255 Route Alignment Sheets and Design Drawings
256 Special Survey Systems
Pipeline Manual 200 Route Selection
Chevron Corporation 200-3 November 1988
210 Preliminary Route Selection
Preliminary route selection involves applying common-sense engineering to the
problem of identifying reasonable deviations from a straight line between points A
and B. These deviations are dictated by the need for an economic route and by the
requirements of permitting agencies. Suitable maps are required to select a route
and to determine the length of the pipeline; these should show contour lines, rivers,
roads, railroads, towns, existing pipelines, and other topographic features. For long
cross-country pipelines a World Aeronautical Chart is very useful. These are
readily available for most parts of the world. For lines in the United States, U.S.
Geological Survey maps of an appropriate scale give more detail, and are especially
useful for shorter lines and critical areas. Aerial photographs, if available, also
show certain topographic details.
Common-sense reasons to deviate from the straight line include the following:
To avoid significant natural obstacles such as mountains, rock, swamps, unnec-
essary river crossings, etc., and to select favorable locations for crossing moun-
tain ranges, rivers, etc. However, extensive deviation to avoid difficult terrain
should be evaluated to determine whether the lower construction cost per mile
offsets the added length of line and the probable higher pumping costs
To avoid developed areas such as towns, industrial areas, residential areas,
intensive cultivation, etc., where right-of-way, construction, and construction
damage costs will be high
To minimize control points in hydraulic profiles. See the discussion of
hydraulic profiles in Sections 420 and 430 of this manual. Additional pumping
power may be needed to overcome hydrostatic heads to clear control point
elevations, particularly where the control point is near the end of the line or the
inlet to a pump station
To improve access for pipeline construction material and equipmentas well
as for operations and maintenanceby using existing roads, including unim-
proved roads adequate for pipe-hauling trucks
To avoid government-restricted or environmentally sensitive areas and to
reduce right-of-way and construction damage costs, if the information on these
areas is available when a preliminary route is initially being studied. This infor-
mation should be developed concurrently and factored into the route selection
process as soon as it is available (see Section 210). Depending on the nature
and complexity of these considerations, either a single preliminary route will
be the obvious selection, and steps to develop a final alignment can proceed, or
one or more alternative routes will warrant evaluation. Route selection may be
influenced by right-of-way and permitting conditions as well as economic
comparison.
211 Hydraulic Profiles and Pump Station Locations
Once an initial route has been identified, the ground profile should be plotted on
cross-section paper, and a preliminary hydraulic profile should be developed using
200 Route Selection Pipeline Manual
November 1988 200-4 Chevron Corporation
the method discussed in Section 420. This should also be done for any alternative
routes under consideration.
The hydraulic profile indicates approximate locations for intermediate pump
stations for both initial and future design line throughput capacity. Pump station
location may slightly influence final pipeline alignment, because of land avail-
ability, station access, electric power access, etc.
212 Input on Right-of-Way and Permitting Procedures
Gathering of information on right-of-way and permitting procedures should
proceed concurrently with route selection, preliminary engineering for line sizing,
and cost estimates. This input is vital in developing the preliminary route that will
be the basis for detailed engineering, acquisition of rights of way and permits, envi-
ronmental and technical surveys, and final route alignment surveying.
Besides those of the Company operating organization that the pipeline facility will
serve, Company resources at this stage normally should include:
Engineering
Land
Governmental affairs
Environmental affairs
These groups usually can offer pertinent background information on route selection
and procedures involved in obtaining rights of way and permits, and can develop
plans to identify the appropriate authorities involved in granting rights of way and
permits. For a cross-country or offshore pipeline, early development of a schedule
for permit applications and approvals, environmental and technical surveys to
support these applications, right-of-way acquisition (including condemnations, etc.)
is essential.
220 Project Planning
Basic planning and coordination for all phases of the project should be initiated
early in the project, so that project progress is not stalled by such road blocks as
extended permit application procedures, changes in design basis, (such as line
throughput forecast or fluid properties), prolonged permitting processes, right-of-
way acquisition difficulties, pipe delivery delays, contracting surprises, and prob-
lems in staffing and equipping field forces. Project planning for a major pipeline
should cover the following:
Pre-appropriation request phase
Conceptual design and cost estimates, based on a reliable line throughput
forecast and best available information on fluid properties
Rheological testing, if needed to establish or confirm fluid properties
Definition of procedures and arrangements for permit applications, envi-
ronmental and technical surveys, and environmental impact studies, and
Pipeline Manual 200 Route Selection
Chevron Corporation 200-5 November 1988
initiation of these surveys and studies as appropriate to meet permitting
schedules
Preparation of an Appropriation Request and economic analysis, and a
Contracting Plan
Project development of the approved project
Designs
Acquisition of permits and rights of way, including finalizing environ-
mental impact reports
Procurement of construction materials
Arrangements for temporary field facilities
Further environmental and technical surveys
Field alignment and property surveys
Preparation of contract specifications and bidding papers
Contract awards
Project controls and reports
Construction and project completion:
Contract administration, field engineering and inspection, materials control
Field contracting
Field purchasing, if appropriate
Project controls and reports
Completion tests, dewatering, and turnover to the operating organization
Construction damage claim settlements
Documentation and reports to permitting authorities
Record drawings for completed facilities
For offshore projects key elements of front-end engineering and detailed design
development are indicated in Section 930, Figures 900-1 and 900-2. Many of these
elements apply to onshore projects.
Planning must also include staffing requirements for all phases of the project, devel-
opment of personnel policies, arrangements for extended work weeks and travel
and field expenses, arrangements for borrowed personnel, etc. See the guidelines on
the field supervision organization in Section 670 of this manual, and on the
typical field inspection organization in Section 790.
Field support facilities must be carefully and realistically defined, so that offices,
vehicles, and the communication system are ready and operational when needed.
Mobility of field personnel and reliable communications are extremely important
on a pipeline project. Field personnel are spread out geographically; they must be
able to travel the route and to communicate with other field people and the construc-
tion office base at all times. Vehicles and the communications system must suit the
terrain, and acquiring them often involves long lead times. With few exceptions
four-wheel drive vehicles and two-way radios are necessary along the route, and
key construction office personnel should have radio-equipped vehicles.
200 Route Selection Pipeline Manual
November 1988 200-6 Chevron Corporation
A Project Contracting Plan is required by Corporation Policy 500 for large
projects, and should be prepared for all projects to summarize intended contracts
and timing. Dependent on contract scope and circumstances, contracts may cover:
Front-end engineering, providing conceptual design, cost estimates, and prepa-
ration of specifications for detailed design, procurement and construction
Surveying and mapping, and environmental and technical surveys as needed
for route selection, permitting, and design development
Specialist assistance for right-of-way and permit acquisition
Technical research and testing, as may be needed
Design and procurement, if not done in-house
Construction of the facilities, usually separately for the pipeline and for
stations and terminals
Construction support services, including radiographic inspection, nondestruc-
tive testing, and hydrostatic test witnessing
Supplemental personnel
Temporary facilities and utilities
Contracting guidelines are included in the Construction and Services Contract
Manual. The Contracts staff of the Engineering Technology Department can be
consulted regarding types of contracts, contract forms, compensation items, and
contractor performance. Also, see the discussion on construction and construc-
tion service contracts in Section 680 of the manual.
230 Jurisdiction, Permitting, and Rights-of-Way
231 Governmental Jurisdictions
United States interstate and intrastate hazardous liquid and gas pipelines are feder-
ally regulated except in the case of intrastate pipelines where a state has adopted
standards that are the same as or more stringent than the federal standards. Chevron
Pipe Line Companys Guide to Pipeline Safety Regulations provides the informa-
tion needed to determine jurisdiction for pipelines. Chevron Pipe Line Company in
San Francisco should be consulted for guidance on current federal and state regula-
tions.
The applicable federal regulations are contained in Code of Federal Regulations
Title 49, Part 195 (49 CFR 195), for liquid lines and 49 CFR 191 and 192 for gas
lines. Canada has comparable federal and provincial regulations, although the prov-
inces have more central control over intraprovincial activities. Regulatory jurisdic-
tions are further discussed in Sections 410 and 910 of this manual.
Pipeline Manual 200 Route Selection
Chevron Corporation 200-7 November 1988
232 Land Jurisdictions
Except for production flow and gathering lines lying entirely within Company prop-
erty, a cross-country pipeline traverses either privately owned lands or agency-
administered lands under municipal, county, state or federal government jurisdic-
tion. County records offices are the best source of ownership information and
addresses for owners and agencies.
In general, permits or agreements for construction and operation of a pipeline
system are granted by government agencies or owners of existing crossed facilities,
such as highways, roads, railroads, canals, pipelines, and power and telephone
lines. Rights-of-way, on the other hand, are needed to enter privately-owned lands
for construction and maintenance of a pipeline.
233 Permitting
Permitting procedure and timing must be determined for each governmental agency
and owner of an existing crossed facility. These will vary from agency to agency,
and not infrequently from time to time for the same agency. This information must
be developed as soon as possible so that priorities can be given to permitting proce-
dures that take the most time, or where sequential permit approvals are dependent
on prior approval by other agencies. Permitting authorities should be contacted at
an early stage regarding anticipated permit conditions and requirements affecting
construction, so that these can be incorporated into construction specifications
before inviting bids.
In the U.S., preparation, review and approval of an Environmental Impact Report
(EIR) is now required for nearly all cross-county pipelines. Under guidelines of the
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the EIR process can add over a year to
the project schedule. Project timing and funding must allow for this. A number of
governmental agencies are likely to be involved in the EIR process, in addition to
the one(s) with jurisdiction over the land which the line traverses. One agency is
assigned as the lead agency, and has the responsibility for coordinating the others
and for conducting the public hearing and response process.
The EIR requires significant front end engineering to thoroughly cover the
proposed construction, since, once approved, permit conditions and mitigation
measures cannot be changed.
Preparation of the EIR, along with required surveys and the review, takes time.
Scheduling should make realistic allowances for this process, and every effort
should be made to keep the process on schedule. Environmental and technical
surveys are discussed in Section 240. Requirements for supplemental documenta-
tion, such as a construction operating plan, copy of the construction specification,
etc., should be determined for each permitting authority.
All permits should be obtained before starting construction, since unforseen delay
in granting a permit after construction starts will interrupt work and lead to high
standby charges. In some cases permitting authorities will issue a letter giving
approval to proceed pending formal execution of the permit.
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November 1988 200-8 Chevron Corporation
A Company land department is normally assigned responsibility for permit applica-
tions by the pipeline operating organization, coordinating with governmental
affairs, environmental affairs and engineering organizations. Close coordination
between these groups is essential, both for exchange of information and to assure
that responsibilities for action by the various groups are clearly defined.
234 Private Right-of-Way Acquisition
A typical right-of-way document is in a form prepared by the Company, by which a
private land owner gives the Company, for a consideration, the right to construct
and maintain one or several pipelines within a specified width across the property,
with reasonable access over the property to the lines. In some right-of-way agree-
ments for undeveloped lands the location of the right-of-way may be defined by the
center-line of the first pipeline laid, but usual practice is to legally describe the
route on the property. Usually the width of the right-of-way is less than the working
strip needed for construction of the line, but the negotiated right of access allows
the Company to use the additional width needed for construction.
A right-of-way agreement is negotiated with each property owner. Payments for
rights-of-way are, preferably, uniform for all owners. However, adjustments are
usually necessary, depending on differing land values and difficulties in negotiating
with particular owners. If a landowner adamantly refuses to grant a right-of-way,
common carrier pipeline companies may use the right of eminent domain to obtain
the right-of-way by taking legal action. The conditions for and duration of this legal
process vary from state to state.
In many cases additional special conditions for the particular property are incorpo-
rated in the right-of-way agreement. Where these special conditions affect construc-
tion, they should be summarized in a sequential list according to their occurrence
along the route. This information should be distributed to Company field personnel
and contractor supervisory personnel so that construction meets the special condi-
tions, for instance, extra depth of cover, protection of water aquifers and springs,
protection of vegetation, specified seed mixtures for revegetation of rangeland.
Payment for damages to the property resulting from construction and maintenance
of a pipeline is separate from payment for the right-of-way, although in some cases
costs for damages can be agreed in advance of construction, and damage payment
is made at the same time as payment for the right-of-way. Construction damages
include damages both within the specified width defined in the right-of-way agree-
ment and on the construction working strip outside the right-of-way width, and any
other damage to the property as a consequence of pipeline construction activities.
Where damages result from unnecessary and avoidable acts by the contractor, a
method to allocate such costs to the contractor or by which the contractor settles
directly with the landowner or tenant, should be provided for in the construction
specifications.
Right-of-way acquisition, as for permit acquisition, is normally the responsibility of
a Company land department, which often directs contract right-of-way agents.
Close coordination with field engineers handling detailed routing and alignment
surveying is essential. Land Department representatives are also responsible for
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Chevron Corporation 200-9 November 1988
damage claim settlements. Here again close coordination with field construction
engineers is important when the nature and extent of damages and the responsible
parties are in dispute.
240 Surface Considerations
After establishing a preliminary route as described in Section 210, preliminary
alignment photography and/or surveying is done, and environmental and technical
surveys are initiated, as appropriate. Priorities must be given to the portions of this
phase that are on the critical path for permitting and design.
241 Surface Conditions
Information is developed from the preliminary alignment photography and/or
surveying on:
Natural features and agricultural lands. Rivers, streams, water courses,
swamps, canals, rocky terrain, irrigated cultivation, dry-land cultivation, range
land, forests, etc.
Surface improvements. Existing highways, roads, railroads, pipelines, cables,
power and telephone lines, etc.
Buildings. Existing buildings and structures. For gas pipelines, density of
buildings along the route is a critical element in design; see Section 430.
Highway, railroad, and irrigation canal authorities; owners of pipelines, power
lines, and telephone cables; and local authorities should be queried regarding future
developments of their systems or of residential and industrial areas that might affect
pipeline routing or design.
Where the preliminary pipeline route roughly parallels existing pipelines, govern-
mental authorities and private landowners are likely to require that the proposed
line be located in a corridor with the existing pipeline(s). In such cases it is prefer-
able for construction and maintenance access and safety that the new line be on the
opposite side of the corridor from the existing line(s), or, failing this, that ample
spacing be provided so that excavation and construction equipment will not jeopar-
dize the existing line(s).
Preliminary site inspection at major river and stream crossings should be made to
establish tentative crossing locations, for which technical surveys will be made.
242 Environmental Surveys
Federal and state regulations provide for protection of significant cultural features
and threatened and endangered wildlife, and require surveys of potentially sensitive
areas along the route to identify the existence of such areas. If any are found, the
relevant authority determines the extent of further investigation and the effect on
line routing, conditions for construction, or required mitigation measures. Contracts
for these surveys are subject to overruns, because the scope cannot be defined at the
200 Route Selection Pipeline Manual
November 1988 200-10 Chevron Corporation
outset. In essence, the purpose of environmental surveys is both to determine what
is there and to establish what must be done to mitigate or investigate further.
Typical environmental surveys cover:
Archeological and historical features
Fish
Birds
Other fauna
Plants
Paleontological features (fossils)
Information developed by these surveys can lead to:
Adjusting the pipeline route alignment to avoid sensitive areas
Completing archeological, historical, and paleontological studies at identified
sites before constructionif construction can then be allowed through the sites
Scheduling construction activities in areas to avoid critical periods for fish and
wildlife, such as breeding, nesting, spawning seasons
Environmental surveys are performed by environmental engineering contractors or
independent specialists, often associated with staffs of university departments.
These professional service contracts are usually performed on an all-in reimburs-
able basis for labor and equipment rental rates, with per diem allowances for field
expenses. Comparative proposals should be obtained wherever feasible. Environ-
mental Affairs, Governmental Affairs, Engineering Technology Department, local
Company offices and the permitting authority may be consulted regarding contrac-
tors or specialists recognized and accepted by authorities for expertise in the
various categories of environmental surveys.
In some areas, government agencies have conducted surveys and predesignated
significant cultural resources. Maps of these features are generally available from
the agencies involved. This information may save retaining an environmental
contractor.
In many cases archeological, historical and paleontological field work is done after
construction excavation in potential sites in search of any significant evidence in the
trench or spoil that warrants further investigation. If such evidence is found,
construction work in the area must stop, and either be deferred until investigation
and studies are complete, or proceed on a relocated route which skirts the site.
Judgment should be used in controlling the extent of environmental surveys. Suffi-
cient work must be done to expeditiously meet permitting conditions, but reason-
able limits should be set on investigation beyond the required scope that the
specialist field team may want to do at Company expense.
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Chevron Corporation 200-11 November 1988
243 Technical Surveys
Depending on terrain and physical conditions along the route, technical studies of
some kind will usually be needed for the permitting procedure or for design. Typi-
cally, these are as follows:
Geophysical surveys in areas of soil instability or earthquake activity. These
identify areas of concern that warrant further investigation to develop recom-
mended measures to protect the pipeline, or to adjust the route alignment to
avoid or reduce the hazard
Geotechnical and hydrological surveys at river and stream crossings to
develop data on soil properties, predicted scouring and bank variation, and
seasonal and historical variations in flow
Geotechnical surveys at highway, road and railroad crossings if needed to
determine soil properties and water table data for bored crossings, both cased
and uncased
Geophysical and meteorological surveys for heated lines to determine ground
and air temperatures, and soil conductivity properties, or for water slurry lines
to determine ground temperatures and frost depths
Meteorological surveys to determine weather conditions during the scheduled
construction period
Geotechnical, hydrological and meteorological surveys may be needed to
develop spill contingency plans for oil lines
Technical surveys may involve only a literature search, or a combination of litera-
ture search, field investigation, and lab testing, as determined by the circumstances.
Professional service contracts with reputable engineering and technical contractors
should be used for technical surveys. The Civil and Structural Division of the Engi-
neering Technology Department can be consulted for recommended contractors for
these surveys.
250 Alignment, Surveying, and Mapping
Initial routing of the pipeline and the preliminary route selection, possibly with
alternatives, are based on existing published maps and aerial photography, as
discussed in Section 210. Field surveying is usually needed in conjunction with
environmental and technical surveysto mark the preliminary route, to survey
proposed crossings, to record locations of soil borings, soil samples, archeological
sites, etc. Aerial photography may also be done at this time.
When a firm route alignment has been developed, field surveying is done to tie the
alignment to land survey monuments and to obtain data for alignment maps and
crossing profiles, right-of-way maps, and property maps for station and appurte-
nance sites. The alignment may be flagged on certain properties to support right-of-
way acquisition. At the time of construction the alignment is staked ahead of the
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November 1988 200-12 Chevron Corporation
construction crews, any minor alignment relocations are surveyed, and record data
for the completed facility are obtained.
251 Published Maps and Aerial Photography
Maps suitable for route selection include the following:
World Aeronautical Charts. These show significant topographic features;
scale is 1:1,000,000 (1 inch = 16 miles). They may be obtained from aircraft
charter and service firms, or from Department of Commerce, National Oceano-
graphic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, Maryland, 20852.
U.S. Geological Survey maps. These show more detailed topographic features
and ground cover. Scales are: 1:250,000 (1 inch = 4 miles); 1:125,000 (1 inch =
2 miles); 1:62,500 (1 inch = 1 mile); 1:50,000 (1 inch = 0.8 mile). Maps may
be obtained from Operating Company map and drafting records groups, local
map supply stores, or the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado, or
Reston, Virginia. For some areas USGS also has information on geology, flood
plain areas, hydrological data, land use and orthophoto maps (with aerial photo
background).
Canadian Geological Survey maps are similar to USGS maps.
Aerial photographs may be available from government sources to supplement maps
for preliminary route selection. A scale of approximately 1:36,000 (1 inch = 0.6
mile) is good for route selection. With about 60% overlap of photos, stereo viewing
will show exaggerated ground relief and is useful in laying out the route in rough
terrain. Enlargements are useful in selecting station and appurtenance sites. Sources
for aerial photography include the following:
U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Bureau of Land Management
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
N.A.S.A.
Commercial aerial photography services
Operating Companies periodically fly their own aerial photography surveys, espe-
cially for new exploration areas. Contact your map and drafting records group.
Similar topographic maps and aerial photos are usually available from local govern-
ment sources in other countries.
252 Surveying and Mapping Services
Careful selection of a surveying and mapping services company for the project is
important, since work must be done accurately, field crews must be available when
needed, and maps must be prepared quickly after the field data is in hand. The
expected scope of services required for the project should be clearly presented to
several reputable land surveying companies and discussed with them to develop
information on their capabilities and commitment to meet the expected needs. From
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Chevron Corporation 200-13 November 1988
these prequalification meetings a short-list should be invited to submit proposals.
For a long cross-country line it may be advisable to contract sections of the route to
different surveying companies. In this case, make arrangements for similar presenta-
tion of data by each contractor.
The surveying company should be equipped with electronic distance measuring
instruments and computerized theodolites, and be able to produce maps within 24
hours, when necessary.
Mapping for permit, right-of-way, and land acquisition should be done by the land
surveying contractor. Alignment sheets and crossing detail drawings, both for
construction and for record, are usually prepared by the project engineering organi-
zation using survey data from the surveying company, since these drawings incorpo-
rate more information than just the definition of the route.
The contract schedule of payments for surveying and mapping services should be
complete and precise in covering all items of cost anticipated for the work. Compen-
sation is normally on an hourly or daily reimbursement basis for field crews and
office personnel, with added items for special equipment, field expenses, printing
and reproduction, etc.
Aerial photography and photogrammetric mapping and engineering are often advan-
tageous and economical. The land surveying company may have this capability, or,
more likely, will subcontract this phase of work. Compensation for such work
should also be defined in the contract schedule of payments at the time of award.
On large projects or projects in remote areas sophisticated inertial or satellite
surveying systems may be applicable. These may be provided within the surveying
and mapping services contract or may be contracted for separately, in which case
close coordination is required with the conventional field surveying crews.
253 Aerial Photography and Photogrammetry
After a preliminary route is selected for a cross-country pipeline and the project is
approved, it may be economical and expeditious to arrange for aerial photography
along the route. Aerial photographs may be uncontrolledby flying at a certain
elevation above the ground to give an approximate scaleor controlled by using
known surveyed ground reference points and photogrammetric methods to produce
accurately scaled photographs. Uncontrolled aerial photography is considerably
less expensive than controlled, and may be satisfactory for wilderness or remote
areas where accurate right-of-way mapping is not critical. However, in the United
States and other developed countries controlled aerial photography and photogram-
metric mapping is usually made economical by the saving in costs and time for
field survey crews and office engineering and drafting, and will provide the back-
ground for final alignment sheets.
Photogrammetric methods can also produce elevation data and contour maps.
Aerial mosaic strips, marked to show the pipeline with a simplified route alignment
map, are useful in describing the route to bidders for construction of the line.
200 Route Selection Pipeline Manual
November 1988 200-14 Chevron Corporation
Usually, aerial photography is done early in the design phase of the project, but
there may be situations in wilderness and remote areas in which the cost of
controlled aerial photogrammetry done after construction, with the cleared working
strip and markers over the pipeline visible, will be offset by reduced field survey
costs.
254 Field Surveying and Mapping
Control surveys are done on the ground, based on existing government monuments
or other accepted monuments with established location coordinates and elevations.
Control surveys are usually made to a high order of accuracy (second order or
better). They provide the basic network for all other surveying and mapping during
the design, right-of-way, and property acquisition and construction phases of the
project. The cost of setting up the survey control network is usually significant.
Control points should be well documented, and semipermanent monuments
installed. This is particularly critical if there should be a change in surveying
company between initial surveying and construction surveying.
The route centerline alignment is tied to government monuments, property corners,
and boundaries and to the monuments established by the control survey. The route
is defined by the points of intersection (PIs) of the straight lines identifying the
route, the horizontal lengths, or tangents, between PIs, and the bearings, or deflec-
tions, of the tangents. Preferably, the initial and final points of the line should be
stated in Lambert grid coordinates, or another standard grid system adopted by the
governmental survey authority for the area.
Typically, permit and right-of-way maps show ties to controlling property corners,
and the dimensions and areas of right-of-way parcels. Specific requirements for
monumenting the right-of-way and preparing right-of-way maps and documents
vary from place to place. The Manual of Instructions for the Survey of the Public
Lands of the U.S., issued by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, governs proce-
dures for land surveying.
Field surveying must also be done at the design phase for:
Ground reference points for controlled aerial photography
Route alignment sheets
Crossing detail drawings
Site topographic maps
The alignment is staked at the time of construction. Offset stakes are set from the
pipe centerline, usually at 200-foot intervals, and marking stakes are set with hori-
zontal stationings. These stakes define the pipeline for constructionlocating the
pipe centerline and locations for changes in pipe wall thickness, grade or coating,
appurtenances, extra depth of cover, etc. This staking continues during the construc-
tion period; if it is done too far in advance of the construction crews, stakes may
well be lost before the trench can be excavated.
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Chevron Corporation 200-15 November 1988
Construction staking may be done either by the Companys surveying contractor or
by the pipeline construction contractor. If done by the construction contractor, the
Company field engineer should ensure that clearly marked base survey stakes are in
place (by which the construction contractor will set his offset stakes) and that the
construction contractors survey crew is competent.
Field surveying may also be needed during the construction period to lay out and
stake minor realignments during the course of construction. Field surveying should
be done when installing river and stream crossings so that the location and depth of
the line, and river bottom and bank profiles are accurately recorded.
When the pipeline is in the ground and all work is essentially complete, field
surveying is done for record purposes. Slope distances along the line are measured,
corresponding to the actual length of pipe. From these, slope stationings for PIs,
pipe and coating changes, crossings, appurtenances, fence lines, pipeline markers,
etc., can be derived and shown on the final record alignment sheets.
255 Route Alignment Sheets and Design Drawings
These drawings are prepared by the project engineering organization for construc-
tion and as a record of the completed pipeline facility. Because the line is generally
buried, and lies on property not owned by the Company, accurate records of the line
as constructed, or, subsequently, as modified, are particularly important.
As prepared for construction, route alignment sheets define the route, with hori-
zontal stationings (the cumulative distance from a starting point of the line, such
as the scraper trap mainline block valve at the initial pump station). The alignment
sheets typically also show:
Right-of-way width, and position of the new pipeline(s) within the right-of-way
Ground elevation profile
Pipe minimum cover
Pipe size, wall thickness, grade, manufacturer
Pipe coating
Appurtenance locations, including cathodic protection rectifier stations,
anodes, and test stations, with references to detail drawings
River and stream crossings, with references to detail drawings
Highway, road and railroad crossings, with references to detail drawings
Foreign and Company pipeline crossings, with references to detail drawings
Underground cable and telephone lines
Overhead power and telephone lines
Land monuments, section lines, and property boundaries
200 Route Selection Pipeline Manual
November 1988 200-16 Chevron Corporation
Property ownership, and permit and right-of-way reference numbers
Types of vegetation or cultivation
Crossing detail drawings show plan and profile views for each crossed facility
(river, stream, highway, road, railroad) and the pipeline. For cased crossings the
casing, size, wall thickness and length are shown, and vents (if any), and the quan-
tity and description of insulating spacer supports and casing end seals are listed. For
crossings of pipelines and cables a typical drawing is usually prepared for all such
crossings.
The record alignment sheets incorporate information on the completed pipeline,
and show slope stationings for PIs and all pipeline features. Horizontal stationings
originally shown for the route and ties to monuments and properties should remain.
Horizontal stationings and slope stationings should be clearly differentiated;
for example, show all slope stationings within parentheses.
Chevron Pipe Line Company and the Civil and Structural Division of the Engi-
neering Technology Department may be consulted for recommended format for
alignment sheets and crossing detail drawings. See Figures 200-1 and 200-2.
256 Special Survey Systems
For surveys in undeveloped and remote areas, and where survey base monuments
may be distant, special inertial or satellite survey systems should be considered.
State-of-the-art equipment is continually improving, and available systems should
be evaluated at the time of the project. These systems give latitude and longitude
(or coordinates in a base system), and elevations, and can be effectively used to
establish a network of project reference monuments along the route as a basis for
conventional field surveying on the ground.
Example Alignment Sheet: Notes
(Notes to Figure 200-1)
A. Ownership
1. Line list number or parcel number identifies property or rancho boundaries
crossed by pipeline and right-of-way.
2. Pipeline schematic and identification.
3. Right-of-way boundaries on either side of pipeline. Show width of R/W from
centerline of pipeline.
4. Oval containing line list/parcel number identifies property entered by pipeline
and/or easement. Numbers are consecutive along pipeline route.
5. Property lines are not to scale, but represent property limits only. Property plats
determine if entire right-of-way or just a portion lies inside property.
Pipeline Manual 200 Route Selection
Chevron Corporation 200-17 November 1988
6. If plat determines that property contains only easement (not pipeline), draw
property line within right-of-way.
7. Property corner "ties" identify property limits more clearly (use a 1/16-in.
circle).
8. "X" after line list/parcel number denotes a road crossing, "R" a railroad
crossing. Show centerline and name of road or railroad. If crossing lies
between two properties use lower property number.
9. Line out "stationing &" if not used.
10. Horizontal pipeline footage through a property. This footage is on property
plat. Place footage number in line with line list/parcel number. Survey ties to
property lines, section corners, etc., are horizontal distances.
11. Place property line stationing (if shown) vertically on left side of property lines.
B. Aerial
12. Show scale used.
13. Indicate information concerning "start" of an alignment, e.g., continuation
drawing numbers, coordinate system reference, start of survey stationing
and/or matching stationing from a previous alignment sheet.
14. North arrow.
15. Plot pipeline line to scale with points of intersection (PI) symbols (1/16-in.
circles) indicating bearing changes. Plot valve symbols and bearings along
pipeline.
16. List of PIs and stationing.
17. Milepost marker with stationing to left of extension line. Extension lines
extend to, but not through, pipeline line.
18. Line list/parcel number with leader to 1/6-in. dot at property location. Property
corner ties help identify plat. Show only property crossed by pipeline or within
right-of-way.
19. Identify county and state on each alignment sheet.
20. Identify any parallel pipeline(s).
21. Indicate road/railroad crossings with an oval, symbol and number, and leader
to road/railroad centerline. To avoid confusion, set leader at an angle to the
centerline.
22. Place crossing symbols as near point of crossing as possible. Make all symbols
same size as in legend.
23. Show property, rancho and grant names and boundaries. Reference only proper-
ties entered by pipeline. Show township and section lines with stationing.
200 Route Selection Pipeline Manual
November 1988 200-18 Chevron Corporation
C. Material Section
24. Pipeline line (same scale as aerial map).
25. Use extension and dimension lines and a box to identify pipe size, wall thick-
ness, grade, pipe ends, pipe manufacturing process and coating type.
26. Give beginning and ending stationing for concrete coatings, weights and
casings as found in field notebook.
27. Use and station cathodic protection symbols per legend and field notebook.
28. Place wall thickness (WT) changes next to extension line.
29. Show valves and refer to separate detail drawings if required.
30. Line up all matchlines. Indicate stationing and continuation sheets or start of
survey information.
D. Class Location Section
43. For gas pipelines, show class location boundaries.
E. Alignment Section
31. Show pipeline as a straight line with PI and valve symbols spaced to scale of
aerial strip.
32. Indicate crossings as found in field notebook. Place crossing symbols perpen-
dicular to pipeline at about the same location as in aerial strip with spacing as
much to scale as possible.
33. Place stationing and brief description of crossings below symbol in text
portion. Stationing relates to inventory (slope) distances, not horizontal
distances.
34. Indicate tie dimensions and reference in text when they appear in field note-
book.
35. Line up all matchlines with each other. Indicate stationing and continuation
sheets or start of survey information.
F. Profile
36. Record beginning station and end station.
37. Give elevation for centerline of pipeline. Use a consistent vertical scale on all
alignment sheets, large enough to show elevation changes of concern to
designer. In hilly terrain, break-points may be used.
38. Profile data is inadequate for calculating overbends and sagbends. Milepost
markers are set at or near calculated miles, but should not interfere with land
use.
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Chevron Corporation 200-19 November 1988
G. Legend
44. Symbols used on alignment sheet.
45. Revision block.
46. Scale of aerial and alignment strips.
47. Date of plat.
48. Drawing title.
49. Drawing number.
Pipeline Manual 200 Route Selection
Chevron Corporation 200-21 November 1988
Fig. 200-1 Example Alignment Sheet
Pipeline Manual 200 Route Selection
Chevron Corporation 200-23 November 1988
Fig. 200-2 Alignment Sheet
Chevron Corporation 300-1 November 1994
300 Pipe and Coatings
Abstract
This section provides the engineer with guidance on selection of line pipe mate-
rials, requirements for bending in the field and in the shop, and selection and appli-
cation of coatings and linings for corrosion protection. Guidelines and
specifications are included. Specifications for line pipe materials, methods of
bending, and internal and external coatings are also included.
Contents Page
310 Line Pipe Selection 300-3
311 Line Pipe Manufacturing
312 Selection of Grade and Wall Thickness
313 Fracture Toughness Requirements (Impact Testing)
314 Corrosion
315 Specifications and Selection for Specific Services
316 Pipe Purchasing
320 Field Bending 300-22
321 Code Requirements
322 Chevron Requirements
330 Shop Bending 300-24
331 Induction Bending
332 Hot Bending
340 External Pipeline Coatings 300-28
350 Internal Coatings and Linings 300-30
351 Epoxy Coatings
352 Plastic Linings
353 Cement Linings
360 Piping Components for Pipelines 300-38
361 General
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-2 Chevron Corporation
362 Through-Conduit Valves
363 Closures and Appurtenances for Scraper Traps
364 Casing Insulators and Seals
365 Special Repair Fittings
366 Branch Connections
367 Wall Thickness Transition Pieces
370 Special Installations 300-43
371 Insulation on Buried Lines
372 Heat Tracing for Buried and Aboveground Lines
373 Nonmetallic and Corrosion Resistant Pipe
380 References 300-45
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-3 November 1994
310 Line Pipe Selection
Line Pipe Specifications
The commonly used industry specifications for line pipe are API 5L and Canadian
Standard CAN3-Z245.1. In 1994, ISO (International Standards Organization)
adopted line pipe standards. These are ISO 3183-1, Technical Delivery Conditions
for Steel Line Pipes for Combustible Fluids Part 1: Pipes of quality level A; and
ISO 3183-2, Technical Delivery Conditions for Steel Line Pipes for Combustible
Fluids Part 2: Enhanced quality level B. ISO 3183-1 is essentially based on the
Fortieth edition of API 5L, November 1992. ISO 3183-2 has tighter chemical
composition requirements, specific heat treatments and mandatory toughness
requirements. It is similar to the Chevron specifications.
For both onshore and offshore pipelines the Company generally uses line pipe
purchased with Model Specification PPL-MS-1050, Line Pipe for General Service.
For sour service, PPL-MS-4041, Sour Service Line Pipe is recommended. Specifi-
cations PPL-MS-1050 and PPL-MS-4041 (for sour service) are actually a list of
requirements that supplement API specification 5L. These additional requirements
are necessary to enable the user or project engineer to obtain state of the technology
line pipe with assured weldability, NDE requirements and sour service performance.
311 Line Pipe Manufacturing
Pipe Making Processes
Line pipe is manufactured by several different processes. Chevron commonly uses
seamless (SMLS), electric weld (ERW or HFI), and submerged arc welded (SAW)
pipe. There is also helical or spiral welded submerged arc welded pipe, however its
use has not been common in Chevrons operations. Each process has its inherent
advantages, disadvantages and suitability for different sizes of pipe. Refer to
Figure 300-1.
Seamless Pipe
Manufacturing of seamless (SMLS) pipe begins with a solid round billet that is
heated to about 2200F and pierced to make a hollow cylinder. The cylinder passes
through several hot (1800-2200F) rolling steps to make a pipe with the desired size
and wall thickness. Seamless pipe may be supplied as-rolled, or it may be heat
treated after rolling to improve its properties. Either normalizing or quenching and
tempering heat treatments may be used. Straightening if required is done either hot
or cold depending upon the mill practice.
Seamless pipe has greater variation in wall thickness that welded pipe. Also the
length variation in a particular lot or mill run is greater than welded pipe. The engi-
neer is advised to clearly specify the acceptable length variations on the purchase
order.
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-4 Chevron Corporation
(1) The range represents the capacity variations for different manufacturers.
(2) Above 1.25 in. refer to ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8 for stress relief requirements.
Electric Welded Pipe (ERW or HFI)
Electric welded pipe is manufactured from a long, flat coiled strip called skelp that
has been rolled to the desired wall thickness of the finished pipe. The strip has a
width equal to the circumference of the pipe. In the pipe mill the skelp is fed
through a series of rolls which form it into a cylinder. The edges are welded
together using electric resistance (ERW) or induction (HFI) heating and pressure
from the rolls to make a longitudinal seam. No filler metal is added to the weld, and
after the flash from the weld is trimmed off it is difficult to visually locate the
weld on the OD. At the ID the flash trimming operation creates a small depression
which makes the weld line distinguishable in many cases. The narrow heat affected
zone along the seam is heat treated (seam normalized) after welding using localized
induction heating coils. EW pipe is usually not given an additional heat treatment
Fig. 300-1 Typical Availability and Usage for Types of Pipe
Seamless EW (ERW or HFI) SAW Spiral Weld
Minimum
Diameter
(1)
2-3/8 in. or less 2-3/8 in. or less 16 in. to 20 in. 10 in.
Maximum
Diameter
(1)
16 in. (typical) to 26
in.
24 in. to 26 in. 64 in. to 84 in. 80 in. to 100+ in.
Maximum
Wall Thick-
ness
(1) (2)
0.750 in. to 2.000 in. 0.312 in. to 0.750 in. 0.625 in. to 1.500 in. 0.500 in. to 1.500 in.
Grades B thru X-80 B thru X-70 B thru X-80 B thru X-70
Highly weldable X
grades may be heat
treated by
quenching and
tempering
X-52 and higher
grades are made
from controlled
rolled skelp or
quenched and
tempered
X-52 and higher
grades are made
from controlled
rolled plate
X-52 and higher
grades are made
from controlled
rolled skelp
Acceptable
Services
All services onshore
and offshore
All services onshore;
some offshore
services. See
Figure 300-2
All services onshore
and offshore
USA experience
limited to less crit-
ical services. Used
as equivalent to
SAW in Europe,
Canada, etc.
Relative Cost More expensive than
EW. Cost premium
may be significant
for larger sizes (>10
inch)
Usually less expen-
sive than seamless
in sizes <10 inches.
Almost always less
expensive than
seamless in sizes
>10 inches. Large
overlap in size range
with seamless
In the small range of
size overlap, usually
less expensive than
seamless but more
than ERW
May be less expen-
sive than long seam
SAW
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-5 November 1994
and its mechanical properties are determined by the original properties of the skelp.
Forming, final sizing, and straightening are all done cold.
ERW pipe has a better surface finish and can be more uniform in length than seam-
less. The advantage of better surface quality is that for FBE coated pipe there are
fewer problems with holidays in the coating.
Note The term ERW is used in this manual to refer to two processes for manufac-
turing electric welded (EW) pipe, and includes electric resistance welded (ERW)
and high frequency induction welded (HFI). The latter is the newer process. The
basic difference between the two processes is: the ERW process is conductive where
the heating of the vee formed by bringing the edges of the skelp together is
produced by flowing a high frequency current between the edges of the skelp prior
to pressing the edges together to form the weld; whereas in the HFI process, the
heat is generated by an induction coil placed around the formed skelp cylinder. HFI
is claimed to have the advantage of producing a higher heat flux across the weld
during the manufacturing and therefore is claimed to be more suitable for thicker
walls. Chevron has not made a quality distinction between the two processes.
ERW Weld Quality. Over 25 years ago, ERW pipe gained a reputation as poor
quality pipe. Most of the performance problems were associated with frequent field
leaks during field hydrotesting and operations caused by manufacturing defects in
the weld. Advances in skelp material quality, manufacturing processes, particularly
high frequency resistance and high frequency induction welding, and more accurate
and reliable NDE equipment especially ultrasonic testing have virtually eliminated
these problems. ERW pipe made today in a modern mill can be manufactured to be
equal in performance to seamless. Recommendations for specifying and ordering
ERW pipe are found in Section 316 and Figure 300-2.
Submerged Arc Welded Pipe
Submerged Arc Welded (SAW) longitudinal seam pipe is manufactured by
forming a plate into a cylinder, then making a longitudinal seam using the
submerged arc welding process with filler metal. The most common forming
process is called UOE, which stands for the three main forming steps: bending the
plate into a U, pressing into an O, and then (after welding the seam) expanding the
pipe to final size. All of the forming is done cold, including the expansion step. In
addition to final sizing, cold expansion also improves roundness, redistributes the
residual stresses from forming, and acts as a severe proof test of the weld. Forming
processes other than UOE, such as pyramid rolling and press breaking, may also be
used to make SAW pipe.
Spiral Weld (Helical Weld) Submerged Arc Welded Pipe is manufactured from
skelp which is twisted in a helix. The spiral seam is made with the submerged arc
welding process. Mechanical properties are determined by the original plate proper-
ties. The finished pipe and weld seams are not heat treated. Spiral weld pipe is not
usually cold expanded.
Spiral welded pipe is not included in PPL-MS-1050 or PPL-MS-4041 because
Chevron has very limited experience with the process. API 5L spiral welded pipe is
not manufactured in the U.S. There is, however, extensive use in Canada and
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-6 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 300-2 Specification Decision Tree for Mill Runs of ERW (1 of 2)
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-7 November 1994
Fig. 300-2 Specification Decision Tree for Mill Runs of ERW (2 of 2)
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-8 Chevron Corporation
Europe. Spiral weld pipe should be considered for large diameter lines ( greater
than 36 inches) in sweet service where it may be more economical than longitu-
dinal seam SAW. It can be purchased to a modified version of PPL-MS-1050. A
detailed review of the supplier is mandatory.
Other Processes
Corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) line pipe is essentially line pipe made from chro-
mium (13 Cr) and duplex stainless steel, nickel-chromium stainless steels (316) or
nickel alloys (Incoloy 825). It is covered in API Specification 5LC. CRA line pipe
is seeing increased applications as an alternative to chemical inhibition for corro-
sion control. It may be cost effective for high temperature streams >350F (176C)
where inhibition is not feasible or in deep offshore applications whenever the total
cost of ownership is considered. This product is about 3 to 10 times the cost of
conventional carbon steel depending upon alloy grade and size. Consult a materials
engineer for assistance in selecting the appropriate alloy and specifications for the
environment.
Clad or Bimetallic pipe is a new technology for flowlines and gathering lines. This
line pipe product consists of a conventional steel line pipe backing to contain the
pressure and a liner of corrosion resistant alloy. This combination of materials
provides a high strength, cost competitive (with solid CRA) pipe up to grade X-65
in sizes over about 6 NPS. The lining material is selected on the basis of the envi-
ronment in the pipe. The lining may either be metallurgically bonded or hydrauli-
cally fitted into the steel pipe. For diameters of NPS 16 and larger this product is
made from clad plate. API specification 5LD contains the basic requirements for
the purchasing and inspection of clad pipe. In sizes over about 12 NPS it is the
preferred way to employ CRA. Justification for selection is usually based on the
total cost of ownership of the installation including operating expenses for corro-
sion control and monitoring. The CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit
can assist in developing the proper ordering specification.
Coiled tubing refers to a continuously manufactured length (1000s of feet in
length) of electric welded tubing spooled on to a reel. Sizes range from about 3/4 to
5 inches. This product differs from reeled line pipe which is conventional API line
pipe of 40 to 60 foot lengths which have been welded together and rolled onto a
spool. Because coiled tubing is manufactured as a long length, thousands of feet, it
does not conform to all of the API 5L line pipe requirements, especially the weld
testing frequency and the prove up of NDE weld line indications. Coiled tubing was
developed and used for downhole workovers and is recently (early 90s) being
considered for flowlines. Before coiled tubing is used for pressure flow line applica-
tions specialists in design, materials and quality assurance in CPTC and CRTC
should be consulted.
Furnace butt-welded pipe is similar to ERW pipe, except that the weld is made by
heating the edges of the plate in a furnace and then pressing them together. This
process does not produce good quality welds, and API 5L only permits it for grade
A25. The Company does not use grade A25 for pipelines.
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-9 November 1994
Lap welded pipe is no longer made. However, there are still significant quantities
of this pipe in the ground.
312 Selection of Grade and Wall Thickness
Pipe Grades (Strength)
Line pipe grades are differentiated by the specified minimum yield strength
(SMYS) of the steel. API 5L line pipe is available in strength grades, ranging from
Grade B (35 ksi SMYS) to X80 (80 ksi SMYS). The primary advantage of higher
strength grades of pipe is reduced wall thickness for comparable design pressure
levels. Thinner walls mean fewer tons of steel over the length of the line. Since pipe
cost is directly related to tonnage, significant cost savings occur even when the
higher strength steel costs more per ton (usually about 20% extra). Cost savings
also result from the reduced time required for field welding of the thinner wall pipe.
However, before selecting the high strength pipe the designer should investigate the
fitting (bends, flanges, etc.) strength requirements and availability. Induction
bending of the pipe is a method for producing fittings of the required strength and
wall thickness. However if these fittings are being considered, front end planning is
required.
Note As indicated in Section 310, ISO 3183 is comparable to API 5L. However,
the strength levels are metric and therefore the names of the grades are different.
The table below contains the English/ Metric conversion for the API grades.
Grade Limitations
Sweet Service. The Company has used line pipe up to grade X-65, but X-70 is used
by other operators. Grade X-80 should be considered where appropriate although
manufacturing experience with X-80 is currently very limited. The higher strength
grades become attractive in offshore laying operations where laying stresses and
not the operating pressure or hoop stresses may be governing the design. Experi-
mental higher strength grades up to grade X-100 are available on special order, but
they have not yet been widely used.
Sour Service. Chevron has used seamless pipe in grades X-52 and lower in sour
service without special requirements beyond API. However, the grade B seamless
being supplied today may contain additions of vanadium or columbium for strength-
ening if the carbon content is being kept low for weldability. These elements should
be controlled in the range shown in the Chevron specifications and the welding
API ISP
GR.B l245
X-42 l290
X-46 L320
X-52 L360
X-56 L390
X-60 L415
X-65 L450
X-70 L485
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-10 Chevron Corporation
procedures should be tested to assure that heat affected zones are not above 22
HRC. For seamless grades higher than X-52 the requirements of PPL-MS-4041
should apply. For welded SAW or ERW pipe the requirements of PPL-MS-4041
should apply to all grades. For ERW see the decision tree in Figure 300-2. One
difference driving different requirements between seamless and welded pipe in H
2
S
service is related to the manufacturing process. H
2
S environments result in charging
the pipeline steel with hydrogen which collects at inclusions within the steel. In
seamless pipe the inclusions are cigar shaped and are not deleterious, however in
welded pipe which is made from plate or strip the inclusions are pancake like. In
this case hydrogen blistering or stepwise (HIC) cracking can occur. The require-
ments of PPL-MS-4041 minimize the presence of the inclusions and require testing
of the steel for cracking sensitivity in H
2
S environments.
Weldability
The weldability of modern pipeline steel is typically determined by the chemical
composition of the pipe and not by the yield strength. API chemistry limits are
broad and if the steel is at the maximum limits of the API specified compositions,
weldability will be compromised. However, this is usually not the case for modern
steels. Manufacturers are controlling chemistry limits more tightly than required by
API and much of the line pipe being produced today has very good weldability.
Many of the X-grades of pipe (with carbon equivalents {CE}of 0.25-0.35%) are as
weldable as Grade B. The chemical composition and carbon equivalent require-
ments of PPL-MS-1050 and PPL-MS-4041 will ensure adequate weldability.
Note Carbon equivalent,CE, is determined by an equation of specific elements
(expressed as weight percent). If the value is less than 0.42% for general service or
0.38% for sour service the material is considered weldable. This equation only
applies to carbon and low alloy steels.
CE= C+ Mn/6 +(Cr+Mo+V)/5 +(Ni+Cu)/15
Multiple Stenciling of Grade B. In order to hold down inventories manufacturers
are stenciling pipe with multiple grade designations. It is commonplace to obtain
pipe marked with all of the following designations: ASTM A-53 Gr B, ASTM A-
106 B, API 5L Gr B and API 5L-X42. This pipe will meet the minimum require-
ments of each of the specifications. The chemical composition of this material may
not be plain carbon steel but may have alloying elements of vanadium (V), titanium
(Ti) or niobium (Nb). These elements may have an effect on hardening the heat
affected zone of the pipe when they are present at levels of about 0.02%. The
designer is cautioned about the acceptance of Grade B pipe for sour service applica-
tions without a review of the mill test reports for the carbon equivalent and these
elements. See the previous section on sour service.
Pipe exhibiting multiple stencils with X-42 in the stencil will also have higher yield
and tensile strength than grade B steels produced in the past. The mill test reports
may actually show properties for this grade B that conform to grade X-52 or higher.
These steels are acceptable for use as grade B, but the user should be aware that
field bending may be more difficult than the traditional grade B steel which has a
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-11 November 1994
lower yield strength. Also the user should be cautious on accepting these grades for
H2S service.
Wall Thickness
Pipe diameter and wall thickness requirements are dictated by the fluid flow and
design pressure calculations. The calculation for required wall thickness is covered
in Section 440. For offshore pipelines, laying stresses and buckling considerations
can affect the selected wall thickness and the pipe strength. Refer to Section 930.
Wall Thickness Limitations
Several factors limit the use of the higher strength grades of pipe to reduce the wall
thickness. Very thin wall pipe can be difficult to handle without denting and diffi-
cult to align properly for welding. Section 440 contains the minimum recom-
mended wall thickness for pipelines of various diameters.
The maximum wall thickness is restricted by pipe availability (mill capability) as
the strength increases.
Stress relief of welds is required when the pipe wall thickness is over 1-1/2 inches
for ANSI/ASME Code B31.4 and 1-1/4 inches for ANSI/ASME Code B31.8.
Stress relieving the field girth welds is costly so higher strength steels should be
considered to reduce the wall thickness and avoid heat treatment. Since stress
relieving of the low carbon thermo-mechanically rolled steels (those containing
vanadium, niobium or titanium) may result in lowering the tensile properties below
the minimum allowable, the welding procedure qualification test specimens should
be post weld heat treated as well.
Length Variations
Length variation must also be addressed when specifying pipe. Length variation is
especially a critical factor when laying pipe off of a barge. Welding, inspection and
weld coating stations are all set at specific locations along the length of the barge. If
pipe has large variation in lengths it will take longer to lay the pipe because the
ends will not coincide with the work stations. Short lengths also give problems in
loading and unloading pipe onto trucks and barges.
The data sheet guide to the pipeline specifications in section 5.2 g gives guidance
on length tolerances.
313 Fracture Toughness Requirements (Impact Testing)
Pipeline code requirements for fracture toughness of line pipe steels are addressed
in ANSI B31.4 for liquid lines and ANSI B31.8 for gas lines. Pipeline Safety Regu-
lations 49 CFR Part 195 (Liquids) and 49 CFR Part 192 (gas) incorporate the ANSI
Codes by reference. The intent of both codes is to prevent any type of crack or leak
in the pipeline (such as a fatigue crack, or mechanical damage from a backhoe)
from initiating a major fracture in the line. This section provides some additional
background on fracture toughness, and explains the reasoning behind the recom-
mended fracture toughness testing requirements summarized in Figure 300-3. For
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-12 Chevron Corporation
additional help in specifying adequate fracture toughness, consult CRTC Materials
and Equipment Engineering.
(1) Critical service should include the following:
All offshore lines, and onshore lines in populated areas
Large diameter, high pressure gas lines (particularly lines greater than 14 inch or 1480 psi)
Gas or liquid lines where the lowest expected operating temperature is below 32F
LPG lines where the lowest auto-refrigeration temperature is below 32F
(2) Test temperature should be 32F or the lowest expected operating temperature, whichever is lower.
For buried lines, the lowest expected operating temperature is seldom below 20F.
For LPG lines, use 32F or lower. Test temperature should be based on the lowest auto-refrigeration
temperature, but may be higher in some cases. Consult CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering
for specific recommendations.
(3) Shear Area: 50% minimum average of all heats, 35% minimum average for each individual heat
(4) Absorbed energy: calculate requirements according to the equations given in ANSI B31.8 Section 841.
The specified minimum average energy should the the highest value calculated or 20 ft-lbs, whichever is
greater. If all calculated values are below 10 ft-lbs, see discussion in Section 313. Also note that the
equations are based on methane; see discussion regarding the effect of gas mixtures.
Fig. 300-3 Fracture Toughness Requirements for Pipelines
Fluid
Line Size (OD)
and Strength
Grade
Maximum
Allowable
Operating
Pressure General Service Critical Service
(1)
Liquid other
than LPG
All sizes and grades All pres-
sures
No tests recommended Absorbed Energy
average:20 ft-lbs
minimum:15 ft-lbs
Test Temperature:
20 ft-lbs
15 ft-lbs
(2)
LPG All sizes and grades All pres-
sures
No tests recommended if lowest
auto-refrigeration temperature is
above 32F
Abosrbed Energy
average:
minimum:
Test Temperature:
15 ft-lbs
10 ft-lbs
(2)
Gas or Multi-
Phase
4-inch maximum Grade B or
X-42 and maximum hoop
stress does not exceed 72%
of SMYS
3705 psi
maximum
(ANSI Class
1500)
No tests recommended Absorbed Energy
average:
minimum:
Test Temperature:
20 ft-lbs
15 ft-lbs
(2)
14-inch maximum Grade X-52
or lower and maximum hoop
stress does not exceed 72%
of SMYS
1480 psi
maximum
(ANSI Class
600)
Absorbed Energy
average:
minimum:
Test Temperature:32F
20 ft-lbs
15 ft-lbs
32F
Abosrbed Energy
average:
minimum:
Test Temperature:
20 ft-lbs
15 ft-lbs
(2)
14-inch maximum Higher
strength grade or maximum
hoop stress greater than 72%
of SMYS
All pres-
sures
Shear Area:
Absorbed Energy:
Test Temperature:
(3)
(4)

32F
Shear Area:
Absorbed Energy:
Test Temperature:
(4)
(4)
(2)
16-inch and larger All Grades All pres-
sures
Shear Area:
Absorbed Area:
Test Temperature:
(3)
(4)

32F
Shear Area:
Absorbed Energy:
Test Temperature:
(3)
(4)
(2)
CO
2
Any size Super-crit-
ical pres-
sures
Consult CRTC Materials and
Equipment Engineering Unit
Consult CRTC Materials and
Equipment Engineering Unit
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-13 November 1994
Ductile to Brittle Transition
At low temperature, steel can fracture in a brittle manner like glass or ceramic. The
fracture surface has a crystalline appearance, and the amount of energy absorbed is
low. As the temperature increases, the steel undergoes a transition from brittle frac-
ture behavior to ductile tearing (also called shear), with a significant increase in the
amount of energy required for fracture. This ductile to brittle transition can be char-
acterized using the Charpy impact test, as illustrated in Figure 300-4. The transition
temperature can be defined as the temperature where either the absorbed energy for
a full-size Charpy specimen exceeds 15 ft-lbs, or the appearance of the fracture
surface of the specimen is at least 50% shear. Brittle fracture can be prevented by
insuring that the minimum operating temperature of the pipeline is well above this
transition temperature.
Liquid Lines (ANSI B31.4)
For liquid lines, we are primarily concerned about preventing brittle fracture. Since
most pipeline steels have adequate toughness to prevent brittle fracture at tempera-
tures above freezing, fracture toughness testing for liquid lines operating above
32F is generally not required. For liquid lines in critical service, such as a large
diameter offshore crude oil line, fracture toughness testing is recommended as an
extra guarantee that the steel will be operating above its transition temperature. For
these lines, Charpy impact testing should be required according to API 5L SR5, and
a minimum average energy of 20 ft-lbs should be specified. The standard test
temperature is 32F, which is acceptable for all lines which operate above this
temperature.
For liquid lines which operate at temperatures below 32F, Charpy impact testing
should always be required. Specify a minimum average energy of at least 20 ft-lbs
at the lowest expected operating temperature of the line. This will insure that the
Fig. 300-4 Schematic Drawing Showing Ductile to Brittle Transition Behavior in the Charpy
Impact Test
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-14 Chevron Corporation
transition temperature of the steel is below the minimum operating temperature,
and the steel will have adequate resistance to brittle fracture. Note that for buried
lines, the lowest expected operating temperature is seldom below 20F due to
warming from the earth.
LPG Lines
LPG lines are a special case, because auto-refrigeration can cause very cold temper-
atures in the area of a leak as the line depressurizes. Brittle fracture of the line
could occur if the temperature falls below the transition temperature of the steel
while the line is still under substantial pressure. Although the ANSI B31.4 Code
does not require special treatment of LPG lines, we recommend fracture toughness
testing if the lowest auto-refrigeration temperature which could occur is below
32F. This temperature must be calculated based on the specific composition of the
LPG. Mixtures containing large amounts of propane or butane will have lower auto-
refrigeration temperatures than those with mostly C5+ hydrocarbons. If the auto-
refrigeration temperature is above 32F it is not necessary to specify Charpy impact
tests. If it is below 32F, specify a minimum average energy of 15 ft-lbs at 32F or
lower. Since it would be unlikely that the line would ever actually reach the lowest
auto-refrigeration temperature while under substantial pressure, it is not always
necessary to specify fracture toughness testing at that temperature. Consult CRTC
Materials and Equipment Engineering for recommended testing temperatures for
specific lines.
Gas and Multi-Phase Lines (ANSI B31.8)
For gas lines, the Code requirements for fracture toughness are more stringent than
for liquid lines. The reason for the increased requirements is that in addition to
brittle fracture concerns, the stored energy of the compressed gas in a large diam-
eter or high pressure gas line can be great enough to propagate a ductile fracture. If
a crack is initiated by an external force (backhoe, earthquake, etc.) the gas in the
pipeline will start to decompress and release this stored energy. Whether or not the
crack will propagate depends on the speed of the decompression wave inside the
pipe relative to the fracture velocity in the steel, as shown in Figures 300-5 and
300-6. If the crack velocity exceeds the speed of the decompression wave, the pipe
will unzip over a long distance. One way to prevent ductile fracture propagation
is to slow down the crack. Since the crack velocity in the steel is related to the
steels fracture toughness, specifying a high enough minimum Charpy impact
energy will accomplish this. Another method is to install crack arrestors, which are
discussed in Section 448.
The fracture toughness requirements in the Code are mandatory for all lines 16 inch
NPS and larger which are designed to operate with a hoop stress over 40% of the
specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) of the pipe, and for lines smaller than 16
inch NPS which are designed to operate with a hoop stress over 72% of SMYS (the
Code permits maximum design stresses up to 80% of SMYS for some lines). Two
acceptance criteria must be met:
The average shear area for the Charpy impact specimens must be at least 35%
for each individual heat, and the average of all heats must be at least 50%, at
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-15 November 1994
the lowest expected operating temperature of the line or 32F, whichever is
lower.
The average absorbed energy for the Charpy impact specimens from all heats
must meet or exceed the energy value calculated using one of several equations
developed from pipeline research programs to predict the energy required for
ductile fracture arrest. These equations and an example calculation are given in
Figure 300-7.
Fig. 300-5 Ductile Fracture in Gas Pipelines
Fig. 300-6 Example of Ductile Fracture Analysis for Export Gas Line
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-16 Chevron Corporation
Company practice has generally been to specify Charpy impact testing for all gas
pipelines, with a minimum energy requirement of 20 ft-lbs at 32F or the lowest
expected operating temperature of the line, whichever is lower. This level of frac-
ture toughness is adequate to prevent brittle fracture, and will also exceed the
ductile fracture arrest energy required for many small to medium diameter lines
with typical operating pressures. This practice is included in the requirements in
Figure 300-3, in addition to the Code requirements.
For lines up to 4 inch OD (3.5 inch NPS) which operate above 32F and are
designed using API 5L Grade B or Grade X-42 pipe, fracture toughness testing is
not required unless the hoop stress exceeds 72% of SMYS, or the maximum allow-
able operating pressure exceeds ANSI Class 1500 limits (3705 psi at up to 100F).
These lines do not have a significant risk of brittle fracture, and the calculated
energy requirement for ductile fracture arrest is low (less than 10 ft-lbs). For critical
service, which includes all lines with operating temperatures below 32F, fracture
toughness testing should be specified with a minimum energy requirement of 20 ft-
lbs at 32F or the lowest expected operating temperature (whichever is lower)
according to past Company practice. Note that API 5L SR5 does not cover testing
of pipe 4 inch OD and smaller because it specifies transverse specimens which
cannot be taken from small pipe without flattening. All of the requirements of API
Fig. 300-7 Example of Ductile Fracture Arrest Calculations
1. Gas Pipeline: 24" outside diameter
1480 psi maximum allowable working pressure
2. Select Pipe Grade and Wall Thickness:
API 5L X-60
wall thickness:
hoop stress =
(SMYS = 60,000 psi)
0.438" required for hoop stress 72% of SMYS
= 40,548 psi (68% of SMYS)
3. Calculate Ductile Fracture Arrest Energy using equations from ANSI B31.8 Section
841.11
a. Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL) (AGA)
CVN = 0.0108
2
R
1/3
t
1/3
= 31 ft-lbs
b. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
CVN = 0.0345
3/2
R
1/2
= 31 ft-lbs
c. British Gas Council (BGC)
CVN = 0.0315R/t
1/2
= 23 ft-lbs
d. British Steel Corporation (BSC)
CVN = 0.00119
2
R = 23 ft-lbs
where:
CVN = full-size Charpy V-notch absorbed energy, ft-lb
= hoop stress, ksi
R = pipe radius, in.
t = wall thickness, in.
PD
2t
-------
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-17 November 1994
5L SR5 should be followed, except that the specimen orientation should be changed
to longitudinal.
For lines up to 14 inch OD which are designed using API 5L Grade X-52 or
lower strength pipe with maximum allowable operating pressures up to ANSI
Class 600 limits (1480 psi at up to 100F), a minimum energy requirement of 20
ft-lbs at 32F or the lowest expected operating temperature (whichever is lower)
will be adequate to prevent both brittle and ductile fracture. Specifying this require-
ment is recommended in accordance with past Company practice, even though it is
not mandatory according to the Code. However, if the hoop stress exceeds 72% of
SMYS, then the Code requirements for shear area become mandatory and the
ductile fracture arrest energy requirement may exceed 20 ft-lbs. Also, if higher
strength pipe is used to reduce wall thickness requirements or the maximum allow-
able operating pressure exceeds 1480 psi, the ductile fracture arrest energy require-
ments may exceed 20 ft-lbs.
For lines up to 14 inch OD which fall outside the specific limits given above,
and for all lines 16 inch OD and larger, the minimum energy and shear area
requirements must be determined in accordance with the Code. There are four equa-
tions given for calculating the minimum energy required for ductile fracture arrest
(refer to Figure 300-7). Since all four equations generally give results which are
easily achievable with modern line pipe steels, we recommend using whichever
equation gives the highest value for the particular line in question. The specified
energy requirement should not be less than 20 ft-lbs, even if the calculated values
are lower. If the calculated values are below 10 ft-lbs, consult CRTC Materials and
Equipment Engineering regarding whether or not fracture toughness testing should
be waived (unless it is mandatory per the Code).
Note that, as stated in the Code, the equations for calculating the minimum energy
for ductile fracture arrest are based on pipelines transporting essentially pure
methane. Gas mixtures containing substantial amounts of heavier gasses such as
propane and butane will have different decompression behavior, and may require
higher Charpy energy to insure ductile fracture arrest. An arbitrary safety factor of
1.5 has sometimes been applied to the calculated energy requirements to account
for this rich gas effect. CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering can perform
an analysis of the decompression behavior of a gas mixture using a mainframe
computer program called EQUIPHASE to accurately determine the required
Charpy energy.
Company specifications require testing of the weld and heat affected zone of seam
welded pipe (ERW or SAW) in addition to the base metal whenever fracture tough-
ness tests are specified. The Code requirements for ductile fracture arrest energy are
not mandatory for the weld seam, based on the assumption that the weld seam in
each joint will be rotated with respect to the next joint. Therefore, a fracture would
destroy at most one joint of pipe before it arrests in the next joint. However, it has
been Company practice to apply the same requirements to the weld and heat
affected zone as for the base metal, and this has generally been achieved without
much difficulty. Contact CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering regarding
relaxation of this requirement if necessary.
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November 1994 300-18 Chevron Corporation
Use of drop-weight tear testing (DWTT) in accordance with API 5L Supplementary
Requirement SR6 should also be considered for high pressure gas lines 20 inches in
diameter or larger and Grade X-52 or higher. The Code permits this test as an alter-
native to specifying a minimum shear area for the Charpy impact specimens.
However, Charpy impact testing is still required to verify that the ductile fracture
arrest criteria are met.
CO
2
Lines
CO
2
lines which operate at super-critical pressures (where the CO
2
is a dense phase
more like a liquid than a gas) are also a special case. Extremely high pressures
combined with auto-refrigeration concerns can result in fracture toughness require-
ments which are significantly greater than for typical natural gas pipelines. Crack
arrestors have been used for CO
2
pipelines, as discussed in Section 448. Consult
CRTC and CPTC specialists for advice on design of high pressure CO
2
pipelines.
314 Corrosion
Internal Corrosion
Carbon steel pipelines are typically designed with a zero corrosion allowance.
Adding a corrosion allowance should be an economic decision. Corrosion in pipe-
lines usually takes the form of pitting for which a corrosion allowance offers little
benefit. Corrosion can usually be controlled more economically with either inhibi-
tors or corrosion resistant linings.
In the special instances where corrosion allowances are desired the following rules
of thumb may be used:
The corrosion allowance depends on the product or medium in the line.
As small as possible corrosion allowance is usually selected because it will add
to the weight and cost of the line.
For refined products the rule is zero to 1/32 inch (0.8mm).
For crude lines with significant water the typical allowance is 1/16 to 1/8 inch
(1.60 to 3.20 mm).
In gas lines that contain water, and CO
2
or H
2
S an allowance of 1/8 inch is
reasonable.
In special cases a higher allowance may be warranted.
Pipelines carrying gas meeting transmission pipeline specifications should not
require a corrosion allowance.
In systems where corrosion cannot be controlled or carbon steel is inadequate,
several options can be considered:
Internally lined pipe (e.g., cement-lined, plastic lined, or epoxy coated) is used
in water services. See Section 350 for more information.
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-19 November 1994
Nonmetallic pipe (e.g., fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) or plastic) is sometimes
used for water or chemicals. See Section 370 of this manual and Section 1100
of the Piping Manual for more information.
Corrosion-resistant alloys (chromium and duplex stainless steels, and nickel
alloys) are available as line pipe as indicated in Section 311. There are also
weldable low chromium alloy steel grades (0.5% to 2% Cr) with enhanced
CO
2
corrosion resistance available from some of the Japanese manufacturers.
Clad or bi-metallic pipe with a conventional steel backing and an alloy liner is
available. API specification 5LD applies to these materials. These materials are
very costly but very effective in mitigating corrosion. Long lead times are
necessary for procurement. See Section 311.
External Corrosion
Codes B31.4 and B31.8 require external corrosion control of buried and underwater
pipelines by a combination of external coating (see Section 250 of the Coatings
Manual and Sections 340 and 444 of this manual) and cathodic protection (see
Section 460 of this manual and Section 500 of the Corrosion Prevention Manual).
It is not necessary to provide a corrosion allowance for pitting.
315 Specifications and Selection for Specific Services
General Services (PPl-MS-1050)
For most services with temperatures above 32F, including crude oil and products
lines, small diameter and low pressure gas lines, and water injection systems, the
basic requirements of PPL-MS-1050 are adequate. PPL-MS-1050 also contains
supplemental requirements which can be specified for critical services (e.g.,
offshore pipelines and lines in populated areas). The supplemental requirements can
be specified in Data Sheet PPL-DS-1050, which should be part of the bid request
and the purchase order. Hard copies of both the data sheet and specification and a
PC disk copy of the latter are contained in this manual.
Sour Service (PPL-MS-4041)
Specification PPL-MS-4041 covers all services which contain H
2
S, including sour
gas, sour crude oil, and water injection systems which are contaminated with H
2
S.
All of the basic requirements of PPL-MS-1050 are included in PPL-MS-4041, as
well as some additions. PPL-MS-4041 also has supplemental requirements, which
can be specified on the Data Sheet PPL-DS-4041. Hard copies of PPL-DG-4041
and PPL-MS-4041, and a PC disk copy of the latter are contained in this manual.
ERW Pipe Selection Decision Tree
Figure 300-2 presents an ERW pipe selection decision tree which is intended to
assist the engineer in the selection of the specification level, supplementary require-
ments and the mill class / source for ERW pipe. While ERW has been widely used
in Chevron for onshore sweet lines its use offshore and for sour lines has been
almost nil (except for Canada) . Cost savings can be realized with ERW especially
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-20 Chevron Corporation
in sizes greater than about 10 NPS. All of the requirements and notes shown in the
tree must be adhered to since performance is dependent upon all of the require-
ments being met.
The first decision to be made in using the tree is to determine if the environment
will be corrosive. Commodity grade ERW pipe can undergo grooving corrosion of
the weld seam in low pH waters, salt water, and wet gas containing CO
2
. Grooving
corrosion is controlled by using a pipe chemistry with low sulfur (<0.005%),
calcium inclusion shape control, and normalizing heat treatment of the weld seam.
These requirements are in the Chevron specifications.
The decision tree contains two branches. The branch on the left is for non sour
service and the one on the right is for sour service. The left branch references PPL-
MS-1050 whereas the right branch references PPL-MS-4041. The numbers in the
ellipses refer to the supplementary requirements in these specifications. The CSR
numbers refer to the list of supplementary requirements. The notes are special
instructions or procedures. The mill class refers to the approved list (also see
Figure 300-4) in AQUAII which is maintained by the Quality Assurance team in
CRTC. Mill surveillance requirements are also recommended based on mill class.
ERW Pipe for offshore pipelines.
Chevron did not use ERW pipe offshore until the early 1990s. One of the resistors
was the concern about weld seam quality. With the improvements in skelp quality,
seam heat treatment and NDE there has been significant industry usage of ERW for
offshore pipelines throughout the world. The decision tree in Figure 300-2 has been
developed as a tool to assist the project engineer in selecting the proper specifica-
tion requirements and class of mill to use ERW pipe offshore with confidence.
ERW should be considered for offshore service where there is an economic incen-
tive to do so. This is usually in sizes of 12 inches and greater.
316 Pipe Purchasing
Approved Mills
CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit Quality Assurance maintains a
list of acceptable pipe mills. The list specifies the manufacturer, plant location, type
of manufacture (ERW, seamless, etc.), grades, and sizes. In the case of ERW or elec-
tric welded pipe, the manufacturers are classified according to their manufacturing
and inspection capabilities. This list should be consulted to establish the acceptable
bidders list. Mill surveys or audits may be done to qualify additional mills when
necessary.
ERW Pipe Mills. Not all electric weld mills have kept up with the most current
technologies and therefore there is a variation on pipe quality from various mills.
CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering has developed a process where ERW
mills are not only approved as in the past but are also classified for specific services
according to the mills capabilities or attributes. The attributes fall into one of four
categories: materials, manufacturing, inspection, and experience. Using a process
that uses weighted questions, a score is established for each ERW mill and a class
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Chevron Corporation 300-21 November 1994
assigned. Mills capable of manufacturing the highest quality of pipe are assigned a
class A. The classes are tied to specific applications based on severity of service.
Mill order quantities. For pipeline projects and major producing field projects
(such as gathering systems), the quantity of pipe required is usually large enough to
justify mill order purchase. PPL-MS-1050 and PPL-MS-4041 should be used to
supplement the requirements of API 5L and to assure that chemical composition,
mechanical properties and NDE are adequate. This will minimize weldability and
field bending problems during laying of the lines. For recommendations on inspec-
tions to be performed see Section 700.
Based on experience, ERW pipe will be generally less in cost compared to seamless
in sizes above about 10 to 12 NPS. However the engineer, when going out for pipe
cost quotations should consider the total cost of ownership including shipping,
coating, delivery time, etc. all of which could easily effect the economics of which
product is more cost effective.
ERW mill order purchases. In order to properly specify and purchase ERW,
consult the decision tree in Figure 300-2. This tree is intended to assist the facilities
engineer with selection of the proper Chevron specifications, supplementary
requirements that will provide the appropriate quality level of pipe and to give guid-
ance on the selection of the mill class. It is recommended that this chart be used
whenever ERW pipe is being purchased. If the pipe is coming out of stock, request
the mill test reports.
Pipe orders from distributor stock. For small projects, pipe is purchased off- the-
shelf from distributor stock. Purchasing pipe manufactured to API 5L, or other
similar industry standards typically has been the only option for small jobs. API 5L
pipe not meeting the additional requirements of PPL-MS-1050 General Service, or
PPL-MS-4041, Sour Service, is adequate for some services, but has had several
serious shortcomings. Some of these are:
Broad chemical composition limits which can decrease weldability
Mill hydrotest pressures as low as 60% of the specified minimum yield
strength (SMYS) which is usually lower than the field hydrotest
Minimum NDE inspection requirements that may not be adequate for critical
services
In recent years, many manufacturers are gradually upgrading their standard product
to where it will meet many of the Chevron specification requirements. If the engi-
neer requires out of distributor stock (for ERW see next paragraph) it is recom-
mended that they request the mill test reports, and check these against the chemical
composition, NDE, and hydrotest requirements of the Chevron PPL-EG specifica-
tions. This pipe may be acceptable if it meets these requirements. If assistance is
required consult a quality assurance or metallurgy specialist in the Materials and
Equipment Engineering Unit at CRTC.
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-22 Chevron Corporation
ERW Pipe Orders from Stock
For smaller quantities of pipe ordered directly from distributor stock, the use of the
Chevron specifications to place the order is not feasible. The engineer and
purchasing units are encouraged to refer to the decision tree in Figure 300-2 to
select the appropriate class mill. Knowing the mill who produced the pipe,
consulting the new mill approved list, and the experience information in AQUA II
available from QA will aid in assessing the suitability of the stock pipe. The engi-
neer should request the mill test reports which will give the chemical composition
and the mechanical properties. The type of final NDE can be determined from the
mill source. While the pipe will not be made to the Chevron specifications, the engi-
neers will be able to assess whether it is from a high enough class of mill and meets
the important specification requirements for the service. Engineers in the Materials
Unit will be able to help with this selection.
320 Field Bending
Field bending involves cold bending the pipe to the required radius or bend angle.
Field bending is needed so the pipe will conform to the curvature of the ditch. For
up to approximately NPS 12 the bending can be done with a suitable bending shoe
attached to the frame of the side boom. For sizes larger than NPS 12, a field
bending machine is recommended. Most domestic field bending machines are
manufactured by CRC-Evans, Houston, Tx (713) 460-2900. Their many sizes range
from 4- to 60-inch diameter. For large-diameter high-strength pipe, a bending quali-
fication test is recommended to confirm that the proposed bending machine size has
adequate capacity to bend the pipe. Bend quality depends on the skill of the
machine operator.
321 Code Requirements
Both Code B31.4 Section 406.2 and B31.8 Section 841.231 limit the prequalified
minimum bending radius to a multiple of the pipe diameter. The minimum prequali-
fied bending radius varies with the pipe diameter. For example, pipe sizes up to and
including NPS 12 have a prequalified minimum bend radius of 18D (18 times the
pipe diameter). NPS 20 and larger have a prequalified minimum bend radius of
30D. Both Code B31.4 and Code B31.8 will allow a smaller bending radius,
providing prototype testing is done. For cold bends, Code B31.4 (liquids) limits the
absolute minimum pipe bend radius to 18D.
Both Codes B31.4 and B31.8 allow bends with a smaller radius providing a proto-
type bend conforms to the following: (1) wall thickness is within tolerance for the
original pipe, (2) pipe diameter is not reduced by more than 2.5%, (3) the pipe will
pass a specified gauging pig, and (4) the bend is free from buckling, cracks, and
mechanical damage. ANSI/ASME Code B31.3 Section 332 contains different
requirements, but generally allows smaller radius bends.
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-23 November 1994
322 Chevron Requirements
Corrosion Coating Damage
Company pipeline fabrication specifications often limit the bending radius to larger
than would be allowed by the Code. The intent is to limit pipe coating damage.
Excessive bending angles can cause the coating to crack or to spall. The bending
limits are different for the various common pipeline coatings.
Pritec (extruded polyethylene with a butyl rubber mastic) and Mapec (extruded
polyethylene with a thermal setting mastic) are bendable without special precau-
tions. However, these coatings wrinkle very easily, i.e., disbond, and they can hide
buckles and mechanical damage in the bend.
Fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) (up to 20 mils DFT) can typically be bent to 1.5
degrees per diameter bend length (38D bend radius) without difficulty. For
example, a 40-foot length of 24-inch pipe with two 6-foot tangents has 28 feet of
bendable length. This represents 14 pipe diameters, so this joint could be bent up to
21 degrees. Tighter bends are possible, and the limit will depend on the tempera-
ture, FBE supplier, and coating thickness.
The bendablity of coal tar enamel depends on the ambient temperature and the
coating grade. High-temperature grades have poor bending properties at ambient
temperature and may require heating to avoid cracking.
Field-applied over-the-ditch (OTD) tapes require special attention for bends of
more than 0.5 degrees per diameter foot (115D). The OTD machine operator must
increase the tape overlap before entering a bend. Otherwise the tape will gap on the
outside radius of the bend.
Field bending specifications require that the bending apparatus be adequately
padded to minimize damage to the pipe coating. Misalignment of the bending shoes
can also cause coating damage. Field bends should be holiday-tested (jeeped) to
confirm that the coating has not been damaged by bending.
Wall Thickness
Seamless pipe can have significant variations in wall thickness. The thickness can
be determined by ultrasonic measurements (see Section 710). Field bending specifi-
cations for seamless pipe require that the thinnest wall be positioned on the inside
radius during bending, because the wall on the outside of the bend will be thinned
during the bending process. This minimizes the chance that the outside of the bend
will have wall thicknesses below the minimum tolerance for the original pipe.
Welded pipe does not have significant wall thickness variations.
Welded Pipe Seam
For welded pipe, the weld seam should be located on the neutral axis of the bend.
This is considered good practice, and is required by CFR Part 192 and Part 195
unless certain precautions are taken. When the bend is in the bending machine, the
neutral axis would be located in the 3 or 9 oclock position for a bend made in the
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November 1994 300-24 Chevron Corporation
vertical plane. This is a workmanship requirement and, providing all of the other
Code and specification requirements are met, should not be the sole reason for
rejection of a bend.
Sizing Plate
Each field bend must be able to pass a sizing plate of a size specified in the bending
specification. This can be used to confirm the Code requirement that pipe diameter
should not be reduced by more than 2.5% of the nominal pipe diameter.
Sizing plates that confirm that an inspection pig will be able to pass through the
line are typically not necessary for field bends. Field bends are typically 18D and
above, and the problem with inspection pig passage usually does not begin until
bends are 12D and below.
Mechanical property degradation
Significant degradation of the pipe material impact toughness is not expected unless
the cold forming strain exceeds 5% (equivalent to less than a 10D bend radius).
This degradation is caused by strain aging, which leads to increased yield strength
and decreased toughness.
Bending Formulas
(1)
where:
(2)
330 Shop Bending
331 Induction Bending
Induction bending for pipe is widely used.
Capabilities and Advantages
Large induction bending machines can bend pipe from 3 to 66 inches in diameter
with wall thicknesses up to 4 inches and bend angles up to 180 degrees (90 degrees
Bend radius and bend length are measured in pipe diameters
Bend angle is in degrees
D = nominal pipe diameter, ft
Bend radius
57.3 bend length
bend angle
----------------------------------------------- =
Cold forming strain
D 100%
2 bend radius
------------------------------------- =
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-25 November 1994
for pipe diameters greater than 34 inches). Small bending machines (e.g., Cojaflex
PB Special) can bend 2- to 12-inch diameter pipe. The bend radius can be as low as
1.5 times the pipe diameter (3D bends are routine) for small diameter pipe.
Figure 300-8 gives some basic induction bending terminology.
Induction bending overcomes most of the deficiencies of furnace hot bending and
has several additional advantages:
High dimensional accuracy.
Various bend angles and multiple plane bends.
Off-the-shelf seamless and ERW pipe may be induction bent to avoid small
quantities of special order pipe. The weld metal in SAW pipe can be a problem.
Description of the Induction Bending Process
The induction bending process uses a medium frequency induction coil to heat the
pipe (to 1500-2000F for carbon and low alloy steels, and 1900-2100F for stain-
less steel), while a hydraulic ram pushes the pipe around a radius (see
Figure 300-9). A water or air quench ring is placed closely behind the induction
coil, so that the width of the heated zone is typically only twice the pipe wall thick-
ness. Restricting the heating and bending to this small zone helps maintain dimen-
sions and avoid wrinkling. As a result, most of the residual stresses are
compressive. A water quench provides the best dimensional properties and is
preferred, except for ASME P4 and P5 materials. ASME P4 and P5 materials are
easily hardened, and they can crack as a result of water quenching.
Fig. 300-8 Basic Induction Bending Terminology
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-26 Chevron Corporation
Note The induction bending temperature cycle can significantly affect the mechan-
ical properties (strength and/or impact toughness) of the pipe as detailed below.
Metallurgical Effects of Induction Bending
The thermal cycle associated with induction bending can significantly affect the
yield and tensile strength (of all steels), impact properties (of carbon and low alloy
steels), and corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels. The effects of induc-
tion bending vary with the chemical composition and the prior heat treatment of the
pipe to be bent.
Carbon steel pipe (e.g., ASTM A106 & A53, API 5L Gr B, X-42, etc.) is
strengthened primarily by carbon and manganese. It will often strengthen
significantly during the induction bending thermal cycle. For example, API 5L
Gr B pipe has met X-70 strength requirements following induction bending. To
reduce the excessive strength and hardness in the as-bent condition, these
grades require tempering following induction bending.
High strength steel pipe (e.g., X-56 and above) is strengthened by chemistry
(carbon and manganese), thermal mechanical working, and microalloying.
Grades of pipe that gain a significant amount of their strength by microalloying
and thermal mechanical working often do not retain their original strength after
induction bending. Hence, these steels may have problems meeting specified
minimum strength requirements following induction bending. Bends should
also be tempered following induction bending, which may further reduce their
strength. They must be tempered for sour service.
Fig. 300-9 Induction Bending Machine
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-27 November 1994
Low alloy steel pipe (e.g., ASME P4 & P5) will be strengthened significantly
by induction bending and is normally cooled by air quenching rather than
water quenching during induction bending. The air quench will minimize the
hardness and the risk of cracking. These grades require tempering following
induction bending.
Austenitic stainless steel pipe (e.g., Type 316), which receives some of its
strength from cold work, will have its strength reduced by the induction
bending thermal cycle. In addition, the beginning and end of the bend will have
reduced corrosion resistance similar to that experienced in weld heat affected
zones. If corrosion resistance or resistance to stress corrosion cracking is
required, only low carbon or stabilized grades (e.g., 304L, 316L, 317L, 321, or
347) of stainless steel should be induction bent.
In summary, all induction bent pipe (except austenitic stainless steelsType 3XX)
should be tempered following bending to reduce the strength and hardness and to
improve the impact toughness of the pipe. Tempering should be waived only on
certain nonsour-service, high-strength grades when tempering would be detrimental
to the final strength and/or impact toughnessand then only after prototype bends
are made and shown to meet the service requirements.
Selection of Materials for Induction Bending
Successful induction bends have been made in Carbon, Low Alloy, And Line
Pipe Steels with carbon equivalents (CE) from the high 0.20%s through the
0.50%s. However, carbon equivalents in the mid- to high-0.30%s represent the
optimum chemistry for both bendablity and weldability. Carbon equivalents are
defined by the equation:
CE = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Cu + Ni)/15
(Eq. 300-1)
A potential weld toughness problem exists when SAW pipe, particularly pipe for
low temperature service, is induction bent. SAW wire and flux combinations devel-
oped to give good impact toughness in the as-welded condition may undergo a
dramatic decrease in toughness after being exposed to a stress-relieving (tempering)
or quenching and tempering cycle similar to that encountered during induction
bending. Welding consumables are available which will respond more favorably to
heat treatment, but they will typically not be the pipe mills standard consumable.
Model Specification PPL-MS-4737 requires testing of the weld for SAW pipe and
weld impact testing when the original pipe is impact tested.
If corrosion resistance or resistance to stress corrosion cracking is required, only
low carbon or stabilized grades (e.g., 304L, 316L, 317L, 321, or 347) of Austenitic
stainless steel should be used as bent. The corrosion resistance would not normally
be a factor for service temperatures above 850F or below 32F.
Model Specification PPL-MS-4737
Model Specification PPL-MS-4737, Induction Bending, presents requirements for
induction bending carbon and low allow steel pipe (ASME P1, and P3 through P5
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-28 Chevron Corporation
pipe, CAN3-Z245.1 line pipe, and API SPEC 5L line pipe). Submerged arc welded,
seamless, or electric resistance welded (ERW) pipe may all be bent according to
this specification.
Austenitic stainless steels (e.g., Type 3XX) may also be bent by induction bending.
They have been excluded from the model specification for simplicity. A hard copy
and PC disk copy of PPL-MS-4737 are contained in this volume.
332 Hot Bending
Prior to the widespread use of induction bending for pipe (approximately 1980),
pipe bends were made by hot bending. Two methods were used:
Hot slab bending. Pack with sand, furnace-heat, and bend while hot
Hamburger or clam shell method. Hot-form half-shells in dies and then weld
the long seams
These methods were labor intensive, had limited dimensional accuracy, required
expensive dies for each size and bend radius, and presented the problem of how to
maintain the bending temperature on large pieces. Bending could not continue after
the pipe temperature cooled below 1600F, necessitating repeated return trips to the
furnace. Hot bends also require limited quantities of special high-strength line pipe
with specific chemical and physical properties, creating a procurement problem.
Hot bends are no longer recommended for use in any service.
340 External Pipeline Coatings
This section provides a brief overview of the recommended types of corrosion
protection coatings for buried pipelines. More complete information on external
pipeline coatings can be found in the Coatings Manual and in Section 950 of this
manual.
The Coatings Manuals Quick Reference Guide provides a selection guide for
external pipeline coatings. It lists the types of coatings (fusion bonded epoxy,
extruded plastic, coal tar enamel, tape wraps, etc.) and their recommended services.
The guide also includes temperature limits, hydrocarbon resistance, weld joint
protection and repair. Figure 300-10 gives the advantages and disadvantages of
using these coatings.
Fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) is, in general, the best coating for buried lines.
Extruded plastics (Pritec and Mapec are preferred because of their high quality
adhesive and plastic) are recommended when supply or economics rule out FBE.
Tape wraps and coal tar enamel, while needed for certain applications, are not
recommended for new pipeline construction.
When selecting a coating, installation costs must be balanced with the reliability
expected. Using a tape wrap instead of FBE may save money in the short-term, but
will increase the chances of long-term losses due to increased maintenance and
possible early corrosion failure of the line. Other concerns are shipping costs, appli-
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-29 November 1994
Fig. 300-10 External Coating Alternatives (1 of 2)
Coating Advantages Disadvantages
Line Coatings
Fusion Bonded Epoxy 20+ years experience
Low current required for C. protection
Good resistance to C. disbondment
-40 to 200F temperature range
Available in all pipe sizes
Excellent hydrocarbon resistance
Not susceptible to cathodic shielding
Excellent adhesion to steel
Continuous coating
Near white metal surface prep required
High application temperatures
Thinnest coating
Difficult to apply holiday free
Difficult to apply consistently
Difficult to apply to bends
Liquid Epoxies
(Thermosets)
200F+ temperature resistance
Can be spray or hand applied in field
Good chemical resistance
Can be applied to odd shapes
Can be incorporated with a tape
Can be applied while pipe in service
Long cure time (minutes to 24 hours)
May need near white blast surface
Limited service history
Expensive
Extruded Plastic,
Butyl adhesive -
(Pritec brand)
Low current required for C. protection
Minimum holidays on application
-40 to 180F temperature range
Self-healing adhesive
Wide range of sizes
Excellent adhesion to steel
Continuous coating
High initial cost for small dia. pipe
Susceptible to C. shielding
Do not use on spiral welded pipe
Hard to handle when warm
Susceptible to damage from thermal
expansion and contraction
Cannot be used on bends
Limited hydrocarbon resistance
Extruded Plastic,
Liquid adhesive-
(X-Tru-Coat-type)
24+ years experience
Minimum holidays on application
Low current required for C. protection
-40 to 100F temperature range
Minimum adhesion to steel
Do not use above ground
Limited storage life
Tears in jacket can go length of pipe
Adhesive flows at low temperatures
Poor hydrocarbon resistance
Susceptible to C. shielding
Hard to handle when hot
Tape Wraps
(services < 140F)
25+ years experience
Easy to apply
Can be used for bends
Can be used to coat all sizes of pipes
Can be applied to pipe while in service
Susceptible to cathodic shielding
Poor coating-to-coating bond at overlap
Susceptible to soil stresses
Temperature limited
Non-continuous coating
Poor service history
Coal Tar Enamel 60+ years experience
Minimum holidays on application
Low current required for C. protection
Good resistance to C. disbondment
Good subsea experience with weight coating
Available for all sizes of pipe
Carcinogenic fumes when applied Poor
UV resistance
Cracking problem below 32F
Soft when hot (100F)
Poor hydrocarbon resistance
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-30 Chevron Corporation
cation site, chemical resistance, maximum service temperature, soil conditions,
accessibility to the line, and storage and handling.
Tape wraps are no longer recommended for new pipelines because their low cost
and the ease of over-the-ditch application are offset by a poor service history and
high failure rate. However, tapes are useful for repairing mechanically damaged
coatings, protecting large radius bends and tie-ins, and performing over-the-ditch
coating refurbishment when other coatings are not flexible enough or cannot be
field-applied.
Increasingly, liquid epoxies are being used to refurbish old coatings and for odd
geometries. These two-part liquids have chemical and temperature resistance prop-
erties that are similar to FBE, and can be applied in the field. However, they do
require a sand-blast cleaned pipe surface and are relatively expensive.
No matter which coating is selected, surface preparation is critical. Poor or
improper surface preparation will cause any coating to fail prematurely.
350 Internal Coatings and Linings
This section briefly summarizes information from the Coatings Manual. For further
information refer to the Coatings Manual.
Pipe is internally coated or lined to prevent corrosion, to increase flow rates by
reducing friction losses, to preserve product purity, or to prolong the life of an
existing line. In this section the term coatings refers to the relatively thin paint-
type coatings, while linings refers to the thicker cement or plastic, field applied
means application of a coating or lining to an existing pipeline. Figure 300-11 gives
alternatives for internal coatings and linings.
Field Joint Coatings
Fusion Bonded Epoxy Best protection
Cost near to that of shrink sleeves
Same material as on the line
See above, Line Coatings
Near white metal surface prep required
Requires special equipment to apply
Use on FBE lines only
See above
Liquid Epoxies See above, Line Coatings See above
Shrink Sleeves Easy to apply by inexperienced
personnel
-30 to 230F temperature range
Extensive service history
Minimum surface prep required
(SSPC SP-3)
Readily available
High temperature sleeves need heat
application
Poor hydrocarbon resistance
Tape Wraps Not recommended, see above Not recommended, see above
Fig. 300-10 External Coating Alternatives (2 of 2)
Coating Advantages Disadvantages
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-31 November 1994
351 Epoxy Coatings
(1) Except as noted, costs are for lining an 8-inch pipe at the shop location. Pipe costs extra. Costs are for rough comparative purposes
only.
Shop applied, internal epoxy coating is generally available as a heat cured powder
or as a baked-on liquid. The powder is a thermosetting resin for application by the
fusion-bonded process, with or without primer. The baked-on liquid can be epoxy,
epoxy-phenolic, or possibly a modified urethane with primer.
Field-applied coatings are limited to the liquid epoxies since a furnace cure is not
possible. The application method makes an experienced foreman crucial to
achieving a good result.
Fig. 300-11 Internal Coating/Lining Alternatives for Pipelines
Material
Recommended
Services Advantages Limitations
Approximate
Cost
(1)
Cement Lining Produced water
Salt water
Almost always for
new lines
Thick, usually very
reliable against
water corrosion
Joints are potentially a
weak link, not good in many
chemicals
Min. Pipe diameter: 2-3
inches
Temp. approx. 250F
Pressure approx. 5000 psig.
Velocity approx. 10 fps
Shop = $1.60/ft.
Plastic Liner
(shop applied)
Process chemicals Excellent corrosion
resistance to a
variety of services
Typically comes in 20-foot
flanged lengths
Flange joints can leak
Pipe diameter 1-16 inches
Temp. approx. 200F (PPL)
to approx. 500F (Teflon)
Including pipe and
flanges = $80/ft
(PPL) to $300/ft
(Teflon).
Plastic Liner
(Field applied)
(HDPE)
Produced water
Salt water
New existing lines
Very reliable Very
few joints Can
salvage
existing lines
Pipe diameter 3-16 inches
(but larger sizes can be
done)
Temp. 200F
$9.20/ft.
Coatings
(Shop applied)
Produced water
Salt water
Flow friction reduc-
tion
Fair to good corro-
sion resistance
Joints are potentially a
weak link
Relatively thin film (may
give shorter, less reliable
life)
Coatings
(Field applied)
Produced water
Salt water
Flow friction reduc-
tion
New or existing
lines
Fair to good corro-
sion resistance
Good chance of field foul-
ups
Spotty history of quality
control
Relatively thin film (may
give shorter, less reliable
life)
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-32 Chevron Corporation
352 Plastic Linings
Linings are installed for new construction or can be installed through existing pipe-
lines to salvage a corroded line that would otherwise have to be replaced.
High density polyethylene (HDPE) liners are used to line pipelines in the 3- to 16-
inch size range. Installation is by wire-line pulling of sections up to 3000 feet long
into previously laid steel pipeline. Joints are made with buried flanges. The cost per
lineal foot is fairly high compared to cement lining (see Section 353) but may be
the only option. For instance, a HDPE liner was pulled through the expansion loops
and river crossing sag bends in an otherwise cement-lined pipeline because cement-
lined pipe could not have been bent.
A HDPE lining was used in the 4NPS flow lines for the Norphlet project to reduce
the need for inhibition. The liner failed during startup of the system. The conse-
quences of the failure are that significantly larger quantities of chemical inhibitor
are necessary to control the corrosion than would be required with a bare steel flow
line. While this is a negative experience it is believed that there is considerable
potential for cost savings with the use of these liners. It is stressed that front end
engineering and testing to qualify a procedure for making the HDPE joints in long
pipelines is very definitely required for a successful application.
HDPE liners can effectively salvage existing corroded pipelines, even bridging
small leaks. For large (18 inch and above) the Companys own thin-walled HDPE
(Spirolite) can be used to line pipelines that operate below about 100 psig.
353 Cement Linings
Cement-lined pipe has been used in the United States for nearly 100 years. Cement-
lined steel pipe combines the physical qualities of steel with the protective qualities
of cement mortar. The lining creates a smooth, dense finish that protects the pipe
from tuberculation (the formation of scale or other nodules on the inner surface of
the pipe) and provides a relatively high flow coefficient. In addition to acting as a
physical barrier between the steel pipe and any potentially corrosive fluid, the
cement lining also creates an alkaline environment near the steel wall that helps
inhibit corrosion [1].
Chevron has successfully used cement-lined pipe for many years in both producing
and refining applications. Cement-lined pipe is most often used to protect carbon
steel pipe from corrosion in water/brine environments. Typical applications include
water injection systems in oil fields and fire water systems in large plants.
Applicable Specifications
General. There are several specifications you may use for cement lining steel pipe:
API RP 10E, Recommended Practice for Application of Cement Lining to
Tubular Goods, Handling, Installation and Joining.
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-33 November 1994
PPL-MS-1632, Materials and Fabrication of Cement-Lined Piping and Tubular
Goods. PPL-MS-1632 modifies API RP 10E, which is intended for oil produc-
tion related uses.
AWWA STD C602-83, Cement-Mortar Lining of Water Pipelines in Place.
AWWA STD C205-85, Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel
Water Pipe4 In. and Larger ShopApplied.
ANSI Standard A21.4, Cement-Mortar Lining for Cast Iron and Ductile Iron
Pipe and Fittings for Water.
API RP 10E and Company Specification PPL-MS-1632 (used in conjunction) are
the recommended specifications for cement-lining of pipe for produced water, rein-
jection water, brine, and salt water service in the oil field.
For some piping intended for fresh or brackish service the AWWA Standards are
often good enough. Many small applicators use the AWWA standards and are not
familiar with API RP 10E. Refineries and chemical plants have successfully lined
pipe to the AWWA Standards for fresh and seawater service.
How to Specify. API RP 10E is the recommended specification for cement lining
both new and used pipe. Specification PPL-MS-1632 should be used in conjunction
with API RP 10E for cement-lining new pipe. In-place (in-situ) cement lining is
sometimes done on existing pipe to extend the life of internally corroded pipe, as
well as for lining new pipe on site. PPL-MS-1632 should still be used along with
the API specification even though it does not directly address in-place lining. PPL-
MS-1632 still gives guidance on cement selection, gasket selection, etc.
API RP 10E is preferred primarily because it covers sulfate- resistant cements with
low tricalcium aluminate (C
3
A) and is a more stringent specification and more
appropriate for oil producing or refining services. Company specification PPL-MS-
1632 is based directly on API RP 10E and modifies it by adding or deleting require-
ments from several paragraphs.
Many cement lining vendors are not familiar with the API practice and commonly
use the AWWA standards. In several instances the AWWA standards have been
used in lieu of the API standard. The Richmond Deepwater Outfall Project is one
example. Generally, if the water being piped is fresh or mildly brackish and the
piping system is not deemed critical, specifications other than the API RP 10E are
adequate. Examples of noncritical systems are potable water, domestic drainage,
and sewage systems.
The AWWA Standards have been used in the past with requirements added for steel
pipe, curing, joining, etc. Contact the CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering
Unit for assistance with the specific requirements for your project.
Steel Pipe Requirements
Company Specification PPL-MS-1050 supplements API SPEC 5L. See Section 310.
Thickness and straightness are two very important requirements for steel pipe to be
cement-lined. Thickness is more important than the grade. If the pipe is thin-wall, it
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-34 Chevron Corporation
is more apt to be dented, formed out-of-round, or to become bent. Section 2 in API
RP 10E and PPL-MS-1632 cover pipe thickness requirements.
Pipe should be straight to within 1/8 inch per 10 feet of length. This is not covered
in API RP 10E but is used by several cement lining applicators.
Spiral-welded pipe is not used for cement-lined pipe that conforms to API RP 10E
because the cement cannot be applied by the rapid spin method. The raised weld
profile causes the pipe to vibrate severely, and bounce or wobble during applica-
tion, when spinning speeds can reach 700 rpm. This prevents the application of a
good, dense lining and may damage equipment.
However, spiral welded pipe has been successfully lined using other lining
methods. These methods utilize a heavy slurry sand cement and involve slower spin-
ning speeds and hand trowelling. This type of cement-lined pipe is covered in the
AWWA specifications and is appropriate for low corrosive and noncritical systems,
as mentioned earlier. Richmond Refinery made successful use of spiral-welded
cement-lined pipe for the deep water effluent outfall line.
Types of Cement Linings
Cements. The Company specifies Portland cement conforming to ASTM C-150
Type I, Type II, Type III, or Type V depending on the sulfate levels of the water that
the pipe will transport. Sulfate ions attack cement linings by reacting with the
cement and forming gypsum, which occupies about 18% greater volume than the
original cement. The gypsum in turn reacts with C
3
A to form a complex hydrate
crystal which expands to over 200% of the volume of the original constituents[2].
This causes the lining to spall and crack, and eventually to fail.
Types III and V cement are specified for high concentrations of sulfate (above 5000
ppm and 1500 ppm, respectively). Limits are placed on the content of C
3
A in the
cement. Cements with low amounts of C
3
A are resistant to sulfate attack. Type II
cement may be used for moderately sour water with sulfate levels below 1500 ppm.
Type I cement may be used for fresh water with sulfate levels below 200 ppm.
Fresh and potable water generally have less than 40 ppm of sulfates and seawater
has around 2650 ppm. These levels vary; the engineer should obtain an analysis of
the water the pipe will transport.
Experience. Two types of lining mixtures have dominated cement-lined pipe tech-
nology over the last 25 years: pozzolanic cements, containing 60% cement and
40% pozzolans; and sand cements containing 60% sand, 35% cement, and 5%
pozzolans[2]. Pozzolans are fine particles of silica and alumina that react with lime
to form calcium silicate and aluminates.
Experience has shown that pozzolan cements are more sulfate resistant, and sand
cements are more acid-resistant [2].
CUSA Producing, Northern Region has used 60% cement/40% pozzolan linings
successfully for many years in injection systems high in sulfates conditions. This
type of cement has a lower permeability than sand cements and therefore provides
more resistance to water diffusing through the pipe and corroding the steel [3].
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-35 November 1994
Cement Lining Application
Chemical Attack. As with almost any type of coating or lining, proper application
is one of the most important variables in the overall success and longevity of the
coating or lining. For cement linings, proper mix proportion is equally important.
Shop-Applied. Straight sections of pipe are lined with a machine that spins the
pipe joint and centrifugally applies cement linings to the interior of steel pipe. The
entire pipe section is lined to a uniform thickness without interruption. Once the
desired thickness is obtained, the rotation speed is increased to produce a dense
cement with a smooth surface and a minimum of shrinkage.
Elbows, bends, and other shapes must be lined using mechanical placement, pneu-
matic placement, or hand application techniques. The cement is often reinforced in
these cases with a wire fabric reinforcement. The thickness may be varied to make
a smooth transition with adjoining sections of pipe but is otherwise the same as
centrifugally spun straight sections [4].
Several things can go wrong during the lining process and must be watched for:
Excessive acceleration up to spinning speed leads to poor spreading of cement
and results in lining eccentricity.
Too high a spinning speed and too long a spin duration result in particle size
segregation in the lining.
Applicators must vary rotating speed for different pipe diameters to ensure
proper centrifugal forces, which determine liner density.
Holddowns, or rollers, should be spaced about one per every 7 feet of pipe.
This helps reduce vibration and eccentricity.
Field-Applied or In-Place. Field application is done in three basic steps. First, a
mechanical scraper with wire brushes is run through the line enough times to
remove heavy scale and deposits. Then, a rubber pig is run through the line to
remove sand, debris and water. Finally, the cement coating is applied. Application
is by a moving head that centrifugally shoots the mortar onto the steel pipe. A
conical trowel almost immediately smoothes out the cement to a uniform thickness.
The pipe ends are then sealed to prevent moisture loss [5].
Curing. Specification PPL-MS-1632 requires all shop-applied cement linings be
steam-cured. Steam curing accelerates the chemical (cement hydrolysis) curing
process and brings the cement to full strength much quicker than an atmospheric
cure will. Steam curing does not alter the linings chemical resistance properties.
Most, if not all, field applicators of cement linings are unable to steam cure. In
these cases, the atmospheric curing requirements in API RP 10E, Section 3.4b,
should be strictly enforced.
Quality Control Procedures. The Company should inspect the contractors plant
during application to ensure proper lining procedures are being used. The Company
should also inspect the finished product and review the applicators certification
documents to ensure that the cement used for lining meets the required specifica-
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-36 Chevron Corporation
tions. Certification and testing are covered in Sections 4 and 6, respectively, in API
RP 10E.
Cement Lining Applicators. Listed below are several cement lining applicators.
The list is not complete, nor is it an approved bidders list.
Joining Cement-Lined Pipe
Gaskets. Gaskets are needed to protect the inner surface of steel pipe joints once
the pipe is put into service. Gaskets for butt-welded joints must be heat-resistant to
withstand the heat of welding. Asbestos has been used for many years and has been
largely successful [3]. We believe that asbestos gaskets may still be used in compli-
ance with environmental and health regulations because the gaskets are installed in
the outdoors and never exposed once the joint is welded. However, the engineer
must check the current regulations concerning the use of asbestos gaskets. The
governing regulations are listed on page three of API RP 10E.
If the operating company or the governing regulations prohibit the use of asbestos
gaskets, API RP 10E lists an alternative to asbestos. This is a new product with
limited field experience. We believe that the flexible graphite sheet will work well,
but it costs considerably more than asbestos.
Chevron Canada Resources has successfully used an Inconel wire-mesh-impreg-
nated gasket for welded joints. These gaskets are available through Alberta Gaskets
in Alberta. The CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit can provide assis-
tance with selecting nonasbestos gasket materials.
Joints. The Company has used butt-weld, sleeve, and slip-on flange joints. Butt-
weld joints are preferred because they are stronger and stiffer than sleeve joints.
Slip-on flange joints are hardly ever used because welding heat damages the
cement lining. Screwed-on flanges are possible but not recommended. See
Figure 300-12 for illustration of a butt-weld cement-lined pipe joint.
Armor Cote, TX 915/332-0558
Permian Enterprises, TX 915/683-1084
Ameron, CA 213/268-4111
Spiniello Construction Co., CA 213/835-2111
Heitkamp, CT 203/274-5468
Burke Industries, CA 408/297-3500
Progressive Fabricators, MO 314/385-5477
Thompson Pipe and Steel, CO 303/289-4080
U.S. Pipe and Foundry, AL 205/254-7000
American Cast Iron Pipe Co., AL 205/325-7701
Bitco, CA 415/233-7373
Shaw Pipe Protection, Alberta
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-37 November 1994
Welding procedures for cement-lined steel pipe have traditionally been standard
pipeline procedures, with incomplete penetration on the root pass to avoid damage
to the cement and gasket. Electrodes have generally been of the EXX10 type. Some
recent experience in Canada has suggested that these electrodes, which leave more
hydrogen in the weld, may combine with the stress riser of the incomplete penetra-
tion weld to produce root cracks.
A welding procedure using EXX18 low hydrogen electrodes and an inconel wire-
reinforced composition gasket has been developed by Chevron Canada Resources.
The procedure allows more weld penetration (90+%) and thus a stronger weld. The
procedure is downhill for NPS 2 pipe and uphill for NPS 3 and larger. The uphill
procedure appears slower but will save on repair time. Contact the Design and
Construction Group in Calgary for further information.
Branch Connections. Branch connections are preferably made with cement-lined
tees. Branches may be made with bosses or weld-o-lets that have been fabricated
into a pipe spool and cement-lined in the shop. Good advance planning and design
will allow ordering shop lined branch components with connections and fittings
attached. If field cutting must be done use a hole saw. A hole saw is a cylindrical
saw attached to a drill. A cement-lined weld-o-let should be welded on and the
internal lining repaired with a repair compound such as X-Pando.
Field torch-cutting for branches should be avoided as this damages the cement
lining. Repatching these damaged areas is difficult, especially for small connections
and fittings. Ordering extra tees, fittings, and flanges will prevent delays in field
work and result in better lining integrity.
Typical Problems with Cement Linings
Chemical Attack. Cement linings can be corroded by many different chemicals
[2]. Examples are:
Strong acids with pH below 5.0
Carbonic acids
Fig. 300-12 Butt-weld Cement-Lined Pipe Joint
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-38 Chevron Corporation
Sulfates (as described earlier)
Magnesium chlorides
The pipes spinning during cement application and subsequent hardfinishing results
in the lining being slightly thicker at the ends. If the gasket seal fails corrosion may
start at the joint. However, the lining may not begin to spall or break until steel
corrosion has progressed several inches away from the joint because of the slightly
thicker lining near the joint.
Erosion. High fluid velocities, especially at tees and elbows, can also cause cement
lining deterioration. Water and solids impingement can cause erosion and also
continually replenishes corrosives to the lining. Unfortunately, the linings at elbows
and tees are not centrifugally spun and therefore are not as dense and strong as
linings in straight sections. Fluid velocities should be limited to roughly 10 fps (3
m/s) in order to avoid erosion damage (from the equation V = 100/, where =
density of the fluid in lb/ft
3
).
Transportation and Handling of Cement-lined Pipe
Cement-lined pipe should be transported and handled with care so as not to crack or
damage the lining. API RP 10E covers the proper procedures for loading/unloading,
transportation, and installation handling for cement-lined pipe. Refer to API Recom-
mended Practices RP 5L1, 5L5 and 5L6 for information on general handling of
pipe.
360 Piping Components for Pipelines
361 General
This section describes piping items with specific application to pipeline service that
are commonly used in pipeline systems:
Through-conduit valves
Closures and appurtenances for scraper traps
Casing insulators and seals
Special repair fittings
Other items commonly used but also found in plant piping systems are also
described:
Branch connections
Wall-thickness transition pieces
For other piping components where use is the same as for plant piping systems see
Sections 200 and 300 of the Piping Manual.
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-39 November 1994
362 Through-Conduit Valves
Because cross-country and offshore pipelines are nearly always designed for
scraper runs through the length of the line, line valves must allow for smooth
passage of scrapers and any objects or debris that may be pushed ahead of the
scrapers. Thus, valves must be full-opening to match the internal diameter of the
line pipe, and not have any pockets or irregularities that would catch or trap
scrapers or debris passing through the valves. Line valve types include steel gate
valves, ball valves, and check valves. API Specification 6D, Pipeline Valves, End
Closures, Connectors and Swivels, applies to these valves and is included by refer-
ence in Codes B31.4 and B31.8 for liquid and gas pipelines. Valves may be welded
into the line or flanged. Unless there is a particular purpose for a flanged connec-
tion, welded connections are generally preferred for their cost savings and to mini-
mize potential flange leakage in service.
Depending on size and service considerations, valves are either operated manually
(lever/wrench, handwheel, or geared) or powered (electrical, hydraulic, or pneu-
matic).
Service and size, as well as economics, will influence comparative evaluation
between gate valves and ball valves. Gate valves do well in all services; ball valves
should be restricted to clean products and gas. Gate valves are bulkier and require
larger and more expensive actuators (operators); ball valves are compact, easier to
operate, and better suited for hydraulic and pneumatic operators at remote locations.
Design features to be considered in valve selection are as follows:
Gate valves: gate seating, bonnet type, body pressure relief and drain, lubrica-
tion
Ball valves: ball seating, body access, lubrication
Check valves: seating, closure dampening
Typical through-conduit valves are manufactured by the following:
Gate valves: WKM, Houston TX; Grove, Oakland, CA; Walworth-FIP,
Houston, TX; Daniels M&J, Houston, TX; USI Axelson
Ball valves: WKM, Houston, TX; Cameron, Houston, TX; Borsig, Germany
Check valves: Wheatley, Tulsa, OK; Streamflo, Edmonton, Alberta
Design and selection of subsea pipeline valves is discussed in Section 950.
Valve type and manufacturer standardization is highly desirable, allowing operating
and maintenance personnel to acquire greater familiarity with the valves and mini-
mizing spare parts stock. It should be recognized that selection of standardized
valves within an operating organization or for a project may vary depending on
service and size.
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-40 Chevron Corporation
363 Closures and Appurtenances for Scraper Traps
Closures
The closure at the end of a scraper trap barrel provides easy, quick opening of the
barrel for insertion and removal of scrapers. Closures should comply with Section
406.6.1 of Code B31.4 and API Specification 6D, Pipeline Valves, End Closures,
Connectors, and Swivels. A closure is hinged or equipped with a davit so that it
swings clear of the barrel opening. A locking mechanism seals the opening, and
should be equipped with a pressure warning device to alert the operator to
completely relieve pressure in the barrel. Typical closures are made by Huber-Yale,
Borger, TX; see Figure 300-13.
Scraper Passage Detectors
A scraper trap manifold usually includes mechanical devices to indicate passage of
outgoing and incoming scrapers. These have a mechanical flag for a visual signal
or can be fitted with a switch for electrical indication. Typical devices are made by
T. D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK, and F. H. Maloney Company, Houston, TX.
364 Casing Insulators and Seals
Casing insulators are durable, electrically nonconducting supports, banded around
the line pipe at spaced intervals, to keep the line pipe from contacting the casing in
a cased highway or railroad crossing. To prevent slippage on the line pipe, an insu-
lator should clamp securely around the pipe without damaging the coating and
should readily slide along the casing.
Casing seals close the annular space between the line pipe and the casing. Casing
seals are of two types:
Fig. 300-13 Huber-Yale Figure 500 Closure
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-41 November 1994
Flexible, nonconducting, water-tight sleeves with end diameters that match the
casing and the line pipe and stainless steel bands that clamp the end seals around
the line pipe and the casing
Expandable synthetic rubber rings that fit between the line pipe and the casing
(Link-Seal)
Typical insulator assemblies and flexible seals are made by Pipeline Seals and Insu-
lator Inc., Houston, TX; and F. H. Maloney Co., Houston, TX. Link-Seal brand ring
seals are made by Thunderline Corp., Wayne, MI.
365 Special Repair Fittings
The special repair fittings manufactured by The Pipe Line Development Company
(Plidco), Cleveland, OH, have application in facilitating repairs and modifications
to line pipe in situations where hot work (torch cutting, welding) cannot be done
safely because of inflammable liquids or vapors in the line or in the working area.
These special repair fittings include the following:
Plidco Weld + Ends Coupling. This is a collar coupling that slips over the
line pipe, and clamps and seals around the outer periphery of the pipe to make
a leakproof joint so that operation of the line can be resumed. With flow
resumed and conditions safe for welding, the coupling can be fully sealwelded
to the line, making a permanent installation. See Figures 300-14 and 300-15.
Plidco Split + Sleeve. This is a longitudinally split sleeve that bolts around
the line pipe to make a seal. It also can be sealwelded to the line after flow is
resumed.
Plidco + Flange. A flanged fitting that slips over the line pipe and clamps
and seals around the pipe. It also can be subsequently sealwelded to the line.
Fig. 300-14 Plidco Weld + Ends Coupling
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-42 Chevron Corporation
Plidco Smith + Clamp. This fitting plugs pinhole leaks while the line is
under pressure. It should be considered as a temporary short-term measure
until permanent sleeve repairs or pipe replacement can be made.
Plidco Hot Tapping + Saddle. This is a split sleeve with flanged branch
connection for hot taps where surrounding conditions do not permit welding,
including underwater tie-ins. If conditions subsequently permit, it can be seal-
welded.
Custom/Special: Plidco will also custom design and fabricate special repair
fittings for almost any application.
366 Branch Connections
Section 404.3 of Code B31.4 and Sections 831.4, 831.5 and 831.6 of Code B31.8
cover detailed requirements for design of branch connections. Dependent on size
and pressure, branch connections complying with Code requirements may be:
Forged welding tees, per ANSI Specification B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought
Steel Butt-Welding Fittings
Integrally-reinforced, extruded outlet headers
Welded branches with full-encirclement reinforcement
Welded branches with localized reinforcing saddles
Forged weld-o-lets for small-size connections (NPS 1, 1-1/2connections
under NPS 1 are not recommended) at manifolds, or larger size weld-o-lets on
heavier wall pipe that is not highly stressed
Forged welding tees and integrally-reinforced extruded outlet headers are recom-
mended. Alternatively, welded branches with full-encirclement reinforcement may
be considered for large-diameter, high-strength line pipe, because high-strength
Fig. 300-15 Plidco Weld + Ends Cross-section
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-43 November 1994
forged fittings are often costly and unavailable. Localized reinforcement is not
recommended.
Main line branch tee connections that are larger than about 25% of the line diam-
eter should be provided with bar grates so that scrapers will not get caught at the
branch. See Standard Drawing GA-L99880.
367 Wall Thickness Transition Pieces
At butt-welded joints when wall thicknesses of the adjoining pipe or fitting vary by
more than 3/32 inch (2.4 mm), Codes B31.4 and B31.8 and CSA Standard CAN3-
Z183 require tapering at the transition. CSA Standard CAN/CSA-Z184 requires
tapering for a 1/16-inch (1.6 mm) mismatch. The more conservative criterion of
1/16-inch mismatch is recommended for Company pipelines.
Figure 4.8.6(a)-B of Code B31.4 and Figure I5 of Code B31.8 show similar details
for acceptable butt-welded joint design for unequal wall thicknesses.
When the thicker wall pipe or fitting is the same or higher grade as the thinner wall
pipe, its inside wall may be tapered by smooth-grinding in the field. A 4:1 taper is
suggested.
More commonly, the thicker wall pipe or fitting is the lower grade and cannot be
tapered lest it then be unsuitable for the design maximum operating pressure. In this
case a transition piece is required. Alternatively, for large diameter pipe, internal
backwelding to form the taper is permissible.
The material grade of the transition piece must match the higher grade of the
thinner wall pipe. A 4:1 machined taper is suggested. The Codes allow a taper
between 30 degrees maximum and 14 degrees minimum. Both ends are bevelled for
butt-welding to the adjoining pipe. The transition piece should be long enough so it
can be readily handled and fit up with welding clamps. A length of 12 inches
minimum or 1.5 x pipe diameter is suggested for sizes up through NPS 24, and 1 x
pipe diameter for larger sizes, although the Codes allow a length of 0.5 x pipe diam-
eter.
The pipe size, grade, and wall thickness of each end should be clearly stencilled on
each transition piece, so it can be readily identified for installation at the correct
pipe wall change location.
Obtaining stock material of sufficient wall thickness in high-strength grades is often
difficult. Transition pieces should be designed and purchase orders placed as early
in the project as practical.
370 Special Installations
This section gives brief references to Company pipeline systems that incorporate
special features, such as:
Insulation on buried lines
Heat tracing for buried and aboveground lines
300 Pipe and Coatings Pipeline Manual
November 1994 300-44 Chevron Corporation
Nonmetallic and internal-corrosion-resistant pipe
The Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC can be contacted for back-
ground on the design features of these and current systems.
For similar and other special installations reference should also be made to articles
and technical literature available from Company library resources and technical
publications.
371 Insulation on Buried Lines
Company projects using insulation or buried lines include the following:
Bluebell Pipeline in eastern Utah, Chevron Pipe Line Company, 1973
Feluy Heavy Fuel Oil Line in Belgium, Chevron Oil Belgium, 1971
Rio Bravo-Estero Pipeline in Central California, Chevron Pipe Line Company,
1981
Flow lines and gathering lines, Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, Alberta
372 Heat Tracing for Buried and Aboveground Lines
Company projects using heat tracing on buried and aboveground lines include the
following:
4-inch hot water tracer with buried 8-inch heavy fuel oil line in Hawaii, CUSA,
1960
Skin-electric-current-traced (SECT) 6-inch sulfur line in Wyoming, CUSA,
1983
SECT-heated 24-inch crude oil line in Sumatra, Caltex Pacific Indonesia, 1980-
82
373 Nonmetallic and Corrosion Resistant Pipe
Examples of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) pipe for produced water and water
injection lines, by various producing organizations, include the following:
CUSA, Southern Crane County, California; Rangely, Colorado
Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, Alberta
90-10 Cu-Ni offshore seawater intake pipe at Gaviota, CA, CUSA Western
Region
Bimetallic (duplex) co-extruded pipe should be considered for highly corrosive
service. This pipe has a layer of stainless steel or nickel alloy on the inner surface
of the carbon steel pipe, joined by a metallurgical integral-welded bond. Although
the Company has no pipeline experience, others in the industry (Sohio, Alaska;
Shell, UK North Sea) have installed pipelines for untreated hot oil-gas-water
Pipeline Manual 300 Pipe and Coatings
Chevron Corporation 300-45 November 1994
systems with high CO
2
content and for wet sour gas service with high CO
2
content.
The Company has installed duplex piping for:
North Rankin A Platform (Sandvik 2205 SS) for various services
Hidalgo Platform for brine blowdown from vapor compression watermaker
The cost of this special-order pipe may be less than solid alloy material. Mills that
have produced duplex pipe are:
Japan Steel Works, Japan
Sumitomo Metals, Japan
Sandvik, Sweden
Tubacex, Spain
API Specification 5LC, Corrosion-Resistant Line Pipe, is suggested for use in
ordering pipe, with additional specifications for the particular service conditions
provided by the Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC.
380 References
1. American Water Works Association (AWWA). AWWA Standard for Cement-
Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for Steel Water Pipe -4 In. and Larger
Shop Applied. AWWA C205-85.
2. Fruck, Giovanetto, Purdy. Engineering Aspects of Cement Lined Pipelines for
Use in Water Systems. 1976.
3. Murphy, C.A. Cement-lined Pipe Failure; Water Injection System, Virden
Canada. June 30, 1982 (Mat Lab File 70.20).
4. Mishael, S.J. Richmond HPSW Mortar Linings. October 11, 1983 (Mat Lab
File 70.20).
5. Price, J.E. Guidelines for Selection of Line Pipe and Use of Specifications EG-
1050-E and EG 4041. August 10, 1987 (Mat Lab File 67.20).
6. Kohut, G.B. ERW Line Pipe Guidelines. December 19, 1994 (MEEU File 67.0).
Chevron Corporation 400-1 November 1994
400 Design
Abstract
This section discusses the many considerations involved in the engineering design
of pipelines. It covers the design scope for the pipeline facilitynot the associated
station and terminal facility (although station and terminal piping are included in
pipeline codes for transportation systems). This section relates regulatory jurisdic-
tion to the selection of an appropriate design code. Hydraulic calculations, line
sizing, stress analysis, pipe wall thickness calculations, pipe and coating selection,
and ancillary considerations are discussed in relation to the various codes and the
Companys preferred practices. Pipeline crossings, appurtenances, and cathodic
protection facilities are also discussed.
Contents Page
410 Regulations and Codes 400-3
411 Regulatory Jurisdictions
412 Codes
420 Hydraulics 400-6
421 Basic Pressure Drop Calculations
422 Special Hydraulic Conditions
423 Hydraulic Profiles
430 Line Sizing 400-13
431 Elements to Determine an Economic System
432 Preliminary Pipe Selection and Line Operating Pressure
433 Hydraulic Profiles and Pump Station Locations
434 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Investment Costs
435 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Operating Costs
436 Economic Analysis for Line Sizing
437 Improving Cost Estimates
438 Sizing of Short Lines
440 Line Design 400-29
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-2 Chevron Corporation
441 Pipe and Coating Selection
442 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Liquid Pipelines per
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4
443 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Gas Transmission Pipelines
per ANSI/ASME Code B31.8
444 Coating Selection
445 BurialRestrained Lines and Provision for Expansion
446 Seismic Considerations
447 Crossings
448 Special Considerations
450 Pipeline Appurtenances 400-50
451 Line Valves
452 Scraper Traps
453 Electronic Inspection Pigs
454 Line Pressure Control and Relief
455 Slug Catchers
456 Vents and Drains
457 Electrical Area Classification
458 Line Markers
460 Corrosion Prevention Facilities 400-62
461 General
462 Impressed Current System for Cathodic Protection
463 Galvanic Sacrificial Anodes for Cathodic Protection
464 Insulating Flanges and Joint Assemblies
465 Cathodic Protection Test Stations and Line Bonding Connections
470 References 400-63
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-3 November 1994
410 Regulations and Codes
411 Regulatory Jurisdictions
United States
Regulations governing interstate hazardous liquid and gas pipeline facilities are
established and enforced on a federal level. Intrastate pipeline facilities are subject
to federal authority unless the state certifies that it will assume responsibility. The
state must adopt the same regulations or more stringent, compatible regulations.
The Chevron Pipe Line Company Guide to Pipeline Safety Regulations provides
information on federal and state jurisdiction for hazardous liquid and natural gas
pipelines. The Operations Section of Chevron Pipe Line Company should be
contacted for a copy of this guide.
Regulations for hazardous liquid pipelines are covered in Title 49, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 195 (49 CFR 195), Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipe-
line. Section 195.2 defines a hazardous liquid as petroleum, petroleum products, or
anhydrous ammonia. Section 195.1(b) excludes onshore gathering lines in rural
areas and onshore production facilities and flow lines. Pending regulations are
expected to include supercritical CO
2
pipelines under Part 195.
For gas pipelines, 49 CFR 191, covers annual reporting and incident reporting, and
49 CFR 192 deals with minimum federal safety standards for transportation of
natural gas and other gas by pipeline.
Section 910 of this manual gives further details on the applicability of the various
regulations to offshore pipelines.
Canada
In Canada, jurisdiction for pipeline design and operation is either federal or provin-
cial. In general, interprovincial transmission pipelines and pipelines designated as
involving national priorities are regulated by the National Energy Board and are
certificated pipelines. The Company is not, as yet, involved in transmission pipeline
operations in Canada and therefore is not usually concerned with the National
Energy Board regulations.
Intraprovincial transmission, interfield, and gathering system pipelines are provin-
cially regulated. Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan have well established
government departments to handle pipelines. The other provinces impose varying
degrees of control. Most of the Companys Canadian operations are in Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
Albertas Pipeline Act is enforced by the Energy Resources Conservation Board.
The Board issues its Pipeline Regulations and the Oil and Gas Conservation Regula-
tions. These regulations govern pipeline design, licensing, construction, testing, and
record keeping, and exercise influence over routing, measurement, and environ-
mental issues. For information on other provinces, contact Chevron Canada
Resources Limited in Calgary, Alberta.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-4 Chevron Corporation
Other Locations
Legal requirements for pipeline design and operation in other geographical loca-
tions must be determined individually. If regulations do not exist or are less restric-
tive than U.S. regulations, the pipeline facilities should be designed to the
applicable ANSI/ASME code.
412 Codes
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons,
Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols is incorporated by refer-
ence in 49 CFR 195. It is also a sound basis, although not legally required, for cross-
country water and water slurry pipelines, allowing their future conversion to oil or
other hazardous liquid service. A copy of Code B31.4 may be found in this manual
under Industry Codes and Practices.
Code B31.4 establishes requirements for safe design, construction, inspection,
testing and maintenance of pipeline systems transporting liquids such as crude oil,
condensate, natural gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, liquid
alcohol, liquid anhydrous ammonia, and liquid petroleum products. The Company
has used this code for Gilsonite and phosphate slurry pipelines. Figure 400.1.1 in
Code B31.4 (1986 Addenda) shows the range of facilities covered by the code.
Among these are pump stations, tank farms, terminals, pressure reducing stations
and metering stations.
Code B31.4 does not apply to auxiliary station piping such as water, air, steam,
lubricating oil, gas and fuel; piping at or below 15 psig, piping with metal tempera-
tures above 250F or below -20F; or field production facilities and pipelines.
ANSI/ASME Code B31.8
Incorporated by reference in 49 CFR 192 for natural and other gas, ANSI/ASME
Code B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, applies to field
gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines for natural gas. It covers the
design, fabrication, installation, inspection, testing, and safety aspects of gas trans-
mission and distribution system operation and maintenance. Figure I8 in Appendix
I of Code B31.8 shows the range of facilities covered by the Code, including gas
compressor stations, gas metering and regulation stations, and closed-pipe gas
storage equipment. A copy of Code B31.8 may be found in this manual under
Industry Codes and Practices.
Code B31.8 does not apply to piping with metal temperatures above 450F or
below -20F, vent piping operating at substantially atmospheric pressures, wellhead
assemblies, or control valves and flow lines between wellhead and trap or separator.
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183, Oil Pipeline Systems, is incorporated by reference
into the National Energy Board Act of Canada and the pipeline regulations of all
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-5 November 1994
Canadian provinces. It covers the design, material selection, fabrication, installa-
tion, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, and repair of onshore pipelines
carrying crude oil, multiphase liquids, condensate, liquid petroleum products,
natural gas liquids, liquified petroleum gas, and oilfield water.
CAN3-Z183 applies to pump stations, tank farms, pressure reducing stations, and
metering stations. It does not apply to auxiliary station piping such as water, air,
steam, gas, fuel and lubricating oil, piping with metal temperatures above 120C or
below -45C, production equipment or oil wells. A copy of the Standard may be
obtained from Chevron Canada Resources or the Canadian Standards Association.
Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184
Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184, Gas Pipeline Systems, is incorporated by
reference into the National Energy Board Act of Canada and the pipeline regula-
tions of all Canadian provinces. It covers the design, fabrication, installation, inspec-
tion, testing and safety aspects of operation and maintenance of gas pipeline
system, including gathering lines, transmission lines, compressor stations, metering
and regulating stations, distribution lines, service lines, offshore pipelines and
closed-pipe gas storage equipment. It does not apply to liquified natural gas pipe-
lines, auxiliary station piping such as water and air, metal temperatures above
230C or below -70C, production equipment, or gas wells. A copy may be
obtained from Chevron Canada Resources or the Canadian Standards Association.
Producing Field Flow and Gathering Lines
The ANSI/ASME Codes do not clearly define the extent of producing field flow
and gathering lines, and CFR regulations do not cover oil and gas gathering lines in
rural areas. Therefore, the Company has not always been consistent in applying the
codes when designing pipelines between producing facilities and pipeline transpor-
tation systems. Where practices have not already been established, it is suggested
that designs for field liquid pipelines follow Code B31.4, and, for gas pipelines,
Code B31.8.
49 CFR 192 and 195 apply within the limits of any incorporated or unincorporated
city, town, village, or other designated residential or commercial area. They require
compliance with ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8.
49 CFR 195.2 defines a liquid gathering line as a pipeline sized NPS 8 or smaller
from a production facility. 49 CFR 195.1(b)(6) excludes transportation through
onshore production facilities (including flow lines). 49 CFR 192.3 defines a gas
gathering line as a pipeline that transports gas from a current production facility to
a transmission line. Where a line handles liquid-gas two-phase flow, the more strin-
gent requirements of each code should be applied, and special consideration should
be given to the effects of slug flow along the system.
Producing Field Facilities
For on-plot production facilities such as wellhead piping, separators, traps, tank
batteries and gas gathering compressors, the Company uses ANSI/ASME Code
B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping (see the Piping Manual).
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-6 Chevron Corporation
Pipeline Stations and Terminals
Design and construction of piping at pump stations, compressor stations, and termi-
nals should comply with Code B31.4 or B31.8, as appropriate. Former Chevron
practice was to design piping for these facilities to the more conservative Code
B31.3. It is entirely a local decision whether to continue this practice.
For descriptions of piping components, and guidelines for mechanical design,
layout and construction for piping at stations and terminals, refer to the Piping
Manual, which covers Code B31.3 piping for hydrocarbon services, and utility and
auxiliary piping involved in station and terminal facilities. Terminal facilities within
a refinery are designed to Code B31.3, unless they are confined to a separate and
defined pipeline area adjacent to refinery facilities.
420 Hydraulics
Pressures required to move design flows through a pipeline system are calculated
from the fluid properties, pipe diameter and line length. Pertinent fluid properties
for basic hydraulic calculations are viscosity and specific gravity at the tempera-
tures and pressures of the fluid in the line.
These calculations indicate a range of feasible pipe diameters and tentative spacing
of pump or compressor stations along the line. Section 430 should be reviewed as a
guide for initially selecting pipe diameters for a particular system. As design
becomes final, hydraulic calculations are refined to determine conditions for over-
pressure control during line shut-off and surges.
The design flow, or line throughput rate, is established by the operating organiza-
tion, which should define as closely as possible the expected maximum and
minimum rates, and forecast future yearly throughput requirements. This informa-
tion is critical in determining the most economic line size. Once line size is deter-
mined and pipe is selected, hydraulic calculations can be made to determine flows
for variables in operating conditions, future expansion of system capacity by the
addition of pump or compressor stations, and line capacity if the system is
converted to different service.
421 Basic Pressure Drop Calculations
The Fluid Flow Manual is a primary source of pressure drop data for most oils as
well as water and natural gas. Refer to the following sections of it for guidance in
making pressure-drop calculations:
400 Friction Pressure Drop
800 Surge Pressure
900 Pipeline Flow
1000 Fluid Properties
General hydraulics theory and development of formulas is covered in the Fluid
Flow Manual, Section 400. The Fluid Flow Manual is recommended for both
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-7 November 1994
liquid and gas transmission lines, although pipeline handbooks and general hydrau-
lics texts may also be used.
Oil and Water Lines at Ambient Temperatures
Hydraulic calculations are straightforward for pipelines with a single fluid stock
and little variation in viscosity throughout the line at any given time, as is the case
with many of the Companys field and transportation pipelines. Section 422 covers
other situations; Section 932 discusses subsea hydraulics.
Except for certain crude oils and heavy fuel oils whose viscosity is sensitive to
temperature, the annual mean ambient air temperature may be used as the average
flow temperature for buried lines. If available, ground temperature data is preferred.
If seasonal variations are great, calculations should be made for winter and summer
temperature averages. The effect of seasonal variations must be carefully evaluated.
For crude oils it is necessary to know the pour point of the oilthe temperature at
which viscosity of a cooling oil abruptly increasesto determine if special
measures are needed to move the oil when ambient ground temperatures approach
or fall below the pour point. An oil with pour point at or above the ambient tempera-
ture requires special treatment, such as a pour point, depressant additive, dilution
with lighter stock, or a heated pipeline system. If ground temperatures are close to
the pour point reliable data on ground temperature is critical. A program to collect
this data in the initial phase of the project is recommended.
Design Throughput. The design throughput of an oil pipeline is its average annual
pumping rate in barrels per calendar day (BPCD). Capacity requirements given in
barrels per day (BPD) should be construed as meaning BPCD. The design flow that
a system must be capable of attaining to compensate for lost capacity from shut-
downs and reduced flow conditions is given in barrels per operating day (BPOD).
The ratio of BPCD to BPOD is the load factor (see Equation 400-1). A well-oper-
ated pipeline handling a single stock at any one time can be expected to have a load
factor of at least 0.95. This figure should be used to arrive at the design BPOD rate
from a given BPCD throughput unless special circumstances dictate a lower factor.
BPOD = BPCD/Load Factor
= 1.05 BPCD for the usual oil pipeline system
(Eq. 400-1)
In some areas BOPD and BWPD are common notations for barrels of oil and
barrels of water per day. Do not confuse these with BPOD and BPCD.
Preliminary Hydraulic Calculations. To set the inside diameter of a line for
preliminary hydraulic calculations for cross-country oil pipelines, a pipe wall thick-
ness of 0.250 inch can generally be used for lines up through NPS 30, 0.375 inch
from NPS 30 to NPS 42, and 0.500 inch over NPS 42. Heavier wall thicknesses
should be used for offshore pipelines (see Section 930).
For liquid pipelines, pressure drop data from Section 400 of the Fluid Flow Manual
can be developed and plotted as in Figure 400-1. Because pressure drop data will be
interrelated with ground elevations, allowable line pipe, and valve pressures and
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-8 Chevron Corporation
pump discharge heads, pressures are expressed in feet of the fluid in the line as well
as pounds per square inch (psi). Formulas to convert to pressure units of pounds per
square inch, or vice versa, are:
P
psi
=head
ft
0.4328 specific gravity
head
ft
= (2.311 P
psi
)/specific gravity
(Eq. 400-2)
Gas Transmission Lines
Flow calculations for gas transmission lines are covered in Section 400 of the Fluid
Flow Manual.
Detailed design development for a high-pressure (ANSI 600# or higher) gas trans-
mission system includes hydraulic analysis of transient pressure and temperature
conditions in the pipeline, and of two-phase flow resulting from pressuring of the
line from a high-pressure source and depressuring, whether intentional or resulting
from line rupture. Low temperatures caused by autorefrigeration during depres-
suring can significantly affect fluid properties (and influence material selection).
Effects of normal flow variation that stem from the delay in system response at
other locations must also be considered.
Unless seasonal ambient ground temperature variations are extreme, the annual
mean ambient air temperature adequately approximates the average flow tempera-
ture for long buried lines. For short lines, gas temperatures of the compressor
station or wells may be considerably higher than ambient, and should be taken into
account.
The design annual throughput of gas lines is usually expressed in standard cubic
feet per calendar day (SCFCD). Seasonal throughput for gas lines can vary signifi-
Fig. 400-1 Pressure Drop and Head Loss
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-9 November 1994
cantly because of demand fluctuations and should be considered in setting the load
factor that determines design flow rate, expressed in standard cubic feet per oper-
ating day (SCFOD).
422 Special Hydraulic Conditions
Situations involving special hydraulic calculations follow, along with sources of
guidance for appropriate calculation methods. Specialists in the Materials and Engi-
neering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department can provide
further guidance and reference to similar systems. Situations covered in this section
include multistock lines, hot oil pipelines, non-Newtonian fluids, mixed phase flow,
and supercritical fluids.
Multistock Flow
Calculations for crude lines handling a range of specific gravities and for product
pipelines must allow for (1) the presence in the line of stocks with differing phys-
ical properties and (2) deliveries from the line at several points. The latter consider-
ably reduces the volume of products going through to the terminal compared to
throughput at the initial station. To avoid excessive mixing of products, the line
flow should be within the turbulent region. At low flow rates, batching pigs can be
used to minimize interface mixing.
Slurry pipelines usually operate within a narrow range of flow rateswith the
minimum rate adequate to keep solids in suspension and the maximum low enough
to avoid excessive abrasion and erosion. A wide range of net solid throughput is
achieved by frequent batching of slurry and water, or by displacing slurry with
water at intervals, then shutting down and restarting. To establish maximum and
minimum pressure drops, calculations should be made for slurry alone and water
alone.
Hot Oil Pipelines
If it has a high pour point or very high viscosity, a waxy crude oil or heavy oil must
be heated before it enters the pipeline, and must not be allowed to cool below a
minimum temperature before it reaches the terminal or an intermediate reheating
station. Maximum oil temperature entering the line is usually limited by allowable
temperature for the pipe coating (see Section 340 of this manual and the Coatings
Manual. See Section 900 of the Fluid Flow Manual for calculations for friction
heating and external heat transfer coefficients. Heat traced pipeline electrical
heating systems attached to the pipeline, or insulation on the pipe may be warranted
to maintain oil temperatures above the allowable minimum. Design guides for these
systems are not covered in this manual, though some Company installations are
listed in Section 370.
A planned shutdown procedure for hot oil pipelines, either for maintenance or emer-
gency shutdown, usually involves displacing the line with a lighter stock. Hydraulic
calculations for a multistock situation should therefore be made for both displacing
and restarting.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-10 Chevron Corporation
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Non-Newtonian fluids should be handled on a case-by-case basis. Their viscosity
characteristics change significantly with flow rate and as a result of the fluids
hydraulic and temperature history. Pretreatment, heating, addition of pour depres-
sants or flow improvers, and a combination of strategies have been used success-
fully to facilitate pumping of these oils through pipelines. Line restart after
shutdown is likely to require special investigation and study.
Refer to the Materials and Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Tech-
nology Department for assistance on any pipeline system involving an oil or slurry
having non-Newtonian properties. See also Section 1000 of the Fluid Flow Manual
for a discussion of non-Newtonian fluids.
Mixed Phase Flow
Field production systems often have mixed phase flow in lines handling oil, water,
and gas. For two-phase flow (liquid-gas) refer to the Fluid Flow Manual, Section
400, or use the PIPEFLOW-2 computer program (see the Fluid Flow Manual,
Section 1100 and Appendix E). These facilities usually have a slug-catcher at the
line terminus.
Supercritical Fluids
A supercritical fluid is a gas compressed to a pressure greater than the saturation
pressure, at temperatures greater than the critical temperature. The critical
temperature is the temperature at which the gas cannot be liquified at any pressure.
Supercritical fluids behave like compressible liquids, or gases as dense as a liquid.
Pipeline transport of carbon dioxide as a supercritical fluid has become more
common in recent years. The viscosity of supercritical CO
2
is very low, but the
density varies significantly with pressure, temperature and amounts of other gases
present as impurities. Moreover, changes in pressure result in temperature changes.
Hydraulic calculations can be made with the PIPEFLOW-2 computer program (see
the Fluid Flow Manual, Section 1100 and Appendix E) incorporating density data
for pressures and temperatures along the line. Calculations for supercritical hydro-
carbons can be handled in a similar manner.
423 Hydraulic Profiles
When a pipeline route has been determined, elevation data and hydraulic pressure
drop gradient data can be plotted in a hydraulic profile. The hydraulic profile can
be used to establish line size and pump station spacing, and to show allowable pipe
pressures (see Sections 433 and 434). Data on pipe grade and wall thickness, pipe
coating, and locations of block valves, scraper trap manifolds, and major river cross-
ings can conveniently be incorporated on the same plot.
Hydraulic profiles plot the following data:
Ground elevations along the route, including at least the significant high and
low points, and pump station and branch line locations
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-11 November 1994
The approximate terminal pressure (in feet of head) at the end of the line (or
section of line) required, for example, for the fluid to pass through terminal
manifolding and piping and into tankage at design flow
Hydraulic gradient data, in feet of pressure drop per mile at design flow rate
(or maximum and minimum rates), for one or several pipe sizes
A basic plot of this data is indicated in Figure 400-2.
A hydraulic control point is a high-elevation point that governs the inlet head for
its section of line. Often, hydraulic control points are encountered, and the
hydraulic gradient must clear the ground elevation control point. Two situations
may result as indicated in Figure 400-3:
A slack line should be avoided because it results in erratic correlation of the line
input and output meters, which makes leak detection by metering instrumentation
impossible. For products pipelines the volume of interface mixture between succes-
sive products is uncontrollable in a slack-line, and product mixing is severe in
downhill sections downstream from the control point. In rare instances slack-line
operation may be considered so that back-pressure control is not required.
The actual pressure in the pipeline at any point along the route equals the difference
between the hydraulic gradient and the ground elevation (see Figure 400-4).
With multistock flow where two or more stocks having appreciably different
viscosities and specific gravities are in the same line, higher pressures may develop
(a) The hydraulic gradient is continued to the end of the line, resulting in a
residual pressure at the end of the line, for which back pressure control must
be provided.
(b) Without back pressure control, a length of line will flow only partially full, in
what is called a cascade or slack-line condition.
Fig. 400-2 Hydraulic Gradients Fig. 400-3 Hydraulic Profile: Backpressure Control
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-12 Chevron Corporation
at intermediate points along the line than if there were only one stock. In
Figure 400-5 the trailing stock has the lower viscosity and, therefore, a less steep
hydraulic gradient than the leading stock. With pump station and terminal discharge
pressures P
1
and P
2
fixed, the locus of pressures at the interface between the stocks
is arched upwards. The pressure H in feet of stock A at a distance of x miles along
the line of total length L is given by:
(Eq. 400-3)
where:
R =
r =
H
2
= 2.311 P
2
/ (sp. gr. stock A) in feet of stock A (not stock B)
Note that while the two hydraulic gradients vary, since the throughput will not be
constant for fixed station and terminal pressures, their ratio is essentially constant.
If there are injection or take off points along the line, so that flow in the main line
is increased or decreased, the different hydraulic gradients need to be plotted in
succession along the line for the changed flow rates.
H R E
2
H
2
E
x
+ ( )
E
1
H
1
R E
2
H
2
+ ( ) R 1 ( )E
x
+ +
1 r
x
L x
------------ +
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- + =
Fig. 400-4 Hydraulic Profile: Line Pressure Fig. 400-5 Hydraulic Profile: Multistock Flow
(specific gravity stock B)
specific gravity stock A ( )
--------------------------------------------------------------
hydraulic gradient stock A ( )
hydraulic gradient stock B ( )
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-13 November 1994
430 Line Sizing
Although different regulations and codes are involved, the following method for
sizing long cross-country pipelines for liquid hydrocarbons is also applicable to
natural gas transmission lines. It also applies to other pipelines which involve
special conditions. There will, however, be significant differences in the facilities
and economic factors.
This section is concerned with the pipeline itself and pumping facilities, not field
gathering systems, storage at either end, or terminals. It helps determine the most
economic system for a particular set of conditions; based on order-of-magnitude
cost estimates for the installed systems and for variable operating expenses.
Preliminary design and cost estimating are not two separate and independent proce-
dures; they are closely interrelated and must progress concurrently. Unlike process
plant piping, a pipeline system is extremely flexible and a given throughput can be
transported between two given points over a variety of routes and through different
sizes of pipes.
The range of possible pipelines is almost limitless, even within the restricted scope
of this guide. Consequently, the parameters, guidelines, design criteria and esti-
mating criteria presented here are not applicable in all cases. However, they provide
a starting point for a logical and realistic approach to the problem.
Note Short Lines. Relatively short lines such as field flow lines and gathering
lines normally do not require the line sizing procedure covered in the major part of
Section 430. Refer to Section 438 below for guidelines on sizing short lines.
431 Elements to Determine an Economic System
To size a pipeline, one must identify the significant elements necessary to evaluate
and compare alternatives, estimate costs, and perform an economic analysis of the
alternatives. Cost differentials for alternative line sizes must include the following
elements:
Annual throughput rates for the period selected as the analysis basis
Pipeline and pumping facilities with capacity to handle the throughput rates
Pumping energy to transport the stock at throughput rates
Alternative forecast throughputs often consist of a most-likely case, and less likely
cases at lower and higher rates. Sensitivity analyses should be made to determine
the effects of the other casesor a composite casegiven the line size selected by
the most-likely case analysis.
Sections 432 and 433 show how to establish the pipeline and pumping facilities for
the alternative line sizes, while Section 434 covers order-of-magnitude cost esti-
mates for the facilities. Section 435 discusses order-of-magnitude estimates for
operating cost (for pumping energy). (Data presentation and calculations for
multiple alternative designs and conditions can be greatly facilitated by using a
computer spread sheet such as Lotus 1-2-3.)
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-14 Chevron Corporation
Section 436 discusses economic analysis for line sizing. Sensitivity analyses may
be in order if the estimating basis for items such as construction costs and pumping
energy costs is uncertain.
In some situations, other elements may affect economic evaluation of alternatives,
such as:
Line routing
Heated-line facilities, heating method, initial line temperature, pipe insulation,
and heating energy
Sensitivity analysis may be appropriate if alternative routes involve uncertainties in
comparative construction costs or costs for permitting, right-of-way acquisition and
damages, or if heated-line systems involve uncertainties in line heat losses and
heating energy cost.
432 Preliminary Pipe Selection and Line Operating Pressure
Approximating Line Size
An initial approximation for pipe size for liquid hydrocarbon pipelines can be made
using the curves in Figure 400-6. These curves were not derived by a comprehen-
sive study, but represent judgment based on Company and others experience over a
period of years. Estimates should be made for at least three alternative pipe sizes.
Fig. 400-6 Design Flow vs. Nominal Pipe Size
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-15 November 1994
Pipe Wall Thickness
A preliminary determination of pipe wall thickness(es) is necessary since the cost
of pipe is based on tonnage, a function of diameter and wall thickness. A more
comprehensive discussion of pipe stress and wall thickness calculations is given in
Section 440.
The basic pipe hoop stress formula relating internal pressure, pipe wall thickness,
pipe diameter and stress value, as given in Section 404.1.2 of Code B31.4 for liquid
lines, is:
(Eq. 400-4)
where:
t = pressure design wall thickness, in.
P
i
= internal design gage pressure, psig
D = outside diameter, in.
S = allowable stress value, psi
Code B31.4, Section 402.3.1, establishes the allowable stress value S; Code B31.4,
Table 402.3.1(a), tabulates allowable stress values for pipe of various specifications,
manufacturing methods and grades. As a preliminary design basis for line sizing,
API Specification 5L Grade X60 pipe is suggested, for which S = 0.72 x 60,000 =
43,200 psi. For oil lines, which normally do not require any corrosion allowance,
the nominal wall thickness t
n
equals the pressure design wall thickness t. The hoop
stress formula then becomes:
(Eq. 400-5)
Pipe wall thicknesses commonly manufactured are given in API SPEC 5L, Section
6, Table 6.2.
Minimum Handling Thickness
Pipe wall must be thick enough to resist damage and maintain roundness during
construction handling and welding. Other factors affect pipe wall thickness, but for
line sizing suggested minimum thicknesses are as follows:
t
P
i
D
2S
--------- =
NPS Min. Wall, in.
4 12 0.188
14 24 0.219
t
n
P
i
D
86,400
----------------- =
or P
i
86,400
t
n
D
---- =
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-16 Chevron Corporation
Other Pressure Level Factors
Mechanical limits on pump discharge pressures and ratings for valves and flanges
also influence maximum design pressure levels for the pipeline. Maximum oper-
ating pressure (MOP) ratings for carbon steel pipeline valves conforming to API
Spec 6D and valves and flanges conforming to ANSI Standards B16.34 and B16.5
often determine maximum pressure for pipeline design. Although valves and
flanges do not usually comprise a significant portion of the system cost, going to
the next higher rating to provide for only a slight increase in line pressures would
not be incrementally economic.
Section 402.2.1 of Code B31.4 states that pressure ratings shall conform to ratings
at 100F in the material standards. Accordingly, MOPs for valves and flanges are
as follows:
433 Hydraulic Profiles and Pump Station Locations
To plot hydraulic profiles for the feasible alternatives pump discharge pressures,
allowable pressures for pipe wall thicknesses, and pressure ratings for valves and
flanges must be converted to feet of fluid (head
ft
= 2.311 x P
psi
/specific gravity).
Developing reasonable hydraulic profiles may require several trials, but by using
parallel rules gradients can be drawn rapidly and adjustments made to develop alter-
native layouts. The principal characteristics of a reasonable layout are as follows:
Discharge pressures at pump stations are nearly balanced. Allow about 50 psi
above the bubble point for the suction to each station
Hydraulic gradients pass close to control points, minimizing the pressure differ-
ential needed for back pressure control
Gradients for expansion steps in capacity should be drawn to demonstrate the
need for future intermediate pump stations to provide increased throughput.
The corresponding throughputs should be shown
26 30 0.250
30 36 0.281
36 40 0.312
42 48 0.375
Class Valves API 6D
MOP, psi
Flanges ANSI B16.34
ANSI B16.5 MOP, psi
300 720 740
600 1440 1480
900 2160 2220
1500 3600 3705
NPS Min. Wall, in.
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Chevron Corporation 400-17 November 1994
Where back pressure control will cause high pressures in the pipeline beyond the
control point, perhaps necessitating heavier wall pipe, two remedies are available:
Install one or more pressure reducing stations to dissipate the pressure and
bring the gradient closer to the ground elevation
Reduce the pipe diameter to steepen the gradient
The second alternative may seem to be an economical solution, but is not suggested
for preliminary estimates. The smaller diameter is likely to be a bottleneck in
capacity expansion of the pipeline. However, it should be considered in a final
design stage. A scraper trap station will be needed at the point of size change so
that different size inspection pigs can be run. A power-recovery turbine should also
be considered as an alternative to wasting power through a control valve.
Figure 400-7 shows gradients for a reasonable line size, with station locations, for:
An initial design throughput requiring an intermediate pump station (otherwise
pump discharge head at the initial pump station would be excessive) and a pres-
sure-reducing station to reduce line pressures upstream of the terminal.
Future system expansion by addition of a pump station, resulting in a new
gradient and throughput rate. Pump discharge head at the intermediate pump
station is higher, but now matches the initial station discharge head. Although
the pressure-reducing station is not needed at the future maximum throughput,
pressure-control facilities will still be needed there and at the terminal to
prevent overpressuring the line at low flow rates in the lower-elevation section
and in the terminal piping.
Figure 400-7 also indicates the effect on gradients of a reduced size pipe as an alter-
native to the pressure-reducing station. Figure 400-8 shows gradients for a design
throughput for three alternative line sizes, and corresponding station facilities.
Pipe allowable pressures, determined by calculations described in Section 432 and
converted to head in feet of fluid, should also be shown on the hydraulic gradient
diagram, as indicated on Figure 400-9. The dashed line indicating the calculated
pipe allowable pressure for a particular wall thickness parallels the ground profile.
In Figure 400-9, for the section of the pipeline between the initial pump station and
the intermediate pump station, pipe with wall thickness a is needed for a distance
downstream of the initial pump station, but at higher elevations, this allowable pres-
sure rating is greater than required. Therefore, in the following section, thinner wall
pipe (b and c) is satisfactory. If the line were to be blocked while pumps were
running, the gradient at no flow would be horizontal, indicated as pump shut-off.
Pipe wall thickness should be selected so that pipe allowable pressures are equal to
or greater than line pressures under pump shut-off conditions. In Figure 400-9, only
wall thickness e fails to meet this criterion. In this example, wall thickness e
represents a considerable savings in weight and dollars compared to the wall thick-
ness required for the shutoff condition against intermediate station pumps.
In many cases, wall thicknesses of older pipelines were telescoped; that is, pipe
wall thickness for successive sections of line were only adequate for line pressures
at flow conditions, not for a blocked line situation. At a time when the higher
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-18 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 400-7 Hydraulic Profile: Initial and Future BPOD
Fig. 400-8 Hydraulic Profile: Alternative Line Sizes
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-19 November 1994
strength grades of pipe were not available, appreciable savings could be realized by
telescoping. Telescoping is also done by using lower grades of pipe. However tele-
scoping introduces the hazard of overpressuring the line under pump shutoff condi-
tions and often limits system expansion by adding intermediate pump stations.
Telescoping should generally be avoided.
Pumping horsepower requirements for the various alternatives can now be calcu-
lated (Equation 400-6). For preliminary estimates a pump efficiency of 70% can be
used for centrifugal pumps in pipeline service. For reciprocating pumps, use 90%.
Fig. 400-9 Hydraulic Profile: Nominal Wall Thickness
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-20 Chevron Corporation
(Eq. 400-6)
where:
bhp = pump brake horsepower
Q
gpm
= flow rate, gpm
Q
bpod
= flow rate, BPOD
H = pump discharge head, ft
SG = specific gravity
P = pump discharge pressure, psi
PE = pump efficiency
Other features can be indicated on the hydraulic profile, such as pipe coatings,
major river crossings, line valves, scraper trap manifolds, cased crossings, and areas
with special construction problems.
434 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Investment Costs
For line sizing, order-of-magnitude investment cost estimates are necessary for the
overall systems, alternative line sizes and, possibly, alternative routes. Cost esti-
mating data are not included in this manual, but sources of cost information are
suggested). Besides Company sources, cost data is periodically published in the Oil
and Gas Journal and other trade magazines. Costs that are functions of pipe size,
number of pump stations and installed pumping horsepower are more important
than costs that are essentially independent of line size. Cost analysis may also be
required for selection of route alternatives, involving costs that are functions of line
length, terrain, permitting and right-of-way problems, line access, construction
damages, etc.
Line sizing must be known to make project cost estimates, and is therefore done in
conjunction with cost estimates for feasibility studies and appropriation requests.
Line sizing estimates should focus on the elements of cost that constitute the bulk
of the investment cost differentials for the alternatives under consideration. Usually
the pipeline itself represents 75% to 85% of the investment, and pump stations,
terminals, etc., account for the balance. Consequently, a substantial error in esti-
mating the cost of pump stations will have a minor effect on the overall estimate.
The two major elements in the cost of a pipeline are the cost of the pipe and the
cost of construction. The cost of the pipe can generally be determined easily and
quickly; therefore, the major portion of the time available should be directed toward
developing a construction cost.
bhp
Q
bpod
H
ft
SG
136,000 PE
---------------------------------------- =
Q
gpm
P
psi

1714 PE
---------------------------- =
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Chevron Corporation 400-21 November 1994
Pipe Cost
The cost of the pipe generally represents 25% to 50% of the total line cost, and the
use of a reliable cost will go a long way toward assuring a realistic total estimate.
For mill runs purchasing can usually obtain informal quotes from steel mills, based
on total tonnage required, within a week. The price can be FOB mill or FOB desti-
nation. In the former case, freight charges from mill to destination must be
obtained. European and Japanese sources should be included, particularly for
foreign projects. Experience has shown that market fluctuations make it risky to use
pipe costs from previous jobs and escalate them by an index.
In calculating the tonnage of steel required, allow for heavier wall pipe for river and
highway crossings. Also allow for waste and for the difference between the hori-
zontal length of the line and its actual slope length. Even for lines laid through
mountainous terrain, an allowance of 1% to 2% is usually adequate. For short
producing field lines, both allowances combined (wastage and slope length) are
about 5%.
Coatings
Although final coating selection involves a thorough study of alternatives and
design conditions, order-of-magnitude coating costs for line sizing can usually be
based on the following:
For normal soils, preferably plant-applied fusion-bonded epoxy or extruded
polyethylene
For hot lines, plant-applied extruded polyethylene up to 150F, fusion bonded
epoxy up to 200F
For wet or corrosive soil conditions, plant-applied extruded polyethylene, or
fusion-bonded epoxy
Reference should be made to Section 340 of this manual and to the Coatings
Manual for full descriptions of these coatings.
Purchasing can usually obtain informal quotes from coating material suppliers or
plant applicators within a few days. When the coating is plant-applied the applica-
tion cost as well as the material cost is included. The cost of unloading the bare
pipe from the delivery cars and reloading the coated pipe onto rail cars or stringing
trucks and the cost for shipping coated pipe to the job should be included.
Where circumstances favor coating applied over the ditch, the labor cost of applica-
tion is part of the construction contract. When estimating the material cost allow-
ances should be included for waste (15% to 20%) and for shipping costs.
Miscellaneous Materials
Block valve installations, scraper traps, cathodic protection equipment, line
markers, casing pipe and other items of material may be required. It is generally
accurate enough to estimate all these items together as a percentage of pipe cost.
The figure should be at least 5%; for short lines or lines with an unusual number of
appurtenances the figure can be as high as 10%.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-22 Chevron Corporation
Taxes and Duties
Applicable sales or use taxes must be determined and included as a part of the mate-
rial cost. In addition, foreign projects generally entail added costs for import duties,
permits and custom clearances. This can be a very significant item.
Pipeline Construction
A realistic estimate of the construction cost requires judgment in evaluating such
factors as terrain, weather, availability of labor and competent welders, access, and
remoteness from living and service facilities. In preparing an order-of-magnitude
estimate it is not possible to evaluate these individually, but their composite effect
on costs must be appraised.
The basic construction cost covers clearing and grading, stringing pipe, ditching,
welding, application of coating as required for the particular coating system,
lowering, backfilling, cleanup and testing. It is generally estimated on the basis of
dollars per linear foot. Unit construction costs for many existing pipelines are avail-
able from various sources, such as Company project cost statements and magazines
such as the Oil and Gas Journal which publish data on pipeline projects.
Methods for estimating basic construction cost include the following:
Review available data to find a similar size line crossing terrain similar to the
area in question. Use judgment to make adjustments for the particular condi-
tions
When time is available, consult with several pipeline contractors and obtain
informal estimates. Their figures should be realistic, particularly if they have
actual construction experience in the same geographical area
Develop a daily cost for the labor and equipment needed for a pipeline spread.
An estimate is then required of the rate of construction progress over the route
to determine the total length of the construction period. The daily spread cost
multiplied by the days to construct represents the construction cost. The daily
spread cost must include items such as contractors overhead and profit. On
foreign jobs there may be an additional lump sum to cover mobilization
A special situation occurs if the pipeline is located in city or suburban streets. The
contractor will be required to limit his daily operations to a short distance. He may
not be permitted to leave any ditch open overnight. Delays are likely on account of
unanticipated underground interferences. He will therefore use a city spread that is
much smaller in terms of the amount of equipment and number of men than the
normal pipeline spread. Construction progress will be measured in terms of 500 to
1500 feet per day as compared to 5,000 to 10,000 feet per day for open country
terrain. Also, the removal and replacement of paving will be a significant cost item.
Installation costs for major river crossings, line valves and scraper traps, casing,
cathodic protection stations, and pipeline markers are generally estimated on a
lump sum per unit basis. Cost data for these items is available from past Company
jobs and the published data mentioned previously. By far the largest items are river
crossings, which require special equipment and involvement with government agen-
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-23 November 1994
cies. If possible, contractors should be consulted in developing the lump sum cost
for a major river crossing.
Pipeline Technical Services
Pipeline technical services include the following:
Project management
Design engineering and drafting
Services for purchasing, inspection and expediting, governmental and public
relations, etc.
Outside specialist technical services for environmental surveys; geophysical,
geotechnical, hydrographic, hydrological and meteorological surveys; radio-
graphic inspection; etc.
Route and land surveys, including aerial photography
Field supervision and inspection, including travel and living expenses
For order-of-magnitude estimates it suffices to lump all these technical services
together and estimate their total cost as a percentage of total pipeline material and
construction costs. The percentage will generally be 5% to 20% depending on the
size and complexity of the pipeline. Experience on past Company jobs should be
used as a guide in determining the percentage to use.
Permitting, Right-of-Way and Land Acquisition
Permits and rights-of-way are needed for the pipeline, and land must be acquired
for stations and similar facilities. These costs are usually very difficult to estimate,
and all available sources should be consulted past projects, published data, and,
above all, Company land specialists and local operating organizations. Charges and
expenses for agents and personnel involved in developing land information and
acquiring rights-of-way and land are included in acquisition costs. For order-of-
magnitude estimates, permitting and right-of-way acquisition costs are usually esti-
mated in dollars per mile, and land for station and similar facilities in dollars per
acre.
Construction Damages and Restoration
Construction damages pertain to the present use of the land, and the extent to which
construction will damage crops or developments. Although route restoration, such
as revegetation, is considered as a pipeline construction cost, the extent and type of
restoration is usually determined by the special conditions of the permits and rights-
of-way. Costs for construction damages and restoration are usually estimated in
dollars per mile for the specific sections of line affected.
Pump Stations
For the preliminary estimate, four major decisions must be made regarding pump
stations:
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-24 Chevron Corporation
Type of pump. Although centrifugal pumps are the usual choice, reciprocating
pumps may be indicated for high viscosity stock because of the centrifugal
pumps low efficiency in this service. The Pump Manual provides criteria for
choosing a pump and the Mechanical and Electrical Systems Division of the
Engineering Technology Department can give advice
Type of driver. Electric motors are the usual choice unless electric power is
unavailable or some other fuel, such as natural gas, is available at a signifi-
cantly lower cost. Diesel engines can be modified to burn crude oil but this
generally requires a substantial investment in equipment to filter and condition
the crude oil. Turbines are used in remote areas where electric power is unavail-
able because they require fewer auxiliary facilities, have lower maintenance
requirements, and are adaptable to remote control
Type of operation. Remote operation of some or all intermediate pump
stations should be considered. This is common practice in the United States,
where labor costs are high. It is also desirable wherever nearby housing and
associated facilities are unavailable
Amount of standby capacity. The initial design of a line usually must
consider standby capacity to assure the desired line operating factor. Standby
capacity is less necessary in subsequent expansions as the consequences of the
loss of a pump or even a station become less severe. The total installed horse-
power is the basis for estimating investment cost
The investment cost of pump stations can be estimated by breaking the facility into
components, as follows:
Fixed cost. This covers items that are largely independent of the amount of
horsepower to be installed. These are land, site development, buildings, living
quarters and maintenance facilities. These can be estimated as a lump sum
applicable to each station
Variable cost. The remaining station facilities, such as pumps and drivers,
manifolding, instrumentation, and power supply are related to the size of the
station. These can be estimated on the basis of dollars per installed horsepower.
This figure will also vary with the type of pump and driver. Diesel stations cost
more than electric stations; reciprocating pump stations cost more than centrif-
ugal pump stations
Technical services. The fixed cost plus the product of variable cost times
installed horsepower equals the total station cost. These unit costs must include
an allowance for the technical services required to design and construct the
station, generally 10% to 25% of the total station cost
Other System Facilities
Pipeline system facility costs not required for line sizing include the following:
Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) facilities and associated
metering, instrumentation, and control facilities
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Chevron Corporation 400-25 November 1994
Communications
Station tankage
Cathodic Protection
Contingency, Escalation
Contingencies must be provided for, including costs which have been overlooked
and factors contributing to cost that have not been realistically evaluated. The
percentage allowed for contingencies depends on the time available to prepare the
estimate and the confidence in the figures developed. The minimum contingency
should be 10%, although 15% is normally used and a higher figure may be appro-
priate.
If the pipeline is an unusually large project, requiring two or three years to design
and construct, an allowance for future escalation should be included. If no escala-
tion is included, this should be clearly stated in the estimate.
435 Order-of-Magnitude Estimates for Operating Costs
The operating cost component most important for comparing alternatives in line
sizing is the electric power or fuel required for pumping. Reduction in total
pumping horsepower and, possibly, the number of stations, form the basis for justi-
fying a larger line.
The cost of electric power is based on a rate schedule for demand and energy
charges. Where a schedule is not available, an equivalent must be developed, on as
sound a basis as possible, in conjunction with resources of the operations organiza-
tion. Where the drivers use the same gas or oil being transported in the line, the cost
is based on the value of the gas or oil at the point of consumption. The objective is
to develop a cost for pumping power per horsepower per year, or per kilowatt hour
per year.
Other operating costs, significant for comprehensive economic analysis but not for
line sizing analysis, include the following:
Direct labor for station operation
Pipeline maintenance supplies, labor, and equipment
Pump station and terminal maintenance supplies, labor, and equipment
Property taxes
Management and administration
Services, such as communications
436 Economic Analysis for Line Sizing
The objective of an economic analysis for line sizing is to establish the comparative
attractiveness of different line sizes. Usually the system with the smallest feasible
line size requires the smallest investment. The first alternative that should be
analyzed is the system with the next larger line size, which costs more to build but
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-26 Chevron Corporation
less to operate for a given throughput. Where Company-owned stock is used to fill
the line initially, the value of the line fill should be added to the estimated system
investment.
The analysis requires calculation of the incremental cost of building the larger line
and the incremental savings realized in operating it over the forecast life of the pipe-
line. Operating costs may vary over time for both the base and alternate cases if the
throughput varies (e.g., for an oil field with increasing, then declining production
rates), or if power costs change (due to energy costs, inflation, etc). If an increase in
throughput requires adding pump stations or looping the line, the additional invest-
ment costs must be included at the time these facilities are required. Cost elements
which are the same for both cases (the incremental cost is zero) can be ignored for
this comparative analysis.
An economic analysis computer program such as CASHFLO (sponsored by Corpo-
rate Planning & Analytical) can calculate a rate of return (ROR) and payout (in
years) for the incremental cost of the larger line based on the annual savings in oper-
ating (pumping) costs. CASHFLO also incorporates the effects of depreciation and
taxes on the annual cash flow. If the ROR on the increment meets or exceeds
current standards for this type of investment, then the larger line size is
economic. This analysis can be repeated for successive line sizes until the ROR
no longer justifies the incremental investment.
437 Improving Cost Estimates
This section recommends additional design and estimating work useful in
upgrading order-of-magnitude estimates and making designs final. See also the
design development guidelines contained in other sections of this manual.
Route and Profile
The route and profile should be reviewed in detail. Detailed maps should be
obtained, if available. Taking a reconnaissance trip over the route is important. The
group making this trip should include someone familiar with right-of-way acquisi-
tion, and environmental permitting, a Company engineer or contractor representa-
tive familiar with construction problems, and the Company project engineer. They
may suggest desirable route changes and will obtain first-hand knowledge useful in
estimating permitting, right-of-way acquisition, and construction costs more realisti-
cally.
During the trip information should also be gathered on pipe storage and handling
areas, construction camp sites, weather, labor availability, local regulations, import
requirements, availability of services and supplies, etc. Although some of these
items are not important on domestic projects, they are critical cost factors on
foreign projects.
Finally, the route should be analyzed from the viewpoint of construction progress.
What rate of pipe laying can be expected? Which sections are the most difficult?
Will construction be limited to a certain time of the year? What are the river condi-
tions that will dictate design and construction of crossings? How much preparation
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Chevron Corporation 400-27 November 1994
work is needed? Must access roads be constructed? Are there environmental and
ecological considerations that will affect construction progress and timing?
Hydraulics
The fluid characteristics and volumes used in the preliminary design should be
reviewed and confirmed. The viscosity and pour point of a crude oil must be
accurate; if there is any doubt, samples should be obtained and a pumpability study
performed. Care should be taken to assure that the sample obtained is truly repre-
sentative. The volumes to be transported, particularly the forecast of future require-
ments, should be reviewed and confirmed. A forecast of future throughputs is
essential.
Pipe and Coating
Bids should be obtained for the pipe. These may be formal or informal, but should
be based on specific requirements. At the same time, such items as freight and
duties must be considered in detail. A proposed selection of the type of coating
must be made, and applicable costs developed. Finally, a detailed list of other mate-
rial requirements should be made and priced as accurately as possible.
Pipeline Construction
Improving the estimate for pipeline construction should have the highest priority.
Making a reconnaissance trip is particularly important, providing the engineer with
a first-hand appreciation of the various conditions that will determine the construc-
tion cost.
Preferably, one or more contractors should be asked to inspect the route and submit
informal figures on construction costs, but it is best if the engineer conducts the
inspection trip separately with each contractor. Contractors are generally willing to
provide this service because it gives them an early look at a potential project. Varia-
tions in the figures submitted by different contractors may reflect different evalua-
tions of construction difficulties, or a difference in their interest in doing the job (or
in their need for work). It is difficult but necessary to assess the effect of the overall
construction market on bids.
The engineer should make an independent estimate of construction costs after he
has seen the terrain and talked to contractors about the equipment and labor force
they would use. Construction elements such as river crossings, block valves,
scraper traps, and cathodic protection facilities, should be re-estimated in light of
any information that has been developed. The estimating methods and sources of
cost data are the same ones discussed in Section 435. The daily spread method
described there is particularly useful.
Technical Services
To develop a detailed estimate for each technical service element it is first neces-
sary to prepare a schedule and a Company manpower forecast for the design and
construction phases of the project.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-28 Chevron Corporation
The construction period is fixed by the availability of pipe and the completion date.
This dictates the number of spreads required for the job, which, in turn, affects the
number of Company personnel assigned to the field for supervision and inspection.
Engineering and drafting. In estimating the cost of engineering and drafting for
design, include the time already spent on preliminary estimates and feasibility
studies.
Purchasing and expediting. The percentages of material costs to be used in calcu-
lating purchasing, inspection and expediting burdens should be defined.
Specialists. A schedule and contracting plan for outside specialists should be made,
and the anticipated scope of work for each defined. Reference to previous projects,
informal discussions with technical service contractors, and consultation with
Company organizations involved in environmental affairs and technical investiga-
tions are recommended.
Pump Stations, SCADA, Communications, Etc.
A piping and instrument diagram (P&ID) and plot plan should be prepared for each
pump station. With these, a detailed estimate can be made in the same way as for
process plants. Material and equipment is priced out and the construction cost is
estimated as a percentage of each material category. Project cost statements on past
projects will provide guidance on typical percentages. Technical services should be
estimated as described above.
Permitting, Right-of-Way and Land Acquisition
After the route reconnaissance trip, a schedule and scope for permitting, right-of-
way and land acquisition should be developed, and detailed advice on costs solic-
ited from local Company Land Department people. It is usually difficult to develop
an accurate estimate until the acquisition of right-of-way is well along. Be conserva-
tive: common sense is likely to produce a figure that is too low, because landowners
often do not use common sense in granting rights of way. Costs for preparation and
processing of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) should also be estimated.
438 Sizing of Short Lines
As explained at the beginning of Section 430, the preceding sections apply to long-
distance cross-country oil pipelines. Sizing of short lines (say, under 10 miles) such
as field flow and gathering lines is normally much simpler for the following reasons:
Route selection is straightforward.
The terrain usually does not have large elevation differences.
Throughput forecasts are probably better defined.
Only one stock at a time is in the line.
No intermediate pump stations are required.
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Chevron Corporation 400-29 November 1994
Cost elements are not as complex and are limited to differentials for pipe and
coating, pipeline construction, pump station installed horsepower, and oper-
ating power costs. All other costs are not significantly affected by pipe size or
pumping requirements.
On short lines attention must still be given to:
Fluid properties, particularly if the temperature entering the line is higher
than ambient, as from a production wellhead or gas compressor, and the fluid
is cooled in the pipeline. See the Fluid Flow Manual, Section 900.
Hydraulic calculations and hydraulic profiles for alternative line sizes and
corresponding pumping requirements. Note that pumping may not be required
if adequate initial pressure is available. See the Fluid Flow Manual, Section
400.
Economic analysis involving pipeline and pump station costs, and operating
power costs using criteria suitable for local conditions.
440 Line Design
441 Pipe and Coating Selection
Section 430 establishes line size based on a preliminary choice of pipe grade and
coating, and wall thickness. Further studies are needed to make final selection of
pipe and coating for the length of the pipeline. Selection must meet Code B31.4 or
B31.8 requirements, and will be influenced by economics and timely availability of
materials.
See Sections 310 and 630 regarding pipe and welding. Generally, economics will
dictate use of the higher grades of line pipe, with resultant thinner wall and lower
tonnage; the effect of incremental cost per ton for the higher grades is small
compared to reduced tonnage of pipe. Also, consideration must be given to
providing sufficient wall thickness to resist mechanical damage and structural
flexing in handling during construction. If Grade X70 and higher pipe is considered
(or for sour service Grade X60 and higher) consultation with the Materials and
Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department is
suggested.
442 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Liquid Pipelines per
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4
The following sections of Code B31.4 Chapter II (Design) are particularly impor-
tant for pipeline design:
Part 1, Conditions and Criteria
Section 401, Design Conditions
Section 402, Design Criteria
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-30 Chevron Corporation
Part 2, Pressure Design of Piping Components
Section 403, Criteria for Pressure Design of Piping Components
Section 404, Pressure Design of Components
Allowable Pipe Stresses
Section 402.3.1(a) of Code B31.4 establishes the allowable stress value S for new
pipe as:
S = 0.72 E SMYS
(Eq. 400-7)
where:
0.72 = Design factor based on nominal wall thickness t
n
. In setting this
design factor, the code committee gave due consideration to and
made allowance for the underthickness tolerance and maximum
allowable depth of imperfections provided for in the specifica-
tions approved by Code B31.4
E = Weld joint factor per Section 402.4.3 and Table 402.4.3 of Code
B31.4. For pipe normally considered for new lines, E = 1.00
SMYS = Specified minimum yield strength, psi
Although mill tests for particular runs of pipe may indicate actual minimum yield
strength values higher than the Specified Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS), in no
case where Code B31.4 refers to SMYS shall a higher value be used in establishing
the allowable stress value; (Section 402.3.1(g) of Code B31.4).
Table 402.3.1(a) of Code B31.4 tabulates allowable stress values for pipe of various
specifications, manufacturing methods, and grades, based on the above, for use
with piping systems within the scope of Code B31.4.
Sections 402.3.1(b),(c), and (d) of Code B31.4 cover allowable stresses for used
(reclaimed) pipe, pipe of unknown origin, and cold-worked pipe that has subse-
quently been heated to 600F or higher. Section 402.3.1(e) limits allowable stress
values in shear and bearing. Section 402.3.1(f) limits tensile and compressive stress
values for pipe and other steel materials when used in structural supports and
restraints.
Section 402.3.2 of Code B31.4 covers allowable stress values due to sustained loads
and thermal expansion for the following stresses:
Internal pressure stresses. The calculated stresses due to internal pressure
shall not exceed the applicable allowable stress value S determined by 402.3.1
(a), (c), or (d) except as permitted by other subparagraphs of 402.3.
External pressure stresses. Stresses due to external pressure shall be consid-
ered safe when the wall thickness of the piping components meets the require-
ments of 403 and 404.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-31 November 1994
Allowable expansion stresses (as for heated oil lines). The allowable stress
values for the equivalent tensile stress in 419.6.4(b) for restrained lines shall
not exceed 90% SMYS of the of the pipe. The allowable stress range, S
A
, in
419.6.4(c) for unrestrained lines shall not exceed 72% of SMYS of the pipe.
Additive longitudinal stresses. The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to
pressure, weight, and other sustained external loadings (see 419.6.4(c)) shall
not exceed 75% of the allowable stress value specified for S
A
under allowable
expansion stresses.
Additive circumferential stresses. The sum of the circumferential stresses
from both internal design pressure and external load in pipe installed without
casing under railroads and highways [see Code Section 434.13.4(c)] shall not
exceed the applicable allowable stress value S determined by Code Section
402.3.1(a), (b), (c), or (d).
Section 402.3.3 of Code B31.4 covers limits of calculated stresses due to occasional
loads in operation and test conditions.
Wall Thickness Calculations
Section 404.1.2 of Code B31.4 gives the basic pipe hoop stress formula relating
internal pressure, pipe wall thickness, pipe diameter and stress value:
(Eq. 400-8)
where:
t = pressure design wall thickness, in.
P
i
= internal design gage pressure, psi
D = nominal outside diameter, in.
S = allowable stress value, psi, (per Section 402.3.1(a) of Code
B31.4)
Per Section 404.1.1 of Code B31.4 the nominal wall thickness t
n
of straight
sections of steel line pipe shall be equal to or greater than the sum of the pressure
design wall thickness, and allowances for threading and grooving, corrosion, and
prudent protective measures:
t
n
t + A
(Eq. 400-9)
where A = sum of allowances for:
t
P
i
D
2S
--------- =
or
P
i
2St
D
-------- =
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-32 Chevron Corporation
Threading and grooving (per Section 402.4.2 of Code B31.4) (zero for welded
line)
Corrosion (per Section 402.4.1 of Code B31.4) (zero if the line is protected
against internal and external corrosion per Chapter VIII of Code B31.4). For
stocks where corrosion (or slurry erosion) is expected, a corrosion allowance
must be provided, and consultation with the Materials and Engineering Anal-
ysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department is recommended
Increase in wall thickness as a reasonable protective measure (under Section
402.1 of Code B31.4) to prevent damage from unusual external conditions at
river crossings, offshore and inland coastal water areas, bridges, areas of heavy
traffic, long self-supported spans, and unstable ground, or from vibration, the
weight of special attachments, or abnormal thermal conditions
The nominal wall thickness shall not be less than the minimum required by
prudence to resist damage and maintain roundness during handling and welding.
The appropriate minimum should be evaluated for the particular installation condi-
tions. As a rough guide, the following is suggested:
0.188 inch wall for sizes up to and including NPS 12
0.219 inch wall for NPS 14 through 24
A maximum D/t
n
ratio of 120 for pipe over NPS 24
These represent minimums for reasonable cross-country laying conditions. Consid-
eration must also be given to buckling of double-jointed lengths of pipe and to
fatigue stresses if extensive cyclical loading is possible during transport from the
mill to the job site. The latter problem is discussed in API Recommended Practices
RP 5L1, Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe; RP 5L5, Marine Transportation of
Line Pipe; and RP 5L6, Transportation of Line Pipe on Inland Waterways.
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183, Oil Pipeline Systems
Canadian Standard CAN3-Z183 is similar to ANSI/ASME B31.4. The engineer
must consult CAN3-Z183 to ensure compliance with it. In Alberta there is a lower
allowable stress factor for sour service.
443 Pipe Stress and Wall Thickness Calculations for Gas Transmission
Pipelines per ANSI/ASME Code B31.8
The organization and some aspects of the design procedure in Code B31.8 differ
from Code B31.4. See especially Code B31.8 Chapter IV, Design, Installation, and
Testing, Sections 840 and 841.
Population Density Index and Location Classification
Code B31.8 relates calculations for allowable design pressures to damage resulting
from the failure of a gas pipeline, and classifies locations by population density. For
each mile of the pipeline, Section 840.2(a) of Code B31.8 defines a zone one
quarter-mile wide (centered on the pipeline) and one mile long. Within each zone
buildings intended for human occupancy are counted, with each separate dwelling
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-33 November 1994
unit in a multiple-dwelling-unit building counted as a separate building. Each zone
is classified by the number of buildings it contains, as follows:
Class 1. 10 or fewer buildings; for example, wasteland, deserts, mountains,
grazing land, farmland, sparsely populated areas, and offshore
Class 2. More than 10 but less than 46 buildings; for example, fringe areas
around cities and towns, industrial areas, and ranch or country estates
Class 3. 46 or more buildings (except where a Class 4 location prevails); for
example, suburban housing developments, shopping centers, residential areas,
industrial areas, and other populated areas not meeting Class 4
Class 4. Areas where multistory buildings are prevalent, traffic is heavy, and
where there may be numerous other utilities underground. Multistory is
defined as four or more floors above ground, including the first or ground floor
A Class 2 or 3 location that consists of a cluster of buildings may be terminated one-
eighth mile from the nearest building in the cluster. Section 192.5(f) of 49 CFR 192
further provides that Class 4 locations end one-eighth mile from the nearest
building with four or more stories.
Section 840.3 of Code B31.8 advances additional criteria that take into account the
possible consequences of failure near a concentration of people, such as in a
church, school, multiple dwelling unit, hospital or organized recreational area. In
establishing location classes consideration must also be given to the possibility of
future developments.
Steel Pipe Design Formula
Section 841.11 of B31.8 gives the hoop stress formula (Equation 400-10) relating
internal design pressure, pipe wall thickness, pipe diameter, and factors applied to
the specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) to establish a pipe stress value.
(Eq. 400-10)
where:
P = design pressure, psig
D = nominal outside diameter, in.
t = nominal wall thickness, in.
S = specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), psi, stipulated in the
Specifications to the manufacturer
P
2St
D
-------- F E T =
t
PD
2S F E T
------------------------------ =
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-34 Chevron Corporation
F = construction type design factor per Code B31.8 Table 841.1A,
ranging from 0.72 to 0.40, for four construction types, deter-
mined from Tables 841.15A, .15B, and .15C, and Sections
841.122 and 841.123. In setting the values for F, due consider-
ation has been given and allowance has been made for the
various underthickness tolerances provided for in the specifica-
tions approved by Code B31.8
E = longitudinal joint factor per Code B31.8 Table 841.1B. For pipe
normally considered for new lines, E=1.0
T = temperature derating factor per Code B31.8 Table 841.1C. For
temperatures of 250For less, T=1.0
Although mill tests for particular runs of pipe may indicate actual minimum yield
strength values higher than the SMYS, in no case where Code B31.8 refers to
SMYS shall a higher value be used in establishing the allowable stress value (see
Section 841.121(f) of Code B31.8).
Code B31.8 Section 841.121(d) warns that the minimum thickness, t, required for
pressure containment by Equation 400-10 may not be adequate to withstand trans-
porting and handling during construction, the weight of water during testing, and
soil loading and other secondary loads during operation, or to meet welding require-
ments. Table 841.121(d) gives least nominal wall thickness for all sizes through
NPS 64, but Company practice is more conservative. Code B31.8 Section 816
requires pipe with a D/t ratio of 70 or more to be loaded in accordance with API RP
5L1 for rail transport, API RP 5L5 for marine, or API RP 5L6 for inland waterway.
If it is impossible to establish that transporting has been done in accordance with
the appropriate recommended practice, special hydrostatic testing must be done.
Code B31.8 makes no specific reference to internal corrosion allowance, but
Section 863 in Chapter VI, Corrosion Control, discusses internal corrosion control
in general.
Code B31.8 Section 841.121(b) limits the design pressure P for pipe not furnished
to specifications listed in the Code or for which the SMYS was not determined in
accordance with Section 811.253 of the Code. Section 841.121(e) covers allowable
stress for cold-worked pipe that has subsequently been heated to 900F for any
period of time or over 600F for more than one hour.
Section 841.13 of the Code B31.8 covers protection of pipelines from hazards such
as washouts, floods, unstable soil, landslides, installation in areas normally under-
water or subject to flooding, submarine crossings, spans, and trestle and bridge
crossings.
Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184, Gas Pipeline Systems
The provisions of Canadian Standard CAN/CSA-Z184 are similar to those of
ANSI/ASME Code B31.8. The engineer must consult CAN/CSA-Z184 to ensure
compliance with it. In Alberta there is a lower allowable stress factor for sour gas
service.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-35 November 1994
444 Coating Selection
See the Coatings Manual and Section 340 of this manual for coating selection.
Different coatings may be required to suit different terrain and soil conditions along
the line. There are often a number of acceptable coatings, and the type and applica-
tion method will depend primarily on the following:
Ground corrosivity and effectiveness of cathodic protection
Line temperature
Cost of coating
In selecting coatings, attention should be given to factors such as:
Data obtained from a field soils resistivity survey made early in the design
phase of the project
Level of ground water table throughout the year
For cohesive clay soil, data on pipe-to-soil friction
In rock excavations, damage to the coating caused by the pipe hitting the
trench walls while being lowered, and by rocks in the backfill
In tropical locations, termite attack
Potential damage to plant-applied coating in transit to job site
For plant-applied coating:
Cost of plant application, and incremental shipping and handling costs
Incremental field handling costs, and cost of repairs in the field
Cost of field joint materials and application
Availability, feasibility, and cost of setting up and operating a modular
coating plant near the job site
For over-the-ditch coating:
Cost of coating materials, and shipping and storage costs
Construction costs for coating, including pipe cleaning
Capability of a construction contractor to apply the coating satisfactorily
Standard over-the-ditch coatings are far less reliable than plant-applied
systems, particularly at higher-than-ambient temperatures and under wet
conditions
Use of additional coating thickness or higher quality coatings at highway, road
and railroad crossings, either cased or uncased, and in developed areas
Service life anticipated for the pipeline
Comparative quality of the coatings over the service life the pipeline
Differential cost, if any, for the cathodic protection system
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-36 Chevron Corporation
445 BurialRestrained Lines and Provision for Expansion
Long cross-country pipelines are generally buried for several obvious reasons:
Allows surface use of land by private owners and the public
Protects the line from accidental and intentional damage
Protects the line against temperature expansion and contraction from ambient
temperature changes and radiant energy gains and losses
Minimizes effects of temperature changes on fluid viscosity
Provides restraint along the length of line
Aboveground installation may not be allowed by governmental authorities
On the other hand, in undeveloped areas some major pipelines and, often, flow and
gathering lines are designed and installed aboveground for one or more of the
following reasons:
Economy of construction, especially where ditching is costly, since there are
savings in both excavation and pipe coating
Benefit of solar radiation in keeping waxy oils above the pour point
Use of insulation and tracing arrangements on heated lines that would not be
feasible for burial
Designs of hot lines and aboveground lines need to incorporate restraints and provi-
sion for thermal expansion, and must be examined individually.
Burial Cover
Sufficient cover to protect the pipeline should be provided both for existing condi-
tions and for any anticipated grading, cultivation, or developments that would
require a very costly lowering of the line in the future. Company practice in many
areas, especially for production field lines, is to increase cover over required mini-
mums, since the cost of a deeper ditch in normal excavation is small compared to
the added protection; five feet is recommended. Deeper burial is usually required
for heated lines to provide restraint, and water and slurry lines should be buried
below the ground frost depth.
In some areas, it is advisable to place a yellow warning tape about a foot above the
pipe to serve as a marker to anyone excavating across the right-of-way. Yellow
Terra-Tape is one such tape and can be purchased with a metallic strip for burial
over fiberglass pipe.
Minimum Cover for Liquid Lines. Section 434.6 of Code B31.4 requires the
cover over the top of a line to be appropriate for surface use of the land and for a
normal depth of cultivation, and sufficient to protect against loads imposed by road
and rail traffic. Code B31.4 Table 434.6(a) gives minimum requirements for cover.
See Figure 400-10.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-37 November 1994
If these minimums cannot be met, additional protection must be provided to with-
stand anticipated loads and minimize damage by external forces.
Minimum Cover for Gas Lines. Section 841.142 of Code B31.8 gives minimum
covers for gas transmission lines and discusses special considerations. See
Figure 400-11.
Restrained Lines
It is important to examine the effect of temperature differentials in a heated line
restrained by burial or equivalent anchorage, and the resulting combination of
tensile (positive) hoop stresses and compressive (negative) longitudinal stresses.
Section 419 of Code B31.4 deals with expansion and flexibility; the following anal-
ysis will indicate whether detailed study is advisable. The Materials and Engi-
neering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department can assist in
these calculations.
The net longitudinal compressive stress due to the combined effects of internal pres-
sure and temperature rise are computed using the following equation from Section
419.6.4(b) of Code B31.4:
S
L
= E T S
H
(Eq. 400-11)
Fig. 400-10 Minimum Cover Requirements for Liquid Lines
Normal Excavation
Blasted Rock
Excavation
LPG and NH
3

Normal Excavation
Developed areas 36 in. 24 in. 48 in.
River and stream
crossings
48 in. 18 in. 48 in.
Drainage ditches at
roads and railroads
36 in. 24 in. 48 in.
Any other area 30 in. 18 in. 36 in.
Fig. 400-11 Minimum Cover Requirements for Gas Lines
Blasted Rock Excavation
Location Normal Excavation NPS 20 and Smaller Over NPS 20
Class 1 24 in. 12 in. 18 in.
Class 2 30 in. 18 in. 18 in.
Class 3 and 4 30 in. 24 in. 24 in.
Drainage ditches at
roads and railroads 36 in. 24 in. 24 in.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-38 Chevron Corporation
where:
S
L
= longitudinal compressive stress, psi
S
H
= hoop stress due to fluid pressure, psi (=PD/2t)
T = T
2
- T
1
T
1
= temperature at time of installation, F
T
2
= maximum operating temperature, F
E = modulus of elasticity of steel, psi (= 30 10
6
psi)
= Linear coefficient of thermal expansion of steel, in./in./ F (= 6.5
10
-6
/ F)
= Poissons ratio for steel (= 0.3)
so:
S
L
= (30 10
6
6.5 10
-6
T) - 0.3 S
H
= 195 T - 0.3 S
H
If the temperature rise is great enough, the compressive stress caused by the
restraint on pipe growth will exceed the tensile stress due to internal pressure. If the
net longitudinal stress, S
L
, becomes compressive, then absolute values are used for
pipe stresses in accordance with the Tresca Maximum Shear Theory, as follows:
| S
H
| + | S
L
| = equivalent tensile strength allowable stress
(Eq. 400-12)
Adding the absolute values of hoop stress and longitudinal stress when the values
are of opposite sign to arrive at an equivalent tensile stress is a departure from sepa-
rately comparing hoop stress and longitudinal stress to allowable values.
The allowable value for equivalent tensile stress is limited to 90% of SMYS (per
Section 402.3.2(c) of Code B31.4). Using this limit and Equations 400-11 and
400-12 the maximum temperature difference (F) for a fully restrained pipe oper-
ating at a maximum allowable pressure at 0.72 SMYS is:
T
max
= 0.002 SMYS
(Eq. 400-13)
If the design temperature difference is greater, the maximum allowable pressure
will have to be reduced below 0.72 SMYS, or, alternatively, higher grade pipe used.
When lowering or repositioning pipelines, or in portions of a restrained line above-
ground, beam bending stresses must be included in the net compressive longitu-
dinal stress calculation.
The depth of burial required to provide restraint is a function of pipe diameter, soil
and backfill strength properties, bend configuration (overbend or sidebend), bend
radius and angle, temperature difference, and pipe-soil friction. Given operating
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-39 November 1994
temperature and soil type, diagrams for a specific pipeone for overbends and one
for sidebendsshould be developed relating depth of cover to angle of bend, as
indicated in Figure 400-12. See Appendix F for the method used to develop these
diagrams.
Provision for Expansion or Anchoring
The pipeline transition zone from underground to aboveground represents a change
in conditions from fully restrained to unrestrained, and deserves a discussion of the
deflections and stresses encountered. Determining the longitudinal stresses and
deflections due to internal pressure and temperature change is important in the
layout and design of aboveground piping because, if economic methods cannot be
found to provide enough flexibility to accommodate the deflections, anchors must
be designed to constrain movements.
Consider a pipeline in the transition zone without anchors (see Figure 400-13). The
transition of stress and strain between points A and B is assumed to be linear, with
the length L dependent on the longitudinal resistance of the soil (pipe-soil friction),
as follows:
At point A:
Net longitudinal stress S
L
= E T - S
H
= 200T - 0.3S
H
(compressive)
Longitudinal strain = 0
(Eq. 400-14)
Fig. 400-12 Depth of Burial vs. Angle of Bend (See
Appendix F)
Fig. 400-13 Transition from Underground to Above-
ground Pipe
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-40 Chevron Corporation
At point B:
Net longitudinal stress S
LB
Longitudinal strain
=
=
(Eq. 400-15)
The length L over which the transition occurs depends on the longitudinal soil resis-
tance (pipe-soil friction) F
s
, and can be determined by:
=
(Eq. 400-16)
where:
A
pm
= Area of pipe metal, in.
2
It is recommended that a soils consultant or the Civil and Structural Division of the
Engineering Technology Department be consulted for appropriate values of soil
resistance F
s
, since F
s
is highly variable with type of soil. For rough approximations
of soil resistance in sand and clay, the following can be used.
=
S
H
2
-------(tensile)

B
= T
S
L
B
E
----------
S
H
E
---------- =
E T
S
H
2
------- 0.3S
H
+


E
200T 0.2S
H
+
E
---------------------------------------


L A
pm
S
LB
S
LA
( )
F
s
-------------------------------ft =
A
pm
S
H
2
------- 200T 0.3S
H
+


F
S
-------------------------------------------------------- =
A
pm
200T 0.2S
H
+
F
s
--------------------------------------



Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-41 November 1994
Sand
F
s
= 2.25 D H
(Eq. 400-17)
where:
F
s
= soil resistance, lb/ft
D = outside diameter of pipe, in.
H = burial cover, ft
Sand density assumed to be 100 lb/ft
3
Clay
(Eq. 400-18)
where:
S
u
= cohesion, lb/ft
2
The value of S
u
can range from 75 lb/ft
2
in loose disturbed clay to 1500 lb/ft
2
for
compacted stiff clay. A range of 200 to 300 lb/ft
2
is suggested for general soils.
The total movement at point B will be the average strain from point A to point B
over the length L, or:
L = (
B
/2) L
If the expected expansion L at point B has adverse effects on aboveground piping
or support arrangements that cannot be accommodated by providing flexibility, then
anchors must be designed to constrain the deflection. The force F acting on the
anchor simply becomes the stress difference across the anchor times the metal area
of the pipe, or:
F = A
pm
(S
LA
- S
LB
)
= A
pm
[(200 T - 0.3 S
H
) + 0.5 S
H
]
= A
pm
(200T + 0.2 S
H
)
This force can be very great. The design of the anchor itself should be in accor-
dance with good practices of civil engineering including consultation with a
geotechnical consultant. Considerations should include soil friction and lateral
bearing pressure, transfer of loads from the pipe to the anchor, transfer of loads
from the anchor to the soil, and whether other loads from aboveground piping
should be superimposed. The Civil and Structural Division of the Engineering Tech-
nology Department may be consulted if problems are encountered.
F
S

2
--- S
u
=
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-42 Chevron Corporation
446 Seismic Considerations
The major seismic hazards for pipelines are:
Differential fault movement and ground rupture
Landslides
Liquefaction
Ground shaking is a major design consideration for station and terminal facilities
and aboveground sections, but not for buried lines, since the pipeline moves with
the ground with no relative displacement.
Where a pipeline crosses or lies within a seismic zone, the adequacy of the line to
withstand the effects of earthquake action must be assessed. Comprehensive treat-
ments of this subject are contained in Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and
Gas Pipeline Systems and Seismic Design of Oil Pipeline Systems (see Section
480), which present the available (1983) earthquake practices.
Geotechnical and seismological consultants with knowledge of pipeline perfor-
mance in seismic zones should be consulted early in the project so that pipeline
routing and designs can minimize risks from earthquakes and mitigate effects of an
earthquake on the pipeline. The design level of the earthquake, nature and impor-
tance of the project, cost implications, and risk assessment of items such as public
safety, loss of product or service, and damage to the environment must be consid-
ered. The extent of geotechnical investigations should be consistent with risks and
consequences of seismic activity. These investigations would include the following:
Fault location and expected movement
Soil stability on slopes during earthquakes
Locations of soils prone to liquefaction
Passive pressures of backfill material
Fault Movement
It is critically important to design pipeline for possible fault movement and the
accompanying ground ruptures which can occur along an extended length of the
fault. Fault movement is not necessarily confined to a single fault plane or zone, but
may occur at substantial distances from the main trace of the fault.
Pipeline alignment in fault zones should be such that the expected fault movement
will produce tensile stresses in pipenot compressive stresses, which are likely to
promote buckling failure. Pipelines should be laid in relatively straight sections in
areas of potential faulting and ground rupture, crossing the fault at an angle of
between 60 and 80 degrees, without sharp changes in direction and elevation that
could act as anchors. Depth of cover over the pipe should be minimized to reduce
soil restraint during fault movement, and backfill should be loose to medium gran-
ular soil without cobbles or boulders. If native soil differs substantially from this,
oversize trenches should be excavated for a distance of about 200 feet on each side
of and through the fault zone. Use of heavier wall pipe in the fault zone will
increase the pipes tolerance for fault displacement at a given level of maximum
tensile strain, as will a hard, smooth coating such as fusion-bonded epoxy. It is
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-43 November 1994
suggested that heavy wall pipe and epoxy coating, with controlled backfill and
cover, be used for a distance of 1000 feet on each side of and through the fault zone.
Landslides
Landslides are mass movements of the ground and can be triggered by seismic
shaking. Slopes showing signs of recent movement and instability may be seismic
risk areas, depending on the nature of ground movement. If slope instability
involves deep translations and rotational displacement, the potential ground move-
ments in the vicinity of the pipeline may be very large, and, in light of the substan-
tial costs required to stabilize such slopes, relocation of the pipeline must be
considered. If, on the other hand, instability involves slumps and shallow slides,
slope stabilization may be an effective means of correcting the difficulties and
promoting long-term performance. When crossing a zone of potential instability, it
is generally better to locate the line along a contour of constant elevation at a rela-
tively shallow burial depth. This minimizes grading slope disturbance, and lessens
the chance of compressive strains imposed by slope movement at oblique angles to
the pipeline.
Liquefaction
Liquefaction is the transformation of a saturated cohesionless soil, such as loose to
medium-dense sands and nonplastic silts, from a solid to a liquid state as a result of
increased pore pressure and loss of shear strength. Liquefaction can lead to lateral
ground spreading, loss of bearing, and uplift of buried objects due to buoyancy.
Areas that are particularly vulnerable to liquefaction include loose fills near water-
fronts, toe areas of alluvial fans and deltas, active flood plains, river channels, and
saturated colluvial deposits. The combined consequences of lateral spreading of the
ground and buoyancy is a severe condition for a buried line, and it is difficult to
pinpoint zones of potential spreading within a region susceptible to liquefaction.
Under these conditions, it seems prudent to evaluate pipeline performance for the
entire region in terms of its response to lateral spreading. Pipelines that can accom-
modate moderate amounts of lateral spreading should be able to sustain deforma-
tions from buoyant forces. A suggested design solution is to design the line to be
buoyant under earthquake condition, with shallow burial so that its upward move-
ment is limited. In areas where landslides or liquefaction may occur, it may be
prudent to locate line block valves or check valves, as appropriate, on either side of
the seismic hazard zone.
Design Level Earthquake Selection
The ASCE Guidelines propose that design criteria for important oil and gas pipe-
lines encompass two levels of earthquake hazard. The lower level, the probable
design earthquake (PDE), normally has a return period of approximately 50 to
100 years. The pipeline system should be able to operate through and following
such an earthquake. The higher level (stronger) event, is the contingency design
earthquake (CDE). It has a longer return period, of about 200 to 500 years or
more. The Guidelines suggest that in some situations it may be expedient to use
only the CDE level, and this is the basis for most Company installations. On this
basis, a pipeline system would be shut down at the time of severe seismic activity,
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-44 Chevron Corporation
and would resume operation after careful inspection of facilities, and appropriate
repair measures or pipe replacement as might be needed.
The ASCE Guidelines point out that in the dual design earthquake concept the
lower level PDE should be considered the earthquake for which design criteria in
regulations and codes are intended; current codes are for earthquakes that have
return periods of the same order as other extreme environmental conditions asso-
ciated with wind, rain, snow, etc. The higher level (and less likely) CDE, however,
is associated with a design level that goes beyond the intent of codes. Under these
conditions code stress criteria should be relaxed somewhat and strain criteria should
be introduced. The strain criteria used generally allow the pipeline to take advan-
tage of available ductility without rupture.
Allowable Strain Criteria
A primary concern is the ability of buried pipelines to accommodate abrupt ground
distortions from faulting, landslides, lateral spreading, and liquefaction. For such
soil movements, the strains in the pipeline will usually exceed yield. Since the load
condition is an applied displacement, strains are limited to the amount of deforma-
tion necessary for the pipeline to conform to differential ground movement. For
these reasons nonlinear analysis methods are used for buried pipelines and strain
limit criteria are imposed. Table 4.5 of the Guidelines (Figure 400-14) summarizes
recommended allowable pipeline strains.
Guidelines Sections 5.2, Pipeline Performance under Large Differential Ground
Movements; 5.3, Analysis of Pipelines Subjected to Fault Movements; and 5.4,
Factors Affecting Pipeline Performance at Fault Crossings should be referred to for
situations where pipelines cross known fault zones, or are in likely areas of lateral
movement. Section 5.5, Special Fault Design Considerations, discusses approaches
to pipeline fault-crossing strategies, and assesses the consequences, cost, and reli-
ability of particular fault crossing designs. Some special design concepts discussed
include placement of the line in an aboveground berm constructed of low-strength
soil, placement of the line in oversized trenches surrounded by low-strength, crush-
able material or selected backfill, casing the line in buried oversize culverts, place-
ment of the line on aboveground sliding supports, and increasing wall thickness to
improve ductile behavior.
Fig. 400-14 Recommended Allowable Strain Criteria for Above Ground and Underground Oil
and Gas Pipelines and Piping
Strain Component Allowable Strain
Internal pressure, live and dead loads, plus
local, nonvibratory induced loads such as
faulting, slope instability, and liquefaction.
Tension: 2% to 5%. Only applicable to
straight sections of pipe. In regions and
field bends, more restrictive criteria should
be used.
Compression: Onset of wrinkling.
Internal pressure, live and dead loads, plus
shaking effects due to the CDE
50% to 100% of the onset of wrinkling.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-45 November 1994
447 Crossings
Nearly all pipelines involve water crossings, highway and railroad crossings, and
crossings of other pipelines. Permits are always required from regulatory agencies
and owners of existing facilities, and requirements set forth in the permits must be
met.
General guidelines for design are included in the following Codes:
ANSI/ASME Code B31.4 for liquid lines
Section 434.6, Ditching
Section 434.13, Special Crossings
ANSI/ASME Code B31.8 for gas transmission lines
Section 841.13, Protection of Pipelines and Mains From Hazards
Section 841.143, Clearance Between Pipelines or Mains and Other Under-
ground Structures
Section 841.144, Casing Requirements Under Railroads, Highway, Roads
or Streets
Section 862.117, Casings
River and Stream Crossings
Any river or stream crossing involves unique design and construction consider-
ations, and is usually influenced by conditions imposed by regulatory agencies. In a
conventional installation the pipeline is laid in a trench excavated in the river bed
and bank. However, the horizontal directional drilling method offers distinct advan-
tages, and should be the first choice for major riversunless the line can be laid
across a dry river bed. In some cases an overhead crossing on a bridge or self-
supported span is indicated.
In addition to topographic surveys to develop cross section profiles of the river bed
and banks in the area of a proposed crossing, investigations should be made to deter-
mine composition of the bottom, scouring, bank variation and stability, seasonal
variations of water depth and current velocity, and environmental restrictions such
as fish spawning seasons. Particular attention should be given to geophysical and
hydrological investigation to predict the river scour zone and to provide data for
horizontal drilling techniques. Lines should be laid 5 to 7 feet below the scour zone,
regardless of installation method. Except for small stream crossings, consideration
must be given to obtaining access and sufficient land on one or both sides of the
river for fabricating pipe sections and for construction equipment needed to install
the line.
The significant advantages of the horizontal drilling method are as follows:
The line lies in undisturbed soil well below the scour zone
There is no environmental impact such as the silting and disturbance of river
bottom and banks that accompanies trenching in a moving stream
Weight-coating or other protection from mechanical damage is not needed
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-46 Chevron Corporation
Disadvantages include the following:
Potentially higher cost
Limited number of qualified contractors
In the hydraulic drilling method, a pilot hole is drilled, directionally controlled, and
followed by a larger reamer. Then the full length of pipe is pulled through the hole.
Drilling muds are used to facilitate drilling, stabilize low-cohesion soils, and facili-
tate pipe installation. Heavier wall pipe is usually but not necessarily used at the
crossing. Coating should be fusion-bonded epoxy to provide a durable, smooth
surface on the pipe. See Model Specification COM-MS-4042 in the Coatings
Manual.
Heavier wall pipe is nearly always used at trenched river crossings to provide addi-
tional protection from mechanical damage and to keep pipe stresses within limits
during installation. The heavier wall also provides some additional weighting of the
pipe to obtain stability of the submerged line. The weight of the installed pipe,
filled with the operating fluid or gas, must be greater than the buoyancy produced
by the displaced water or the cohesionless fluid soil backfill that may be placed
or naturally settle around the pipe.
For all gas lines and for larger oil lines (say, over NPS 10) additional weighting is
usually required. As a guide, a submerged weight (negative buoyancy) of at least 5
lb per lineal foot should be provided. Weighting may consist of concrete weight
coating applied over the pipe coating or concrete weights clamped on at intervals. If
the line is to be pulled across the river bottom, continuous concrete-weight coating
is preferable to clamped on weights. Set-on weights, without bolting, are not recom-
mended except for larger lines in dry flood plain areas.
The required additional weight-coating W
c
above pipe weight W
p
needed to
achieve a design submerged weight Ws calculated as follows:
(Eq. 400-19)
For which the outside diameter, D
c
, of the weight-coated pipe will be
(Eq. 400-20)
W
c
W
s

w
A W
p
+
1

c
-------
---------------------------------------- =
D
c
13.5
W
s

c
A W
p
+

c

w

-------------------------------------- =
13.5
W
c

c
-------- A + =
t
c
D
c
D
2
----------------- =
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-47 November 1994
where:
A = cross-sectional area of corrosion-coated pipe of outside diameter
D (without weight-coating), ft
2
= 0.00545 D
2
W
s
= submerged weight of pipe and coating, lb/ft
W
c
= weight of concrete in air, lb/ft
W
p
= weight of pipe in air, lb/ft
D = diameter, ft
t
c
= concrete thickness, ft

c
= density of weight-coating, lb/ft
3
(approx. 140 for normal concrete
weight-coating)

w
= density of water or cohesionless backfill, lb/ft
3
To calculate the submerged weight for pipe that is already weight-coated:
(Eq. 400-21)
Highway and Railroad Crossings
See API Recommended Practice 1102, Recommended Practice for Liquid Petro-
leum Pipelines Crossing Railroads and Highways, (see Section 2300) which covers
both cased and uncased crossings. API RP 1102 gives guidelines for design and
construction, sets forth minimum cover requirements, and includes the formula,
graphs and nomographs for determining circumferential stresses in uncased line
pipe. It includes a table for minimum wall thickness for casing, but Company prac-
tice is to use greater minimums: 0.188 inch up through NPS 16, 0.250 inch for NPS
18 through 36, and 0.312 inch over NPS 36. API RP 1102 can also be used to
design casing for gas transmission lines. Also, see Appendix I of this manual for
the calculation of bending stress in a buried pressurized pipeline due to external
loads.
Highway or railway authority requirements given in the crossing permit must be
met and may be more stringent than API RP 1102. It is advisable to provide a
drawing for each crossing, showing the crossed facility, ground profile, pipe or
casing cover, casing length (for cased crossings), casing diameter and wall thick-
ness, spacers and end seals, vent details (if required), and, for uncased crossing, the
line pipe wall thickness, coating, and installation method.
Uncased Crossings. It is preferable to make highway, road and railroad crossings
without using a casing, and uncased crossings are becoming accepted by the
controlling authorities. Generally, thicker pipe walls are used to provide for external
loading by crossing traffic and to reduce the possibility of maintenance repair at the
W
S
W
p
W
c
+ ( )
w
W
c

c
-------- A +



=
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-48 Chevron Corporation
crossing during the service life of the pipeline. A high-quality coating is used on
the crossing section consisting of fusion bonded epoxy, often with an outer coating
of smooth concrete. Where traffic cannot be diverted to allow open trenching, the
line pipe is installed by the same boring and jacking method used for casing installa-
tion.
External loading due to traffic over the line must be carefully assessed and, if neces-
sary, depth of burial, pipe wall thickness or both increased. Sections 402.3.2(e) and
434.13.4(c) of Code B31.4 for oil lines requires that the sum of circumferential
stresses due to internal design pressure and external load shall not exceed the appli-
cable allowable stress value S determined by Code B31.4 Section 402.3.1. Metal
fatigue by cyclical loading at crossings subject to high-density heavy traffic must
also be considered. Code B31.8 for gas transmission lines approaches design for
uncased crossings by adjusting to the construction type design factor F in accor-
dance with Code B31.8 Table 841.15A.
Cased Crossings. Pipeline crossings of highways and railroads have traditionally
been made by installing a casing pipe, at least two sizes larger than the line pipe, by
boring and jacking. Short sections of casing pipe are sequentially welded to the
casing during the jacking process; usually the casing pipe is not coated. The line
pipe can then be pushed through the casing, supported on electrically non-conduc-
tive spacer supports. The annular openings at both ends of the casing are sealed
with end caps of electrically non-conductive material. Electrically insulating the
line pipe from the casing pipe is critical in order to properly maintain the line under
cathodic protection. See Section 364 for descriptions of casing insulators and seals.
Company preference is for uncased crossings wherever feasible and acceptable to
the authority because, over time, differential settlement between the casing and line
pipe has been known to damage the nonconductive spacers, end seals and pipe
coating. This results in failure of cathodic protection on the line, and requires very
costly maintenance to repair or replace the crossing. Government regulations
require correction of shorted casings, with fines assessed if corrections are not
made in a timely fashion.
Crossings of Other Pipelines
Clearance. Spacing between crossing pipelines should be provided to minimize (1)
the risk of damage to either line during construction or maintenance, and (2) the
effect of one lines cathodic protection system on the other. Section 434.6(c) of
Code B31.4 requires a minimum of 12 inches between lines or from any buried
structure. Section 841.143 of Code B31.8 requires at least 6 inches clearance wher-
ever possible, but Section 192.325 of 49 CFR 192 requires a minimum of 12
inches. Company practice is to provide 12 inches, with sandbags or compacted
backfill between the lines so that the clearance is maintained.
Cathodic Protection Test and Bonding Leads. It is the usual and recommended
practice to install test and bonding leads to both the line under construction and the
existing line. Reference should be made to Section 465 of this manual and to the
Corrosion Prevention Manual.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-49 November 1994
448 Special Considerations
This section alerts the engineer to some problems involving pressure surges, slurry
pipeline erosion and corrosion, and crack arrestors.
Pressure Surges
The pressure surges that result from rapid shutoff of liquid flow in a pipe are
normally not severe for pipelines. Section 800 of the Fluid Flow Manual gives a
simplified method for calculating pressure surges. Section 402.2.4 of Code B31.4,
RatingsAllowance for Variations from Normal Operations, requires that surge
calculations be made, along with adequate provision to ensure that the level of pres-
sure rise does not exceed the allowable design pressure at any point in the system
by more than 10%. Section 454 of this manual discusses line pressure control and
relief.
Erosion/Corrosion Allowance for Slurry Pipelines
The abrasive action of solids in a slurry pipeline, often combined with some corro-
sive action, requires pipe wall thickness beyond that required for internal design
pressure. Besides an allowance applied to the entire length of the line, attention
should be given to additional allowance for conditions such as:
High velocity at the walls of sharp bends and at steep downhill sections where
slack flow may occur
High oxygen content in the water leaving the slurry-preparation station, (subse-
quently reduced by chemical reaction with the pipe steel). The Materials and
Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology Department has
reference files on this
Greater abrasion leaving the slurry-preparation station (until solid particles are
smoothed in transit)
Crack Propagation Control
Localized mechanical damage to high pressure (ANSI Class 600 and above) gas
pipelines, caused, for example, by excavating equipment, can result in critical fail-
ures involving longitudinal cracking along many hundreds of feet of pipe. This type
of failure is termed dynamic ductile fracture. Research on this type of crack propa-
gation has been conducted and continues in the United States, Canada, Europe and
Japan. In the United States Batelle, Columbus Laboratories has, in association with
the Pipeline Research Committee of the American Gas Association, led in this
investigation and in designs to arrest cracking.
Pipelines in high-pressure gas or supercritical fluid service require pipe toughness
and sufficient wall thickness to avoid crack propagation. In open country, crack
arrestors are used in lighter-wall sections to minimize damage should a propagation
crack occur.
Pipe dimensions and grade, and material properties including steel toughness,
internal pressuring medium and external environment are parameters used to
predict whether or not unstable fracture propagation will occur and at what fracture
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-50 Chevron Corporation
speed. See Section 313 for a more detailed discussion and the toughness required
by ANSI and recommended by Chevron.
When crack arrestors are indicated by semi-empirical calculations or experimental
testing, mechanical sleeve collars, joints of heavier wall pipe, or both can be placed,
as necessary or as prudent, at intervals and at critical locations such as river and
highway crossings and line valves. Both were used on the Chevron-managed 16-
inch CO
2
pipeline constructed in 1985 from Rock Springs, Wyoming, to Rangely,
Colorado. See Figure 400-15 for the crack arrestor installation guidelines for that
project.
450 Pipeline Appurtenances
Section 360 describes piping components for pipelines. This section gives guide-
lines for application of these items and other pipeline appurtenances. Requirements
of governmental jurisdictions should be determined at an early design stage in
designs, so the facilities will be in compliance.
Design and selection of all line valves, mainline bends and fittings must provide for
passage of scrapers and inspection pigs. See Sections 452 and 453 of this manual.
For gas transmission systems, it should be noted that in Location Class 1 areas
where the Type A construction design factor F of 0.72 applies to line pipe design,
Section 841.122 of ANSI/ASME B31.8 requires that fabricated assemblies such as
line valve manifolds and scraper traps be designed with a Type B factor F of 0.60.
451 Line Valves
Through-conduit line valves spaced at intervals are used to sectionalize the pipeline
for one or several of the following purposes:
Initial hydrostatic testing (see Section 770 of this manual) and subsequent
inservice hydrostatic testing (see Section 830 of this manual)
Isolation of a section of line to reduce the quantity of fluid drained, or volume
of gas to be depressured in the event of:
Maintenance work to repair or replace a portion of the line
Damage to or rupture of the line
As block valves at station plot limits (usually the fence lines)
These valves may be manually operated, remotely controlled, or automatically actu-
ated, depending on the purpose and the need for fast closing in the event of line
damage or rupture. Consequences of closing valves against line flow must be
considered, particularly pressure surges produced by fast-closing valves. See
Section 800 of the Fluid Flow Manual and Section 454 of this manual.
Through-conduit check valves are often used with block valves to provide imme-
diate control of draining or depressuring in the section of line downstream of a
damaged or ruptured section.
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-51 November 1994
Line valves should be located near roads or other easily accessed locations so they
can be quickly reached for emergency operation and are conveniently accessible for
maintenance. The valve manifold assemblies should preferably be above grade
within a fenced enclosure. This provides good maintenance access, and any leakage
at flanges or connections is readily visible. Where this is not practical for larger
sizes or not allowed by permitting restrictions, the valves must be installed in below-
grade boxes or vaults.
Fig. 400-15 Crack Arrestor Installation-Rangely CO
2
Pipeline
A. General
Crack arresting collars are to be installed at certain locations along the CO
2
pipeline for the purpose of
arresting ductile fractures which may occur in the event of a mechanically-induced pipeline rupture. These
arrestors are intended to protect rivers, paved roads and other sensitive areas from damage, and to minimize
the extent of damage in the cross-country sections of the pipeline should a propagating crack occur. Note
that these collars offer backup arresting capability to 0.438 inch wall joints of pipe installed at 1000 foot inter-
vals in thinner sections of pipeline. The 0.438 inch wall and thicker pipe is expected to self-arrest cracks.
B. Scope of Work
Contractor shall provide all materials and installation of crack arresting collars as described herein.
C. Crack Arresting Collars
The collars shall be fiberglass-reinforced plastic, as provided by Arco Pipeline Company. They will be 16.9
inch ( 0.075 inch) I.D., 15 inches long, and will have a wall thickness of approximately 1/2 inch. A hole, 1/2
inch in diameter, will be drilled 4 inches from one end of each arrestor.
D. Locations and Spacing
The collars will be installed at tie-in points only. Specific locations will be tie-ins on either side of all cased
road crossings, river crossings, valves, and scraper traps. In addition, crack arrestors are to be installed at
intervals no greater than 6,000 feet from the beginning of the line to the end of the 0.406 inch wall pipe near
MP92. From that point to the end of the 0.375 inch wall pipe near MP127 the interval shall be no greater than
8,000 feet, and for the remainder of the line into the Rangely Field the interval shall be no greater than 12,000
feet.
E. Installation
At specified tie-in points, arrestors will be slipped over the taped pipe and placed as far from the weld area
as necessary to be out of the welders way. Two bands of Polyken 930 hand-wrap tape will be wrapped round
the pipe, over the existing coating, spaced approximately nine inches apart so the centers of the bands are
approximately 15 inches apart. These bands will be from 2-8 layers thick, as determined in the field, to
produce a snug fit when the arrestor is slid over them. The arrestor will then be centered over these two
bands so that approximately three inches of each band extend beyond the end of the arrestor. The arrestor
will be positioned so that the hole will be on the downhill side on the bottom, to act as a drain. If, due to
ovality of the pipe, a uniform snug fit cannot be obtained, a soft plastic wedge shall be inserted between the
arrestor and the Polyken 930 tape to make a snug fit. Wedges shall only be employed on the top third of the
pipe between the 10 oclock and 2 oclock positions. Polyken 930 hand-wrap tape will then be wrapped
around the ends of the arrestor to prevent dirt from entering the annulus between the tape and the arrestor.
F. Materials
Crack arrestors shall be as previously described. The hand-wrap tape shall be 6-inch wide Polyken 930, or as
approved by Company. The plastic wedges shall be approved by Company.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-52 Chevron Corporation
Below-grade installation poses the problems of ground water and run-off water
drainage, as well as the possibility of an explosive condition developing in a
confined space. Alternatively, the main line valves and branch piping can be coated
and buried, with the pump-around valves, pressure gage connections, and main line
valve handwheels or operators above grade within a fenced enclosure. This arrange-
ment is suitable for ball valves, but less satisfactory for gate valves. Risk of
vandalism may be a consideration for any aboveground facility.
Block Valves in Liquid Lines
Section 434.15 of Code B31.4 covers requirements and guidelines for mainline
block valves in liquid lines, as follows:
Water Crossings. At major river crossings and public water supply reservoirs,
a block valve on the upstream side of the crossing, and a block valve or a check
valve on the downstream side. (For water crossings, 49 CFR 195.260(e) states
that block valves are required wherever the crossing is more than 100 feet wide
from high-water mark to high-water mark)
Other Locations. A block or check valve (where applicable to minimize pipe-
line backflow) at other locations, as appropriate for the terrain. In industrial,
commercial, and residential areas maximum spacing of block valves for other
than LPG or liquid anhydrous ammonia shall be 10 miles. Where construction
activities pose a particular risk of external damage, provisions shall be made
for the appropriate spacing and location of mainline valves consistent with the
type of liquids being transported. For LPG and liquid anhydrous ammonia,
maximum spacing of block valves in industrial, commercial, and residential
areas shall be 7.5 miles
Pipeline Facilities. At pump stations, tank farms, and terminals, block valves
on the line entering and leaving the station, whereby the station can be isolated
from the pipeline
Remotely Controlled Facilities. At remotely controlled pipeline facilities, a
remotely controlled mainline block valve shall be provided to isolate segments
of the pipeline
At mainline block valves on oil lines the usual Company practice is to provide
valved connections on each side of the block valve so that when a section of line
must be drained, a portable pump can be connected, discharging either to the other
section of line or to tank trucks. A typical manifold is indicated in Figure 400-16.
Block Valves in Gas Transmission Lines
Sections 846.1 and 846.2 of Code B31.8 covers requirements and guidelines for
sectionalizing block valves in gas transmission lines, as follows:
Spacing between valves. This shall not exceed:
20 miles in predominantly Class 1 areas
15 miles in predominantly Class 2 areas
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-53 November 1994
10 miles in predominantly Class 3 areas (49 CFR Part 192.179(a) limits
this to 8 miles)
5 miles in predominantly Class 4 areas
Spacing may be adjusted slightly to permit installation in a more acces-
sible location, with continuous accessibility as the primary consideration
Other factors influencing spacing. These involve the conservation of gas,
time required to blow down the isolated section, continuity of gas service,
necessary operating flexibility, expected future development within the valve
spacing section, and significant natural conditions that may adversely affect the
operation and security of the line
Automatically actuated valves. These are not a Code requirement, and their
use is at the discretion of the operating company
Blowdown valves. These shall be provided so that each section of pipeline
between mainline valves can be blown down as rapidly as practicable. 49 CFR
192.179(c) further requires that the blowdown discharge be located so the gas
can be blown to the atmosphere without hazard and, if the transmission line is
adjacent to an overhead electric line, so that the gas is directed away from the
electrical conductors
A typical mainline block valve manifold with provision for blowdown is indicated
in Figure 400-17. Often a removable blowdown vent stack is brought to the location
and connected only when blowing down. Optional installation of a smaller bypass
valve between the blowdown connections allows better control than the mainline
valve when pressuring or depressuring the entire length of line. For gas lines in cold
climates aboveground piping will probably require special materials.
Fig. 400-16 Mainline Block Valve Manifold with
Pumparound Valves
Fig. 400-17 Mainline Block Valve Manifold with
Blowdown Connections
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-54 Chevron Corporation
452 Scraper Traps
Scraper trap manifolds provide for insertion and removal of scrapers (also called
pigs) or spheres at intervals along the line. Series of scrapers are run through the
line as part of the construction program and for initial dewatering of the line. Inser-
vice scraper runs are determined by the nature of the fluid(s) transported and by the
expected fouling buildup on the pipe walls and at sagbends, which influences selec-
tion of the type of scraper, spacing between scraper trap manifolds, and frequency
of runs. For relatively clean fluids spacing may typically be on the order of every
75 miles. Reference [3] is a comprehensive text on pipeline pigging.
A typical station scraper trap manifold for liquid hydrocarbon service is depicted in
Figure 400-18. See Section 363 of this manual for descriptions of closures and
appurtenances for scraper traps. The trap barrel must have a pressure indicator and
means to relieve the pressure before opening the barrel. See 49 CFR 195.426.
Scraper traps are installed at the initial pump station, most intermediate pump
stations, and at the terminal. If spacing between the intermediate pump stations
eventually installed is considerably closer than needed for scraper runs, it is
possible to arrange valving and pump operation so that scrapers will run through
the mainline valves at the station without an incoming trap on the suction side of
the station and an outgoing trap on the discharge side of the station.
Cross-country pipelines should have permanent facilities to run scrapers, even
though expected operating conditions may never or only very infrequently require
scraper runs. Where permanent scraper traps are not installed, or if pipeline
construction sequence dictates initial scraper runs in sections where designs do not
provide for a scraper trap, temporary removable scraper traps can be used, usually
designed and provided by the construction contractor.
Design of Scraper Trap Manifolds
Design of scraper trap manifolds depends on several key factors.
Fig. 400-18 Scraper Trap Manifold
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-55 November 1994
Scraper Type. The type of scrapers to be run, both for operation and maintenance
inspection, influences manifold design. There are four basic types of scrapers, all
moved along the line by the fluid flow:
A series of disc cups, usually with sealing lips on the circumference, mounted
on a central shaft, often with wire brushes or blade scrapers for cleaning
A cylindrical plastic plug (usually polyurethane) with a variety of surfaces
from plain foam to hard plastic with grit or wire embedded
A sphere, inflated to slightly larger diameter than the line ID
Inspection pigs, propelled by disc cups and containing electronic equipment to
measure and record pipe wall thickness
The length of the scraper trap barrel should easily accommodate the length of
scraper to be run. Usually the barrel length will be determined by the length of an
inspection pig. If several scrapers are to be run in a spaced series, the barrel of the
incoming scraper trap must accommodate at least two. Also, there must be clear-
ance at the end of the barrel to handle a scraper for insertion or removal.
The length and mechanical configuration of scrapers and inspection pigs also will
determine the minimum radius of bends in the main line, whether at scraper trap
manifolds or anywhere else in the main line. If spheres are ever to be used, branch
tee connections should not be larger than about 60% of the mainline diameter or
there is a risk that flow will pass around the sphere, and the sphere will not move
past the branch. For large lines where scrapers cannot be readily lifted by one or
two men, davits or trolleys should be provided.
Material Scraped From Pipe Walls. Waxy sludge that accumulates ahead of
scrapers in lines carrying waxy crude oils is of particular concern: the barrel
volume must be sufficient to contain a sludge plug as well as the scraper. Often the
volume of the sludge plug can be reduced using a bypass pig, which allows some
flow through the scraper to dilute the wax accumulation, or wax chopper grates on
the outlet connection from an incoming barrel to break up the sludge flowing to
booster pump suction or on down the line.
Pigging on gas transmission lines is usually done to remove dust, dirt, and small
amounts of liquid. In remote locations, the dirty gas ahead of the scraper can often
be discharged to the atmosphere, but at other locations dust collecting facilities
must be provided for pollution control.
Stock Drained From the Scraper Trap Barrel. The scraper trap barrels on liquid
lines must be drained before opening the barrel to insert or remove scrapers. Most
of the liquid can usually be drained to a station sump, with the sump pump
discharging to the incoming line, station tankage, or to a tank truck. At remote
scraper traps where there are no other facilities a permanent or portable pump can
be used to transfer oil from the scraper trap barrel to the main line or to a tank
truck. Some liquid will still drain when the barrel is opened and from the scraper
when it is removed. To contain this drainage, a slab with containment curb and
drain should be provided, with a grating above the slab as a walking surface.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-56 Chevron Corporation
Scraper Trap Foundations. Scraper traps generally only require sufficient support
to hold the barrel and fluid weight. However some pipelines may require special
foundations to account for:
Expansion of hot lines
Uplift forces generated by impact of liquid slugs in gas lines
Branch Tee Connections
Branch tee connections from the main line that are larger than about 25% of the
line diameter should be provided with bar grates so that scrapers will pass along the
main line without getting caught at the branch. See Standard Drawing GA-L99880,
Standard Detail of Bars at Pipeline Tee Connections, in this Manual.
Scraper Detectors
Scraper trap manifolds usually include a mechanical device to indicate passage of a
scraper. The indication may be visual at the device, or electrically transmitted to a
local panel or remote location. On outgoing traps the device is normally installed
downstream of the trap block valve and normal-flow tee. On incoming traps the
device is normally installed in a short section of line-size pipe downstream of the
trap block valve. Sometimes a second device is located a distance upstream to give
an advance signal of an incoming scraper.
Code References
Section 434.17 of Code B31.4 gives general guidelines for scraper traps; Code
B31.8 has no specific reference to scraper traps. For gas lines in cold climates
aboveground piping will likely require special materials. Special attention must be
given to sour lines since it may be necessary to provide a nitrogen purge before
opening the scraper trap panel.
453 Electronic Inspection Pigs
Inspection pigs are primarily used to detect pipe wall thickness anomalies, record
them electronically for playback at the end of the run, and determine the location of
observed defects along the length of the line. Crack detection, hard spot detection,
geometry, camera, leak detection, and mapping smart pigs are also available. Capa-
bility to run inspection pigs should be provided in the design of the pipeline and
appurtenances. Input should be obtained from one or more inspection services as to
limitations affecting design of a particular pipeline, such as:
Minimum radius of bends, and corresponding minimum pipe internal diame-
ters. (Offshore risers should have a minimum radius of bends of at least five
diameters.)
Minimum length of straight pipe between bends
Spacing between branch connections, size of side taps, and if the side taps are
barred
Length of the inspection pig
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-57 November 1994
Duration of batteries and maximum memory data storage capability (to deter-
mine length of line that can be inspected in one run for a given flow rate)
Installing permanent position markers for locating the position of the pig along
the line
The types of valves (check, gate, ball, etc.) and the minimum bore of the valves that
the inspection pig will have to pass through.
Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Ultrasonic (US) inspection tools are used to
detect wall metal loss. Presently, MFL tools are more widely used due to the limita-
tions of Ultrasonic inspection tools. Since Ultrasonic tools require a liquid
couplant, these tools cannot be used to detect corrosion damage in gas or mixed
phase pipelines unless the tool is run inside a liquid or gel slug. In addition, Ultra-
sonic tools require much cleaner pipe surfaces than MFL tools. Ultrasonic tools
may not detect serious corrosion pitting due to minimum wall thickness require-
ments. Ultrasonic tools are capable of providing direct quantitative measurement of
the pipe wall. As Ultrasonic technology improves it will become more competitive
with MFL technology, but it will never completely replace MFL technology due to
its limitations.
There are two types of MFL inspection pigs: conventional and advanced. Conven-
tional (these are also called first generation or low resolution MFL inspection pigs)
MFL pigs provide qualitative information which is sufficient for many applications.
Advanced (these are also called second generation or high resolution MFL inspec-
tion pigs) MFL pigs provide quantitative information after some data processing.
The most widely used conventional MFL pigs are: Linalog of Tuboscope Pipeline
Services in Houston, Texas, USA, Vetcolog of Vetco Pipeline Services in Houston,
Texas, USA, and Magnescan of Pipetronix in Toronto, Canada. The most widely
used advanced MFL pig is the British Gas On-Line tool of the British Gas On-Line
Inspection Center in Newcastle, UK. Other advanced MFL pigs are under develop-
ment and should be on the market soon.
The number of sensors vary with each advanced MFL pig. One vendor claims to
have a high resolution MFL pig, but his tool has only a few more sensors than a
conventional Linalog pig. The greater the number of sensors, the higher the resolu-
tion of the MFL tool. Inspection cost increases as resolution increases, therefore use
high resolution tools only when it can be economically justified.
The most widely used ultrasonic metal loss smart pigs are the Ultrascan by
Pipetronix of Karlsruhe, Germany, NKK in Tokyo, Japan, and Flawsonic by TDW
in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
The following should be considered when planning an inspection run and choosing
a pipeline inspection contractor:
Pipeline Medium (gas, liquid, or mixed phase) and the effects on the inspection
pig
The flow rate range required for satisfactory inspection
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-58 Chevron Corporation
The maximum operating temperature of the inspection tool if it is to be used to
inspect hot oil service pipelines.
The minimum bore of the valves that the inspection pig will have to pass
through
The number of runs required to get a complete inspection due to maximum
range limitations caused by battery, memory data storage, or tool speed limita-
tions
The pipe wall thickness(es) of the pipe to be inspected
The method of locating the position of the pig along the line and the number of
location reference points required
Any obstruction that may trap the inspection pig such as check valves, tight
radius bends, changes in pipe diameter, and unbarred large diameter side taps
It is always desirable to run a geometry pig before running other inspection
pigs. A geometry pig will detect obstructions that may trap a larger inspection
pig such as a metal loss inspection tool. Geometry pigs should always be run
on pipelines that have never been inspected. In addition, it is desirable to run
geometry pigs on pipelines that may have been damaged between inspection
runs by earth movement or other outside forces.
If pigging facilities exist, are they capable of launching and recovering the
inspection pig without modification. If no pigging facilities exist, where will
either permanent or temporary pigging facilities have to be installed.
Shear wave ultrasonic crack detection smart pigs are under research and develop-
ment by both Pipetronix and British Gas On-line. These pigs are expected to be on
the market soon. In addition, Pipetronix is close to marketing a Pulsed Eddy
Current crack detection pig.
There are other inspection tools on the market and many improved devices are
under development. Consult with Chevron Research and Technology Company
Materials and Equipment Engineering as to the experience with and evaluation of
various inspection tools.
454 Line Pressure Control and Relief
The primary function of facilities for main line pressure control is either to main-
tain a full line downstream of hydraulic control points on liquid pipelines
(preventing slack-line conditions) or to protect the pipeline from overpressuring in
the event of inadvertent or emergency closing of a mainline block valve. Overpres-
sure protection (relief valves or shutdown switches) on pump or compressor
discharge piping should be provided as part of station facilities so that station
discharge pressure does not exceed maximum allowable operating pressure for the
line.
Section 402.2.4 of Code B31.4 for liquid pipelines requires protective equipment to
be provided so that variations from normal operations do not cause a pressure rise
Pipeline Manual 400 Design
Chevron Corporation 400-59 November 1994
of more than 10% of the internal design pressure at any point in the piping system
and equipment.
Section 845 of Code B31.8 for gas transmission lines covers Control and Limiting
of Gas Pressure. Section 845.212 describes types of protective devices, and Section
845.3 covers design requirements for pressure relief and pressure limiting installa-
tions. Section 845.411 requires pressure relief facilities to have the capacity and be
set to prevent line pressure from exceeding the MAOP plus 10%, or the pressure
which produces a hoop stress of 75% of SMYS, whichever is lower.
Referring to the hydraulic profile for a liquid pipeline system, the hydraulic
gradient at no-flow, with pumps still operating, becomes a horizontal line as indi-
cated in Figure 400-19. Prudent pipe design usually provides sufficient wall thick-
ness so that allowable pipe stress is not exceeded by closing a block valve against
operating pumps or compressors. However, there are situations where, because of a
large ground elevation differential, it is economic to provide pipe wall thickness
adequate for normal operating line pressures rather than substantially greater wall
thickness needed for shutoff conditions. Line relief must then be provided,
discharging into tankage specifically assigned to relief at the terminal or at relief
stations.
The hydraulic profile for a line relief situation is indicated in Figure 400-19. In this
example, the line pipe is of the same grade and wall thickness for the entire length,
and, with no-flow shut-off at the terminal, the pipe at the lower elevations upstream
of the terminal would be overpressured. The hydraulic gradient that keeps line pres-
sures below the maximum allowable pressure establishes the maximum relief set-
Fig. 400-19 Hydraulic Profile: Normal Operation, Shutoff, Relief Flow
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-60 Chevron Corporation
pressure and the minimum relief flow that the relief system must handle. To be
conservative, the relief facility should be designed for somewhat lower set pressure
and greater flow than indicated in Figure 400-19.
For pressure control equipment, see the Instrumentation and Control Manual, or
consult with the Instrumentation and Control Group of the Engineering Technology
Department. For line relief, if needed to prevent overpressuring of liquid pipelines
under shutoff conditions or to limit surge pressure rises, the Grove Flexflow valve
system, manufactured by Grove Valve and Regulator Company of Oakland, Cali-
fornia, or similar equipment, is recommended. This type of valve is designed for
pipeline application, for which conventional safety valves are not normally suitable.
455 Slug Catchers
For pipelines carrying mixed-phase fluids (usually gas, oil, and water) or wet gas
from which water or condensate may accumulate at sagbends, fluctuating liquid
slugs that are either carried with the flow in normal operation or swept ahead of
scrapers must be handled at the end of the line. Slug catchers of various designs are
installed at the end of the line or at intermediate points to separate the liquids and
provide volume for liquid level fluctuations. Typically, the slug catcher may be a
knockout vessel, or banks of pipe lengths, called a harp, which act as long hori-
zontal separators (see Figure 400-20).
Design of the slug catcher must both effect vapor-liquid disengagement and provide
sufficient volume to contain the slug. Hence, one must make a realistic determina-
tion of the largest possible slug relative to the capacity of the liquid outlet line, and
then be generous in sizing the slug catcher. Where slugs are expected with scraper
runs, the frequency of scraper runs will be a factor in establishing the slug volume.
Fig. 400-20 Slug Catcher
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Chevron Corporation 400-61 November 1994
The pressure rating of the slug catcher should be the same as the pipeline upstream
of the slug catcher. Often, the harp is more economic than a heavy-wall large
vessel. The incoming pipeline is manifolded into the harps parallel lengths of pipe,
which are slightly inclined so as to drain toward the vapor and liquid outlets on
each pipe. These outlets are manifolded to vapor and liquid headers. This arrange-
ment allows for future increase in capacity by adding more parallel lengths of pipe.
456 Vents and Drains
Installation of vents and drains is to be avoided on cross-country pipelines unless
there are exceptional circumstances, such as a line installed on a bridge where the
pipe can be isolated by block valves at each end of the crossing. Properly designed
line scrapers will adequately sweep the line, both for full-filling with liquid and for
dewatering with gas following a hydrostatic testsituations that require vents and
drains in plant piping. However, installation of vents at liquid line high points is
needed where scrapers cannot be run. Otherwise, air or other gas might be trapped,
resulting in decreased flow capacity.
457 Electrical Area Classification
Electrical area classifications for scraper traps, block valve assemblies, and other
facilities on the pipeline should comply with the guidelines contained in API
Recommended Practice 500C, Classification of Locations for Electrical Installa-
tions at Pipeline Transportation Facilities.
458 Line Markers
Pipeline location markers and signs indicate the location of buried pipelines to
protect against damage to the line by others working in the area and to give notice
regarding the line service and proper contacts. Section 434.18 of Code B31.4 and
Section 851.7 of Code B31.8 require installation of line markers, and API Recom-
mended Practice 1109 gives guidelines for their installation.
Markers should be located at each side of highway and road crossings, railroad
crossings, water crossings, fence lines, and wherever feasible at such intervals that
at least one marker can be seen anywhere along the route.
Aerial patrol markers are used on cross-country pipelines to guide aircraft patrol-
ling the pipeline route and aid in identifying locations along the route. At one mile
intervals these markers have milepost signs visible from the air, and at changes in
direction of the route, signs show arrows indicating the new direction.
At stations and facilities along the route such as block valves and scraper trap mani-
folds, there should be signs showing the name of the operating company and
contact information.
400 Design Pipeline Manual
November 1994 400-62 Chevron Corporation
460 Corrosion Prevention Facilities
461 General
External corrosion of pipelines is controlled by application of a pipe coating and
nearly always by a cathodic protection (CP) system requiring design and installa-
tion of facilities along the line. Cathodic protection is required by regulations for
pipelines under governmental jurisdiction.
Control of internal corrosion, if anticipated to be a problem, is handled either by
internally lining the pipe, or by injecting a corrosion inhibitor into the fluid. In
either case, no facilities along the pipeline are required. The following sections
briefly describe cathodic protection facilities for pipelines so that they can be incor-
porated in overall system design.
There are two types of cathodic protection systems: impressed current and galvanic
anode. Generally, for long cross-country pipelines, the impressed current system is
the economic choice. However, an economic analysis should be made to determine
the proper choice.
Data on soil resistivity is important for the design of a cathodic protection system.
A field survey along the route early in the project design phase is usually
warranted, and should be made in conjunction with the geotechnical survey. For
design principles and details refer to the Corrosion Prevention Manual, and to the
Materials and Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology
Department. In many cases it is advisable to engage a technical contractor special-
izing in cathodic protection.
462 Impressed Current System for Cathodic Protection
In the impressed current system, a drain cable connects the pipe to the negative
terminal of the DC source, and an anode cable from the positive terminal
connects to nearby buried anodes. Power sources spaced at intervals along the line
are used to provide a DC current. These are usually rectifiers supplied with AC
either from station power, or public utility power at intermediate points. Spacing is
influenced by soil conditions and the quality of the pipe coating. At remote loca-
tions where power is not available, solar photovoltaic systems and wind-powered
generators have been successful. If possible rectifier stations should be readily
accessible.
463 Galvanic Sacrificial Anodes for Cathodic Protection
In this system galvanic anodes (aluminum, magnesium, or zinc) connected by cable
to the pipe are buried at close intervals along the line, either near the pipe or
attached directly to the pipe. The anodes are consumed as current is produced, and
thus must be designed to be sufficient for the life of the pipeline. See Section 900
for a discussion of bracelet anodes for offshore pipelines.
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Chevron Corporation 400-63 November 1994
464 Insulating Flanges and Joint Assemblies
Insulating flanges or joint assemblies are used to electrically isolate the cathodi-
cally protected pipeline from connecting lines and station and terminal piping. Insu-
lating gaskets and stud sleeves and washers are incorporated in a flanged
connection, preferably a pair of standard line flanges that are separate from a valve.
Manufactured insulating joint assemblies, welded into the line, are available, and
for smaller pipe insulating couplings or unions can be used.
Insulating flanges and joint assemblies should be installed above ground wherever
possible so they will remain dry and can be readily inspected. If it is necessary to
install them below grade, they must be either in a readily accessible, well-drained
dry box, or carefully encapsulated with an insulating coating and buried.
The insulating gasket, sleeves and washers should not be painted, since the paint
film might be of sufficiently low resistance to allow current across the insulating
flange. Similarly, dust and dirt settling between flange faces can affect the insu-
lating effectiveness. This can be prevented by wrapping insulating tape around the
flange circumferences to cover the gap between flange faces.
465 Cathodic Protection Test Stations and Line Bonding Connections
Electrical test leads are connected to the pipe at intervals between rectifier stations
or galvanic anodes, often as close as one mile apart, to determine the level of
cathodic protection by measuring pipe-to-soil potentials and flow of current in the
line, and to make other electrical measurements. Leads are also connected between
parallel or crossing pipelines to determine the potential between separate systems
or to bond the cathodic protection systems. The leads are usually brought up to a
test box that is mounted on a post. Test stations should be located so as to avoid
interference with land use and be reasonably accessible.
The physical connection of wires to the pipe is done with a thermite weld kit, such
as the CAD weld system. See the Corrosion Prevention Manual, Section 500.
470 References
1. Guidelines for the Seismic Design of Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems. Committee
on Gas and Liquid Fuel Lifelines. ASCE Technical Council on Lifeline Earth-
quake Engineering. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1984.
2. Kennedy, R.R. et al. Seismic Design of Oil Pipeline Systems, Journal of the
Technical Councils of ACSE, Vol. 105, No. TC-1. New York: American
Society of Civil Engineers, April, 1979.
3. J.N.H. Tiratsoo. Pipeline Pigging Technology. Houston: Gulf Publishing
Company, 1987.
Chevron Corporation 500-1 November 1988
500 SCADA Systems
Abstract
This section discusses Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems
(SCADA) and provides checklists of options to be considered when installing or
upgrading SCADA systems.
Contents Page
510 Overview 500-3
520 General Description 500-3
530 Master Station Functions 500-5
531 Basic SCADA Functions
532 Application Functions
540 Hardware 500-8
541 Master Station
542 RTUs and PLCs
543 Protocol
544 Field Instrumentation
550 Equipment Facilities 500-10
551 Master Station
552 RTUs and PLCs
560 Communications Requirements 500-10
570 Performance Criteria 500-11
571 Master Station Hardware and Software
572 Availability
573 Communications
574 RTUs and PLCs
580 Projects 500-13
581 Master Station
500 SCADA Systems Pipeline Manual
November 1988 500-2 Chevron Corporation
582 RTUs and PLCs
583 Communications
590 Maintenance and Online Operations 500-16
591 Maintenance
592 Online Operations
Pipeline Manual 500 SCADA Systems
Chevron Corporation 500-3 November 1988
510 Overview
"Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition" (SCADA) systems are real-time
computer systems used to monitor and control equipment or facilities located over
long distances. Real-time means that the information retrieved and presented for
monitoring and control is 5-60 seconds old. Devices that are controlled may be in
unmanned, isolated locations, hundreds of miles away from the operator or user of
the SCADA system.
While SCADA systems impact the measurement, dispatching, scheduling, and
accounting of our pipeline systems, this section does not specifically cover these
four areas. This section provides information for project, operations, and mainte-
nance personnel covering master station hardware and software, communications,
and field equipment.
For pipeline operations, a SCADA system enables one operator from one central
location to safely and efficiently move commodities through miles of pipelines.
SCADA systems are not unique to pipeline systems, but are also used for electric
power and water distribution systems. The SCADA system will assist maintenance
people in tracking, locating, and resolving problems in the pipeline systems. The
Company has operational SCADA systems in place for pipelines that transport
crude oil, petroleum products, CO
2
, natural gas, LPG, and phosphate slurry.
Figure 500-1 is an example of a simple pipeline system transporting crude oil from
a production platform to two terminals. Figure 500-2 illustrates how a SCADA
system could be incorporated to enable monitoring and control capabilities from a
central master station location. In this example, operators at the master station (24
hours a day, 7 days a week) monitor the various temperatures, pressures, flow rates,
tank levels, valve status, and pump status on the pipeline. The operators may also
start and stop pumps and open and close valves to safely transport the crude oil
from the platform to the two terminals.
520 General Description
A SCADA system has three primary components: master station hardware and soft-
ware, communications equipment, and remote terminal units (RTUs) or program-
mable logic controllers (PLCs). Refer to Figure 500-3 for a typical SCADA
system architecture.
Generally, the SCADA master station is centrally located in the operations area.
The master station hardware consists of computers, disk drives, magnetic tape
units, visual displays with keyboards for the operators or dispatchers and printers
for printing reports and logging alarms. The master station software consists of stan-
dard SCADA software to periodically scan values in the field, to execute operator-
initiated commands, and to alarm abnormal conditions. Other software at the
master station performs pipeline applications such as leak detection and batch
tracking.
The master station sends and receives data from the field via communication links.
These links may be radio, telephone, cable, microwave, or satellite.
500 SCADA Systems Pipeline Manual
November 1988 500-4 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 500-1 Pipeline System
Fig. 500-2 SCADA System
Pipeline Manual 500 SCADA Systems
Chevron Corporation 500-5 November 1988
At the other end of the communications link at the operating facility is either an
RTU or a PLC that monitors or controls equipment via field instrumentation.
Figure 500-3 shows examples of typical data monitored by SCADA systems and
typical supervisory control functions.
530 Master Station Functions
Pipeline SCADA systems provide a set of basic SCADA functions that are similar
in most SCADA systems and also provide application functions that are peculiar to
pipeline systems. These functions are implemented in various ways in different
systems.
531 Basic SCADA Functions
Following is a list of some basic SCADA functions:
Scanning data periodically or on demand from RTUs or PLCs
Dispatcher-initiated control of valves, pumps, and analog setpoints
Analog limit processing for high/low operating values and rate-of-change
alarms
Accumulator/meter processing
Maintaining communication error statistics
Tagging for points off-scan, alarm inhibited, or in alarm
Building a dynamic, chronological list of alarms and abnormal points
Permitting tabular and graphic displays both of which can be hardcopied
Annunciation of abnormal conditions to the dispatchers
Dispatcher acknowledgement of alarms
Logging of dispatcher events
Online data base and display editing capability
Report generating capability
Graphic trending
500 SCADA Systems Pipeline Manual
November 1988 500-6 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 500-3 Typical SCADA System
Pipeline Manual 500 SCADA Systems
Chevron Corporation 500-7 November 1988
532 Application Functions
Typical application functions for pipeline SCADA systems are leak detection, batch
tracking, and meter proving.
Computer-assisted leak detection may take several forms in SCADA systems for
individual pipeline systems:
net barrel line balance
pressure pack volume balance
pressure point monitoring
predictive pressure profiling
Leak detection limits are checked periodically for violations. The periods range
from each minute to daily, weekly, or monthly intervals. They are alarmed to the
dispatcher as required.
Batch tracking is used to monitor the progress of an interface between two different
segregations (crudes or products) as they progress through a pipeline. The
dispatcher is provided an estimated time of arrival for the batch interface at the pipe-
line terminal and a barrels-to-go value.
Meter proving software is provided at some master stations to calculate a meter
factor for a given meter for the operators use from data on successive meter
proving runs. (For details on programming API tables for 60F volume corrections,
refer to the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 11.1
Volume Correction Factors, Volume XBackground, Development and Program
Documentation.)
Record keeping and report generation are important functions of SCADA systems
both for operations and maintenance personnel and to comply with regulatory poli-
cies. Some typical reports are:
Hourly DOT report (pipeline pressures)
Inventory control reports
Daily RTU communications statistics report
For more details on specific functions and dispatcher capabilities, refer to the Point
Arguello SCADA System Functional Specification (PL-144) and the MODSCAN
Functional Specifications and Operator Procedures for the New Orleans Empire
Pipeline SCADA Project.
API Publication No. 1113 "Pipeline Supervisory Control Center Checklist" also
provides a list of functions to consider for SCADA master stations.
500 SCADA Systems Pipeline Manual
November 1988 500-8 Chevron Corporation
540 Hardware
541 Master Station
Figure 500-4 is a typical master station hardware configuration with the following
noteworthy features:
Redundant hardware with a prime online device and available backup unit
Multiple CRTs with dedicated keyboards (or one keyboard shared with
multiple CRTs) for operator interface via tabular and graphic displays
Dedicated CRT for alarm/events file
Hardcopy devices for alarm/events, reports, and copying displays
Graphic trending on any CRT
Multiple channels for RTU/PLC communications; RTUs and PLCs may be
party-lined on a single line
Magnetic tape units for archiving reports and logs
Master station computers with dial-up modems for off-hours access by hard-
ware and software maintenance personnel
Fig. 500-4 Typical Pipeline SCADA Master Station Hardware Configuration
Pipeline Manual 500 SCADA Systems
Chevron Corporation 500-9 November 1988
542 RTUs and PLCs
Remote hardware consists of RTUs or PLCs: RTUs are nonprogrammable or
"dumb"; PLCs are programmable (i.e., "intelligent").
RTUs are used in locations where we simply monitor data and respond to scan and
control requests from the master station.
PLCs are an option in locations where we want: PID (proportional integral deriva-
tive) control for control valves, to have safety shutdowns to protect equipment,
permissive control sequencing, or other operational functions supported, like meter
proving.
As pump stations are upgraded, it is common to install PLCs to replace existing
station relay logic safety systems and provide a local touch-screen CRT for local
operator interface for presenting data, alarms, and initiating controls.
543 Protocol
The master station and RTUs or PLCs communicate via some "protocol," which is
a predefined format for the hardware and software to communicate. Generally, each
SCADA system, RTU, and PLC has a standard protocol peculiar to that vendor. But
more often SCADA systems, RTUs and PLCs are adapted via programming to be
able to communicate in a standardized protocol for a particular SCADA system.
544 Field Instrumentation
Field instrumentation includes devices that present analog, digital, or accumulator
signals to the RTU or PLC or accept either analog or digital signals from the PLC.
Instruments that feed signals to the PLC include pressure, temperature, voltage,
current, and vibration transducers. SCADA can receive analog signals (4 to 20 mA,
for example,) that represent a percent of full scale measurement or on-off signals
(contacts) that may represent switch closures or an alarm condition.
The signals from SCADA include start/stop, open/close commands, and analog
signals that represent a set point or position.
Examples of field instruments are:
Pressure and temperature transducers
Tank level reading devices,
Flow and pressure controllers
Meters
Densitometers
Limit switches for valve status
Scraper detector switches
Low and high pressure switches
500 SCADA Systems Pipeline Manual
November 1988 500-10 Chevron Corporation
Each instrument has its own characteristics that must be selected to match the
expected operating situation and the RTU or PLC requirements.
Additional information is available from the following sources:
Electrical Manual
Instrumentation and Control Manual
API Recommended Practice 2350, Overfill Protection for Petroleum Storage
Tanks
550 Equipment Facilities
551 Master Station
Master station hardware is usually split between two rooms: a dispatch room and a
computer room. The dispatch room contains the operators consoles with CRTs
and keyboards, voice communications equipment, and some printers or loggers.
The computer room contains the remaining hardware of interest to maintenance
personnel.
Consideration should be given to the following items when setting up master station
facilities:
Raised floor with removable floor panels
Temperature and humidity control
Electric power conditioning or an uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
Emergency backup generator
Fire protection (usually with halon)
Nonglare, adjustable lighting
Security for restricted access
Telephone and radio facilities
552 RTUs and PLCs
PLCs and RTUs have less stringent environmental requirements than master
station hardware. PLCs are usually located inside control rooms at stations and
may require air conditioning and heating. RTUs may be mounted outside in appro-
priate cabinets for the environment.
560 Communications Requirements
The Communications Technology Department (CTD) of Chevron Information Tech-
nology Company (CITC) provides maintenance services for existing communi-
cations facilities and will provide new communications facilities to meet the
requirements of OPCOs.
Pipeline Manual 500 SCADA Systems
Chevron Corporation 500-11 November 1988
After identification of voice and data requirements for SCADA systems, CTD can
determine the appropriate type of equipment to use: microwave, radio, phone lines,
fiber optics, cable, or satellite.
The review of requirements for data circuits for SCADA systems should consider
the following items:
Number of points and RTUs/PLCs
System update times or scan rates
BAUD rates (transmission rates)
Channel loading levels
Expansion requirements
Reliability or percent availability
Redundancy
570 Performance Criteria
One reason for upgrading or replacing SCADA master stations is lack of space or
CPU power to handle operating requirements. Therefore, it is important to establish
and measure performance targets on SCADA systems to know the current state of
systems and be able to forecast their life expectancy.
571 Master Station Hardware and Software
The following are some considerations for master station hardware and software.
Sizing
Consider existing, known future requirements and spare space when sizing SCADA
systems. Parameters include the following:
Number of RTUs and PLCs
Number of telemetered points by type (analog, digital, accumulator)
Number of calculated points by type
Number of tabular and graphic displays
Number of communication channels
Number of CRTs and keyboards
Number of loggers
Trending data (duration and frequency of collection, number of points)
Number of calculations
Number of consoles
Number of pipelines
Number of sections per pipeline
Number of receipts per pipeline
Number of deliveries per pipeline
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November 1988 500-12 Chevron Corporation
Initially SCADA systems should have 50-100% spare CPU memory and disk space.
The number of communication channels, consoles, and loggers should be expand-
able. In general, one should know what the limits are of each parameter and what is
required to expand each parameter.
Performance
Performance testing should take place at the Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) before
shipment from the vendor facilities and during Field Acceptance Test (Field AT)
onsite before the system is operational. The Field AT is usually a subset of the tests
executed during the FAT. An Availability Test is also executed onsite starting when
the SCADA system is operational (see below). Performance testing may be
executed on the operational system as required to collect data. The term Site Accep-
tance Test (SAT) is used to refer to onsite testing of SCADA systems. Sometimes
this includes both the Field AT and Availability Testsometimes SAT only refer-
ences the Availability Test.
Performance should be executed under conditions similar to the ultimate load the
system is expected to handle. Spare memory and disk space for expansion should
be unallocated during testing. RTU simulators and modified scan rates may be used
to simulate loading conditions. Editors and trending should be active. Several
samples of measurements should be taken during performance testing to accumu-
late minimum, maximum, and average values. Testing should be performed with
backup devices offline to ensure that performance is not impacted.
Typical performance-time measurements include the following:
Display response
Alarm acknowledge
Control commands completion
Change of state or analog limit violation detection
Screen lock while hardcopying
Dispatcher data entry response
Failover
Other measurements to consider with respect to the computer system are:
CPU free time (should average 50% or more)
System input/output (I/O) measurements (For example, if maximum disk
accesses that a system should see are 30 accesses per second, then the perfor-
mance target should be 15 accesses per second.)
Channel loading and system update times
572 Availability
Availability is the percentage time that the SCADA system hardware and software
is fully operational.
Availability % = 100 (1 - (scheduled + unscheduled downtime)/total time)
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Chevron Corporation 500-13 November 1988
The target for the availability of a SCADA system should be 99.91%, which is less
than 1-1/2 minutes of downtime per day.
Another factor in availability is the number of unscheduled restarts. These may be
caused by both hardware and software failures, and in general, the target should be
no restarts. However, reasonableness will tell us that one unscheduled restart per
day is too many and one per month may be tolerable.
Master station hardware is configured with no single point of failure in mind. We
can lose one CPU and still be 100% operational.
An Availability Test is executed once a system is operational and lasts for 30 to 60
days during which time all scheduled and unscheduled downtime (and restarts) are
recorded. The agreed test procedures must address how software failures will be
handled and how failures of individual backup devices will be handled.
573 Communications
All SCADA systems should have a display or report that tracks RTU/PLC commu-
nications error statistics. Our target for communications availability should be
99.5%. However, this percent is usually a percent of successful scans of RTUs
versus total scans attemptednot a percent of time that communications are avail-
able.
The communications error statistics report should have the following features:
Errors in absolute values and percent
Manual resettable period as well as hourly, daily, and monthly statistics
RTU/PLC errors distinguishable from communication errors
Errors reportable on an RTU, PLC, port, communication type, and vendor basis
574 RTUs and PLCs
RTUs and PLCs should exceed the 99.91% availability expected from the master
station.
580 Projects
In addition to the following items, API Publication No. 1113, "Pipeline Supervisory
Control Center Checklist", provides a list of items to consider when developing or
modifying a pipeline control center.
581 Master Station
The following is a list of the various phases of a SCADA master station project
with items to keep in mind:
Estimating
500 SCADA Systems Pipeline Manual
November 1988 500-14 Chevron Corporation
Figure approximately $1MM for mid-size SCADA Appropriations
Request (A/R) to support up to 100 RTUs/PLCs.
Amount of operations input and field work is variable depending on
existing conditions.
Expect a minimum 12-month schedule from contract award to system
operational.
A/R Preparation and Approval
Policy 560 requires CITCs concurrence on hardware and software. Send
A/R direct to ETD (Monitoring and Control Systems Division, Technical
Services Department) for review and forwarding to CITC. Allow 2 to 3
weeks for this process.
If communications equipment is impacted, then CITC should get CTD to
concur as part of the above process (per Policy 564).
Functional Specification
See references from Section 530.
Operations Representative must be active in the review of the specification
document.
This is a specification of what the client wants.
The more thorough the understanding and involvement of Operations here,
the more likely the process will result in an end-product satisfying the
clients need.
Business and Legal Requirements
Whether the SCADA system is being provided by the vendor or by ETD, the
following points should be considered. This list is not all inclusive. For more
details, refer to the Point Arguello SCADA Contract PA 84057 and ETD Work
Order No. 9450 established for the New Orleans Empire Ostrica SCADA
Consolidation Project.
Well-defined progress and milestone payment stipulations
Clear guidelines for vendor-client communications
Deliverable items including software source code
Dates for customer inputs to the vendor/ETD for data base, display, and
report definitions (significant operations involvement is beneficial)
Mostly reporting and contents
System shipment
Changes in work and how to handle
Defaults, delays, and liabilities
Warranties
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Chevron Corporation 500-15 November 1988
Testing
Requirements for a FAT, Field AT, and SAT clearly scoped and performed;
test plans written by the SCADA vendor or ETD, but approved by the
responsible engineer before testing begins.
Optional baseline testing before FAT, a useful progress milestone
Installation and Commissioning
Coordination and planning required between RTU/PLC field personnel,
dispatching, communications, hardware, and software personnel
Point-to-point RTU/PLC commissioning needed to verify the data base
and displays
Documentation
Should be clearly scoped in functional specification
Should be part of acceptance criteria on final milestone
Training
Usually an operations responsibility with project personnel bringing one
Operations Representative up to speed on the system, who then trains the
Dispatchers
For the first few days that a SCADA system operational, project or opera-
tions personnel thoroughly knowledgeable in the operation of the SCADA
system hardware and software should physically sit with the dispatchers
24 hours a day to answer questions as they arise; this in addition to more
structured training.
Vendors
ETD is currently providing a MODSCAN SCADA system running on
DECs PDP family of 16-bit CPUs.
ETD has a project in progress to migrate MODSCANs functionality to
the 32-bit VAX environmentknown as the UNICORN system
Other vendors to consider for pipeline SCADA projects: Control Applica-
tions, Modular Data Systems, Valmet (Sentrol), and Texas Instruments
(Rexnord/Tano).
Selection Criteria
Field-proven hardware and software
Maintainability
Availability of hardware and software support personnel
Cost
Expandability
Meeting functional requirements
Off-the-shelf, standard hardware and software versus custom
Reliability
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November 1988 500-16 Chevron Corporation
582 RTUs and PLCs
PLC projects are similar to master station projects in that both hardware and soft-
ware are involved and require clear scoping so that the client understands what the
end product will be. PLC projects can range from $50M to $100M depending on
the scope.
Possible PLC vendors include Siemens, G.E., Allen-Bradely, Westinghouse,
Modicon, and Texas Instruments.
RTU projects are less complex than PLCs because any software work is usually
limited to protocol issues.
RTU vendors include Texas Instruments, Computer Products, Control Applications,
and Valmet (Sentrol).
The criteria for selecting PLCs and RTUs is essentially the same as listed above
for master station projects. In addition, operating areas should standardize on one
RTU vendor and one PLC vendor to minimize the technical expertise required with
various vendors and to reduce the spare parts inventory requirements.
583 Communications
Communications projects are handled by CTD. We identify our requirements as
discussed in Section 560, and CTD prepares the A/R and handles the project.
590 Maintenance and Online Operations
This section contains some ideas to keep in mind regarding the daily support for
SCADA systems.
591 Maintenance
Inventory requirements for hardware spares will be subject to your maintenance
philosophy: repair to board level or repair to component level or use hardware main-
tenance contract or operating personnel.
Whole unit spares may sometimes be assembled and used for hardware board
testing, software development, and/or operator training. Hardware maintenance
activities should be logged for tracking recurring problems with specific compo-
nents and for tracking general requirement for maintenance.
Two levels of SCADA software maintenance are required. The first level includes
making data base changes, making display changes, editing system parameters,
tuning leak detection limits, restarting the SCADA system, supporting the checkout
of RTUs and PLCs, and making backups of the software. The first level support
should be readily available on a daily basis.
The second level of software support is to understand the SCADA software design
to be able to make programming changes and correct software problems. The
second level of software support should be onsite through SAT and continue onsite
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Chevron Corporation 500-17 November 1988
as required until the software is stable enough not to require a daily presence.
SCADA software support (levels one and two) may be provided by Operations
personnel, ETD, or by a contractor.
The following items should be logged and documented from a maintenance view-
point:
Software problems
Software changes
Log of changes made to the online system
Technical notes for the programmer/engineer who is responsible for level one
and level two software maintenance support
Master station block diagrams
Communications configurations
592 Online Operations
The important item here is periodic client or user feedback to the project personnel
providing SCADA systems and to the maintenance people supporting SCADA
systems that the SCADA system is satisfying operations requirements.
Timely response from CTD is required when operations reports that communica-
tions failures exist. Restart and availability data should be reviewed periodically
and compared to targets. Communications availability data should be reviewed peri-
odically and compared to targets.
Alarm limits (especially leak detection) need to be reviewed periodically to ensure
they are set appropriately. False alarms due to field instrumentation errors or due to
lack of calibration need to be minimized to maintain dispatcher confidence in the
SCADA systems. Dispatcher notes need to be maintained to supplement project
delivered documentation whenever SCADA system changes are made impacting
the way dispatchers operate.
Chevron Corporation 600-1 November 1988
600 Construction
Abstract
This section discusses the methods and practices of pipeline construction on land. It
presents brief descriptions of pipelining activities from grading to cleanup. Within
these descriptions are recommendations, tips, and hints on ways to obtain a better
product. It covers safety and general installation considerations, welding practices,
treatment of coatings, crossings and appurtences, and guidelines on contract admin-
istration and construction planning and organization activities.
Contents Page
610 Safety 600-3
620 General Installation 600-4
621 Construction Reconnaissance
622 Front-End Operations
623 Clearing and Grading, Trench Excavation, and Padding
624 Pipe Stringing, Bending, Lineup, and Welding
625 Coating
626 Lowering-In, Backfilling, Grade Restoration, and Cleanup
627 Tie-Ins and Weld Repairs, Cathodic Protection Test Stations, Line Markers
628 Revegetation
629 Timing of Spread Operations
630 Welding 600-17
631 Regulations and Codes
632 Welding Procedure Qualifications
633 Welder Qualification
634 Weld Repairs
635 Arc Burns
636 Field Welding and Construction Conditions
640 Coatings and Linings 600-26
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-2 Chevron Corporation
650 Crossings 600-26
660 Appurtenances 600-28
670 Field Supervision Organization 600-29
680 Construction and Construction Service Contracts 600-30
681 Contracting Plan
682 Pipeline Construction Contracts
683 Contracts for Supplemental Personnel Services
690 References 600-32
Note Note on Regulations, Codes, and Construction Specifications
The Code of Federal Regulations Title 49, Parts 192 and 195, and ANSI/ASME
Codes B31.4 and B31.8 contain sections pertaining to pipeline construction
methods. State regulations may have further requirements. Many sections of these
codes give general guidelines with few specific requirements. The Company
construction specification should incorporate all relevant regulation and code
requirements as well as Company specifications for the particular pipeline project.
If field changes are made that deviate from or supplement provisions in the
construction specification, Company field personnel should refer to federal and
state regulations and the ANSI/ASME codes to ensure compliance.
Note Note on Terminology
The pipeline right-of-way on a property has a specified width within which the
Company has the right to construct and maintain one (or possibly more) pipelines
with appurtenances. Payments are made to landowners for this right, and to land-
owners or tenants for all damages resulting from construction or maintenance both
within and outside the defined width of a right-of-way.
Construction forces commonly use the term right-of-way to describe the full
construction working strip needed for construction of the line, very often a greater
width than the actual right-of-way. The contractor should not encroach on lands
outside the agreed working area.
A pipeline spread is a single complete construction operation engaged in installing
all or part of the line. Accordingly, a long line may be constructed by a single
spread if time allows, or by two or more spreads (by the same or different contrac-
tors) proceeding concurrently on separate sections of the system.
A pipe joint is a separate length of pipe, usually about 40 feet or 60 feet long, as
shipped from the mill, A double-joint is made by welding two joints together at a
field double-jointing yard before the pipe is strung along the pipeline route. A field
joint is a field-applied corrosion coating over the uncoated (cut-back) ends of plant-
coated pipe at the weld joining two pipe joints.
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Chevron Corporation 600-3 November 1988
610 Safety
Construction contracts, practices, and procedures must incorporate safety require-
ments to protect:
Company and contractor personnel and equipment
Pipeline facilities under construction
Facilities of the Company and others lying within and adjacent to the pipeline
right-of-way and construction working area
Landowners, tenants and property, livestock, and crops on lands the pipeline
crosses
The public, their property and lands
Specific construction operations and hazards that are likely to need particular atten-
tion are:
Excavation sloping and shoring
Blasting
Radiation sources (welding and radiography)
Grass and brush fires
Work over water
Crossing roads, pipelines, cables, overhead power, and telephone lines
Parallel existing pipelines
Testing and dewatering
Company and contractor operations must comply with federal, state and local regu-
lations. Construction and service contractor compliance with these regulations is
required by contract terms and conditions. It is a responsibility of the Company
field organization to monitor and ensure the contractors compliance, but it is impor-
tant that the proper contractual relationship be maintained in giving directives and
instructions to contractors.
Regulations and standards of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) apply to construction activities. If pipelines cross lands subject to the
Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) pipeline construction work
must comply with its regulations even though not a mining activity.
Pipeline construction work is generally classified as a peculiar risk under the law.
Industrial injuries can be severe and can expose the Company to significant
liability. Recent court decisions (Jimenez, 1986) have held that an owner may be
liable if a contractors employee is injured and the owner makes no effort to warn of
the risk involved.
Before construction activities begin the Company field construction organization
should develop and subsequently maintain:
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-4 Chevron Corporation
An accident-prevention program for the field organization, including appro-
priate safety and first-aid equipment, periodic safety meetings, and safety bulle-
tins
List of doctors and hospitals, with names, addresses, and telephone numbers to
be called in event of any injuryfor both Company and contractor personnel
Arrangements for ambulance services and helicopter or air transport as appro-
priate
Fire-fighting procedures, with list of contacts for local fire-fighting agencies
Contact and procedures with Underground Service Alert Center or equivalent
agency coordinating information on underground facilities
List of contacts for companies and agencies controlling facilities such as pipe-
lines, power and telephone lines, highways, railroads, irrigation systems, and
waterways
Procedures for dealing with damage to oil and gas pipelines and resulting spills
Procedures for preparation and distribution of accident and incident reports to
the Company and authorities including notification to Company management
in cases of serious incidents
Procedure for dealing with a bomb threat or similar event
Company and contractor communication systems are vital in emergency situations,
and field personnel should be fully informed regarding use of communication equip-
ment and facilities. Where construction is in the vicinity of an Operating Company
pipeline system, key construction personnel should have mobile radios with the
same frequency as the operating system dispatcher. Field personnel should have a
directory of personnel to be contacted for various types of emergencies.
Early consultation with an environmental/safety engineer of the local Operating
Company is recommended, with intermittent reviews during the construction period.
620 General Installation
This subsection briefly describes pipe laying operations. Other subsections provide
further information on safety, welding, coatings and linings, crossings, and appurte-
nances. Also see Section 580 of the Piping Manual for guidance in pipe storage and
handling.
Reference [1] provides an excellent description of pipeline history and construction
practices. It is especially well illustrated with color photographs. Reference [2] also
describes many features of pipeline construction.
Section 200 of this manual covers route selection, permit and right-of-way acquisi-
tion, environmental and technical investigations, and alignment surveys. Most of
these functions will have been completed prior to the start of pipeline construction,
although there will be continuing activity through the construction period by:
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Chevron Corporation 600-5 November 1988
Right-of-way and land agents in finalizing acquisition of permits and rights-of-
way, contacting landowners and authorities during construction (coordinating
with Company field personnel), settling construction damage payments with
landowners, and obtaining construction damage releases
Environmental survey teams investigating archeological sites or wildlife activi-
ties not evident during surveys made in advance of construction
Land survey crews staking the route alignment ahead of construction,
surveying minor route changes, and getting as-built data for record drawings
Before construction starts:
Route alignment surveying should be done so that flags, visible from one to the
next, identify the alignment
Location of existing parallel pipelines should be marked
The conditions of construction and restoration for each of the properties and
lands covered by rights-of-way and permits, and for the existing highway,
roads, pipelines, power and telephone lines, irrigation systems, and railroads,
should be listed in an organized, readily understood form for use by Company
and contractor construction personnel
Arrangements should be in hand for receiving, unloading, and temporary
storage of pipe, field coating materials, casing pipe (if cased crossings should
be required), valves and fittings, and other bulky items
621 Construction Reconnaissance
Company and contractor construction representatives should reconnoiter the pipe-
line route well ahead of construction. The purpose of the reconnaissance is to
discover construction difficulties that may be overcome by adequate advance plan-
ning and to locate sections of the route that may involve unusually high damages.
By anticipating these problems well ahead of construction, it will be possible to
work out the best plan for minimizing both damage and inconvenience to land
owners, as well as construction problems.
Occasionally, it may be desirable to relocate short sections of the pipeline.
Although this requires additional surveying and additional work on the part of the
right-of-way acquisition personnel, sufficient advantages may accrue to the
Company to make it worthwhile. Relocations of the line may be justified if the
Company benefits, either financially or by securing better workmanshipbut one
should take care to distinguish between relocations mutually beneficial to the
Company and the contractor and those requested by the contractor solely for his
convenience.
The Company construction representative can determine areas in which construc-
tion may prove difficult and, thus, where the contractors operations should be more
closely inspected.
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-6 Chevron Corporation
Land owners along the right-of-way must be contacted well ahead of construction
by a construction representative or right-of-way agent, or both. This contact serves
to keep the land owners informed of construction progress and to review special
construction conditions that may or may not show in the right-of-way agreements.
Obstacles such as buried lines, culverts, irrigation ditches, siphons and orchards
should be discussed with the landowners, locations established precisely, and
construction procedures discussed in order to minimize inconvenience. Agreements
with property owners regarding reasonable special conditions during construction
must be documented, distributed and updated for use by contractor and Company
field personnel to ensure that the owners special requirements are followed.
The Company construction representative should make preliminary contacts with
the various owners and authorities for existing facilities crossed by the line to estab-
lish procedures for notification and inspection of the crossed facility during
construction.
622 Front-End Operations
Front end activities include:
Contacts with landowners by a Company representative to advise them of
imminent construction activities, and by a contractor representative to arrange
for access where needed to cross a property to the right-of-way, and to discuss
feasible work methods, timing, etc., that minimize interference with farming
and livestock. "Before-construction" photographs should be taken of farmed
and developed lands, private access roads, etc., and clearly identified with date
and direction of view
Construction staking, usually at 200-foot intervals and offset from the pipe
center-line so that stakes are not likely to be disturbed by construction opera-
tions. The offset distance is influenced by the contractors work method and
equipment, and by the terrain, which determines clearing width. Construction
staking is preferably done by a survey contractor for the Company, but may
alternatively be done as a subcontract to the construction contract
Construction of temporary gates in existing fences across the construction
working strip so that construction equipment can move along the route.
Existing fences must be well braced where cut, and the temporary gates must
open easily and close securely
Staking of locations for extra-depth ditch, as required by right-of- way or
permit conditions, will be done in accordance with written directives from the
Company to the contractor; the directives will give the survey stationing for
each location. If this staking is done by the contractor, it should be monitored
by Company personnel to confirm that it is accurate and clearly identifiable.
(Extra-depth excavation determined by the terrain is the contractors responsi-
bility.)
Staking of locations for special excavation or backfill to provide for earthquake
or soil instability
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Chevron Corporation 600-7 November 1988
For hot lines, staking of extra-depth excavation or special backfill compaction
needed to restrain the line at sidebends and overbends
Staking of existing underground pipelines, cables, culverts, etc., where known
Marking of trees or other plants that must be preserved, and protecting them as
needed with temporary fencing
Staking of locations for pipe wall thickness changes, in accordance with
written directives from Company to contractor giving the survey stationing for
each location
Staking for valve and other appurtenance locations
623 Clearing and Grading, Trench Excavation, and Padding
Clearing and Grading
Clearing includes the removal of all brush, shrubs, trees, crops, and other obstacles.
In wooded areas bulldozers with timber blade attachments can clear brush and
small trees. Power saws are used on trees too large to be pushed over by bulldozers.
Salvage of merchantable timber is often required; specific arrangements must be
made and defined to the contractor for disposal of nonmerchantable timber, stumps,
brush, etc.
Clearing and grading of the construction working strip provides a relatively smooth
"roadway" for the construction equipment and vehicles involved in laying the line.
Grading is usually done by bulldozers, but it may be necessary to use rippers or
blasting to assist in removing boulders and rock. In level, lightly vegetated land, or
after initial bulldozer grading, motor graders can be used effectively. Care is taken
to prepare a path free of obstructions so that subsequent operations can move along
without interruptions. Graded materialsoil, rock, grass and light vegetationis
pushed to one side of the working strip. Topsoil should be segregated so far as prac-
tical, so that it is available for replacing on the surface after grade restoration in
order to promote revegetation. Normally clearing and grading will be several miles
head of the remainder of the spread, in order not to bottleneck subsequent opera-
tions.
Temporary bridges, flumes, or culverts are placed as needed so that equipment and
vehicles can cross irrigation and drainage ditches. In very steep terrain, detours
("shoo-flys") may be needed for construction vehicles, while equipment for
ditching and laying are assisted by bulldozers and winching.
If special measures are needed for erosion control during the construction period,
these will be installed by the clearing and grading crews.
Trench Excavation
Trench excavation ("ditching") includes all work to construct the trench for the
pipe. The most favorable ditching conditions are level terrain and rock-free dirt,
where one or more wheel trenching machines can move down the graded working
strip, excavating a neat, vertical-sided trench and giving a uniform spoil bank. In
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-8 Chevron Corporation
rough terrain or in areas having boulders and cobbles in the soil, excavation is done
by backhoes. At wet locations such as creekbeds, backhoes, draglines, or clam-
shells do the excavating.
In rocky terrain heavy-duty rippers mounted on bulldozers are often adequate to
loosen the rock for subsequent excavation by backhoes. When the rock cannot be
handled by rippers, wagon drills or drills suspended from sideboom tractors are
used to bore holes in the rock along the ditchline. The rock is then blasted, with the
broken rock removed from the ditch by backhoes. Blasting should be done before
the pipe is strung since flying rock will damage the pipe. If it becomes necessary to
shoot rock in cultivated areas or in the vicinity of pipe or surface structures, the
blast should be thoroughly matted to contain all fragments. Six-by-six timbers
lashed side by side with wire rope typically provide an adequate mat. Also, it may
be necessary to reduce the powder charge in order to blast safely. (Blasting must be
conducted by certified individuals.) Blasting alongside an existing buried pipeline
must be handled very cautiously to avoid damage. Normally delay-type blasting
caps should be used to stagger the individual detonations in any one charge, thereby
reducing the peak shock transmitted to the adjacent structure. The safe charge to
use is a function of the formation (granite, shale, lava, caliche), the depth of the
drill hole, and the proximity to existing structures; it must be determined locally by
experienced powder men. Test holes may be dug alongside an existing line in the
vicinity of blasting to determine if the pipe moves as a result of the shock.
Because a pipeline cannot follow the bottom of the ditch precisely, a little extra
depth should be allowed to ensure obtaining required cover. This extra depth can be
obtained at almost no extra expense during the initial ditching operation, but
reditching or, worse, lowering the line after it has been welded and lowered-in is a
very expensive and unsatisfactory alternative. The Company construction represen-
tative should make it clear to the contractor that such rework is at his cost.
Company personnel should avoid passing judgment on the depth of ditch, as this
may be interpreted by the contractor as relieving him of his responsibility to obtain
the required cover and may lead to poor workmanship or additional cost to the
Company. (Companys acceptance or rejection of depth of cover should be made as
the pipe is laid, before backfilling.)
At washes and gullies the trench must be cut well below the bottom of these depres-
sions, with gradual approaches on either side to avoid vertical bends in the pipe.
Frequently, loose soil will be bulldozed into a sharp wash during grading. "False
ditch" or ditch constructed in loose soil overlaying the natural bottom will be
eroded with the first rain and leave the pipe exposed or inadequately covered. The
depth of ditch must be measured from the original ground elevation.
Many right-of-way and permit agreements for cultivated or grazing land require
topsoil to be removed, preserved, and replaced on top of the backfill. Normally, this
requires ditching twice, removing the topsoil first and throwing it out farthest from
the ditch. The remainder of the ditch can be completed with the spoil bank adjacent
to the ditch. This will permit the backfilling operation to replace the spoil in the
proper sequence.
Pipeline Manual 600 Construction
Chevron Corporation 600-9 November 1988
Although there are exceptions, sometimes as a normal practice (many production
field lines), sometimes owing to special circumstances (unusual environmental
conditions) trench excavation generally precedes pipe stringing and welding. The
amount of open ditch ahead of the pipe laying should be limited as influenced by
local conditions. In terrain where the ditch will hold for several days, it may be
desirable to ditch several miles ahead. In terrain where the open ditch impedes
farming or irrigating operations, the ditch must be followed closely by the entire
spread in order to minimize damages. Entire crops may be lost if pipeline ditching
cuts off irrigation water for too long a period. In some types of soil, an open ditch
will not stand more than a few hours. This condition must be anticipated and the
spread must be closed up to follow immediately behind ditching.
Occasionally ditching progress will be slowed by difficult excavation, and the pipe
lineup crew will catch up to the excavation operations. A contractor will then want
pipe lineup and welding operations to overtake ditching because loss of laying
progress is costly. When this happens, it is necessary to bend the pipe by guess-
work, which frequently results in short cover or misplaced bends when the ditch is
finally completed. This practice should be stopped as soon as it is discovered. This
will give the contractor an economic incentive to improve ditching progress by
adding more equipment or working longer hours.
At locations or areas where there are existing crossing pipelines and cables, these
underground facilities should be located using line locators and exposed by hand,
then carefully excavated with mechanical equipment. Before uncovering the
existing facilities, the owner or authority should be notified so he can take whatever
action is considered appropriate. Sufficient depth of ditch should be excavated so
that a 12-inch minimum clearance will be obtained between the new line and the
crossed facility. Normally new lines pass below existing facilities.
Wherever men will be working in trenches over 5 feet deep, the trench sides must
be sloped or shored to conform with OSHA regulations. Similar requirements apply
in Canada. When soil conditions are unstable, or become unstable, as after rains or
because of heavy equipment working too close to the edge, excavations shallower
than 5 feet must be sloped or shored. Figures 600-1 and 600-2 (from the Company
Safety In Designs Manual) indicate recommendations on sloping for various soils.
Spoil banks should be kept at least 2 feet from the edge of any trench. See the
Company Safety in Designs Manual and OSHA Safe Work Practices 2226, Exca-
vating and Trenching Operations. (Company field personnel should be aware that at
least one court ruling determined that an engineering firm could be held liable for
injury and death of a contractors employee for failure to take appropriate action
after discovering that safe trenching methods were not being followed. In Canada
also, Company personnel can be held responsible.)
Padding
Where rock and rocky soils could damage the pipe coating during laying and
covering of the line, suitable bedding and backfill material must be provided. As
the first step in achieving rock-free material around the pipe, normally a minimum
of 6 inches of dirt or sand is brought in from another source and placed in the ditch
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-10 Chevron Corporation
bottom. Preferably, this padding material is preferably spread uniformly along the
trench, but it is often acceptable to place padding in about three-foot long piles at
15- to 20-foot intervals along the ditch. Alternatively, sandbags filled with dirt or
sand may be used to support the pipe off the ditch bottom, but care should be taken
that spacing is close enough so that bearing loads at the sandbags do not damage
the coating. Arrangements for acquiring and hauling padding dirt are normally the
contractors responsibility, but should be monitored by Company field personnel to
ensure the contractor is not getting material without proper arrangements.
Where there is extensive rock and a scarcity of bedding and backfill soil, costs to
obtain and haul suitable material will be great and other alternatives to protect the
coating such as a tough "rockshield" wrapping or a urethane foam should be consid-
ered. The rockshield should be perforated so that it does not shield the pipe from
cathodic protection current. The construction specification must be clear on the
shielding method to be used because of the cost significance in bidding and
construction.
624 Pipe Stringing, Bending, Lineup, and Welding
Stringing
This activity includes functions related to the unloading, stockpiling, loading out,
hauling, and stringing of pipe along the route. Pipe may be shipped by truck, rail, or
barge and unloaded and stockpiled at previously selected strategic points along the
line route. The pipe is loaded out from a stockpile onto stringing trucks and strung
along the line as construction progresses. Stringing must be conducted so as not to
damage the coating, dent pipe or scar bevels. Often stringing is done by a subcon-
tractor specializing in pipe hauling.
Fig. 600-1 Angle of Repose for Sloping of Excavations Fig. 600-2 Excavation Benching for Compact Soil
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Chevron Corporation 600-11 November 1988
Company field personnel should confirm that the stringing foreman has full infor-
mation on the locations along the line for changes in pipe wall thickness and
coating.
Prior to stringing, stockpiled pipe or pipe directly off-loaded from railcars or barges
should be visually inspected. Cracked coatings, pipe that is dented and damaged in
transit, and pipe with out-of-round ends normally should be repaired before being
strung. Any transit damage should be documented so that claims may be made
against the carrier and disputes with the construction contractor prevented. See
Section 740 for recommendations on stockyard inspection.
Field plants for yard coating, double-jointing pipe, or both may be established at
one or more stockpile sites. Special handling is required to avoid injury to the
coating and may involve padded trucks and unloading with special hooks. Because
of its increased length double-joint pipe may require special-steering pipe trailers
regulated by law.
Bending
Changes in direction and elevation of the ditch require bending of the pipe to fit the
contour. Side bends will be laid in a horizontal plane; over bends and sag bends in
the vertical; and combination bends in three dimensions. Normally bends can be
of sufficiently long radius so that they are bent in the field. Tight bends need to be
made in a shop equipped for induction-bending and then shipped to the field.
Sections 320 and 330 of this manual cover bending of line pipe.
Care must be taken during field bending to prevent wrinkling of the pipe wall, flat-
tening or buckling of the pipe, and damage to the coating. Bends should be checked
to see that they are within tolerances for ovality. This may be especially important
during the initial days of spread operation in the event that the pipe-bending
foreman is inexperienced or careless. Pipe bends that exceed tolerance for reduction
in diameter may obstruct the passage of scrapers during testing. Also, a flat spot in
the pipe is a point of weakness.
Small-diameter pipe, generally NPS 12 or less, can be bent satisfactorily using a
bending shoe attached at the bottom of the boom on a sideboom tractor. The angle
of bend is visually judged by the bending crew.
Bending of larger-diameter pipe is accomplished by horizontal or vertical bending
machines powered hydraulically or by cable systems. The angle of bend can be
closely controlled with the machine. Ditch angles are usually measured by the
bending crew with hand survey instruments in advance of the actual bending opera-
tion.
Each joint of pipe should be evenly strung end-to-end ahead of the lineup crew so
that the position of the bend in a particular joint of pipe will fit the ditch when that
joint is subsequently welded into the line.
Lineup and Initial Welding
The "pipe gang" performs the lineup of each pipe joint to the already-welded line,
the initial root-pass ("stringer bead") weld, and the next ("hot pass") weld. (A
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November 1988 600-12 Chevron Corporation
second "hot pass" weld is sometimes required by the welding procedure or to alle-
viate a cracking tendency.) This crew generally sets the pace for the spread and thus
is the "money-maker" for the contractor. Problems of quality workmanship and
productivity of this crew are critical and must be resolved quickly; speed is desir-
able, but it must not be achieved at the expense of good workmanship.
Equipment with the pipe gang includes two or three sideboom tractors, welding
machines (often the "stringer bead" machine is mounted on one of the sideboom
tractors), and usually a water-sprinkler truck to control dust as equipment and vehi-
cles move along the construction working strip.
Before lineup, the beveled ends of each joint are thoroughly cleaned with power
tools. The full length of the inside of the pipe is visually inspected for dirt and
debris. A swab should be pulled through each joint to remove any dirt and debris.
A sideboom tractor moves the pipe joint into position for alignment and supports
the pipe until the "stringer bead" is complete. The pipe is aligned with the aid of
lineup clamps. Internal clamps are normally used on lines NPS 10 and larger.
External clamps are usually used on smaller sizes. The now self-supporting pipe is
then lowered to timber skids along the side of the trench, and the "hot pass" is made
before the weld area cools. Clamps are then removed and the process is repeated for
a new pipe joint.
The longitudinal weld seams on adjoining joints of ERW or SAW pipe should be
offset from each other by at least 3 inches or 30 degrees, whichever is greater.
Seams are normally alternated at the ten oclock and two oclock positions.
At appropriate intervals along the continuously welded line, a weld is not made,
and an overlap of a few feet is left at the unwelded ends of the pipe. Later when the
line is lowered into the ditch, "tie-in" welds will be made to complete the line. This
allowance for tie-ins permits some expansion and contraction of the welded pipe
without upsetting the skids and some adjustment of the pipe to the ditch during
lowering-in that would not be possible if the pipe were welded in a continuous
string. Since tie-in welds are more expensive and require more time than a produc-
tion weld, there may be a tendency on the part of the contractor to neglect tie-ins
and to weld up long straight sections of pipe continuously. This practice should be
watched for by Company field personnel and corrected. The proper distance
between tie-ins depends on local conditions and should be determined on the job.
The ends of the pipe at tie-in gaps should be capped temporarily with tight-fitting
"night caps." This prevents foreign objects and animals from entering the pipe
between the time it is welded and the time when the tie-ins are made. Experience
has shown that open ends will cause trouble later in constructionsmall animals
may crawl in the pipe; pieces of wood, including skids, may be left in an open end
and welded in; and dirt, weld rod, odd pieces of clothing, and other foreign objects
are sometimes found. Contractors may wish to substitute burlap sacks tied over the
ends of the pipe or may insert a skid half way, leaving half the skid projecting.
Neither of these alternatives is satisfactory.
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Chevron Corporation 600-13 November 1988
Filler and Cap Welding
The "firing line" welders follow the pipe gang and complete the welding with filler
beads and a cap bead. One or more filler beads may be required, depending upon
the wall thickness and the particular welding method used. "Firing line" welders
usually work singly to complete one or more passes at a weld, and then leap-frog
ahead to the next series of welds needing filler and cap passes. "Firing line" welders
normally own and operate heavy-duty pickup trucks mounted with an engine-driven
welding generator and welding equipment.
Radiographic Inspection
After individual welds are completed and cooled, field radiographic inspection is
done, following the inspection specifications. One, or more often two radiographers
perform this work, using a radioactive source or a portable X-ray unit and a dark-
room mounted on a heavy-duty pickup truck. Review and interpretation of radio-
graphs of the days welding progress should be completed by the end of that same
day and be available to the Company welding inspector periodically during the day.
See Section 750 for guidelines on radiography.
When 100% radiography is required, one radiographic team and equipment set is
needed for production welding and a second for tie-ins and backup.
Weld Repairs
Welds requiring repairs, as determined by visual or radiographic inspection, must
be clearly marked and visibly flagged so that they are not coated over. Repair work
is usually done either by welders from the welding crew outside of regular working
hours or more often by the tie-in crew welders. Repaired welds should be radio-
graphed again.
625 Coating
Field Joints and Coating Repairs on Plant-Coated Pipe
Following radiographic acceptance of welds, a small crew puts on the specified
coating at field joints, makes repairs to obviously damaged plant-applied coating,
and inspects the coating with a holiday detector ("jeep"). The holiday detector must
be operated and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers directions for
the particular detector and coating. This work is done while the line is supported on
skids. Heat shrinkable sleeves ("shrink sleeves") are most frequently used at field
joints on extruded polyethylene, fusion-bonded epoxy, and coal-tar-enamel coated
lines, and are manually applied with hand-held torches for heating. On fusion-
bonded epoxy coated lines, an epoxy coating is sometimes specifiedeither
painted on or fusion-bonded with field induction-heating equipment. Hot-mix
Somastic field joints are used on Somastic-coated pipe. Whatever the field joint
method, thorough cleaning of bare steel and overlapped plant coating is required.
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November 1988 600-14 Chevron Corporation
Over-the-Ditch Coating On Bare Pipe
A large crew and specialized cleaning-priming-coating equipment is needed for this
operation. Lowering the pipe into the ditch proceeds immediately after wrapping. In
this operation one or more sideboom tractors with roller cradles lift the line up off
the skid supports, moving ahead along the line. An engine-driven cleaning and
priming machine, supported by a sideboom tractor, closely followed by an engine-
driven tape-wrapping or hot-asphalt or coal-tar coating machinealso sideboom
tractor supportedand finally one or more sideboom tractors supporting the line
with roller cradles to guide the pipe into position in the ditch, proceed steadily
ahead. The coated pipe is "jeeped" for holidays (defects) in the coating immediately
after coating, and repairs are made. For tape wrapping, the operation is stopped
when new rolls of tape are placed on the wrapping machine and then quickly
resumed. The Company no longer uses over-the-ditch asphalt or coal-tar coatings,
but has used them on lines in the past.
626 Lowering-In, Backfilling, Grade Restoration, and Cleanup
Lowering-in
The pipeline should be lowered into the trench closely after the field joints are
complete, using two or more sideboom tractors, by lifting and guiding the pipe into
the ditch with roller cradles. Final "jeeping" of the line is done as it is lowered in,
and any repairs to coating defects should be made immediately. As mentioned in
the preceding paragraph, for lines coated over the ditch lowering-in is done in
conjunction with the coating operation.
In rocky areas, care must be taken in lowering-in that the pipe coating is not
damaged by scraping against the sides of the trench.
Backfilling
Backfilling the line should follow closely behind lowering-in and be complete
within a few hundred feet of the lowering-in operation at the end of each day,
because thermal expansion and contraction of the exposed pipe may cause coating
damage where the pipe lies on hard, uneven trench bottom. Tie-in and weld repair
locations, cathodic protection test station locations, and block valve and scraper
trap sites are backfilled as those items of work are completed.
With rock-free soil, backfilling is effectively accomplished by angle bulldozers or
by special tractor-mounted backfiller attachments. Backfill soil should be placed so
it rolls down the sloping face of the backfill, and is not dropped directly onto the
pipe. Backfill material should be mounded up over the ditch to allow for settlement.
The amount of berm (crown or roach) required depends on size of the ditch and soil
conditions, and should be determined locally. If the right-of-way or permit agree-
ment requires that excavated top soil be placed as the top portion of backfill, back-
filling must be done accordingly.
Where rocky soil is not suitable for backfilling, suitable "shading" material should
be placed a minimum of 6 inches around and over the pipe. As with padding,
shading dirt or sand will need to be brought in from another source. Shading needs
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Chevron Corporation 600-15 November 1988
to be done with care so that rocks from the sides or edges of the trench do not
become loosened and fall onto the pipe. As with backfilling, sufficient shading
should be done on the same day as lowering-in to prevent damage to the coating by
thermal movements or by rocks falling from the sides of the ditch. Once the line is
satisfactorily shaded, backfilling with excavated rocky spoil can proceed, but the
next 12 inches of backfill should be graded so there is no rock over three inches in
diameter.
In rocky terrain, if no source of suitable padding and shading material is available
within reasonable distance, "rockshield" wrapping around the pipe to protect the
coating is suggested. Various types are available; the "rockshield" should be perfo-
rated or a mesh, so as not to shield cathodic protection currents from the pipe.
On steep slopes where backfill is likely to wash out in heavy rains, trench plugs
sandbag "breakers" or urethane-foam plugsshould be placed at intervals around
and over the pipe to fill the trench to control surface runoff and limit the length of
backfill that would be washed out by erosion.
Grade Restoration
Where side-hill cuts are made in grading the construction working strip, present
practice and permit conditions generally require that the original grade be restored.
Segregated topsoil should be spread over the final graded surface. Bulldozers are
used for this work, possibly with some backhoe assistance in steeper terrain. In
gently sloping country, motor graders may be adequate. Grade restoration generally
follows tie-ins and installation of cathodic protection test leads.
Grade restoration should also include measures for erosion control. Cross-drain
ditches should be located at intervals on slopes to direct water across the construc-
tion working strip and avoid channelling along the backfill berm. Other measures
include riprap at water-course banks and scattered straw or soil treatment to control
dust in wind-blown areas.
Cleanup
Cleanup of the construction working strip is very important for the Companys
public relations and should have close monitoring by Company field personnel.
Fences must be replaced and left in as good or better condition than before
construction
All debris including rock in cultivated and grazing areas, scattered during the
construction operation, must be removed
Irrigation ditches and drainage canals not temporarily flumed must be restored
as soon as possible to allow irrigation water and drainage to agricultural lands.
In restoring irrigation ditches, permanent repairs must ensure that ditch may be
placed in service without washing out
Extent and timing of cleanup work needed is determined by land use and type of
terrain. Cleanup operations are done concurrently with grade restoration.
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-16 Chevron Corporation
Trash and debris generated by construction activities should be picked up and prop-
erly disposed of daily by the crews responsible, e.g., weld rod stubs, coating
containers, used oil filters, and discarded parts after equipment maintenance.
Any construction activity done after the cleanup crew has left an area, such as late
installation of appurtenances or line repairs during testing, must include cleanup at
that area of work.
627 Tie-Ins and Weld Repairs, Cathodic Protection Test Stations, Line
Markers
Separate crews follow the main pipe laying activities. A tie-in crew handles pipe fit-
up, welding, and coating at line tie-ins and usually makes weld repairs and installs
coating field joints at the repaired welds. The crew equipment usually includes two
sideboom tractors and a bulldozer.
Short pieces of pipe cut off at the tie-ins should be clearly marked to identify pipe
grade and wall thickness. Pieces over six feet long should be moved ahead and
welded into the line to minimize wastage.
A two-man crew usually installs cathodic protection test stations, making CAD-
welded cable connections to the pipe and to crossed lines and running the cable
leads to a postmounted test box. Company field personnel should closely monitor
this work to ensure test stations are at reasonably accessible locations and proper
cable color coding is followed. Backfilling of the line at test stations is usually done
by the bulldozer working with the backfilling, tie-in, or grade restoration crews.
After backfilling and grade restoration, a small crew installs line location warning
markers and aerial markers. Aerial mile post markers are located at approximate
mile-post stations where they will not interfere with surface use of the land; line
stationing at these markers is normally determined with the completion alignment
survey.
628 Revegetation
Reseeding and fertilizing uncultivated land is becoming a common practice. It is
often a requirement of right-of-way and permit conditions, usually specifying a
particular seed mixture, or may be a prudent measure to control surface erosion of
the disturbed soil on the construction working strip. Timing of reseeding may be
influenced by seasonal conditions. This work is normally done by a specialist
subcontractor to the construction contractor, but may be contracted directly by the
Company. Responsibility for reseeding of areas where germination is unsuccessful
should be clearly defined in contract specifications.
In some cases, right-of-way and permit conditions may require more extensive
revegetation, such as replacing trees and ornamental plants. These cases need to be
handled as the particular situation demands.
Replanting of cultivated crops is left to the landowner or tenant. Damage payments
cover loss of crops and costs to replant and restore the land.
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Chevron Corporation 600-17 November 1988
629 Timing of Spread Operations
As a basic rule both Company and contractor benefit by keeping spread operations
closed up. This minimizes construction interference with landowners and the
public, because there is not an extended time between the initial clearing and
grading on a property and final cleanup; and it allows better supervision of spread
crews by both contractor and Company. It is particularly critical to keep the time
the ditch is openbetween ditching and backfillingshort.
The contractor, however, tends to keep clearing, grading, and ditching well ahead of
the pipe gang so that these operations will never slow down the high-cost crews that
do lineup, welding, and coating (if over-the-ditch). Also, because of cost, the
contractor is usually reluctant to bring earthmoving equipment and equipment oper-
ators onto the job to handle short-term difficult situations. Thus, clearing, grading,
and excavation are likely to get far ahead of pipe laying, and grade restoration and
cleanup to lag behind. The Company field representative must be alert to this trend
and enforce specification requirements keeping the spread within limits of time and
distance.
There will usually be sections of the route where grading and excavation are particu-
larly difficult, and highway, railroad or river crossings where work should or can be
done well in advance of pipelaying. These should be identified prior to construction
and a mutually agreed-upon schedule developed by Company and contractor for
work at such locations.
Construction scheduling and sequence of work along the line may be determined by
environmental conditions, such as fish and wildlife activities. These conditions
should be identified, preferably during project planning and before bidding on
construction, and certainly before the start of construction.
630 Welding
The most common method for welding pipelines in the field is the shielded metal
arc welding (SMAW) process, using cellulosic (EXX10) electrodes. The direction
of welding is normally downhill. Electrodes are selected to meet the mechanical
properties (tensile strength and toughness) of the pipe and for welding characteris-
tics needed to obtain sound welds.
Both welding procedures and welders are required to be qualified by the code
covering the pipeline system. The codes require direct Company involvement in the
qualifications of both procedures and welders. For welding procedures, this can be
accomplished by either actually witnessing all qualifications or providing Company-
qualified welding procedures. All welder qualifications should preferably be
witnessed by the Company. Records must be kept of each qualified welding proce-
dure being used and all welder qualification tests.
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November 1988 600-18 Chevron Corporation
631 Regulations and Codes
The national regulations and codes that have requirements concerning pipeline
welding are:
Both ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8 permit qualification of procedures and welders
to either API 1104 or ASME Section IX. Generally, API 1104 is the more appro-
priate code for pipeline welding and is the reference for discussion of welding
procedure and welder performance qualifications in the sections that follow.
API STD 1104 is included in this manual. See Section 860 of this manual regarding
maintenance welding.
632 Welding Procedure Qualifications
Welding procedures are composed of two parts: the procedure specification and the
procedure qualification. The procedure specification form is shown in Exhibit A of
API STD 1104 and the information to be filled in ranges from process to speed of
travel. These will be discussed individually later on. The procedure qualification
form shown in Exhibit B of API STD 1104 documents the mechanical properties
(such as strength, ductility, and hardness) of the welding procedure established in
the welding procedure specification. Mechanical properties are determined by
destructive testing of a test weld. After the welding procedure is qualified, changes
to the procedure specification may be made providing they are not changes to the
essential variables. Any changes to the essential variables require requalification
of the welding procedures and revision of the welding procedure specification. The
essential variables that have to be considered for the SMAW process are:
Yield strength range of the pipe group
Major change in joint design
Welding position
Wall thickness group
Filler metal group
Time lapse between root and hot pass
Direction of welding
Travel speed
There are additional essential variables for automatic welding, and API STD 1104
Section 9.0 should be consulted for these.
49 CFR 192 Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline
49 CFR 195 Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline
ANSI/ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols
ANSI/ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
API Standard 1104 Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities
API RP 1107 Recommended Pipe Line Maintenance Welding Practices
ASME Section IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications
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Chevron Corporation 600-19 November 1988
Welding Procedure Specification
The following is a discussion of the individual entries on the API STD 1104 proce-
dure specification form.
Process (Essential Variable). Each process is identified by name and as manual,
semiautomatic, or automatic. The most common process is shielded metal arc
welding (SMAW), which is a manual process. Other processes are also recognized
by API STD 1104. These are:
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW)
Submerged arc welding (SAW)
SAW is often used for double jointing of pipe where productivity gains can be
achieved through automation. The other welding processes (GMAW, GTAW, and
FCAW) can be used either semiautomatically or automatically depending upon the
application.
Material (Essential Variable). Pipe and fitting materials are identified as to specifi-
cation (e.g., API SPEC 5L and grade, or ASTM number). The materials are
grouped into three strength ranges based on specified minimum yield strength
(SMYS). These are:
SMYS of 42
1
ksi or less
SMYS of more than 42 ksi but less than 65
1
ksi
SMYS over 65 ksi (each grade requires separate qualification)
Generally, the Company does not have experience with line pipe grades above API
SPEC 5L X65, although X70 has been used by others.
Diameter and Wall Thickness (Essential Variables). The separate groups are:
Joint Design (Essential Variable). The most frequently used joint design is a V-
groove having the configuration shown in Figure 600-3. Offset (high-low) during
fitup should be restricted to 1/16 inch maximum. Offset greater than 1/16 inch
should be reduced by equally distributing it around the circumference of the pipe.
Filler Metal (Essential Variable) and Number of Beads. The American Welding
Society specification and electrode classification is listed. For SMAW, AWS
Specification A5.1 or A5.5 is used, depending upon the minimum tensile strength
of the electrodes. Note that minimum tensile strength (ksi) is indicated by the first
1. Qualification at the maximum strength qualifies all of the lower strength materials within the group.
Diameter Groups Thickness Groups
Under 2-3/8 in. Less than 3/16 in.
2-3/8 to 12-3/4 in. 3/16 to 3/4 in.
Over 12-3/4 in. Over 3/4 in.
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November 1988 600-20 Chevron Corporation
two digits of the electrode classification and is different from the pipe groupings
that are based on SMYS. Electrode sizes and minimum number of beads commonly
used are shown in the table and with the sketch on Page 2 of the procedure specifi-
cation. Company practice requires a minimum of three weld passes and limits
maximum electrode sizes as follows:
Electrodes furnished by Lincoln Electric Company are most commonly used. These
are listed in Figure 600-4 by trade name, AWS class and specification, group, and
typical API material grade application.
(1) For use on root and hot pass only on all grades.
Electrical Characteristics. The normal electrical characteristics for cellulosic elec-
trodes are direct current-reverse polarity (i.e. the electrode is positive). An excep-
tion to this is that straight polarity has been sometimes used for the root pass for
better penetration control. This practice is acceptable provided that it is included in
the procedure qualification. Voltage and amperage ranges for each electrode size
should be shown in the table of the procedure specification.
Position (Essential Variable). Roll welding and position welding are terms used to
describe whether the pipe is being rotated or is fixed during welding. Roll welding
Fig. 600-3 V-groove weld joint
Stringer Bead Hot Pass, Filler and Cap Passes
5/32 in. max. 3/16 in. max.
Fig. 600-4 Lincoln Electric Company Electrode Specifications
Trade Name AWS Class AWS Specification API Group API Material Grades
Fleetweld 5P E6010 A5.1 1 B, X42, X46
Fleetweld 5P + E6010 A5.1 1
(1)
Shield-Arc Hyp E7010-G A5.5 1 X42X66
Shield-Arc 85 E7010-A1 A5.5 1 X42X56
Shield-Arc 70 + E8010-G A5.5 2 X60, X65
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is done with the pipe rotated about a horizontal axis and the welding performed
near or at the top center for a flat position weld. Position welding can be done with
the pipe axis horizontal, vertical, or sloping. When the pipe axis is horizontal, the
position of the weld is vertical. If the pipe axis is to be other than horizontal, it
should be clearly described.
Direction of Welding (Essential Variable). The direction of welding for position
welding using cellulosic electrodes is normally downhill for pipeline welders.
Downhill welding is much quicker than uphill welding. The direction of welding
does not apply if the position of the weld is flat (roll welding) or horizontal (where
the pipe axis is vertical).
Number of Welders. For position welding, the number of welders varies with pipe
size. Generally, two welders can be used for pipe sizes over NPS 8 and three for
pipe sizes over about NPS 24. The use of more than one welder helps to balance
shrinkage stresses and increase productivity.
Time Lapse Between Passes (Essential Variable). For welding with cellulosic
electrodes, the time lapse between completing the stringer bead and starting the hot
pass is important to avoid cracking. Good practice is to start the hot pass within five
minutes of completing the stringer bead. Where the hot pass cannot be started
within five minutes, the stringer bead should be reheated to 100F minimum and
checked for cracking prior to welding. Weld joints that have not had the stringer
bead completed at the end of the day should be rejected.
Type of Lineup Clamp. This refers to the method of aligning the pipe and whether
internal or external lineup clamps are used. In rare cases, lineup clamps will not be
used and "none required" should be stated.
Removal of Lineup Clamp. The percent completion of the stringer bead required
before removal of the lineup clamp should be specified. For internal lineup clamps,
generally 100% of the stringer bead is completed before removal is permitted. For
external lineup clamps, API STD 1104 requires not less than 50% of the stringer
bead to be completed in equal segments around the circumference before removal is
permitted.
Cleaning. Standard pipeline procedure is to grind the root pass and power wire
brush all remaining passes.
Preheat and Stress Relief (Postweld Heat Treatment). Preheat requirements will
vary with pipe grade, carbon equivalent, and wall thickness. Preheat is generally not
required except for low initial pipe temperature, repair welds, and heavier wall
thicknesses. Both Codes B31.4 and B31.8 require preheat for carbon steel when the
carbon content exceeds 0.32% or the carbon equivalent (C +Mn/4) exceeds 0.65%
(this is a simplified carbon equivalent used only for determining the need to
preheat). These are extreme cases for most pipe materials and rarely will be cause
for preheat. For pipe temperatures below 40F, preheat of 100F minimum should
be used. A preheat of 200F minimum should be used for wall thicknesses of one
inch or greater and all weld repairs.
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Stress relief is normally not required for wall thicknesses of 1-1/4 inches and less.
(Code B31.4 permits up to 1-1/2 inches with 200F preheat over 1-1/4 inches.)
When stress relief is required, the temperature range and holding time should be
specified.
Shielding Gas and Flow Rate (Essential Variable). Applies only to the gas
shielded processes (i.e., GTAW, GMAW, and FCAW).
Shielding Flux (Essential Variable). Applies only to the granular flux used for
submerged arc welding.
Speed of Travel (Essential Variable). Travel speed should be specified as a range.
The following are typical ranges for vertical down welding with cellulosic elec-
trodes on larger pipe (e.g., over NPS 6 ).
Procedure Qualification Test Results
Procedure qualification test requirements are described in Section 2.6 of API STD
1104 for butt welds and Section 2.8 for fillet welds. Results are recorded on the
coupon test report form in Exhibit B of API STD 1104. This is a record of the
actual results for the tensile, bend, and nick break tests. Additional tests, such as
Charpy V-notch and hardness, are recorded on a separate sheet.
The testing laboratory performing the tests normally prepares this form or one
similar to it. For work performed by contractors, the Company can either require
them to qualify their welding procedures or permit them to use a Company-quali-
fied welding procedure.
633 Welder Qualification
Section 3 of API STD 1104 covers the requirements for the qualification of
welders. The stated purpose of the welder qualification test is to determine the
ability of a welder to make sound welds using previously qualified welding proce-
dures for butt welds or fillet welds. The Company requires welders to be qualified
in the presence of a Company representative.
Essential variables differ between procedure qualifications and welder qualifica-
tions. API STD 1104 has two different types of welder qualification tests and the
essential variables differ between them.
Weld Pass
Electrode
Diameter, in.
Travel Speed,
in./min
Stringer 5/32 9-15
Hot Pass 5/32 10-14
Filler 3/16 8-12
Cap 3/16 7-9
Pipeline Manual 600 Construction
Chevron Corporation 600-23 November 1988
Single Qualification Test
In the single qualification test the welder follows a specific procedure qualification
and is limited to the range of thickness and diameter specified in the welding proce-
dure. Other essential variables requiring welder requalification are changes in
process, direction of welding, electrode grouping (cellulosic to low hydrogen or
vice versa), position, and joint design (major). Welder qualification tests are gener-
ally performed for each specific pipeline project.
Multiple Qualification Test
The multiple qualification test is generally used for line maintenance welding. The
test is used for both Company and contract welders because of the breadth of quali-
fication. A welder passing this test on NPS 12 pipe (1/4-inch minimum wall) is
qualified to weld in all positions, on all wall thicknesses, joint designs, fittings, and
on all pipe diameters. The test involves welding two separate pipe assemblies. The
first assembly is a butt weld in fixed position (horizontal or 45-degree inclined).
The second is a full-size branch pipe connection with the pipe horizontal and the
branch vertical. The test requires that the welder must lay out, cut, fit, and weld the
branch connection. The only essential variables requiring requalification are
changes in process, direction of welding, or electrode grouping (cellulosic to low
hydrogen or vice versa).
Destructive testing results from welder qualification tests are recorded on the
coupon test report in Exhibit B of API STD 1104. In order for a welder to maintain
his qualification, he must have been engaged in a given process of welding during
any six-month period. In addition, Code B31.8 requires requalification at least once
each year.
Welders are required to identify their work and should be given a unique identifica-
tion number for that purpose.
634 Weld Repairs
Section 7 of API STD 1104 requires that special treatment be given to weld repairs.
Repairs to cracks in welds and previous weld repairs require qualification of a
special repair procedure and the Company generally prohibits these repairs. Single
repairs to any given area of a weld are usually permitted provided the defect is not a
crack and a preheat of 200F minimum is used.
635 Arc Burns
Arc burns can happen during welding when poor contact between the ground lead
of the welding machine and the pipe causes arcing. Arc burns are considered stress
concentrations and are to be prevented or eliminated. Arc burns are treated seri-
ously because of the area of high hardness caused by the arcing and the risk of
leaving an imbeded crack or sharp discontinuity surrounded by a zone of high hard-
ness. Arc burns can be prevented by proper attention to grounds (design, mainte-
nance, and application). Arc burns should be removed by cutting out and replacing
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-24 Chevron Corporation
a cylinder of pipe at least 12 inches in length or 1.5-times pipe diameter for sizes up
through NPS 24, and equal to pipe diameter for larger sizes.
Code B31.4 Section 434.8.7 provides an alternate method for removal of arc burns
by grinding providing the minimum wall thickness is not violated. Complete
removal of arc burns is determined by progressively grinding and etching with a
20% solution of ammonium persulfate to check for the elimination of the hard heat-
affected zone. Any remaining hard zone will etch as a dark spot, and grinding is
progressively performed until the dark spot no longer appears after etching.
636 Field Welding and Construction Conditions
Weld Bevels
Weld bevels should be checked for compliance with the joint detail shown in the
welding procedure. Quality pipeline welding starts with properly prepared bevels.
The bevels should be buffed or wire brushed prior to welding. The bevels should be
checked for laminations, splits, or other defects such as handling damage and
burning serrations. Defects should be repaired or removed. Removal will generally
require rebeveling of the pipe.
Weld Joint Fit-Up
In addition to properly prepared bevels, quality pipeline welding also requires good
fit-up. Offset (high-low) should be restricted to 1/16 inch maximum. Where greater
offset is found, it should be reduced by equally distributing it around the circumfer-
ence of the pipe. When the pipe being joined is of different internal diameters
(different wall thicknesses), the inside wall of the thicker pipe should be smoothly
tapered (3:1 minimum) to the inside diameter of the thinner wall pipe. If different
grades of pipe are being joined with different inside diameters, then:
1. The thicker wall pipe can be tapered if it is the same or higher grade
2. The thicker walled pipe should not be tapered if it is the lower grade. A transi-
tion spool should be used which is at least 1-1/2 pipe diameters in length
(12 inches minimum), equal in wall thickness to the thicker wall pipe and
equal in grade to the higher grade pipe. The spool should be internally tapered
at one end to match the wall thickness of the thinner wall pipe. See Section 360
for a more complete discussion of wall thickness transition spools.
Weather Conditions
Weather conditions can adversely affect weld quality during construction and provi-
sion must be made for protection against wind, dust, cold, and rain. In warm, sunny
weather with wind speeds below 10 mph, no protection is generally needed during
welding. As wind speed increases and weather conditions change, protection
requirements can vary from simple wind breaks around the weld joint to full enclo-
sures for rainy or extremely cold conditions. For temperatures below 40F, the
Company requires preheating of the weld joint to 100F minimum. Completion of
the hot pass within 5 minutes of the stringer pass is required in all cases.
Pipeline Manual 600 Construction
Chevron Corporation 600-25 November 1988
The best index of the adequacy of weather protection being provided is the
frequency of weld repairs due to excess porosity and any occurrence of cracking.
Either of these should initiate a Company response to check on the weather protec-
tion being provided. Wind and dust above 10 mph should be shielded from the weld
area during welding. Rain should not be permitted to fall on the weld joint until it
has naturally cooled to ambient temperature. Maintaining heat during welding is
one of the most important cracking avoidance measures, particularly at low ambient
temperatures. The method of preheat and weather protection should work together
to keep the weld clean, dry, and out of the wind during welding.
Welding
Access for welding is important for proper electrode angles and visibility of the
weld puddle. API STD 1104 requires 16 inches minimum working clearance
around pipe when it is welded above ground. Working clearance for welding in the
bell hole is not specified by API STD 1104, but 16 inches is still a good rule-of-
thumb to be used.
The starting and stopping locations in the weld are a source of defects in all passes
from the root through the cap pass, and API STD 1104 requires that no two beads
be started at the same location. This is generally not a problem on 100% X-ray
work as welders are sensitive to increasing their risk of repair from stacking up
start-stop locations on successive beads.
API STD 1104 requires pipe welds to be substantially uniform in cross-section
around the entire circumference. No point of the crown (cover pass) is permitted to
be below the outside surface of the pipe nor raised above the parent metal by more
than 1/16 inch. The face of the completed weld should be approximately 1/8 inch
wider than the width of the original groove.
Electrodes. The storage and handling of cellulosic electrodes is not difficult if
reasonable precautions are taken. The greatest damage that can occur results from
handling, and electrodes showing cracking or spauling of the coating should be
scrapped. The moisture level for cellulosic electrodes is normally quite high (3-5%)
and atmospheric exposure is generally not a problem unless they are mistreated,
i.e., allowed to become wet, contaminated (with dirt, grease, etc.), or dried out. In
these cases, electrodes should be scrapped.
Identification. The identification of the welders for each weld is important quality
control information and should be shown on or adjacent to each weld. Identification
should be semipermanent (paint stick or equal) and should identify all welders.
Stamping should not be permitted. Stringer bead welder identification should be
discernable from the other welders. The identification of the welders for each weld
should be picked up by the radiography crew and transferred to the record sheets
for the radiographs. Quality control is discussed in Section 700, but early identifica-
tion of substandard welders is important for corrective action. See also Model Spec-
ification PPL-MS-1564.
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-26 Chevron Corporation
640 Coatings and Linings
Pipeline coatings and linings are covered elsewhere in this manual, as follows:
Section 340, External Pipeline Coatings Provides a brief overview of the
recommended types of corrosion prevention coatings for buried pipelines.
Section 350, Internal Coatings and Linings Briefly outlines the internal pipe-
line coatings section of the Coatings Manual. See Section 400 of the Coatings
Manual.
Section 750, Pipeline Coating Inspection Provides a detailed account of
inspection requirements for internal and external coatings, including transporta-
tion, storage, and handling of the coated pipe, plant and field inspection, speci-
fications surface preparation, application, post-coating inspection for field-
applied coatings, etc.
650 Crossings
Section 440 of this manual describes design considerations for river and stream
crossing, highway and railroad crossings, and crossing of other pipelines, and
includes construction method alternatives for these crossings. Construction specifi-
cations should define crossing details meeting design requirements and permit
conditions required by the owner or authority responsible for the facility crossed.
Company field personnel must contact field representatives of these owners or
authorities to inform them and clarify details of permit conditions.
River and Stream Crossings
The horizontal, directionally-controlled drilling method is the preferred installation
technique for major river and canal crossings. The line pipe is pulled through a
drilled hole below the river bottom, avoiding a usually difficult and lengthy excava-
tion in the river and resulting downstream siltation, as well as the risk of damage to
the coating during and after installation. This work is done by a specialist
contractor such as Inarc Drilling, Inc., Tulsa OK; Land and Marine, Houston TX;
Cherrington, Sacramento CA; Horizontal Drilling International, Rungis, France.
At smaller stream and water course crossings, a trench is excavated by backhoe or
dragline, and the line carried by sideboom tractors or pulled into place. Precautions
to be taken to assure a satisfactory installation are:
Check excavation depths just before line installation
Protect coating from damage by concrete coating, "rock-shield," or 2 x 4
timbers strapped around the pipe
When pulling, avoid or minimize interruptions to reduce risk of the line getting
stuck
Measure top-of-pipe depth after installation to determine that it is at design
depth below stream bottom and bank scour zone
Pipeline Manual 600 Construction
Chevron Corporation 600-27 November 1988
Banks of streams and dry washes should be excavated so that the pipe can be
"roped-in" without field bends at the banks. Heavy runoff from spring thaws or rain-
storms can cause severe flooding and stream courses may change drastically.
Corrective work to lower the line in such a situation is at best difficult, but is more
easily done if the line was originally installed without sags or overbends at the
banks. Where there is evidence of recent meandering of a stream in flat bottom
land, it may be advisable to excavate sufficient depth across the entire bottom land
to maintain the pipeline below the natural channel bed elevation.
Crossings of seasonally dry river and stream beds should be scheduled to take
advantage of dry working conditions, even if it means using a separate crew or
contractor out of sequence with other work. Similarly, for wet crossings, it may be
economic to schedule crossing work during low water flow. Winter crossings may
be made using snow bridges for streams (with care taken not to place debris into the
water course) or with ice bridges on larger rivers and lakes.
Crossing designs should specify required line weighting to assure stability when
submerged, as well as pipe wall thickness and coating. See the discussion on cross-
ings in Section 440. Whether or not weighting is needed, it is advisable to fill the
line with water after installation to its proper depth. Weighting may be required
across flood plains adjacent to a river, as well as at the actual crossing.
Company field personnel should examine and evaluate actual conditions at cross-
ings well in advance of construction. Construction problems can be anticipated and
any significant discrepancies or oversights in designs can be identified.
Occasionally, where horizontal drilling or trenching is not feasible because of rock,
cliffs, or environmental restrictions, the pipeline can be installed on a bridge. The
bridge may be constructed solely for the pipeline or an existing structure may be
used if permission can be obtained. Pipeline bridges are generally suspension types
with horizontal cables to limit pipe sway. At long crossings with relatively small
diameter pipe, wind induced vibration may become a problem and additional
measures may be needed. At short crossings an arched configuration of the pipe
itself may be possible and economic.
Highway, Road, and Railroad Crossings
Though often not feasible, open trench excavation is the lowest-cost method of
making these crossing and should be considered wherever traffic control or routing
make it possible.
As discussed in Section 440 of this manual, it is highly preferable to install the line
pipe at these crossings without casing. Where open trenching is not possible, the
line pipe (or casing) is installed by the bore-and-jack method. This uses a rotating
auger to excavate a hole, while simultaneously jacking a section of pipe (or casing)
behind the auger tip. The boring equipment, for powering the auger and hydrauli-
cally jacking the pipe (or casing), is set in an excavated pit on one side of the
crossing. This equipment will limit the length of the separate sections of pipe (or
casing) that are jacked into the crossing before another section is welded to the
crossing string.
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-28 Chevron Corporation
Problems that may be encountered in this method are:
Misalignment, vertically or horizontally, of the boring
Rock or other hard material stopping or deflecting the boring auger
Sand or similar cohensionless soil collapsing ahead of the boring auger,
resulting in a cavity over the jacked line (or casing)
For cased crossings, installation of casing insulators and end seals should be done
in accordance with the suppliers instructions and carefully inspected. Vents on the
casing may or may not be required by the operating company or the highway or rail-
road authority; vent connections should be welded before the line pipe is installed
so there is no chance of damaging the pipe coating by the welding.
Pipeline and Cable Crossings
All phases of construction activityin particular, trenching, pipe installation, and
backfillingshould be conducted so as to minimize risk of damage to the crossed
facilities. Damage may also be caused by heavy construction equipment crossing
over a shallow buried facility; additional temporary dirt covering or matting may be
needed.
Critical lines carrying hazardous contents or for which interruption of service may
have significant consequences should have contingency plans for notifications and
action in the event damage should occur or be suspected.
Overhead Power and Telephone Line Crossings
Where overhead clearance is restricted, warning signs and other precautions should
be taken to avoid damage to the facility or contact with high-voltage electrical
power lines. The National Electric Code and government regulations dictate
minimum clearances to power lines. Most cranes and boom-type equipment should
have electric arc prevention clearance charts posted in the operators cab.
Blasting done near overhead lines should be matted so that flying rock fragments
do not nick or break overhead cables.
660 Appurtenances
Section 450 of this manual describes line valve manifolds, scraper trap manifolds,
line pressure control and relief, "slug catchers," vents, drains, and line markers.
Section 360 describes piping components that go into piping for appurtenances.
Construction specifications should define details for those appurtenances. Shop
fabrication of piping assemblies with appropriate shop inspection, is recommended
for economy and better quality control; subassemblies may be necessary because of
size restriction. If field welding is required other than buttwelding for which pipe
line welders have been qualified, a suitable field welding procedure must be devel-
oped and welders qualified for piping fabrication welding.
Pipeline Manual 600 Construction
Chevron Corporation 600-29 November 1988
Installation of appurtenances often proceeds concurrently with pipe laying, but at
locations distant from laying. Company field inspection coverage will need to
include both areas.
670 Field Supervision Organization
Company field supervision of pipeline construction is vital for a successful project:
To assure compliance with conditions of rights-of-way and permits
To establish and maintain relationships with landowners, tenants, and govern-
mental agencies that promote good public relations for the Company
To administer construction contracts
To enforce the technical provisions of the construction specifications, both
specific and implied as good practice
To coordinate with the project design team
To obtain and produce records required by regulations and codes and needed
for operation and maintenance of the pipeline system
To coordinate with operating organization personnel involved in the project
In addition to field engineering and inspection, the Company construction organiza-
tion is usually responsible for material control, field cost accounting, and progress
reporting, and coordinates with Company land representatives responsible for acqui-
sition of land, rights-of-way and permits, and settlements of construction damage
claims. Where the pipeline is a portion of a major project, some of these support
functions may be handled by the overall project staff.
The scope of the pipeline project naturally determines the size and make-up of the
field supervision office. For larger projects a construction manager will be respon-
sible for a construction office staff covering all field support functions and field
engineers and inspectors. A typical organization chart is indicated on Figure 600-5
(see following page). Construction supervision for smaller projects will be headed
by a spread engineer reporting to a project manager in the home office. Operating
Companies usually handle production field gathering and flow lines, or short trans-
mission pipelines within the existing framework of the organization.
The field inspection organization is discussed in Section 790 of this manual.
A Company land department usually has the responsibility for acquisition of rights-
of-way, permits, and settlement of construction damage claims, and will handle any
contracting for needed services.
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-30 Chevron Corporation
680 Construction and Construction Service Contracts
681 Contracting Plan
The Project Contracting Plan summarizes intended contracts and timing. Dependent
on project scope and circumstances, construction and construction service contracts
will cover:
Construction of the facilities, usually separately for the pipeline and for
stations and terminals. For stations and terminals different phases may be
contracted separatelysite preparation, civil, mechanical, electrical, instrumen-
tation, tanks, buildings, etc.
Construction support servicesradiographic inspection and nondestructive
testing (NDT), alignment and property surveys, third-party inspection when
required by permit conditions for certifying the facilities, catering and camp
maintenance services (in remote areas), security, medical, airplane, and heli-
copter, communications, etc.
Supplemental personnel working under Company direction when Company
does not have needed staff available
Temporary facilities and utilities for field offices, storage sites, vehicles,
camps, etc.
Contracting guidelines and policies are included in the Chevron Construction and
Services Contract Manual. The Contracts staff of the Engineering Technology
Fig. 600-5 Typical Company Organization for a Major Pipeline Project
Pipeline Manual 600 Construction
Chevron Corporation 600-31 November 1988
Department can be consulted regarding types of contracts, contract forms, compen-
sation items, and contractor performance.
682 Pipeline Construction Contracts
We recommend that all contracts be either lump-sum contracts with unit price
adjustments or unit price contracts based on a described scope of work. The general
scope of work can usually be well defined when bids are invited, but several item
quantities may not be exactly known until time of construction, with resulting
increase or decrease in compensation. For example: length of line, cased and
uncased crossings for highways and railroads, block valve installations, average
length of pipe joints (determining the number of welds and field joints), extra cover
requirements required by right-of-way, and permit conditions, etc. Where rock or
other difficult working conditions are anticipated but where the extent can not be
readily determined ahead of construction, incremental unit prices for such work
should be included in the schedule of payments, rather than trying to cover the
unknown extent in the bidders contingency.
Major river or other watercrossings may be included in the overall construction
contract, separately priced in the schedule of payments, or separately bid and
contracted directly with a contractor specializing in such work. It may be advanta-
geous for the Company to work directly with the specialty contractor.
The contract schedule of compensation should include schedules of labor craft rates
and equipment rental rates for extra work requested by the Company not covered by
unit price adjustments, or for standby in the event of delay for which the Company
is contractually responsible.
Contracts should also require the contractor to produce proof of sufficient property
damage and vehicle accident insurance, and workers compensation insurance. In
some cases, it is wise to have the Contractor post a performance bond, although the
bidder selection process should have rejected underqualified bidders.
683 Contracts for Supplemental Personnel Services
Contracting for inspection personnel is a common practice when qualified
Company personnel are not available to cover inspection duties. Contracts are
usually on a reimbursible basis. Successful contracts have provided compensation
based on all-in hourly rates incorporating overtime premiums and daily travel-time
allowance, a per diem living allowance, and a one-time mobilization charge. This
allows objective evaluation of competitive bids and greatly simplifies contract
administration and accounting.
Chevron Pipe Line Company and the Engineering Technology Department can
offer guidance on reputable inspection service firms that have performed satisfacto-
rily on projects. Contracting for other field staff personnel can be handled similarly.
600 Construction Pipeline Manual
November 1988 600-32 Chevron Corporation
690 References
1. Hosmanek, Max. Pipeline Construction. Austin, Texas; Petroleum Extension
Service, Division of Continuing Education, the University of Texas. 1984.
2. Schurr, B. Manual of Practical Pipeline Construction. Houston: Gulf
Publishing Company, 1982.
Chevron Corporation 700-1 November 1994
700 Inspection and Testing
Abstract
This section discusses the nondestructive inspection methods used for line pipe,
from mill purchase to installation in the ground. It provides guidance on the
purpose, the suitability, and the application of mill surveillance and field inspection
(pipeyard). The makeup and duties of inspection and/or monitoring crews are
detailed. Pipeline welding inspection and pipeline coatings inspection are covered.
This section also covers the construction activities of hydrotesting, dewatering and
drying, and the organization of large and small field inspection activities.
For inservice inspection of pipe wall thickness conditions using electronic inspec-
tion pigs, see Sections 453 and 831.
Contents Page
710 Inspectors and Inspection Methods 700-3
711 Types of Inspectors
712 Inspection Methods
713 Acceptance Criteria
720 Mill Surveillance 700-16
721 Recommendations for Use of Mill Surveillance
722 Mill Surveillance Teams
723 Mill Inspector Duties
724 Qualifications of Mill Inspectors
730 Post-Mill Inspection 700-22
731 Types of Field Inspection Services for Line Pipe
732 Qualification of Inspectors and Inspection Companies for Line Pipe
733 Recommendations for Pipe Inspection
740 Pipeline Welding Inspection 700-27
741 Duties and Qualifications of Welding Inspectors
742 Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-2 Chevron Corporation
743 Documentation and Quality Control
744 Visual Examination
745 Radiography of Field Welds
750 Pipeline Coating Inspection 700-36
751 Inspection Methods for External Coating
752 Plant Inspection of Internal FBE Coatings
753 Plant Inspection of Internal Cement Linings
754 Field Inspection Methods for External Coatings
755 Field Inspection of FBE Coated Field Joints
756 Field Inspection of Heat Shrink Sleeves
757 Protection of Coating During Laying
760 Completion Testing 700-43
761 Completion Scraper Run
762 Completion Hydrotesting
763 Test Procedure and Program
764 Line Rupture and Leakage
770 Dewatering and Drying 700-61
771 Dewatering
772 Drying and Dehydrating
773 Gelled-Fluid Pigs
780 Typical Field Inspection Organization 700-63
781 Objectives
782 Selection of Field Inspection Personnel
783 Inspection Functions and Staffing
784 Inspection Reports
790 References 700-67
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-3 November 1994
710 Inspectors and Inspection Methods
711 Types of Inspectors
Inspection of line pipe materials (Sections 720-723), pipeline welding (Sections
740-745) and installing (laying), and line pipe coating (Sections 750-757) involves
many inspection methods, and several types of inspectors with different expertise. It
is done at various stages of the project from production of pipe in the mill to laying
of pipe in the ditch. Figure 700-1 shows a schematic of the various inspection sites.
The various inspectors and inspection agencies fall into several groupings:
Company Inspectors. Company inspectors, including CRTCs Quality Assur-
ance Team Engineers may be used to oversee supplier or contracted inspectors
or actually inspect pipe, and may be involved throughout the project, from
production of the pipe to welding and pipe laying.
Supplier Inspectors. Employed by the supplier or manufacturer, supplier
inspectors are the line pipe mill, coating company, or welding contractors
inspectors.
Service Company Inspectors. These individuals and/or service companies
usually have special inspection equipment. They are contracted by CRTCs
Quality Assurance Team or the project staff to perform specific tasks such as
inspection of butt welds, ultrasonic inspection on the line pipe weld seam, and
thickness measurements on coatings.
Third-Party Inspectors (Monitors). Contracted by Chevron (not contractors
or suppliers), third-party inspectors independently monitor the inspection work
of others. Third-party inspectors perform mill surveillance by monitoring the
mill inspectors and/or inspecting the final product. In the field they monitor the
field inspection. In the coating plant they verify coating integrity.
712 Inspection Methods
This section presents a general overview of inspection procedures and techniques
that are used for inspection of line pipe and field welds. Specific procedures for
inspection and the criteria for acceptance are discussed in Section 730, 750, and
770.
Consult the latest editions of the following sources for more details:
Company Welding Manual
API RP 5L8, Recommended Practice for Field Inspection of New Line Pipe
Metals Handbook, Vol. 17, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control,
ASM International
Nondestructive Testing Handbook, American Society for Nondestructive
Testing (several volumes)
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-4 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 700-1 Inspection Points and Methods
Numbers in ( ) refer to sections of the manual, as follows:
(710) Visual (730) Pipe Yard Inspection
(710) Magnetic Particle (740) Weld Radiography
(710) EMI - Flux Leakage (750) Shop-Applied Coating
(710) Radiography (750) Over-the-Ditch Coating
(710) Ultrasonics (750) Field Joints
(720) Mill Surveillance (750) Protection During Laying
(710)(730)
(710)(730)
(720)(730)
(710)(710)
(710)(730)
(710)(730)
(710)(730)
(750)(730)
(710)(730)
(710)
(710)(740)
(710)(750)(750)
(750)
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-5 November 1994
API STD 1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities
See Section 790 for additional references.
Visual Inspection
Visual examination is the first level of material inspection. It involves the use of the
eyes, either unaided or with a low power magnifier, to look for imperfections and
flaws.
Visual inspection has obvious advantages: it is easy, straightforward, fast, and inex-
pensive; it requires little special equipment and provides important information
with regard to pipe surfaces. Its limitations include an inability to evaluate metal
interior, so other methods such as radiography and ultrasonics must sometimes
complement visual examination.
On bare pipe, visual inspection detects gouges, ERW weld irregularities (excessive
trim or flash), SAW weld irregularities (contour, high-low, undercuts), dents, scale,
pits, scores, notches, and sometimes laps or seams. For butt welds, visual examina-
tion is useful for detecting surface porosity, high-low (with access to inside
surface), bead contour, and severe undercutting. Visual examination of the weld
bevel can reveal damage, seams and laminations.
The typical tools for visual inspection are magnifying glasses, flashlights, and
mirrors. To look down the ID of pipes and tubes, an instrument called a borescope
is used. Flexible fiber optic scopes are also available that permit the transmission of
light and images around corners or through twisted or crooked channels.
Gages, micrometers, calipers, rulers, tapes, etc., are also used for visual inspection.
These devices are used to verify dimensions such as bevels, thickness and diameter.
Experience is required in the use of some of these tools.
Magnetic Particle Inspection
General
Magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a nondestructive method for detecting surface
discontinuities or cracks in magnetic materials. MPI using AC current can also
detect defects that are slightly subsurface, but is not totally reliable for this purpose.
Basic Principle
The basic principle of magnetic particle inspection involves the following steps:
Creating a magnetic field in the material so that magnetic poles are set up at
discontinuities
Applying magnetic particles to the surface of the material
Visually examining the surface for any concentrations of the particles and eval-
uating the cause of the concentration (indication)
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-6 Chevron Corporation
Let us consider these stages in turn.
Establishing a Magnetic Field
A suitable magnetic field can be established in the object by using a central
conductor, coils, permanent magnets, yokes or prods (see Figure 700-2 and 700-3).
Flaws that are perpendicular to the field set up local poles and form a leakage flux,
thus attracting magnetic particles. Surface discontinuities are thus outlined by a
buildup of magnetic particles (powder).
The type of current can either be DC, AC, or rectified AC current. DC produces a
deeper field and can, therefore, detect subsurface defects more effectively. AC is
most effective for surface discontinuities but is ineffective for subsurface defects.
Single-phase current (half-wave rectified AC) provides optimum sensitivity, and is
the most commonly used on newer, portable equipment.
Magnetic ParticlesDry and Wet
Once a suitable magnetic field is set up within the material, the magnetic particles
are applied to show the leakage fields or discontinuity indications. Particles can
either be dry powders or wet suspensions. In addition, particles suspended in liquid
can be coated with a dye that makes them fluoresce brilliantly under ultraviolet
light. This is known as black light or wet fluorescent mag particle inspection
(WMPI).
Dry magnetic particles should contrast with the pipe surface. Grey, yellow, and
white magnetic particles are typically used.
The WMPI method is a more sensitive method than the dry method.
Interpretation
Interpretation of magnetic particle inspection is usually done by eye. The cause of
indications can usually be seen unaided, but sometimes a magnifying glass is
required. Indications are marked with a waxed crayon or paint. Depending upon the
job specifications, indications are sometimes probed to investigate depth or to deter-
mine if the indication is merely superficial.
Magnetic Flux Leakage Inspection
Magnetic flux leakage inspection, commonly referred to as electromagnetic inspec-
tion (EMI), is a variation of magnetic particle inspection. It is employed for full
body pipe examinations either in the manufacturers mill, the field or pipeyard.
Pipe inspection is performed automatically in an inspection unit. The pipe is magne-
tized either by passing it over a current-energized central conductor that induces a
circular field in the pipe, or by passing the pipe through a coil which induces a
longitudinal field in the pipe. See Figure 700-3. The circular field finds longitudi-
nally oriented imperfections, such as seams and long cracks, while the longitudinal
field finds circumferential imperfections, such as cracks and gouges. Instead of
particles, EMI uses electronic sensors to detect the flux leakage. This allows a
continuous inspection of the full pipe body excluding 6 inches to 12 inches of the
pipe ends.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-7 November 1994
Fig. 700-2 Magnetic Field Induction Methods
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-8 Chevron Corporation
EMI inspection is sometimes included in the mills quality control line. These units
are adjusted for mill production speeds (which may exceed 200 feet per minute) but
are generally not as accurate as field EMI units which operate at approximately 40
feet per minute. EMI services can also be purchased in the field. This inspection is
very common for downhole casing and tubing but is performed on line pipe only in
special cases.
One cautionary note is necessary. Any residual magnetism in the pipe will cause
welding difficulties. The surveillance inspection should ensure the EMI unit does
not leave residual magnetism greater than 30 gauss when measuring with an elec-
tronic magnetometer (gaussmeter). If a mechanical magnetometer is used, the
residual magnetism should not exceed 8-10 gauss.
Radiographic Inspection
Introduction
Radiography (also called RT) is a nondestructive test method that uses X-rays or
gamma rays to detect defects in solid materials. A radiograph is a shadow picture
produced by passing the rays through an object and onto a film. Thin sections of
metal absorb less radiation and, therefore, make a dark pattern on the film. Thick
sections allow less of the radiation energy to reach the film, producing a lighter
image. For example, where porosity exists in a weld, there is effectively less solid
material to absorb the radiation, resulting in characteristic dark round spots on the
film. See Figure 700-4 for a simplified sketch of the technique.
Radiography is the most commonly used weld inspection method for evaluating
weld integrity; it is not generally used on the line pipe body. One advantage is that
Fig. 700-3 Pipe Body Magnetization Methods
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-9 November 1994
RT provides a permanent record of a weld which can be examined and evaluated by
more than one person. The method is limited in that certain types of planar defects,
such as cracks, can be missed if they are oriented at an angle to the beam of radia-
tion or are tight and do not present enough change in density. Other drawbacks are
that special equipment, training, and techniques are required, and it is somewhat
slower and more expensive than other methods. However, in spite of these limita-
tions, it is still a widely used method for evaluating the quality of a weld.
Equipment and Basic Principles
The most common radiographic sources are X-ray machines and artificially-
produced radioactive isotopes of certain metallic elements, such as Iridium 192.
The isotopes emit gamma ray radiation. X-ray machines are used in the mill and,
sometimes, portable units are used in the field. Gamma ray sources are used prima-
rily on pipeline and field construction jobs where the source must be mobile.
X-rays and gamma rays differ primarily in wavelength. The energy level (wave-
length) of each isotope is fixed, while the energy level of an X-ray machine is a
function of its tube and applied voltage. Also, the strength (number of rays per area,
or flux) of an isotope source decays with time, but the strength of an X-ray machine
is constant and controllable.
The thickness of metal that can be penetrated by the radiation depends on wave-
length. Shorter wavelengths (higher energy) permit deeper penetration.
Exposure time for radiographing a thickness of metal depends on the energy level
(or wavelength) of the source (see Figure 700-5), the type and thickness of the
metal, the strength of the source, the film type, the use of intensifying fluorescent
screens, and the source-to-film distance. The inverse square law, which states that
the intensity of radiation varies inversely with the square of the distance from the
Fig. 700-4 Basic Elements of a Radiographic System
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November 1994 700-10 Chevron Corporation
source, governs exposure time. Figure 700-6 shows the effect of changes in vari-
ables such as radiation source and film type on radiograph quality.
Fig. 700-5 Radiographic Sources and Approximate Applications
Source Energy Steel Thickness Range, inches
X-rays 80-120 Kev 0 to 1/4
120-150 Kev 0 to 1/2
150-250 Kev 0 to 1
250-400 Kev 1/4 to 2
6-31 Mev 1 to >8
Iridium 192 0.38 Mev 1/2 to 2 1/2
Cobalt 60 1.2 Mev 1 to 4
Fig. 700-6 Effects of Changes in Variables on Radiographic Quality
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-11 November 1994
Contrast and Films
A number of factors control contrast, but the two most important are the energy
level of the radiation and the type of film. Regardless of film type, contrast
decreases as the energy level increases. Since Iridium 192 has a lower energy level
than Cobalt 60, a radiograph from Iridium 192 will have higher contrast. This is
also true of X-rays, the higher energy machines producing radiographs of lower
contrast. Generally, X-rays produce more contrast than any gamma-ray service.
Radiographic films have various degrees of speed. The faster the film, the less
exposure is needed to produce a chosen density. However, fast films are grainy, and
the grains become increasingly coarse as the speed of the photographic emulsion
increases. Extreme coarseness does not record detail, and Company specifications
do not allow the use of fast, coarse-grained films. For the best quality, ASTM E 94
type 1 or 2 film should be used. These are, respectively, low and medium speed
films. For example, Kodak AA is a type 2 film, while Kodak Industrexm is a type 1
film. Type 3 and 4 films have high and very high film speeds, respectively, and
should not be used.
Screens
Radiographic film is held in a cassette, sandwiched between two screens. The two
principal screen types are lead foil and fluorescent.
Lead foil screens are the most widely used and give higher quality exposures than
fluorescent screens. Lead screens serve a dual purpose: they act as intensifiers by
emitting electrons and characteristic rays under the action of the primary radiation
that aid in producing the radiograph. At the same time, they act as filters to absorb
the scattered radiation that tends to fog the film. Lead screen thicknesses vary with
source strength from 0.001 inch to 0.01 inch.
Fluorescent screens are usually made of calcium tungstate crystals deposited on a
thin background material. The X-rays or gamma rays cause these crystals to emit
light that intensifies the film image. They decrease the necessary exposure time,
compared with lead, but give less image sharpness. Most authorities and Company
specifications discourage the use of fluorescent screens, since the sacrifice in film
quality can result in the masking of significant defects.
Either type of screen must be in close contact with the film during the exposure for
good image sharpness. Also, the screens must be free from blemishes, scratches,
dents, and any dirt that could be recorded on the film and misinterpreted as a defect
in the weld.
Image Sharpness
Other factors being equal, fine grained film produces the sharper image, but the size
of the source is also a factor: the smaller the source size, the sharper the image.
Increasing the source-to-film distance compensates for a large source. In general,
the source-to-film distance should be at least seven times the thickness of the mate-
rial being radiographed. Most radiographic work is done at much higher ratios,
such as 30:1. Vibration or movement of the source or film during an exposure will
cause a fuzzy image.
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November 1994 700-12 Chevron Corporation
Penetrameters
A penetrameter indicates the image quality or sensitivity of the radiograph and is
the true test of a radiographic procedure. In the United States, penetrameters
usually consist of thin strips of metal with various size holes. In other countries,
fine wires or small spheres may be used. Penetrameters are placed on the part being
radiographed, and the ability of the radiograph to show a particular hole size or
wire establishes the image quality. Figure 17 in API STD 1104 details the configura-
tion of a penetrameter.
The penetrameter image is the inspectors most important tool for evaluating the
quality of the radiograph. He should know the penetrameter requirement for the
work or item he is inspecting and make sure the proper type is used in an accept-
able manner. The applicable specification or code usually requires that penetrame-
ters be properly shimmed to compensate for weld reinforcement and be placed on
the source side of the weld.
Film Processing
Many factors are important during film processing to assure quality radiographs.
The most important are fresh, clean, properly mixed solutions, proper developer
bath temperature (68F is ideal), appropriate development time, and proper agita-
tion, washing, fixing, and drying.
Viewing of Radiographs
To properly interpret a radiograph, the viewing equipment should be in a darkened
room. To prevent films placed against it for viewing from overheating and curling,
the illuminator should have an adjustable cold fluorescent light or incandescent
bulbs with forced ventilation.
Commercially available variable intensity viewers are more versatile and provide
particular advantages when viewing high or low density negatives. The film should
be placed on the viewer and all light visible around the edges masked off. The first
thing an inspector should look for is the penetrameter, to see if it is the proper size
and shows evidence of good film quality, i.e., the outline of the penetrameter and
two-thickness (or 2T) hole are visible.
Quite often a film artifact is mistaken for a weld defect. The principal causes of
such artifacts are:
Dirty, scratched, or bent screens, which cause imperfections in the image
Localized pressure on a film, which causes easily recognizable pressure
marks when the film is processed
Poor processing techniques, such as water marks from improper drying and
scratches from handling
It is the inspectors duty to learn to recognize film artifacts. Most film artifacts
become obvious when the film surface is viewed at an oblique angle under white
light.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-13 November 1994
Interpretation and Acceptance Standards
The ability to interpret the radiograph is a demanding skill that the inspector must
become proficient in and strive to keep informed on, so that he can judge the
welding according to the applicable standards.
Radiographs fall into one of three evaluation categories: unquestionably acceptable,
clearly rejectable, and borderline. In the last category honest differences of opinion
will occur. Experienced interpreters will assess image sharpness, film type, identifi-
cation, location markers, and proper density as indicators of film quality. The inter-
pretation of the significance of a discontinuity is sometimes influenced by the
interpreters knowledge of the film quality. For example, a serious defect may
appear insignificant in a poor quality film, and an experienced interpreter will take
this into account. In addition, of course, he must be thoroughly familiar with the
applicable specifications and acceptance standards. Acceptance limits for particular
defects in pipelines are specified in API STD 1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines
and Related Facilities. API STD 1104 is also referenced by ANSI/ASME Codes
B31.4 and B31.8. See Section 742.
An alternate approach for acceptance standards based on a defects true threat to
structural integrity is called fitness-for-purpose. This approach is more lenient
with respect to pipeline welding quality, focusing rather on detailed engineering
analysis of each case and knowledge of actual weld metal and base metal tough-
ness. Because it is more cumbersome than arbitrary workmanship standards, it is
hard to justify except in special situations. See API STD 1104 Appendix A.
Note Amendment 195-52, page 33388 of the Federal Register, dated June 28,
1994, now allows pipeline operators to use Appendix A of API STD 1104, 17th
edition.
Ultrasonic Inspection
Ultrasonic (UT) inspection methods use sound waves to detect internal, external,
and subsurface defects including those in ERW and SAW pipe weld seams, the
depth of surface imperfections, and wall thickness. A transducer which can both
transmit and receive a sound wave is placed on the material. With the aid of a
couplant, such as grease, oil, or water, the sound beam penetrates the material and
travels in a straight line until it hits a reflecting surface. This may be the opposite
surface of the material, a crack or seam penetrating from the OD or ID, a subsur-
face crack or seam, a lamination in the material, weld porosity, undercutting, high-
low, or lack of weld fusion. The beam reflects off this surface and is detected by the
receiver portion of the transducer. Electronics convert the time it takes the beam to
traverse the material to a length dimension. Note that flaws must be approximately
perpendicular to the sound beam (plus or minus 10 to 15 degrees) to reflect effec-
tively back to the transducer.
Longitudinal or Compression Wave Inspection
A longitudinal (compression) wave is transmitted normal to the surface of the pipe
and reflects off the internal wall. This method is useful for determining pipe wall
thickness and internal laminations.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-14 Chevron Corporation
Several types of instruments are available for longitudinal wave inspection, as
follows:
A cathode ray tube (CRT) displays a horizontal line with a peak on the far
left-hand side. This peak is the initial pulse of the sound wave. When the trans-
ducer is placed on a surface, a peak will appear on the right. The distance
between the two peaks is proportional to the thickness of the material. With
proper calibration, the CRT displays wall thickness. Figure 700-7 shows the
technique on a normal pipe wall. Figure 700-8 shows the display when a
midwall lamination is present. Figure 700-9 shows the display for pipe with
eccentric wall thickness.
A meter display can be calibrated to show full thickness at full scale. The wall
thickness is read directly from the meter.
A digital display, properly calibrated, will directly indicate wall thickness.
Fig. 700-7 Compression Wave Ultrasonics, Normal Pipe Wall
Fig. 700-8 Compression Wave Ultrasonics, Mid-wall Lamination
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-15 November 1994
Transverse or Shear Wave Inspection
Transverse (shear) wave UT inspection uses a transducer to transmit a sound wave
into the material at an angle. The wave will reflect at defects that are normal or near
normal to the wave. Defects such as cracks, rolled-in seams, weld root defects, and
toe cracks can be detected by this method. The transducer is mounted in a plastic
head that is machined at a prescribed angle (normally 45 to 60). The wave reflects
off a defect and, in part, back into the receiver portion of the transducer.
Figure 700-10 shows the principle involved.
A CRT screen is used for readout. Unlike longitudinal waves, the display consists
of an initial peak and a small peak to the right which will move as the transducer is
moved. When the transducer is moved a greater distance from the flaw, the indica-
tion disappears from the screen. Interpretation of the results of shear wave inspec-
tion requires a very knowledgeable, experienced operator.
UT Applications for Line Pipe
There are several methods of applying UT to the field inspection of line pipe. Refer
to Section 731 for the basic descriptions of UT weldline (crab) units, full body UT
units, or compression wave UT (including pipe end area inspection).
713 Acceptance Criteria
The acceptance of defects found by UT, magnetic particle, visual, or EMI inspec-
tion is based on API SPEC 5L, API STD 1104 or Chevron specification require-
ments. API SPEC 5L only requires mandatory full body pipe inspection (seamless
pipe only) using any one of three alternative inspection methods (MPI, EMI, UT)
when Supplementary Requirement SR4 is specified. Model Specification PPL-MS-
1050 suggests API SPEC 5L SR 4 inspection, using ultrasonics (UT) only, as a
supplemental requirement (see Section 310 for pipe selection criteria). Model Speci-
fication PPL-MS-1050 also requires UT weldline inspection of ERW line pipe with
walls thicker than 0.188 inches, and further requires the UT be done per API 5L SR
17 after hydrostatic testing using an N10 notch (10% of specified wall thickness)
for calibration. This is much more stringent than the basic API 5L which allows
Fig. 700-9 Compression Wave Ultrasonics, Wall Thinning, Showing CRT Display
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November 1994 700-16 Chevron Corporation
ERW weldline inspection to be performed using UT or EMI, does not define loca-
tion (e.g., after hydrostatic testing), and allows V10 or Buttress notches or a drilled
hole as calibration standards.
720 Mill Surveillance
Mill surveillance (third-party inspection or monitoring) is performed on new line
pipe at the manufacturers facility. Contract pipe inspectors are retained by CRTCs
Quality Assurance Team or by project management to perform the following:
monitor critical pipe production operations, such as welding, sizing, heat treatment,
and testing; and/or (2) monitor the mills internal nondestructive examination
(NDE) inspections. At times, the third party inspectors may also perform extensive
dimensional checks and visual examinations (these duties are performed by bench
inspectors - see Section 723); however, most surveillance activities are currently
typically limited to production and NDE monitoring with some random dimen-
sional checks and visual examinations. Specific duties and responsibilities are given
in Section 723.
Fig. 700-10 Shear Wave Ultrasonic Inspection
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-17 November 1994
Mill surveillance provides assurance that the requirements of API Specification 5L
and Company specifications are met. It increases the probability of culling defec-
tive joints that may be missed by the mills inspection and minimizes defective pipe
delivered to the jobsite.
721 Recommendations for Use of Mill Surveillance
Figures 700-11 and 700-12 summarize suggested inspections for line pipe.
722 Mill Surveillance Teams
(1) Critical service is defined as high pressure gas >1440 psig, offshore, populated areas, or sour service.
(2) Example: 3400 ft of 12-3/4 inches x 0.219 wall.
(3) Not usually applicable, since mill surveillance is recommended for critical service.
(4) This could vary from a random visual to 100% visual depending on the extent of other inspection(s) done. (It may also include dimen-
sional checks such as ring gaging pipe ends.)
(5) See decision tree in Section 312 - refer to the mill class definition explanation which denotes when and how much weld seam UT may
be required. For API pipe, additional weld seam UT may be required - consult with CRTCs Quality Assurance Team.
(6) Case by case basis; consult with CRTCs Quality Assurance Team.
(7) Consider if previous problems with mill occurred or pipe is in critical service as defined in (1). In the case of mills which do not perform
any EMI or UT, a minimum of 10% (General Service) or 25% (Critical Service) is recommended.
(8) See decision tree in Section 312 and supplemental specification requirements noted therein.
(9) For pipe body and bevel handling damage; inspection typically done by welding Contractor personnel.
(10) The material test reports (MTRs) should be reviewed for conformance to API and/or Chevron requirements for all pipe not subjected to
mill surveillance. Special emphasis is placed on the Carbon Equivalent (for weldability) and mechanical properties.
Figure 700-13 shows the recommended minimum mill surveillance team size and
makeup for seamless, electric weld (ERW), and submerged arc weld (SAW) mills.
Fig. 700-11 Inspection Recommendations for Mill-Order Pipe, Chevron, or API Specifications
General Service Critical Service
(1)
Mill Surveillance: Yes, if >50 tons
(2)
Yes, all orders
Inspection If Had Surveillance If Had No Surveillance If Had Surveillance If Had No Surveillance
(3)
SMLS ERW SAW SMLS ERW SAW SMLS ERW SAW SMLS ERW SAW
Visual
(4)
No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
Weld Seam UT -
(5)
No -
(5) (6)
-
(5)
No -
(5) (6)
Full-Body UT (or
EMI)
No No No
(7)
No No No No No
(7) (8)
No
Job Site Visual
(9)
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Review MTRs
(10)
No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes
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November 1994 700-18 Chevron Corporation
723 Mill Inspector Duties
(1) An approved source is a mill that CRTCs Quality Assurance has audited and approved.
(2) This pipe will be API with no chance of mill surveillance.
(3) Critical service is defined as high pressure gas > 1440 psig, offshore, populated areas, or sour service.
(4) This could vary from random visual to 100% visual depending on the extent of other inspection(s) done. (It may also include dimen-
sional checks such as ring gaging pipe ends.)
(5) See decision tree in Section 312 - refer to the mill class definition explanation which denotes when and how much weld seam UT may
be required. For API pipe, additional weld seam UT may be required - consult with CRTCs Quality Assurance Team. (From nonap-
proved sources a minimum 25% frequency for General Service; a minimum 50% frequency for Critical Service.)
(6) Case by case basis; consult with CRTCs Quality Assurance Team. (From nonapproved sources a minimum 25% frequency for Critical
Service.)
(7) Consider if previous problems with mill occurred or pipe is in critical service as defined in (3). In the case of nonapproved sources or
approved sources which do not perform any routine EMI or UT, a minimum 10% frequency for General Service; a minimum 25%
frequency for Critical Service.
(8) See decision tree in Section 312 and supplemental specification requirements noted therein.
(9) For pipe body and bevel handling damage; inspection typically done by welding contractor personnel.
(10) The material test reports (MTRs) should be reviewed for conformance to API and/or Chevron requirements for all pipe not subjected
to mill surveillance. Special emphasis is placed on the Carbon Equivalent (for weldability) and mechanical properties.
(11) Other inspection methods may also be appropriate on a case by case basis. These include: full length MPI; Pipe end MPI; UT of ERW
or SAW pipe ends for laminations; and so on. Consult CRTCs Quality Assurance Team for guidance.
Duties of Supervisor
The supervisor or shift leader (lead inspector) carries out the duties listed below.
Typically, if there are two (or more) mill inspectors per shift, one will be designated
the shift leader, and if there is more than one shift per day, one shift leader will be
designated as the overall job supervisor. The supervisor may also be the NDE
inspector. This typically occurs when there is only one inspector per shift and only
one shift per day. In this case, that inspector would perform the duties listed below,
as time permits, but would typically concentrate 60 - 80% of his/her efforts on NDE
surveillance as described under Duties of NDE inspectors.
Completely familiarizes him or herself with the requirements of the order.
Meets with pipe mill quality control personnel before the start of production to
review the specifications, review, discuss, and agree upon mill procedures, and
to establish the proper lines of communication.
Fig. 700-12 Inspection Recommendations for Distributor Stock Pipe from Approved Sources
(1)

(2)
(Post Mill at Pipeyard)
Inspection General Service Critical Service
(3)
SMLS ERW SAW SMLS ERW SAW
Visual
(4)
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Weld Seam UT -
(5) (6)
-
(5) (6)
Full-Body UT or EMI
(7)
No No
(7) (8)
No
Job Site Visual
(9)
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Review MTRs
(10)
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Other
(11) (11) (11) (11) (11) (11)
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-19 November 1994
(1) Some factors which affect team makeup are:
a. Mill layout/general practices: compact or spread out facility; mechanical testing done concurrently with mill run or subsequently;
NDT prove-up near inspection unit or at a remote location.
b. Seamless mill: typically do not monitor pipe rolling or steel making.
c. Specific order requirements: diameter of pipe; general or critical service; sweet or sour service; quantity of pipe in order; number of
supplemental requirements specified; Chevron specifications or API.
d. Other: approved or nonapproved source; well-documented history on mill or no information.
(2) Seamless pipe inspectors. Concentrate mill surveillance on final full body NDE (60%). Balance of inspectors time spent monitoring the
following, as applicable: hydrostatic testing (5%); final inspection bench (15%); mechanical testing (10%); verify length and marking
requirements, pipe handling (damage), collecting /tabulating daily reject figures, report writing, and so on (10%).
(3) ERW pipe inspectors. Concentrate mill surveillance on two areas: the pipe welding/seam normalizing operations; and the final weld
seam UT. There is typcially a shift leader and a full time UT weldline inspector for each shift. The shift leader monitors pipe
welding/seam normalizing (70%). Balance of monitoring time spent on the following, as applicable: final bench inspection; hydrostatic
testing; mechanical testing; verify length and marking requirements, pipe handling (damage), collecting/tabulating daily reject figures,
report writing, and so on. The UT weldline inspector monitors final UT weldline inspection (70 - 90%) and utilizes balance of time to
monitor UT of pipe ends (if applicable), and assists shift leader at final bench inspection.
(4) SAW pipe inspectors. Concentrate mill surveillance on two areas: the pipe welding operations; and the final weld seam UT. There is
typically a shift leader and a full time UT weldline inspector for each shift. The shift leader monitors pipe welding (60%). Balance of
monitoring time spent on the following, as applicable: final bench inspection; hydrostatic testing; pipe expansion; mechanical testing;
verify length and marking requirements, pipe handling (damage), collecting/tabulating daily reject figures, report writing, and so on. The
UT weldline inspector monitors final UT weldline inspection (70%) and utilizes balance of time to review radiographs, monitor UT of
pipe ends (if applicable), and assists shift leader at final bench inspection.
Completely informs him or herself concerning the production and quality
control operations and procedures of the mill.
Establishes the work schedule of NDE and/or Bench inspectors.
Conducts a safety meeting for each shift once per week.
Provides NDE and/or Bench inspectors with written inspection instructions
that contain the applicable tolerances for the order and any special instructions
pertaining to the order.
Maintains surveillance over all operations in the pipe mill.
Periodically visits the mill inspection bench to review problems, determine the
type of defects occurring most frequently, and follow up on them to determine
the cause.
Verifies that mill Bench inspectors are performing final visual and dimensional
inspections in a competent manner.
Fig. 700-13 Team Makeup for Mill Surveillance of Line Pipe
The most typical mill surveillance team makeup currently used for APPROVED mills with some documented
Chevron knowledge/history is indicated below. These team makeups are the minimum typically used. An increase
(or decrease) in coverage may be warranted based on an analysis of the many factors listed below.
(1)
Mill Type
Minimum Number of Mill
Inspectors/Shift Duties
Seamless ONE
(2)
Electric Weld (ERW) TWO
(3)
Submerged Arc Weld
(SAW)
TWO
(4)
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November 1994 700-20 Chevron Corporation
Verifies dimensions are done and recorded per the frequencies and procedures
agreed upon in the pre-production meeting. These dimensional checks include
pipe body outside diameter (o.d.), pipe end o.d., wall thickness, end square-
ness, bevel, root face, internal taper (seamless), and straightness.
Verify length, marking, demagnetization, ERW weld flash or trim, SAW weld
contour, etc., meet order requirements.
Verify that pipe to be subsequently coated is free of mill varnish, grease,
slivers, sharp protrusions, etc.
Witnesses the periodic calibration of the nondestructive testing equipment to
assure its proper operation.
Reviews the radiographs on a spot check basis to assure proper interpretation.
The number of radiographs reviewed will vary depending upon the results of
the spot check.
Periodically witnesses the fluoroscopic inspection and assures that the speed of
travel and settings are such that the penetrameter can be clearly defined.
Periodically checks railcars, trucks or ship holds before loading for debris and
attachments that may damage pipe.
Periodically checks the loaded cars, trucks or ship holds to assure that they are
loaded in accordance with API RP 5L1, Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe
or API RP 5LW, Transportation of Line Pipe on Barges and Marine Vessels, or
other specified recommended practices approved by the purchaser. This inspec-
tion should include a spot check for body and bevel damage due to improper
handling during loading.
Checks hydrostatic testing charts and operation for conformance to order
requirements. Includes verification that test gages and recorders are in current
calibration.
Checks the welding and repair welding operation for compliance with the
mills procedures. This includes a review of the procedure qualification test
records and the performance test records of each welder to assure that the
requirements of Appendix B of the API SPEC 5L are met. Particular attention
should be taken to assure that low hydrogen electrodes, if used, are stored in an
electrode dry rod box.
Checks loading crane hooks to assure that they are properly designed to elimi-
nate bevel damage.
Witness as many mechanical tests as possible to assure that the test procedure
is correct and all test equipment is in current calibration. This should include a
spot check of the test specimen measurements.
Assures that the proper number of tests are made and the chemical and mechan-
ical properties meet the required specifications.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-21 November 1994
Assures that all shipping documents and mill chemical and mechanical test
certificates are collected by the mill and forwarded to the Company office at
the immediate completion of pipe production. If they are not then available, the
mill personnel must be advised to forward them to the Company purchasing
agent or project engineer.
Immediately reports any serious problems to the Company for review.
Collects the daily reject figures including types of rejects from all applicable
sources, checks them for accuracy and forwards a summary of them to the
Company at the required frequency (sometimes daily) and at the completion of
the inspection assignment.
Tabulates the total number of feet of each size and wall thickness of pipe
accepted each day, and keeps a cumulative record so that the status of the order
is known at all times.
Duties of NDE Inspectors
These are contract inspectors assigned to witness the final UT (or EMI) on seam-
less pipe or the final UT weldline inspection on ERW or SAW pipe. (Refer to
Figure 700-13). In some cases, the NDE Inspector may also be the Supervisor/Shift
Leader (when only one contract inspector per shift required). In this case, the NDE
Inspector would concentrate his or her efforts on the final NDE (60 - 80%), but may
also perform other mill surveillance activities included under Duties of the Super-
visor.
The NDE Inspector typically performs the following duties:
Witness the periodic calibration of the NDE unit
Witness NDE inspection of all pipe
Verify calibration and operation of the NDE unit per approved mill procedures
Verify all pipe with indications exceeding the acceptance limit is thoroughly
proven up, etc
Verify any defects (or imperfections) removed by grinding are completely
removed and the remaining wall thickness is verified
Verify the weld line on ERW or SAW pipe ends not covered by automated UT
is manually UTd
As time permits, assist the Shift Leader monitoring the mill bench inspectors
As time permits, also monitor end area UT or MPI inspections
Duties of Bench Inspectors
The previous (January 1990) edition of this manual detailed the duties of Bench
Inspectors. As noted in Section 720, the extensive dimensional checks and visual
examinations included such duties as checking the outside diameter of each end of
each pipe, checking out of roundness on each end of each pipe larger than 20 inches
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-22 Chevron Corporation
NPS, checking the wall thickness of each pipe, close visual examination of each
pipe, and so on. These duties essentially duplicated everything randomly checked
by the mill bench inspectors and much more. This type of extensive dimensional
and visual examination would now only be considered for nonapproved mills (or
substandard mills) with whom Chevron has no previous experience or knowledge.
Some of these duties may still be applicable for very critical orders. Consult with
CRTCs Quality Assurance Team for guidance.
Reporting
Contract inspectors forward all reports, tallies, and problems to the Chevron Project
Engineer or Quality Assurance Engineer who is handling the order.
724 Qualifications of Mill Inspectors
Mill inspectors usually are certified by the American Society for Nondestructive
Testing (ASNT) as Level II inspectors for specific inspection techniques such as
magnetic particle, ultrasonics, etc. The inspection agency may also carry out certifi-
cation and training programs on their own. A Level II inspector has demonstrated
through tests and experience that he or she knows the principles of the inspection
technique, can apply the technique with the desired results, and can interpret the
indications that are found.
Inspectors normally have worked for manufacturers in the inspection department or
for a pipe user in a materials laboratory, quality assurance, or other similar position.
It is the responsibility of CRTCs Quality Assurance Team to confirm that the
inspectors being used for mill inspection and surveillance are qualified and hold the
appropriate certifications. Periodic requalifications are required to maintain certifi-
cation.
Resumes of the inspectors are usually reviewed by CRTCs Quality Assurance
Team to assess their level of experience, dates of last testing, and certification and
performance. Inspectors that have performed poorly in the past are not permitted to
work on Company jobs or projects.
730 Post-Mill Inspection
Post-mill inspection of line pipe, commonly called field or pipeyard inspection, is
done to detect transit damage, and defects missed by the mill inspection. The
inspection is done visually, or by magnetic particle, EMI or ultrasonics. Radiog-
raphy is not used. Field or stockyard inspection will not add to the quality of the
pipe, but will minimize defective pipe delivered to the jobsite.
Field or pipeyard inspection can be done at any location from the time the pipe
leaves the mill production line to the time it is welded into the pipeline.
Figure 700-1 shows inspection points and relevant sections of this manual.
In some cases, post-mill inspection is done on the mill property by nonmill parties.
It is not to be confused with mill surveillance, because it involves inspection with
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-23 November 1994
nonmill equipment and personnel. Post-mill inspection is also typically done in a
pipeyard near the staging area for pipe shipment or stringing.
Company inspection practice is summarized in Figures 700-11 and 700-12. Basic
practice calls for mill surveillance on large pipe orders out of the mill. Post-mill
inspection is recommended for some general service and all critical service pipe
that has not undergone mill surveillance. On projects involving critical service appli-
cations, see Model Specifications PPL-MS-1050 and PPL-MS-4041.
Pipeyard inspection should also be considered for API SPEC 5L pipe that is
purchased from a non-Chevron-approved mill or from distributors stock.
API RP 5L8, Recommended Practice for Field Inspection of New Line Pipe
discusses inspection procedures and qualification of inspectors, and makes recom-
mendations on good practices for carrying out inspections. This document should
be used as a reference when specifying inspection procedures.
731 Types of Field Inspection Services for Line Pipe
API RP 5L8 discusses standard inspection techniques and procedures for line pipe,
including visual and dimensional inspection, magnetic particle inspection, electro-
magnetic inspection, and ultrasonic inspection. It details the procedures for evalu-
ating inspections for pipe mill defects, pipe seam welds, mill grinds, wall thickness,
dents, laminations, straighteness, diametrical parameters, etc. A discussion of the
advantages and descriptions of the various inspection techniques are presented in
Section 712.
Figure 700-1 summarizes recommended inspection methods and points. Field
inspection service companies perform any of the following inspections:
Visual and dimensional inspection. Searches for visual imperfections, such
as dents, gouges, pits, corrosion, wall thinning, and seam weld appearance.
Dimensional parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and bevel dimen-
sions are monitored. Pipe markings are verified.
Magnetic particle inspection. Done on bevels to detect and evaluate defects
such as cracks, mill seams, weld defects, and laminations. The procedure
involves dragging a yoke along the bevel.
EMI electromagnetic inspection. EMI scans the entire pipe body for OD and
ID defects such as seams, wall thickness eccentricity, gouges, pits, and scores.
EMI is usually only done on seamless pipe.
Ultrasonic inspection. Shear wave ultrasonic inspection is used to evaluate
weld seams. Angle transducers are mounted on a crawler or crab unit which
moves along the weld seam. The signal is translated into a printout or a chart.
Compression ultrasonics. Used to check for wall thickness. This is done with
hand-held units such as the Krautkrauer-Branson D-Meter. Also used to check
pipe ends for laminations using either hand-held units or special semi-auto-
mated units.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-24 Chevron Corporation
Combined shear and compression wave UT. These units are typically perma-
nently mounted under roof units. although there are one or two such units avail-
able which are mobile, which are capable of scanning both the pipe body and
pipe weld seam. They use angle transducers for detecting longitudinal and
circumferential defects and straight (compression) wave transducers for wall
thickness.
Radiographic inspection. Radiography is not done in the field to inspect pipe.
It is, however, the most common method to inspect girth welds during pipeline
construction and is discussed in Section 712 and 740.
Large companies providing field inspection services include the following:
Tuboscope Vetco International
P.O. Box 808
Houston, TX 77001-0808
Ph: 713-456-8881
Fax: 713-456-6197
Ico, Inc.
9400 Bamboo
Houston, TX 77041
Ph: 713-462-4622
Fax: 713-462-4821
Small companies providing field inspection include the following:
A&A Tubular Inspection, Inc.
3075 Walnut Ave
Long Beach, CA 90807
Ph: 310-981-2351
Fax: 310-981-2354
(Also have a Houston, TX., location)
(UT Weldline Inspection ONLY)
Reliant Oilfield Services, Inc.
Rt. 1, Box 143
Linden, TX 75563
Ph: 903-756-5656
Fax: 903-756-5283
732 Qualification of Inspectors and Inspection Companies for Line Pipe
There are generally two categories of field inspection personnel, as follows:
Service companies. Field inspection services are provided by large inspection
companies such as Tuboscope Vetco International, Ico Inc, or small companies
such as A&A Tubular and Reliant Oilfield Services. These companies provide
the equipment and inspection personnel.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-25 November 1994
Third parties. Third party inspections provide surveillance over service
company crews. They may be useful when inspection service companies
deploy less qualified crews or deploy crews unfamiliar with typical Chevron
field inspection requirements, e.g., calibration notch requirements, frequency
of calibration, etc., and therefore third party surveillance helps assure that
inspections are conducted properly. Consult with CRTCs Quality Assurance
Team for guidance.
Field Inspection Companies
CRTCs Quality Assurance Team maintains lists of qualified inspection companies,
including qualified equipment and equipment operators. These companies are quali-
fied on the basis of their ability to do the job, the services they offer, the experience
of their personnel, past performance, test joint evaluations, location of inspection
units, and the cost of their services.
An inspection service which has done acceptable work in one area, for example, on
the Gulf Coast, may not be acceptable in the Rocky Mountains or West Coast. The
engineer is encouraged to consult with CRTCs Quality Assurance Team for accept-
able service companies in the area where the job will be performed.
Field Inspector Qualification
The inspection service company internally qualifies their employees in the various
inspection services that are offered. Documentation concerning the specific
training, examinations and experience of the inspectors should be available upon
request.
Inspector qualification documentation should show:
Training programs or courses attended on each of the inspection methods in
which the inspector is qualified
Records of written examinations
Records of hands-on examinations on calibration, operation, and interpretation
of the various types of equipment the inspector is qualified on
A written record or resume of inspection experience
Field Inspection Crews
A field inspection crew generally consists of two to four individuals. The job func-
tions are as follows:
The supervisor or crew leader is responsible for the inspection unit equip-
ment and supervises the crew. This person requires the highest qualification
since he or she is actually responsible for the job. This person has the ultimate
responsibility of accepting or rejecting the joint of pipe, based on the specifica-
tion.
The inspection helper is responsible for locating flaws and confirming
whether or not these meet the specifications. He or she is supervised by the
crew leader. The helpers qualifications should include written and hands-on
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-26 Chevron Corporation
examination as well as inspection experience, although he or she will usually
be less experienced than the supervisor.
One or two laborers are generally part of the inspection crew. They may be
employees of the inspection agency or hired out of the local labor pool. They
do not usually have any inspection qualifications, and should not perform any
interpretations.
Third-Party Inspectors
These inspectors monitor the service company inspection crews. They may be
employed by an inspection agency such as Moody-Tottrup, or may be independent
contractors. Typically, a few small independent contractors, which have been devel-
oped over many years, are used for monitoring. The experience of these individuals
may include former employment with an inspection service company, line pipe
user, or manufacturer. These individuals may have formal test certifications from
the American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT).
A list of qualified third-party surveillance inspectors is maintained by CRTCs
Quality Assurance Team, which should be contacted if these services are required.
Duties of the Third Party
The third-party inspector has a responsibility to:
Represent the Company at the jobsite and aid in the interpretation of defects.
The third-party inspection provides a link between the Company and service
company, but is not involved in changing work orders or scheduling
Assure that the inspections are properly performed
Witness all calibration checks and assure that equipment is working properly
Monitor each new inspector to assure that they have the proper qualifications
Be present during the whole job or as directed
Review each rejected joint to assure that the cause of rejection is valid
Communicate the job status daily to the Company representative
Communicate difficulties with interpretation or inspection personnel to the
Company representative
733 Recommendations for Pipe Inspection
Recommendations for pipe inspection are given in Figures 700-11 and 700-12.
Chevron has commonly performed mill surveillance inspections on line pipe for
critical service. Critical services are defined as high pressure (>1440 psi), populated
areas, offshore, and sour gas.
Factors (in addition to critical service) which are important in making a judgment
to perform further field inspections are as follows:
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-27 November 1994
Grade. Higher grades (X-60 and greater) are used for high pressure lines and
have thinner walls
Weld Method. ERW versus SAW
Mill Origin. Some mills have better equipment for producing and inspecting
pipe than others
Groups within Chevron that may be consulted to give guidance on pipe inspection
include the following:
CRTC, Materials and Equipment Engineering, Quality Assurance
510-242-4612 (Richmond)
510-242-3381 (Richmond - alternate)
CRTC, Materials and Equipment Engineering, Metallurgy
510-242-3245
740 Pipeline Welding Inspection
This section discusses the requirements and procedures for inspection of pipeline
girth welds. Normally, the Companys arrangements for pipeline welding inspec-
tion are independent of the pipeline contractors organization. The contracts for
welding inspection and nondestructive examination (radiography) are based on
applicable codes, regulations, and Company requirements. However, the
Companys quality assurance responsibilities must be carefully coordinated with
the pipeline contractor to avoid lessening his sense of responsibility for the quality
of the pipeline welding. The Companys responsibilities include:
Preparation of clearly written specifications for the inspection and nondestruc-
tive examination (NDE) of the pipeline welds
Providing qualified welding inspectors
Assuring that welding procedures and welders are properly qualified
Documenting or assuring documentation of all inspection results and providing
quality control feedback to the pipeline contractor
Spot visual examination of pipeline fit-up before welding, the welding in
progress, and the completed welds
Providing radiographic inspection through an inspection organization whose
personnel are qualified to the American Society of Nondestructive Testing
(ASNT) Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A
National regulations and codes that have requirements concerning pipeline welding
are listed in Section 630 of this manual. Pipeline maintenance welding is discussed
in Section 860.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-28 Chevron Corporation
741 Duties and Qualifications of Welding Inspectors
Welding inspectors should be thoroughly familiar with API STD 1104, Standard for
Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, (or applicable local code) and Company
specifications for welding and inspection of pipelines. API RP 1107 pertains to
maintenance welding.
The duties of a welding inspector for pipeline welding include but are not limited to
the following:
Witnessing welding procedure qualifications and assuring that the welding
procedure specification is followed during the qualification. When required,
witnessing the mechanical tests for the procedure qualifications and verifica-
tion of the results provided by the testing laboratory
Witnessing welder qualification tests and assuring that the welding procedure
specification is followed; documenting the test conditions and the welders
taking the test. Terminating the test as soon as it is obvious that a welder lacks
the skill to pass the test, particularly after the root and hot pass. Checking and
grading test specimens and documenting results
Witnessing pipeline fit-up and checking for correct joint preparations, align-
ment, cleaning of the weld prep, and use of fit-up equipment
Witnessing pipeline welding and checking that all details of the procedure are
being followed properly, including preheat, use of electrodes, time allowed
between root and hot pass, weld cleaning and welding technique, verifying that
welds are marked with the welders identification in a manner not injurious to
the pipe
Checking of radiographs for repairs and proper identification as to weld joint
number and welder symbols
Working with the chief inspector to identify and eliminate substandard welders
through the quality assurance program
Qualification of Welding Inspectors
API STD 1104 requires that welding inspectors be qualified on the basis of experi-
ence and training but does not provide specific requirements. The Company, then,
has to establish its own requirements. In the past, inspection jobs tended to be given
to more senior pipeline personnel and emphasized experience in pipeline welding.
While welding experience is still important, a highly recommended alternative is
that the welding inspector be certified by the American Welding Society (AWS). To
be certified by AWS the welding inspector must take a written examination and
have five years welding experience. The written examination requires under-
standing of code and nondestructive testing, and a broad background in welding.
Certification renewal is required every three years, and includes an eye examina-
tion, maintenance of welding experience, and payment of a fee. In addition, AWS
requires reexamination every nine years.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-29 November 1994
Additional training should be considered for pipeline welding inspectors on major
jobs to increase their familiarization with the codes and regulations. One organiza-
tion offering a one-week training course is the National Pipeline Welding Inspec-
tion School, located in Houston, Texas.
API STD 1104 requires that the documentation of a welding inspectors qualifica-
tions include at least the following:
Education and experience
Training
Results of any qualification examinations
Qualification of NDE Personnel
ASNT Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A, for certification of personnel, assigns
three levels of proficiency in various NDE methods (radiography, liquid penetrant,
magnetic particle, etc.) based on training and experience. The levels are categorized
as I, II, and III in ascending order of qualification. Contract inspection companies
performing radiography are required to have their personnel certified to SNT-TC-
1A as explained in Section 745. Welding inspectors who grade and interpret radio-
graphs are also required to be certified to Level II or III.
742 Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders
Qualification of welding procedures and welders is the Companys responsibility
(see Section 630 and Model Specification PPL-MS-1564). API STD 1104 should
be used for this purpose. The pipeline contractor may submit welding procedures
for qualification or use procedures previously qualified by the Company. Welder
qualification tests should be witnessed by the Company. Testing should be termi-
nated any time it is apparent the welder cannot make a sound weld.
743 Documentation and Quality Control
Documentation and quality control for pipeline welding should include both
welding and radiographic inspection. Documentation should cover a minimum of
the following:
Welding Procedure Qualifications. Each welding procedure should be quali-
fied and recorded as described in API STD 1104.
Welder Qualifications. Each welder should be qualified to use the procedure
within the essential variables as described in API STD 1104. Requalification is
required any time a welder has not used a given process of welding for a period
of six months or more. ANSI/ASME B31.8 imposes additional restrictions for
gas transmission piping.
Radiographic Procedure. Qualification of each radiographic procedure is
required as described in API STD 1104 and in Section 745 following. The
procedure should be signed by a level III radiographer.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-30 Chevron Corporation
Radiographic Inspection. Results of radiographic inspection should be docu-
mented for each weld and signed by a level II or III radiographer. The weld
number, radiographic procedure, and welder identification should be clearly
stated.
Welder Identification. Each welder should be given a unique identification
number or mark for his work which is traceable to his welder qualification
records.
Weld Marking. Each weld should be given a unique identification number that
can be traced to its location from the as-built drawings. Crayon or paint should
be used for marking, not metal stamps.
Quality control for pipeline welding should be based on the results of the radio-
graphic inspection of each welders work. Easy identification of a substandard
quality record is important for weeding out poorly performing welders. Perfor-
mance should be based on the percentage of welds requiring repair for each welder.
This varies depending upon pipe size and wall thickness. A repair record of more
than 2 to 5% is generally cause for warning, and for dismissal if poor welding
continues.
744 Visual Examination
Visual examination before, during, and after welding is one of the welding
inspectors most important jobs. Visual examination includes both the pipe and the
welds. Documentation of visual examinations can vary from a minimum of daily
field notes to formal checklists, depending upon the size of the job. The frequency
of visual examinations can vary from 100% surveillance to selective spot checking,
depending upon the location of the pipeline (i.e., urban, rural, crossing, etc.) and the
risks to pipeline operations. The following is a list of the visual examinations which
should be made or verified by the welding inspector:
The pipe is in good condition and free of defects
Cold bends have been made properly without damaging the pipe or coating,
and the pipe is free of wrinkles, flat spots, and excessive out-of-roundness
Each joint of pipe has been swabbed clean of trash and debris before it is
placed in the line
Bevels and lands are satisfactory for welding and are:
Free of material defects (e.g., laminations)
Properly cleaned and free of weld contaminants such as rust, grease, and
other foreign material
Dimensionally correct and within tolerances
The pipe is free of handling damage, or has been repaired
The pipe is properly supported by studs for welding
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-31 November 1994
The welding is performed as required by the procedure and has been checked
for:
Pipe fit-up and alignment. Offset and gap dimensions are within tolerances
Correct preheat
Sound stringer pass without cracks, undercut, or excessive porosity. Proper
grinding for the hot pass
Adherence to the maximum time permitted between the stringer and hot
pass
Interpass cleaning (power wire bushing) and grinding starts and stops as
needed
Fit-up clamps used as specified in the procedures
Correct types (AWS classification) and diameters of electrodes. Electrodes
are in good condition for welding (i.e., free of damage and contamination)
Correct welding polarity. (Generally DC+, but DC- is sometimes used for
the root pass with certain electrodes, such as Lincoln 5P and HYP)
Staggered starts and stops to avoid alignment with other passes
No cracks, undercut, or excessive porosity in any bead
Minimum number of passes as specified in the procedure for the thickness
(but not less than three)
Correct reinforcement and width of the cap pass and no excessive undercut
of the pipe
Welder identification marked in a manner not injurious to the pipe but
permanent enough for pickup by the X-ray crew
Weather, wind, and dust conditions not adverse to good welding practice
Defect repairs do not exceed more than one repair at any given location in a
pipe weld, and the welder contributing to the defect is identified
745 Radiography of Field Welds
The use and frequency of radiographic inspection is established by the Company.
Radiography is performed to the acceptability standards in Section 6.0 of API STD
1104 and additional requirements of the Company (see PPL-MS-1564). Fundamen-
tals of radiography are discussed in Section 712 of this manual.
Radiographic Procedure
Before any radiography can be performed on a pipeline, a detailed procedure for
the production of radiographs must be prepared, recorded, and demonstrated by the
radiographic contractor to produce acceptable radiographs, in accordance with
Section 8.0 of API STD 1104. API STD 1104 requires demonstration on test shots
that the radiographic procedure produces acceptable radiographs. A written proce-
dure is required that includes at least the following:
Radiation source. Covers type of radiation source, effective source or focal
spot size, and voltage rating of X-ray equipment.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-32 Chevron Corporation
Intensifying screens. Describes the type and placement of screens, and lead
screen thickness (see Section 712). Lead screens are preferred for pipeline
work. An exception is offshore construction from a lay barge, where remote-
operated, battery-powered, crawler-mounted internal X-ray heads are
frequently used. These generally employ fluorescent screens to minimize expo-
sure times and battery recharging frequency. Intermediate speed fluorescent
intensifying screens (e.g., Du Pont Conex NDT 5) with fine grain medium
speed film have proved satisfactory for this application. Fluorescent screens are
very sensitive to dirt, dust, and scratches, and must be kept immaculately clean
and replaced more frequently than lead screens.
Film. Film brand rather than film type should be specified, along with the
number of films per cassette. Where more than one film per cassette is speci-
fied, how they will be viewed should be stated (e.g., single film viewing or
double film viewing). In the past film type designations (Type 1 or 2) have
been accepted in lieu of brand names. However, because of significant varia-
tions in the grain size and speed of films meeting the same type, this designa-
tion should not be used to obtain equivalent radiographic quality by
substitutions made solely on the basis of film type.
Exposure Geometry. Exposure geometry refers to the relative placement of
the source of radiation, pipe weld, film, penetrameters and lead markers (for
film intervals and reference). The number of exposures per weld is also stated.
Variations include the following:
SWE/SWV. Single-wall exposure with single-wall viewing. The radiation
source is positioned for single-wall penetration. A typical setup would be
with the source on the inside and the film on the outside. When the source
is centered inside of the pipe, a single 360-degree exposure of the weld
can be made.
DWE/SWV. Double-wall exposure with single-wall viewing. The radia-
tion source is positioned for double wall penetration, but only the weld
from one wall (i.e., one side of the pipe) is recorded on the film. A
typical setup is with the source on the outside of the pipe and the film on
the opposite side. A minimum of three 120-degree exposures are required
if the source is positioned within 1/2 inch of the pipe, otherwise four 90-
degree exposures are required (see Figure 700-14).
DWE/DWV. Double-wall exposure with double-wall viewing. The radia-
tion source is positioned for double wall penetration, with welds on both
walls recorded on the film. NPS 3 and smaller pipe requires this technique
with the radiation beam offset so that the source side and film side
portions of the weld do not overlap in the area of the radiograph to be eval-
uated. Two or more exposures (N) are required with each shot, separated
by 180 degrees divided by N.
Exposure Conditions. The exposure conditions depend on the exposure
parameters of the radiation source (either X-ray or radioisotope). For X-ray
units, they are measured in milliamperes, peak X-ray voltage (KVP), and expo-
sure time. For radioisotopes they are measured in curie minutes.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-33 November 1994
Processing. The radiographic procedure should specify:
Automatic or manual processing
Time and temperature of solutions for development, stop bath (or rinse),
fixation, and washing
Drying method
Materials. Type and thickness range of material for which the procedure is
suitable
Penetrameters. The type of penetrameter (API STD 1104 or ASTM E142),
material, identifying number, and essential hole to meet the required sensitivity
level should be specified. Shim material and thickness should also be given.
The minimum sensitivity level is 2% unless otherwise stated
Double-Jointing Yard Inspection
At double-jointing yards the pace of welding and radiography is quite rapid. Atten-
tion must be given to providing and achieving required radiographic inspection
coverage.
Repairs to rejected welds must be re-radiographed. Otherwise only the
radiograph films of the defective weld will appear in the final documentation,
and the missing record of the satisfactory repair will not be available to the
authority inspecting and certifying the pipeline.
Weld Acceptance Standards
Section 6.0 of API STD 1104 covers the standards of acceptability for radiographs.
These are summarized in Figure 700-15 for easy reference.
Fig. 700-14 Double-Wall Single-Image Radiography
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-34 Chevron Corporation
(1) Cracks of any kind are detrimental and should not be allowed.
(2) For sour service (partial pressure of H
2
S 0.5 psi (0.35 kPa)) Chevron Canada Resources specifies none allowed. CAN3-Z183 and
CAN/CSA-Z184 codes suggest additional restrictions on internal surface imperfections may be warranted for sour service.
(3) As for Note 2, but only at the root pass.
Company Weld Acceptance Standards
The Company generally follows the API STD 1104 standards. Some Operating
Companies, such as Chevron Canada Resources, specify more stringent standards
for acceptance of girth welds. This is especially true for critical or sour services,
Fig. 700-15 Summary of Standards of Acceptability for Radiographic Weld Inspection
Type of Defect API Standard 1104 Notes
Cracks None allowed except shallow crater cracks in the cap pass with maximum length
of 5/32".
(1)
Incomplete Penetration at Root Pass Max 1" length in 12" of weld, or 8% of weld length for welds less than 12" long. Max
individual length 1".
(2)
Incomplete Penetration Due to High-
Low Flow
Max individual length 2". Max total length of 3" in 12" of continuous weld.
(2)
Incomplete Fusion at Root Pass Max of 1" length in 12" of weld, or 8% of weld length for welds less than 12". Max
individual length 1".
(2)
Incomplete Fusion at Sidewall or Cold
Lap
Max individual length of 2". Max total length 2" in 12" of continuous weld.
Burn-Through (NPS 2 and Larger) Max 1/4" or wall thickness, whichever is less, in any dimension. Max total length of
1/2" in 12" of weld.
Internal Concavity If radiographic image of internal concavity is less dense than base metal, any
length is allowable. If more dense, then see burn-through above.
Undercut at Root Pass or Cap Pass
(Radiograph Plus Visual)
Max allowable depth is 1/32" or 12 1/2% wall thickness, whichever is less. Max 2"
length in any 12" or 1/6 of weld length, whichever is less, for depth of 1/64" to 1/32"
or 6 to 12% of wall thickness, whichever is less. Depths less than 1/64" acceptable
regardless of length.
(3)
Slag Inclusions (NPS 2 and Larger) Elongated: Max width 1/16". Max length 2".
Parallel slag lines: considered separate if width of either exceeds 1/32".
Isolated slag inclusions: max width 1/8" and 1/2" total length in any 12" of weld. No
more than four isolated inclusions of 1/8" max width in any 12".
Porosity Spherical and piping: Max dimension 1/8" or 25% of wall thickness, whichever is
less (6.61, 6.63). Max distribution shown in API STD 1104.
Cluster: Max area of 1/2" diameter with individual pore dimension of 1/16 in. Max
total length is 1/2" of weld.
Hollow bead: Max individual length 1/2 .<R>Max 2" total length in 12" of weld with
individual discontinuities exceeding 1/4" in length separated by at least 2".
Weld Reinforcement at Finish Bead Max 1/16" by approximately 1/8" wider than original groove.
Excessive Root Penetration Not covered.
Misalignment Maximum 1/16".
Accumulation of Discontinuities Maximum of 2" in any 12" or 8% of weld length excluding high-low and undercut
condition.
General Rights of rejection: Since NDT methods give two-dimensional results only, the
Company may reject welds which appear to meet these standards of acceptability,
if in its opinion the depth of the defect may be detrimental to the strength of the
weld.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-35 November 1994
(1) Minimum 90% if some welds are inaccessible.
where the concern is crevice corrosion. The notes to Figure 700-15 show the more
stringent requirements.
The use of more stringent standards should be carefully considered for each project.
In some areas it may be impossible to enforce higher standards because the welder
expertise is not available. Inability to meet higher specified standards after the
project has started could lead to disputes with regulatory agencies.
Radiographic Inspection Frequency
ANSI/ASME Codes B31.4 and B31.8 and CAN3-Z183 and CAN/CSA-Z184
specify similar but slightly different inspection frequencies, depending on class
location, design safety factor, installed location and fluid carried. See
Figure 700-17.
Fig. 700-16 Code Mandatory Radiographic Weld Inspection Frequency
ANSI/ASME Code Canadian Standard
B31.4 B31.8 Z183 Z184
Weld Category hoop stress >20% SMYS Gr 290 >Gr 290 Gr 290 >Gr 290
Production Welds 10% 15% 15% visual
sample
15%
Sour Service Welds <20% SMYS 15%
Sour Service Welds >20% SMYS 100% 100% 100% 100%
Populated Areas 100%
(1)

Location Class 1 10%
2 15%
3 40%
4 75%
Water Crossings 100%
(1)
100% 100% 100%
Rail & Highway Crossings 100%
(1)
100%
Offshore & Inland Coastal Waters 100%
(1)
100%
Old Welds in Used Pipe 100%
(1)

Tie-in Welds 100%
(1)
100% 100%
Uncased Railway Crossings 100% 100%
Cased Crossings w/ F = 0.72 100% 100%
Crossings w/ F = 0.60, 0.50 or 0.40 100% 100%
Notes: 1. All percentages are minimums. All inspection for 100% of circumference.
2. Sour service is 0.5 psi (0.35 kPa) partial pressure of H
2
S.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-36 Chevron Corporation
Section 434.8.5(a)(4) of Code B31.4 and Section 826.2(b) of Code B31.8 stipulate
these frequencies. Section 6.2.8.2 of CAN3-Z183 and Section 6.2.8.2.2 of
CAN/CSA-Z184 provide similar frequencies.
For noncritical lines the basic code frequency is quite low. In some cases this means
the radiographic crew is underworked. It is therefore usual to have the crew work
steadily for the full shift (if the crew is onsite anyway). For a small extra expense
for added film, you can thus achieve up to 50% inspection coverage and greatly
increased confidence.
750 Pipeline Coating Inspection
Inspection of pipeline coatings is done at coating application plants and at the pipe-
line construction site. Because coatings are susceptible to damage in handling,
visual inspection should be done at various stages in shipping the pipe from the
application plant to final lowering into the ditch. Inspection of coating application
at permanently established plants may be done by Company inspectors or
Fig. 700-17 Hydraulic Profile: Hydrotest Heads
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-37 November 1994
contracted inspection agencies under the general supervision of a Company Quality
Assurance organization. Inspection at field plants and as the line is laid is normally
done by the Company field organization, with the Company inspectors or
contracted inspectors reporting directly to the Company lead inspector.
The National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) offers an International
Coating Inspector Training and Certification Program that is the only established
qualification procedures for coating inspectors. Training by experienced Company
inspectors and field engineers and by Materials Specialists will prepare an inspector
for coating inspection, with emphasis on the particular coating systems for a
project. Much valuable information on coating quality is available in industry publi-
cations (Oil and Gas Journal, Pipeline Industry, Pipeline, etc.) and in standards
established by NACE. The CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit can
provide classes on coatings inspection, tailored to the needs of individual projects.
NACE also conducts regional and national meetings and seminars which include
topics on coating quality and inspection, by which inspectors can gain inspection
expertise and knowledge of coating application.
Established coating applicators and suppliers of coating materials have testing
methods and laboratory equipment for quality control of their production and for
product development. Standard test procedures for many elements of coating
quality have been developed by ASTM, NACE, API, AWWA, and DIN. Applica-
tors, suppliers, and major pipeline operating companies have their own test proce-
dures and modified standard procedures. The Richmond Materials Laboratory of
the Chevron Research and Technology Company is equipped to perform a number
of tests to evaluate coatings, and is available to conduct tests on coatings on
request. Results of these test procedures are very helpful in evaluating the perfor-
mance of coating systems and materials for a particular project, but generally these
procedures are not applicable for inspection of coating application.
This section presents guidelines for inspection of production coatings and girth
weld field joint coatings. For descriptions of these coatings see Sections 340 and
350 of this manual, and the Coatings Manual. Coating systems covered here are:
External
Fusion-bonded epoxy
Extruded plastic film
Coal tar enamel
Tape
Shrink sleeves
Internal
Fusion-bonded epoxy
Cement-lining
For guidelines on other external and internal coatings consult with nonmetallic and
pipeline coating specialists in the CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-38 Chevron Corporation
751 Inspection Methods for External Coating
Systems
Except for over-the-ditch application of tape or enamel coatings, careful coating
inspection must be conducted at least two times:
When the coating is initially applied
When the pipe is lowered into the ditch
The same inspection methods should be used for each inspection.
The inspector must have full knowledge of the method of coating application for
each coating system. Descriptions of specific application methods are available in
the Coatings Manual, in Specification PPL-MS-1800, and in manufacturers
product literature.
Generally, inspection involves all of the following methods:
Visual inspection of the entire coating surface to detect imperfections and
flaws, lack of coverage, damage, etc.
Holiday detection utilizing specialized equipment by the applicators crew at
the plant, and by the pipeline construction crew in the field, and closely moni-
tored by the Company inspector. Holiday detectors are manufactured by Pipe-
line Inspection Company (SPY), Houston, TX; D. E. Stearns Co., Shreveport,
LA; Tinker & Rasor, San Gabriel, CA; and others.
Production sample examination using destructive testing by several means
described below.
Specifications
These specifications are typical of those used for external coating inspection:
COM-MS-4042, Fusion Bonded Epoxy for External Pipeline Coating.
COM-MS-5006, Coal-Tar Enamel Corrosion Coating of Submarine Pipelines.
NACE T-10D-10, Proposed Standard, Application Performance and Quality
Control of Plant-applied Fusion Bonded Epoxy External Pipe Coating.
NACE RP-02 74-74, High Voltage Electrical Inspection of Pipeline Coatings
Prior to Installing.
NACE T-10D-9C, Proposed Standard, Holiday Detection of Fusion Bonded
External Pipeline Coating of 10 to 30 mils.
NACE RP-01 85-85, Extruded Polyolefin Resin Coating Systems for Under-
ground or Submerged Pipe.
PA-129, Chevron Point Arguello Specification, Extruded Polyethylene Corro-
sion Coating with Butyl Adhesive. (CRTC Materials Division File No. 6.55.70)
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-39 November 1994
Shop Quality Assurance
Fusion bonded epoxy: Refer to Section 6.0 of COM-MS-4042 and Section 9.0
of proposed NACE Standard T-10D-10.
Polyethylene: Refer to NACE RP-01 85-85 and Section 6.0 of Chevron Speci-
fication PA-129.
Coal tar enamel wrap: Refer to Section 8.0 of COM-MS-5006.
Shop-applied tapes: Holiday inspection in accordance with NACE RP-0274-
74. The Inspector should inspect visually over 100% of the wrapped area, and
include visual lap observation. The inspector should use a window-type patch
test of the tape to pipe adhesion. Test frequency should be at the inspectors
discretion. The test is acceptable if the plastic backing peels off leaving a
complete adhesive cover on the pipe or if strings of adhesive appear as the tape
is peeled back from the pipe and no areas of zero adhesion are encountered. In
the event of a failure, additional window tests should be made until acceptable
bond is found. All the defective areas shall be cleaned to bare steel and
rewrapped.
752 Plant Inspection of Internal FBE Coatings
Specifications
The Company does not have a specification for internal coating of pipelines with
fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). API has a recommended practice, and an Aramco spec-
ification is available from CRTC.
API RP 5L7, Recommended Practice for Unprimed Internal FBE Coating of
Line Pipe
Aramco 09-AMSS-91, Shop-Applied Internal FBE Coating
Shop Quality Assurance
Refer to Section 5.0 of API RP 5L7 and Section 7.0 of 09-AMSS-91.
753 Plant Inspection of Internal Cement Linings
Specifications
The recommended specifications for cement lining of pipe used for produced water,
reinjection water, brine, and salt water service are:
PPL-MS-1632, Cement-Lined Pipe
API RP 10E, Recommended Practice for Application of Cement Lining to
Tubular Goods, Handling, Installation, and Joining
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-40 Chevron Corporation
Shop Quality Assurance
Follow these sections of API RP 10E for guidance on inspection during shop fabri-
cation:
Section 4, Inspection and Rejection of Cement-Lined Pipe
Section 7, Typical Problems Experienced with Cement-Lined Tubular Goods
754 Field Inspection Methods for External Coatings
Specifications
Fusion Bonded Epoxy: Holiday inspection per NACE Proposed Standard T-
10D-9C.
Polyethylene: Holiday inspection per NACE RP-0274-74
Over-the-Ditch Applied Tapes: Field inspection of over-the-ditch applied
tapes is essentially the same as for shop-applied tapes.
Concrete Weight Coating: Refer to Specification PPL-MS-4807.
Holiday Detection for All Coatings
Inspection for holidays should be in accordance with NACE RP-0274-74. The
coated pipeline should be 100% inspected with a pulse-type DC holiday detector
employing an audible signalling device. Inspection is performed immediately prior
to burial, i.e., after the last lowering-in side-boom. The electrode used for locating
holidays must be in direct contact with the coating (with no visible gaps) and
provide complete coverage of the whole coated surface. All holidays should be
repaired and the repairs should all be checked with a holiday detector to verify that
they are adequate. This final inspection procedure should be monitored by a
Company Inspector.
The holiday detector requires an electrical ground. In most cases, this is a flexible
bare wire approximately 30 feet long which is attached to the detector and trailed
along the ground. Wet or damp ground is best. Dry ground may not complete the
circuit; in this case attach the wire to a sideboom tractor. The travel rate of the
detectors electrode should not exceed 1 ft/sec nor should it remain stationary while
the power is on.
The calibration of the holiday detector should be checked at least twice per 8-hour
shift against a calibrated voltmeter and adjusted as necessary. The functional opera-
tion of the holiday detector may be checked in the field by making a small artificial
holiday in the coating (not more than 1/8 inch in diameter.) If the detector is
working properly, it will reliably signal the presence of the artificial holiday.
Holidays should be clearly marked with a crayon immediately upon discovery. The
Inspector should certify that the defective areas have been repaired prior to burial.
The Inspector usually keeps a daily record of the number of coating repairs per
joint.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-41 November 1994
755 Field Inspection of FBE Coated Field Joints
The inspector should check the following details for FBE field joints. If a joint
coating fails any of these tests, test adjacent (in both directions) girth weld coatings
until acceptable coatings are found. All defective coatings should be completely
removed and the areas recoated. At least one of the repaired areas should be rein-
spected and the subsequent inspection frequency should be as given below.
Thickness. Check the thickness on each coated weld joint using an approved, cali-
brated magnetic dry film thickness gage (e.g., Microtest, Elcometer or equivalent).
The instrument should be zeroed before use with calibrated insulating shims of a
thickness comparable to the coating film thickness to be measured.
A minimum number of six readings should be taken on each field joint coating to
verify compliance with the thickness requirement above. The readings should
include the weld seam.
Cure. On the first five joints of the job and twice each day thereafter, the quality of
cure should be checked by maintaining a MEK-soaked pad in contact with the
coating surface for 1 minute and then rubbing vigorously for 15 seconds. There
should be no softening of the coating or substantial color removal from the coating.
Holiday Detection. Perform detection in conjunction with the regular holiday
detection for the coating, before lowering into the ditch.
Destructive Testing. Using a sharp knife with a narrow flexible blade, make two,
approximately 1/2-inch long incisions through to the metal substrate to form an X.
Starting at the intersection of the X, attempt to force the coating from the steel
substrate with the knife point. Refusal of the coating to peel constitutes a pass.
Partial or complete adhesion failure between the coating and the metal substrate
constitutes a failure. Cohesive failure caused by voids in the coating leaving a
honeycomb structure on the specimen surface also constitutes failure.
Perform this test once every hour. When five consecutive tests are successful, the
frequency should be reduced to once every 2 hours.
756 Field Inspection of Heat Shrink Sleeves
The following inspection methods and acceptance criteria are applicable to all heat-
shrink sleeve applications. Additional inspection requirements (if any) for specific
types of sleeves should be given in the sleeve manufacturers recommended installa-
tion procedure.
Nondestructive Inspection. The shrunk-on sleeves should exhibit the following
characteristics:
Both ends of the sleeves must be bonded around the entire circumference
The sleeve should be smooth. There should not be any dimples, bubbles, punc-
tures, burnholes, or any other signs of holidays in the coating or of entrapment
of foreign matter in the underlying adhesive
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-42 Chevron Corporation
For wrap-around sleeves, the total slippage of the closure patch during applica-
tion should not exceed 1/2 inch
The sleeve should overlap the adjacent mill coating by at least 2 inches on each
side
Holiday Detection. Perform detection in conjunction with the regular holiday
detection for the coating, before lowering into the ditch.
Destructive Inspection. Perform window testing on one sleeve of every 50
installed or twice per shift, whichever is the greater. On each sleeve tested, cut at
least one window in each of the overlap area, across the field girth weld, and in the
body of the sleeve. There should be no evidence of either voids extending to bare
metal (or mill coating) or areas of no adhesion. The girth weld should be
completely covered by adhesive.
Sleeve application is acceptable if both of the following requirements are met:
The maximum dimension of any of these defects does not exceed 2 inches
At least 95% of the adhesive layer is free of voids and/or lack of adhesion
If the sleeve does not meet the acceptance criteria above, the adjacent sleeves in
both directions should be destructively tested until acceptable installations are
found.
757 Protection of Coating During Laying
To ensure coating integrity, inspection during pipeline laying operations should be a
joint effort between the coating inspector, lowering-in inspector, and backfill
inspector. They should:
1. Inspect the ditch to ensure proper depth and sufficient width so as to provide
cover and clearance after lowering-in is complete.
2. When padding or rockshield are used, ensure that the pipe is placed on the
padding or rockshield when lowered into the trench. If rockshield is the encir-
clement type, ensure that it is correctly installed.
3. Ensure that all rocks, skids, roots and other damaging material are removed
from the ditch.
4. Ensure that all weld rods are removed from the ditch. They can cause mechan-
ical and corrosion damage.
5. Ensure that all field joint coating and line pipe is free of holidays or torn mate-
rial. Witness 100% of final jeeping.
6. Verify twice daily the calibration, voltage settings, battery charge, correct
speed, and grounding of the holiday detector.
7. Verify that all damaged areas in coating are properly repaired.
8. Record total footage of pipe jeeped and coating repaired daily.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-43 November 1994
9. Ensure the overall safety of personnel, and suitability of equipment used in the
lowering-in and backfill operations.
10. Ensure that mechanical equipment does not damage the pipe during back-
filling, and that backfill material has no rocks or hard objects that may damage
coating.
760 Completion Testing
Completion testing of a pipeline after construction normally involves:
A scraper run of a series of pigs propelled by water
Hydrostatic pressure testing of the line with water
Procedure
Along with the source of water, the most important concern in developing a proce-
dure for testing a long cross-country pipeline is the test pressures for different
sections of the line. These depend on design operating pressures, maximum allow-
able pipe pressures for various wall thicknesses, and ground elevations.
A procedure may be incorporated in the construction specification, but is more
often developed by the Company field organization in coordination with the
construction contractor. The procedure needs to be carefully thought through to
achieve an efficient and safe testing program.
Water Supply
Because of the large volume of water usually needed to fill the line, the source of
water establishes the point from which scrapers are run. Appropriate arrangements
must be made for acquisition of water supply. Booster pumps from a river or lake
and a temporary line to the pipeline may have to be installed. Often, temporary
scraper traps are needed to send and receive the construction completion test pigs.
The pressure test pump will normally be located with the pump for the scraper run
and line fill, but subsequently may need to be relocated down the line for sections
that require higher test pressures. If the flow for scraper run and line fill should be
the reverse of the direction of flow for normal operating, attention should be given
to check valves that might stop the reverse flow or block the pigs.
Water should be free from silt (screened with 200 mesh and filtered if necessary),
and noncorrosive and non-scale-forming for the period of time before the line is
dewatered and displaced with oil or gas. An oxygen scavenger is not usually
warranted, since, once free oxygen in the fill water is consumed by a negligible
amount of corrosion of the pipe wall, no further corrosion takes place. However, if
water is to be left in the line for a long period, it should be treated with a biocide
(such as glutaraldehyde) to prevent growth of anaerobic bacteria, which can
produce H
2
S and cause sulfide cracking of the pipe steel.
Biocides are often toxic and arrangements for their use and disposal should be
made well in advance. You should consider refilling the line after hydrotesting and
injecting the biocide into the second fill to avoid uncontrolled spills should pipe
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-44 Chevron Corporation
failure occur during hydrotesting. Application to environmental authorities for
disposal of water containing biocide should be made early in the project. Neutral-
izing may be required, and testing and modelling may take four to six months
before approval is granted.
In cold climates, the hydrotest media is often a mixture of water and alcohol (meth-
enol or glycol). The cost of alcohol is significant and sometimes the pipeline
contractor or a local supplier will have a premixed supply on hand. Disposal of this
mixture must be carefully arranged.
Preliminary Testing
Preliminary testing of pipe strings before installation is recommended for sections
of line that may not be accessible later, such as major river crossings. Similarly, it
may be prudent to test short sections of line immediately after installation in cases
where later pipe or weld replacement would be difficult (and much more costly)
after the installation crew and equipment have left the site; for instance, at major
highway and main line railroad crossings, main irrigation canal crossings, etc.
Contractors
Construction contractors may perform testing operations with their own personnel
and equipment, or may subcontract to testing specialist contractors. In some cases,
the Company has conducted testing with assistance from contractor personnel.
Communications
Radio communications should be available during testing, connecting all personnel
with a central location, either directly or through relayed message links. A
Company engineer who is well acquainted with the testing program and basic
hydraulic calculations should be on duty or on call throughout the period of comple-
tion testing to initiate or approve modifications to the program and respond to line
failures if they occur.
Records
Clear and accurate records should be kept of all testing procedures and data. This is
required for lines under governmental jurisdiction and also by ANSI/ASME Codes.
See Section 830 for guidelines on inservice inspection and testing.
761 Completion Scraper Run
The pigs run for the completion test serve to:
Displace air in the line with water. A line packed with water, without air
pockets, is needed for reliable hydrotesting.
Push construction debris ahead of them out of the line. The pigs will partially
clean mill scale, weld spatter, and dirt from the line, as well as larger trash,
rocks, etc., that were not removed by spread crews.
Check the internal cross-section of the line. A pig equipped with a gaging plate
will confirm that the line does not have dents, buckles or excessive ovalling at
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-45 November 1994
bends. If any such are present, the pig will either be stopped by the deformed
pipe, or will arrive at the incoming scraper trap with a severely bent gaging
plate.
Pumping equipment and water supply for a typical completion scraper run should
have a flow capacity corresponding to a velocity of roughly two miles per hour in
the pipeline, at a discharge pressure sufficient to overcome hydrostatic head and
fluid friction loss plus at least 100 psi to move the pigs. If debris in the line is
expected, higher pressure may be needed. A typical sequence of pumping and pigs
might be as follows:
Approximately one-half mile of wash water (since dry dirt, dust, and mill
scale, even without larger trash, tends to pack and plug the scraper)
A three- or four-cup displacement pig
Approximately one-half mile of water, or at least 15 minutes pumping
A second three- or four-cup displacement pig
Again, approximately one-half mile of water, or at least 15 minutes pumping
A three- or four-cup pig with a gaging plate in front of the first cup or in the
center of the pig
Water to fill the line, unless additional brush scrapers at intervals of at least 15
minutes are used to further clean pipe walls because of service requirements, or
additional multicup pigs are considered necessary to displace air pockets in
particularly rough (up-and-down) terrain
Gaging Plates
The gaging plate diameter should be 93% of the minimum nominal internal diam-
eter of pipe in the particular section of line being tested. The plate should be accu-
rately machined, and the diameter, measured by micrometer calipers, should be
stamped on the plate. Three-eighths inch minimum thickness is suggested for a
steel plate (one-half inch if aluminum), so that it is not likely to be deformed by a
restricted pipe cross-section. The leading edge of the plate should be chamfered.
For large-diameter lines a steel reinforcing plate slightly smaller than the gaging
plate may be advisable.
If after running through the line, the gaging plate is deformed, nicked, or gouged,
possible causes should be reviewed and judgment made on accepting the line as
satisfactory. A gaging plate may catch on weld icicles, small pebbles, or other
acceptable irregularities at line appurtenances, as well as unacceptable deformed
pipe.
Monitoring Progress
While running the pigs, it is strongly recommended that the water volume pumped
into the line be metered and pressures at the pump continuously observed at conve-
nient locations down the line. Meter and pressure data versus time should be
recorded at a minimum of 15-minute intervals and whenever any sudden rise or
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-46 Chevron Corporation
drop in pressure occurs. A pressure recorder should also be used. These data can be
used to analyze the location of the series of pigs should they hang up or plug.
Slight, repeated pressure variations are normal, since the pigs often momentarily
slow down until pressure builds up behind them, and then speed up.
It is also strongly recommended to follow the scrapers, continuously if the terrain
allows, or, otherwise, wherever the line is readily accessible. A scraping of the cups
inside the pipe can be heard while walking along the line but is likely to be
drowned out by vehicle engine noise. Sound-amplifying devices are very helpful,
with detector probes set into the ground or directly on the pipe, where accessible, as
at intermediate line block valves. A record should be kept of location versus time
when following the pigs. The temperatures of the water pumped into the line and of
the water that arrives with the pigs in the incoming scraper trap should be recorded;
this information is not pertinent to the scraper run, but may be useful in analyzing
hydrotest data. All this documentation may seem unnecessary after an uneventful,
satisfactory scraper run, but can be vital when trying to analyze locations of
suspected bad pipe or stuck pigs.
Pigs equipped with sonic transmitters can be detected and precisely located from
ground level. Because of cost and logistics they are not often used, but may be
warranted in situations where exploratory excavations to locate bad pipe or stuck
pigs would be very costly or impractical.
On long downhill slopes where pigs with a relatively small amount of water behind
them will run away from the line-fill water, an attempt should be made to hold a
back-pressure at the incoming scraper trap equivalent to the elevation head behind
the pigs.
Water Disposal
Arrangements for disposal of water received with the pigs, and later the displaced
line-fill water, should be carefully planned, particularly if environmental conditions
control disposal into natural drainage. In any case the water received with the pigs
should be run to a settling pond to catch mill scale and debris before it is released.
When the first displacement pig arrives at the incoming scraper trap, pumping
should be stopped until the pig and any debris are removed from the trap. Providing
the trap barrel is long enough to hold them, several of the following pigs can be
received without stopping flow, since there will be no large debris with them.
Should a pig stop at plugged or deformed pipe and have to be cut out of the line, it
is usually necessary to repeat that series of pigs from the outgoing scraper trap,
unless the plug is near the end of the section tested and little water has been lost
and little air has entered the line behind the pigs.
762 Completion Hydrotesting
After displacing the air and filling the line with water during the completion scraper
run, hydrostatic testing of the line (or section) can proceed. This involves pumping
with suitable pressuring pumps to raise line pressure to a specified test pressure,
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-47 November 1994
blocking the line in to hold pressure, and observing line pressure for a period of
time to determine if the line is tight.
Code Requirements
Section 437.4 of ANSI/ASME Code B31.4 covers hydrotesting of liquid lines, and
requires proof testing of every point in the system to not less than 1.25 times the
internal design pressure at that point for not less than 4 hours, followed by a
reduced pressure of not less than 1.1 times the internal design pressure for not less
than 4 hours. In other words, where lines are designed for maximum design pres-
sures stressing the pipe to 72% of specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), the
test pressure produces stresses of 90% of SMYS. API RP 1110, Recommended
Practice for Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines, gives guidelines for
hydrotesting procedures and equipment, and a test record and certification form.
Section 841.3 of ANSI/ASME Code B31.8 covers testing of gas lines, and requires
testing for at least 2 hours to the pressures tabulated in Code B31.8 Table 841.322
(e). Depending on the Location Class the test pressure ranges from 79% to 56% of
SMYS if the maximum design pressure is based on design factors 0.72 to 0.40. See
Section 443 of this manual. Code B31.8 allows testing with air or gas in Location
Class 1 and air in Location Class 2, as well as with water. Code B31.8 has other
provisions for special circumstances.
Company Practice
Company practice is to test liquid lines to a pressure corresponding to 90% of
SMYS regardless of maximum design operating pressure, unless limited to a lower
pressure by valve or flange test pressure, and holding for a minimum of 24 hours or
as long as needed to determine that there is no unaccounted-for line leakage. Stabili-
zation of water temperature at ground temperatures and absorption of air remaining
in the line into the water take some time, usually much longer than the 4-hour Code
minimum, and affect the pressure in the line. After these effects have stabilized,
pressure will hold constant in a tight line. Occasionally, very slight leakage at a
flange, valve packing, or gage connection cannot be corrected, and this loss of
water can be related to a continuing loss of line pressure.
For gas lines Company practice is to test them hydrostatically with water to at least
the Code minimum test pressures and usually higherup to 90% of SMYS,
depending on location, service, and cost of repairs in event of pipe or weld failure.
The test period should be a minimum of 24 hours, or as long as needed to deter-
mine that there is no unaccounted-for line leakage. For station piping which is
mostly aboveground, the shorter test periods allowed by the Codes are satisfactory.
Establishing Hydrotest Pressures
The objective in establishing completion hydrotest pressures is to stress as much of
the line as is feasible to 90% of SMYS, taking into account the effects of different
pipe grades and wall thicknesses, and different ground elevations along the line, as
well as expected operating pressures. Where the line is designed for a maximum
allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of 72% of SMYS, the line hydrotest pressure
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-48 Chevron Corporation
is rarely limited by valve or flange test pressure (nominally 1.5 times maximum
allowable operating pressure for the valve or flange), but this should be checked.
For a short line having the same pipe grade and wall thickness for the entire length,
in level terrain, the hydrotest pressure P (psi) is readily calculated as follows:
P = 0.90 SMYS (2t/D)
(Eq. 700-1)
where:
t = wall thickness, in.
D = outside diameter, in.
This will be the hydrotest pressure at the pressuring pump discharge, unless limited
by valve or flange test pressure.
This situation is rarely found on long cross-country pipelines. Rather, pipe is likely
to be of several wall thicknesses and, possibly, different grades. Also, ground eleva-
tion differentials will produce hydrostatic head differentials. The hydraulic profile
can be used to represent hydrostatic pressures along the line at no-flow. The hydro-
static head at any point is the difference between a horizontal line (the test pressure
for that section of line) and the ground elevation (see Figure 400-4 in Section 420).
For a given pipe grade and wall thickness, the pipe will be most highly stressed at
the lowest ground elevation, and less highly stressed at other points along the
section. The hydrotest pressure should be the pressure that will stress the pipe at the
lowest ground elevation to 90% of SMYS. In some cases, a test pressure higher
than 90% of SMYS at the lowest ground elevation may be used, to more closely
approach 90% at other locations. In such cases the risk of potential pipe failure
(since mill hydrotests were probably to 90% of SMYS) and repair and delay costs
should be evaluated by comparing the SMYS value against actual mill test yield
strength for the pipe. It is recommended that in no case should 100% of SMYS be
exceeded in hydrotesting.
In establishing hydrotest pressures for different sections along a cross-country pipe-
line, it is helpful to include a line on the hydraulic profile representing the calcu-
lated head producing 90% of SMYS for each of the pipe grades and wall
thicknesses along the line, as well as design hydraulic gradients and pipe MAOP
based on 72% of SMYS. Keep in mind that all heads shown on the diagram are in
feet of the design fluid, not water. (See Figure 700-17.)
For the example in Figure 700-17:
Section A-B. A is the point where the pipe is stressed to 90% SMYS.
Hydrotest pressure is elevation A-B minus elevation PS, in feet of design fluid.
Section B-C. B is the point for 90% SMYS. Hydrotest head is elevation B-C
minus ground elevation at B. If the section is pressured by a test pump at A, the
test pressure at the pump is elevation B-C minus elevation PS, in feet of design
fluid.
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Chevron Corporation 700-49 November 1994
Section C-D. The low point downstream of C is the point for 90% SMYS.
Hydrotest pressure is elevation C-D minus the elevation at the low point, in
feet of design fluid. With the test pump at A, the test pressure at the pump is
elevation C-D minus elevation PS, in feet of design fluid.
Sections C-D, B-C, and A-B could be pressured in sequence at their respective
hydrotest pressures. However, if the test pump were at a source of water at the low
point near C, section C-D could be pressured but the test pump would then have to
be moved first to C to test section B-C, then to B to test section A-B, with the test
pressures at the pump taking into account the ground elevations at the pump when
pressuring the section.
The permissible maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for the pipe-
line is established by the hydrostatic test. For pipelines in liquid service, the MAOP
at each point along the line is 1/1.25or 0.80times the hydrotest pressure at that
point, as indicated for location x on Figure 700-17. A more convenient calculation
for the MAOP at location x in psi, established by hydrotest, is given by the
following:
MAOP
at x
= 0.80 (P
test at A
- 0.4328 Elevation)
(Eq. 700-2)
where:
P
test at A
= test pressure at location A, psi
Elevation = ground elevation at x minus ground elevation at A, ft
Thus, although hydrotest head is represented on the diagram by a horizontal line, a
line for the permissible MAOP will be above a horizontal line representing 0.80
times the hydrotest head at the low-point location where the pipe is stressed to 90%
of SMYS. This can be significant in establishing maximum pump discharge pres-
sures at station locations or suitability of telescoped pipe for pump shutoff condi-
tions.
Using the above calculation method, the MAOP established by hydrotest for the
pipe may be plotted as shown in Figure 700-18. Taking into account on the coordi-
nate scale for the conversion from feet to psi, the hydrotest pressure line on the
diagram is the invert of the ground profile. The pipe MAOP is 0.80 times the value
of the hydrotest pressure, and so does not parallel the hydrotest pressure line.
Similar calculations and diagrams can be developed for gas pipelines, taking into
account the Code design and test factors for the various location classes.
Where an allowance has been provided in the pipe wall thickness for corrosion or
erosion for pipelines in slurry service, the hydrotest pressure should be calculated
to stress the pipe to the same stress as if it did not have the corrosion/erosion allow-
ance. For a line tested at 1.25 times the design maximum allowable operating pres-
sure, the hydrotest pressure would then be as follows:
P
test
= 1.25 P
design
(t
n
/t
min
)
(Eq. 700-3)
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November 1994 700-50 Chevron Corporation
where:
t
n
= actual nominal wall thickness of the pipe, in.
t
min
= pressure design wall thickness, in. (equal to the nominal wall
thickness less the corrosion/erosion allowance)
This hydrotest pressure should be used as a basis in selecting valve and flange
ratings. Valves and flanges having lower test pressure than the pipe hydrotest pres-
sure must be isolated so they are not overpressured.
Establishing hydrotest pressures for the line sectionsand corresponding pressures
for the test pump discharge and for different locations along the linedoes not
involve complex calculations. It does require a logical analysis of pressures calcu-
lated by the hoop stress equation, and a careful accounting for hydrostatic head
differentials for the different ground elevations along the line.
Fig. 700-18 MAOP Established by Hydrotest
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Chevron Corporation 700-51 November 1994
Equipment for Hydrotesting
Typical equipment for hydrotesting includes the following:
Pumping system. The pumping system comprises the following:
The water supply system, with a high-volume pump used for the comple-
tion scraper run
A low-volume, variable-speed, positive-displacement test pump, with
known volume per stroke, and a stroke counter. The pump should have a
relief valve to protect the pump from overpressuring and a check valve on
the pump discharge piping
A tank on the suction line to the test pump, suitable for measuring the
volume pumped into the line
Instruments
A Bourdon-tube pressure test gage, calibrated before the test, with a
reading accuracy of 0.1% of full scale
A deadweight pressure tester, capable of measuring increments of 1.5 psi,
certified for accuracy and traceable to the National Bureau of Standards
A 24-hour pressure recorderchecked using the deadweight tester imme-
diately before and after usewith a supply of properly ranged chart paper
(test pressure should be about 80% of maximum scale)
Pressure gages, calibrated before the test, with reading accuracy of 1% of
full scale for use at locations along the line where pressures are observed
Thermometers for measuring water, ground and air temperatures
A 24-hour temperature recorder, with the temperature detector in contact
with the pipe at a point where it has normal cover
Typical Hydrotest Sequence
With air purged from the line and the line filled with water after a successful
completion scraper run, a typical hydrotest sequence is as follows:
1. Pressure the line with the high-volume pump used for the completion scraper
run line-fill, to the pump shut-off head (but not exceeding about 75% of the test
pressure).
2. Verify that the line pressure recorder and underground pipe temperature
recorder are in operation, set at real time.
3. Pressure the line with the pressure test pump to 70% to 80% of the test pres-
sure. If it is late in the day it is preferable to stop pressuring until the next
morning to allow time for water temperatures to stabilize at ground tempera-
tures and to use daylight for final pressuring. However, often the contractor and
sometimes the Company want to proceed with testing without any interruption.
4. Pressure the line gradually with the test pump in increments of about 2.5% of
test pressure every ten minutes unless pump capacity is limiting. While pres-
suring observe and record, at five-minute intervals, (1) pressures, using the
deadweight tester and the test gage, (2) volume of water pumped as measured
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-52 Chevron Corporation
in the tank, and (3) pump stroke counter reading. At about 20-minute intervals
check the pressure recorder readings against the deadweight pressures to
confirm that the recorder is functioning properly. If there should be a sudden
drop in pressure, indicating a line break, record the pressure just before the
drop and stop pumping.
5. When the test pressure is reached, stop the test pump. Care must be taken not
to exceed the maximum test pressure, particularly for short lines. If the pres-
sure should drop below test pressure within a few minutes and then appear to
stabilize, resume pumping to raise the pressure to test pressure again while
continuing to observe and record data. Disconnect the pump from the line.
Continue observing and recording deadweight pressures at 5-minute intervals
for at least an hour, and 15 minutes thereafter until the end of the test.
6. In the event warm ground temperatures cause the line pressure to increase
above the maximum test pressure, water must be bled slowly and carefully
from the line to lower the pressure to test pressure. The water should be
drained to the tank so that the volume can be accurately measured, using the
deadweight tester for pressure data while lowering the line pressure. If line
pressure again rises to the maximum, this operation will need to be repeated.
7. In many cases the line pressure drops after first reaching test pressure, either
because the water has cooled to ground temperature or because of air absorp-
tion into the water at high pressure. If the drop is due to these effects, the rate
of pressure drop will decrease and the pressure will eventually stabilize and
hold. If pressure drops appreciably before finally stabilizing, the pressuring
pump should be reconnected and the pressure raised to test pressure, again
observing and recording data.
8. If the pressure drop has stabilized and the pressure held steady for at least 4
hours, the test can be considered satisfactory after 24 hours, or after 4 hours of
stabilized pressure if this takes longer than 24 hours.
9. At the end of a satisfactory test in which there are line block valves at the ends
of the section under test, the line is depressured until there is a positive pres-
sure of, say, 50 psi at the high point of the section. If it is necessary to make a
welded or flanged connection to the next section of line, then the line will have
to be drained sufficiently to make the connection.
While pressuring the line and holding pressure, all connections and manifolds in
the test section should be closely monitored for leakage and failure. Where feasible
work should be done to correct any leakage.
763 Test Procedure and Program
A detailed procedure for completion testing should be prepared. This procedure
should be carefully reviewed and agreed to by Company field personnel and
contractor supervisory personnel involved in the testing. The procedure should
include the following elements:
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Chevron Corporation 700-53 November 1994
A ground profile for the section of line to be tested, with a diagram showing
locations of scraper traps, block valves and check valves, pressure instruments,
and temperature instruments
A diagram of the pumping and metering system for the scraper run and line
fill, from water source to the pipeline connection, including pressure-
measuring instruments, and a list of equipment data. If filtering or treatment of
the water is needed, the diagram should include this equipment
A list of pigs to be run, gage plate diameter, and volumes of water to be
pumped ahead of and between pigs
A list of detection devices for following and locating pigs
A diagram for the pressure test pump system, from water source to the connec-
tion to the pipeline, including equipment for measuring volume of water
pumped into the line, pressure-measuring instruments, provision for overpres-
sure relief, and a list of equipment data
Maximum and minimum test pressures at the pump and the primary pressure
instrumentation
Calculated test pressures at other locations along the line
Minimum period for holding the line at test pressure
Calculation methods for analyzing effects of water temperature change, air
volume in the line, and water compression
Identification of connections and appurtenances on the line that must be
blinded, plugged or disconnected. Mainline valves may be equipped with body
relief valves that must be plugged or removed. Hydrotest pressure should not
be applied to a closed valve if the pressure differential across the valve exceeds
the valve test shutoff pressure
Precautions and measures required if ambient or night chill temperature is
below freezing
Procedures required if daytime temperature and solar radiation effects on
exposed pipe or test equipment are likely to cause pressures to increase above
the maximum
Safety precautions
Communications units for Company and contractor
Test personnel organizations for Company and contractor
Notification of government agencies, where test witnessing is required
List of agencies to be notified in event of a water spill resulting from a line
rupture
Arrangement for aerial inspection service in event of line rupture or leak
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November 1994 700-54 Chevron Corporation
The overall testing program should be described in outline form, with a tentative
schedule for the scraper run and pressure testing. This should indicate personnel
duties and work schedule for testing crews. Testing usually is done on a 24-hour-
per-day basis, possibly with a short interval between line fill and pressure testing. A
definite hour-by-hour schedule for the program cannot be set, since the rate of pig
travel and times to build up to pressure test and hold at test pressure can only be
estimated. Allowances must be considered for maintenance of test equipment and
possible pipe leaks and repairs.
Example Testing Program
An example of a pipeline testing program is given in Figure 700-19. This is the
same system for which the hydraulic profile, pipe wall thicknesses, and line appurte-
nances were shown in Section 430, Figure 400-9. A suitable water supply for
scraper runs and line fill is available at two rivers. The pipe strings at these river
crossings were hydrotested after installation, but not tied in at the upstream line
block valves. A temporary launching scraper trap manifold has been fabricated, and
will be reused for each of the four scraper runs. The line block valves at the river
crossings will be used to isolate the temporary trap manifold from the line. The
sequence of testing is as follows:
1. Set up the fill and test pump facilities at the river crossing between the initial
pump station and the intermediate pump station.
2. Make the scraper run from the river to the initial pump station. Pack this
section with the fill pump.
3. a. Make the scraper run from the river to the intermediate pump station. Pack
this section with the fill pump.
b. Concurrently, pressure test line section A at hydrotest head A above the
ground elevation at the river.
4. Pressure test line section B at hydrotest head B (same as A).
5. After satisfactory tests on sections A and B and depressuring to a head some-
what greater than the ground elevation difference between the river and the
intermediate pump station, proceed as follows:
a. Tie in the line at the river crossing.
b. Move the fill and test pump facilities to the other river crossing, downhill
from the ground high point. (control point)
6. Make the scraper run from the river to the intermediate pump station, holding a
backpressure on the line at the intermediate pump after the pigs pass the high
point. Pack this section with the fill pump.
7. a. Make the scraper run from the river to the terminal, holding backpressure at
the terminal to keep the pigs from running away from the fill water.
b. Concurrently, pressure test line section F at hydrotest head F above the
ground elevation at the river.
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Fig. 700-19 Hydraulic Profile: Pipeline Testing Program
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November 1994 700-56 Chevron Corporation
8. Pressure line sections E, D, and C in order to test section C at hydrotest head C
above the ground elevation at the river, and close the line block valve between
sections D and C.
9. Pressure line sections E and D in order to test section D at hydrotest head D,
and close the line block valve between sections E and D.
10. Pressure test line section E at hydrotest head E.
11. After satisfactory tests on sections C, D, E and F:
a. Depressure sections E and F to a head sufficient to maintain a positive pres-
sure at the high point of the route (control point).
b. Depressure sections C and D to a head sufficient to maintain a positive pres-
sure at all points in these sections.
c. Tie in the line at the river crossing.
12. Demobilize and clean up all test sites.
Analysis of Hydrotest Data
Several effects must be considered in analyzing data observed while pressure
testing:
Elastic strain in the pipe due to internal pressure
Compressibility of water under pressure
Expansion/contraction of steel due to temperature changes
Changes in volume/density of water due to temperature changes
Absorption of air into water under pressure, and remaining free air
For a pipeline filled with liquid under pressure at constant temperature (disre-
garding effects of air absorption or free air in the line) the pressure-volume relation-
ship (considering elastic strain in the pipe and compressibility of the water) may be
expressed as follows:
(Eq. 700-4)
where:
dV = incremental volume in same units as V
V = fill volume of the section under test
dP = incremental pressure, psi
D = outside diameter, in.
t = wall thickness, in.
E = modulus of elasticity of steel, psi
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Chevron Corporation 700-57 November 1994
= 30 x 10
6
psi
= Poissons ratio = 0.3
C = Bulk compressibility factor of liquid, per psi (the reciprocal of
the bulk modulus). See Figure 700-20.
The above equation thus becomes:
(Eq. 700-5)
Approximate values of C for water are shown in Figure 700-20.
Temperature changes will cause pressure changes in a tight line. The effect of the
thermal expansion (or contraction) of water, offset by the thermal circumferential
expansion (or contraction) of the pipe, yields a volume-temperature relationship
(for a restrained line) as follows:
Fig. 700-20 Compressibility Factor of Water
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-58 Chevron Corporation
(Eq. 700-6)
where:
= volumetric coefficient of expansion of liquid/F. See
Figure 700-21.
= linear coefficient of expansion of the pipe per F
= 6.5 x 10
-6
per F for steel
dT = temperature change, F
From Equations 700-5 and 700-6, a pressure-temperature equation for a tight line is
as follows:
(Eq. 700-7)
Values of for water are given in Figure 700-21.
For a long buried pipeline it is not feasible to measure the pipe/water temperatures
for the length of the line, and difficult to predict the effect daily ambient tempera-
ture variations may have on pipe and water temperature. It is important to allow
sufficient time after line fill for water temperatures to equalize with ground tempera-
tures. The time for equalizing will be a function of the differential between the
source water temperature and ground temperatures, as well as of the pipe diameter.
For a relatively long section of line, the temperature of the fill water reaching the
end of the section with the initial scraper run pigs will probably be close to the
ground temperature. Thus, an approximate temperature differential between water
entering the line and the ground can be estimated and used in judging the time
needed for water temperatures to equalize with ground temperatures.
Any air remaining in the test section will complicate an analysis of the pressure-
volume data obtained in hydrotesting. With increasing pressure, air is absorbed into
the water at an indeterminate rateprobably fairly quicklyuntil the saturation
point is reached. Once absorbed the air has no further effect, but any remaining free
air behaves as a compressed gas. The volume of this air can be calculated by
comparing the actual pressure-volume relationship from the hydrotest data at the
test pressure range with the theoretical pressure-volume relationship, as follows.
Using test data:
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Chevron Corporation 700-59 November 1994
V = actual volume of water into line between P
1
and P
2
Then the difference between actual volume change and theoretical volume change
is:
(Eq. 700-8)
A calculation for the percentage volume of free air in the test section then is:
Fig. 700-21 Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion for Water
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-60 Chevron Corporation
(Eq. 700-9)
where P
1
and P
2
are absolute pressures, psia.
If there is some doubt whether sufficient time has been allowed for air absorption
and water-ground temperature equalization, allow some time, then bleed a
measured volume of water from the line, record the corresponding drop in pressure,
and use these data to calculate the percentage volume of free air.
Temperature changes and air in a test section cannot be calculated with great preci-
sion, but the calculations given can indicate the range of their effects for purposes
of analyzing a very slow drop in pressure. Additional temperature measurements
along the line may be warranted. Compressed free air hides the size of a slow leak,
and so should not be overlooked if its volume is more than a few percent.
764 Line Rupture and Leakage
When the line hydrotest indicates a pipe rupture, (a sudden large drop in pressure)
or leakage (a continuing gradual decrease in pressure) prompt action should be
taken to locate and repair the failure. In nearly all cases, the failure will be due to
defective or damaged pipe rather than a girth weld. Flange or valve packing leakage
may also be a cause. Since the line pipe is usually furnished by the Company, costs
for the contractors crew and equipment to stand by and make repairs due to defec-
tive pipe will be charged to the Companys account, and the Company field organi-
zation should act to minimize these costs.
Pipe Rupture
In the case of pipe rupture, pressures at the test pump and at available locations
along the section under test should be reported as soon as possible. Analysis of
hydrostatic heads will pinpoint the location of the rupture, or narrow the length of
line in which the rupture must have occurred. For example (referring to
Figure 700-19) the location of a pipe rupture that has occurred while testing section
B, where the observed hydrostatic head at the test pump at the river crossing corre-
sponds to the ground elevation differential between the river and the future pump
station, would be in the vicinity of the future pump station. However, if the terrain
is nearly level, line pressures will be essentially zero, and visual inspection along
the entire length under test will be necessary to locate the rupture. Unless under-
water, a pipe rupture is often easily spotted, as a wet area where the water has
drained out and usually by a pit washed out by the sudden release of water.
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Leak Location
In the case of gradual loss of pressure, indicating a leak, the line should be repres-
sured to the hydrotest pressure. If there are line block valves within the section
under test, they should be closed to isolate shorter sections of line, and pressures
observed to determine the section with the leak.
Finding a leak (see Figure 700-22) may be difficult and time consuming. The leak
may or may not show as a wet spot on the ground, depending on the amount of
leakage and nature of the soil. The rate of leakage (volume) should be correlated
with the rate of pressure drop. This will give an indication of the amount of water
that has leaked out, the rate of leakage as time goes on, and the likelihood of
observing it. Sonic detection devices may be helpful in locating the leak (see
Section 840). Leaks from small defects in the pipe or weld usually increase with
time as the hole is enlarged by the wire drawing action of the water at high pres-
sure. On short lines it may be feasible to displace the water with air to which a
mercaptan odorizer has been added, and locate the leak by odor.
In wet areas or swamp, if a preliminary hydrotest has not been performed on the
pipe strings, addition of a biologically acceptable red or yellow dye to the line-fill
water may be warranted to help locate a leak.
Aerial Observation
Aerial inspection of the route under test is a good way to quickly search for the
location of a rupture or leak. Arrangements for aerial inspection and radio commu-
nications between plane and ground should be made in advance of the test so that
no time is lost if a rupture or leak occurs.
770 Dewatering and Drying
After satisfactory hydrotesting, the pipeline should remain full of water until it is
put into operation unless service conditions require displacement, drying or dehy-
drating before operation. The water fill minimizes corrosion during the period
before the line goes into service and facilitates effective and controlled displace-
Fig. 700-22 Leak Detection Alternatives
Leak Masked By Detection Method
Frozen ground Mercaptan (skunk gas)
Open water or swamp Biodegradable Dye
Gas Bubbles
Mercaptan
Vegetation Drive/Walk Line
Any condition Measure Input Volumes
Acoustic Detector
Sectionalize, Excavate, Test
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-62 Chevron Corporation
ment of the water. However, gas lines may require displacement with nitrogen or
drying to prevent hydrate formation. Dehydrating may be necessary to prevent
corrosion, as for CO
2
service.
771 Dewatering
The basic dewatering procedure involves running a series of displacement pigs or
spheres propelled by the normal stock in the line, putting the pipeline system into
operating readiness. Some important factors to consider are as follows:
Disposal of the Displaced Water. Disposal of the displaced volume or water at the
intended flow rate should be planned carefully and must be acceptable to environ-
mental authorities. If the volume of water presents a problem at the pipeline
terminal, it may be feasible to release some of the water at intermediate points. If
treatment chemicals have been added to the water, environmental consequences
must be considered, particularly if biocides have been added to the fill water. See
Section 760.
For Liquid Lines. An adequate inventory of stock should be available to displace
the line or sections of line that can be isolated by block valves until another supply
of stock can be accumulated and dewatering resumed. While displacing water with
oil, the hydraulic profile for a two-stock system should be recognized (see
Section 420).
For Heated Oil Lines. A procedure must be developed for raising ground tempera-
tures sufficiently to avoid cooling heavy or waxy oil to temperatures that would
cause plugging when initially introducing it into the system. This may involve
startup with heated light oil or diluted heavy oil, or circulation of hot water. See
Section 810 for precautions involving initial warmup of hot lines.
For Gas Lines. To displace the water in hilly or mountainous terrain, sufficient
pressure must be available to overcome the hydrostatic head of the water. If there
are appreciable elevation differences along the line, control of pressure, rate of gas
flow into the line, and rate of water released should be carefully planned, with
consideration of the expansion of gas when it overcomes hydrostatic head at high
points and as fluid friction of the water decreases.
If gas pressure is not sufficient to overcome the hydrostatic head, the line must be
drained to the extent practical and nitrogen used for further dewatering to avoid
explosive gas-air mixtures. In calculating the required pressure and resultant
volume of nitrogen needed for displacement, the cumulative effect of the water
remaining in undrained low spots along the line must be taken into account.
Gas lines operating at pressures at which hydrate formation occurs must be dried or
have methanol injected to prevent hydrate formation. See Section 820.
772 Drying and Dehydrating
For certain services, removal of remaining quantities or traces of water is required
to:
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Avoid formation of gas hydrates
Minimize corrosive action where the presence of water is the contributing
factor
Maintain purity of stock, e.g., ethylene, propylene, ammonia
The degree and method of water removal required depend on the particular situa-
tion. The usual methods of drying to remove traces of liquid are:
Purging with available unsaturated gas at pressures below that at which hydrate
formation occurs
Purging with unsaturated nitrogen or unsaturated air
Drying by evacuating air or gas from the line to a high vacuum
Dehydrating reduces the water content in the gas, nitrogen or air considerably
below the saturation pointto a few parts per millionso that the gas, nitrogen or
air left in the line prior to startup is at the specified level of dehydration. Trailer-
mounted units employing a molecular sieve or chilling process are generally used
for dehydration, and a large number of foam displacement pigs are run, using large
compressors to propel them through the line over a number of line displacements.
Vacuum drying may be suitable for relatively short lines with minimal trapped
water. Pipeline Dehydrators, Houston, Texas, and Coulter Services, Houston, Texas,
are specialist contractors capable of performing pipeline dehydrating and dewa-
tering.
773 Gelled-Fluid Pigs
New technology for using cohesive, highly viscous fluids as pigs (gelled-fluid pigs)
has been developed by Dowell Schlumberger, Houston, Texas. These gelled pigs
can be used alone or in conjunction with mechanical pigs for cleaning, dewatering,
and drying with methanol and nitrogen, as well as for batch separation. A gelled pig
was used on the Ninian tie-in in the North Sea, and the industry has used the tech-
nology in a number of applications for liquid and gas pipelines.
780 Typical Field Inspection Organization
781 Objectives
Although its primary function is to monitor and enforce the technical provisions of
the construction specifications, the Company field inspection organization, as part
of the construction supervision team, is responsible for achieving the overall project
objectives outlined in Section 670. Because construction operations for cross-
country pipelines extend over a considerable distance, individual inspectors and
field engineers must act as Company representatives in dealing with landowners,
tenants, governmental agencies and the public, in addition to inspecting craft work-
manship. They also have a very important role in enforcing Contractor compliance
with safe work practices (see Section 810).
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November 1994 700-64 Chevron Corporation
Consistent high-quality workmanship, uniformly monitored by Company inspectors
and engineers, is critical on a cross-country pipeline project for the following
reasons:
Once in the ground the line is truly buriedtodays work must be inspected
today, not tomorrow
Pipeline design provides an adequate, but not generous, safety factor under
operating conditionsflaws cannot be tolerated
The pipeline is not on Company propertyfuture maintenance access and
damages to facilities of others will be costly
Consequences of line failures and resultant spills are serious and costly
extent of injury, fire or property damage may be high
Governmental and other agencies closely examine construction methods and
operation performance, and recordspost-construction review of documenta-
tion that reveals unacceptable work or faulty records can require immensely
expensive corrective work; (e.g., radiographs showing welding defects that
were not repaired)
782 Selection of Field Inspection Personnel
Selection of the field inspection personnel should be based on the following
strengths:
Technical proficiency
Reliability and motivation
Confidence in making well-founded decisions
Ability to work well with the Company field supervision team, the Contractors
supervisory personnel, and the public
Pipeline construction inspectors should be fully qualified in the craft they inspect.
Where technical competence is required, they should be completely familiar with
construction techniques and code requirements, and preferably certified by national
technical organizations. For example, welding and tie-in inspectors should hold
current American Welding Society (AWS) CW-1 certification to API Standard 1104
or to ANSI/ASME Codes; the backfill inspector should be knowledgeable in soil
compaction techniques and testing. High motivation and a proprietary attitude
toward the project and the Company are important qualities, but are no substitute
for formal training and experience. Because of the linear nature of pipeline
construction every task is on the critical path. A pipeline construction job is not the
place to provide training for inspection skills for a craft in which a man is not quali-
fied.
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Chevron Corporation 700-65 November 1994
783 Inspection Functions and Staffing
Inspection functions for pipeline construction are outlined in Appendix E, Field
Inspection Guidelines, which were prepared for a 1987-89 Chevron Pipe Line
Company project. Normally, an individual inspector or field engineer would be
responsible for the combined functions of several of the separate inspector proce-
dures in Appendix E. The circumstances for a particular pipeline construction
project will naturally influence the makeup of the field supervision staff and inspec-
tion organization and thus determine the appropriate number of inspectors and field
engineers. The following should be considered:
Number of construction spreads for the project
Length of line, or segment for each spread, and expected length from front-end
to cleanup-end activities for each spread
Extent of developed areas and surface or underground congestion along the
route
Expected rate of construction progress for each spread
Unusual aspects of construction: materials, terrain, climate, remote location
Conditions of permit and right-of-way requirements that affect construction
methods and reporting
Experience and known capabilities of candidates for inspectors and field engi-
neers
For a short line on properties with few natural obstructions or special permit/right-
of-way conditions, construction inspection can well be covered by one field engi-
neer and one inspector, one of whom should have welding inspection expertise.
For a section of line in a very congested area, requiring a compact spread and close
contacts with agencies and owners, the inspection organization might consist of one
field engineer and three inspectors, at least one with welding inspection expertise.
A front-end inspector would cover excavation activities, particularly at crossings of
roads, streets and existing buried lines, and stringing and bending. A pipeline
inspector would cover line-up, welding, coating, and lowering-in. A tie-in and
cleanup inspector would cover back-end work. The field engineer would probably
devote his attention to contacts with agencies and owners, with less time for inspec-
tion.
For a cross-country spread in open country, agricultural lands, and intermediate-
density developed areas, a typical inspection organization might be:
A front-end field engineer, covering general activities of the first half of the
spread, including survey, receipt and storage stockpiling of pipe, and double-
jointing yard and/or field coating yard if set up
A front-end inspector, covering temporary fencing, clearing and grading, exca-
vation, padding, and stringing
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-66 Chevron Corporation
A line-up and welding inspector, with welding inspection expertise, covering
bending, line-up and welding
A coating and lowering-in inspector, covering coating, lowering-in, shading,
and backfill
A tie-in inspector, with welding inspection expertise, covering tie-ins, cathodic
protection test stations, and crossings
A back-end field engineer, covering general activities of the last half of the
spread, including crossings, grade restoration, cleanup and revegetation
If a double-jointing yard is set up, a double-jointing inspector, with welding
inspection expertise, supported by full radiographic inspection services. If a
field coating yard is setup, a coating inspector. If both double-jointing and field
coating yards are set up and are at the same location, one qualified inspector
may be able to cover both
As mentioned in the discussion on the field supervision organization in
Section 670, the Company field inspection organization outlined in the above para-
graph would be supported by a construction manager or spread engineer, a
permit/right-of-way agent, and the construction office or home office accounting
and clerical staff. Inspectors would have vehicles suitable for the terrain and two-
way radios.
The work schedule for the field inspectors and engineers must correspond to the
contractors working hours. This nearly always requires an extended work day and
work week schedule, with occasional 7-day weeks for a portion of the inspection
group. Usually, completion testing is done after most spread activity is complete, so
the inspection group can be assigned to cover the round-the-clock monitoring of
completion testing. However, if full-spread work is proceeding while completed
line sections are being tested, arrangements should be made to supplement the
inspection team with additional personnel to provide Company coverage of comple-
tion testing without affecting spread inspection.
Resources for staffing the inspection organization are Company-wide maintenance
and inspection organizations, and inspection services contractors; see the discussion
of construction and construction service contracts in Section 680.
784 Inspection Reports
A number of typical inspection audit report forms are included in Appendix E,
Field Inspection Guidelines. Clear and concise reporting of technical and progress
data is important. Also, factual accounts of working conditions, industrial injuries,
discussions with contractor personnel, landowners of crossed facilities, etc., should
be kept in diary form by each member of the field engineering inspection team.
Diaries should be in a bound notebook with numbered pages, in ink, and dates and
line station locations should be accurately noted.
Pipeline Manual 700 Inspection and Testing
Chevron Corporation 700-67 November 1994
790 References
Note Consult the latest edition of each reference for information.
General
1. Welding Inspection, American Welding Society. New York.
2. Guide for the Nondestructive Inspection of Welds, American Welding Society,
AWS B1.10. New York.
3. API Recommended Practice 5L8 for Field Inspection of New Line Pipe.
Visual Inspection
4. ANSI/ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 9. New York.
5. ANSI/ASME B31.4., Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems, New
York.
6. ANSI/ASME B31.8., Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping, New York.
7. API STD. 1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, Wash-
ington, D.C.
Magnetic Particle Inspection
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 03.03 - Nondestructive Testing (Refer-
ence No. 8 and No. 9):
8. ASTM E-709, Standard Guide for Magnetic Particle Inspection.
9. ASTM E-1316; Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations,
Section G: Magnetic Particle Examination.
10. ANSI/ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 7. New York.
11. ANSI/ASME B31.4, Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping Systems, New
York.
12. ANSI/ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping, New York.
Radiographic Inspection
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 03.03 - Nondestructive Testing (Refer-
ence No. 13 - 17):
13. ASTM E-94, Standard Guide for Radiographic Testing.
14. ASTM E-142, Standard Method for Controlling Quality of Radiographic
Testing.
15. ASTM E-390, Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Fusion Welds.
16. ASTM E-1316, Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations,
Section D, Gamma- and X-Radiology.
700 Inspection and Testing Pipeline Manual
November 1994 700-68 Chevron Corporation
17. ASTM E-242, Standard Reference Radiographs for Appearances of Radio-
graphic Images as Certain Parameters are Changed.
18. ANSI/ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 2. New York.
19. See reference 5.
20. See reference 7.
Ultrasonic Inspection
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 03.03 - Nondestructive Testing (Refer-
ence No. 21 - 24):
21. ASTM E-164, Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Examination of Weld-
ments.
22. ASTM E-1316, Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations,
Section I, Ultrasonic Examination.
23. ASTM E-213, Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe
and Tubing.
24. ASTM E-587, Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Examination by
the Contact Method.
25. ANSI/ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Articles 4 and 5.
New York.
Chevron Corporation 800-1 November 1988
800 Operations and Maintenance
Abstract
This section discusses several topics related to pipeline operations and mainte-
nance. It is not a comprehensive description of the organization and procedures for
operating and maintaining a pipeline system.
Contents Page
810 Safety 800-2
811 Regulations and Codes
812 Spill Contingency Plan
813 Damage to the Line
814 Hot Lines
820 Gas Hydrates 800-4
821 Hydrate Prediction
822 Hydrate Prevention
823 Hydrate Removal
824 Hydrates Bibliography
830 In-Service Inspection and Testing 800-9
831 Electronic Inspection Pigs
832 Corrosion Coupons
833 Hydrostatic Testing
834 Coating Quality
840 Leak Detection by Physical Methods 800-11
850 Hot Tapping 800-12
860 Repairs, Welding Sleeves 800-13
870 Maintenance Program in Areas of Unstable Soils or Earthquakes 800-19
880 In-Service Line Lowering 800-20
890 References 800-21
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-2 Chevron Corporation
810 Safety
811 Regulations and Codes
Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 191, 192, and 195 and
ANSI/ASME Codes B31.4 and B31.8 have subparts or chapters devoted to pipeline
operating and maintenance procedures and records. Broadly, these require: written
plans for normal and emergency procedures, periodic updating of procedures, opera-
tion in compliance with procedures, records, training of personnel, and education of
authorities and the public regarding hazards and emergency action programs. State
regulations may have further requirements. These are generally described and are
minimum standards.
Examples of written plans for normal and emergency pipeline procedures can be
obtained from the Operations Section of Chevron Pipe Line Company. Appendix D
includes:
Pipeline Operating ProceduresAbnormal and Emergency Situations, Stan-
dard No. 4.2 of Chevron Pipe Line Company, New Orleans Division; 7-24-87.
Table of Contents and general section of Operation and Maintenance Plan
Guidelines for DOT-regulated Gas Pipelines, CUSA Eastern Region; 11-85.
812 Spill Contingency Plan
Governmental regulations and permit conditions require preparation of written
plans and procedures for dealing with accidental spills from liquid pipelines. A
comprehensive spill contingency plan must be included with the pipeline operating
and maintenance procedures. The contingency plan and procedures should comply
with 33 CFR 153, Navigable Waters, and 40 CFR 112, Protection of the Environ-
ment.
A spill contingency plan needs to consider a wide variety of factors:
Geographical elementstopography, surface conditions, soil type, drainage
pattern, accessibility, etc.
Environmental conditionsweather, hydrology, rare and endangered species,
developed areas
Pipeline system elementspumping rates and controls, line draindown
volumes, block valve locations, and closing response times
The response procedures for each major surface drainage pattern area incorporated
in the plan need to cover:
Organization of the spill response teamCompany personnel plus local offi-
cials and contractors as appropriate
Procedure to locate and assess the spill and initiate control and cleanup proce-
dures
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-3 November 1988
Notification of government and local authorities and public relations informa-
tion
Procedure to control or limit the amount spilled, evaluating threats to public
safety and sensitive areas
Procedure to clean up contaminated ground, shorelines, and water surfaces,
and restoration
Availability and location of equipment, materials, and labor crews needed for
all response actions
Documentation of the spill incident, response, cleanup, and restoration
Training plan and safety coordination
Procedure for handling damage claims
For consultation on preparation of spill contingency plans, contact Chevron Pipe
Line Company or a Company Health, Environment, and Loss Prevention representa-
tive.
813 Damage to the Line
Risk of damage to a pipeline by activities of others can be minimized by:
Surface markers, identifying the location of the line and giving information
regarding the proper Company contact to notify before proceeding with work
Frequent surveillance of the route, on the ground and by air, to observe activi-
ties by others and changes in ground conditionsnew construction, mainte-
nance work, agricultural cultivation and grading, canal maintenance, erosion,
land slips and slides, etc.over or near the pipeline or progressing toward the
line from another area
Participation with Underground Service Alert Center or equivalent agency
established to coordinate notifications regarding work on underground facilities
Regular contacts with owners, authorities and contractors regularly working in
the vicinity of the line to learn about planned and forthcoming construction
that might jeopardize the pipeline
814 Hot Lines
Lines that carry hot fluids and are designed as restrained lines to limit expansion
movements should be closely monitored at bends along the route to detect unex-
pected expansion problems. This is particularly critical at the initial warm-up of a
new pipeline in hot service, whether from a wellhead, compressor station, or heated-
oil heating station, because pipe-soil friction values may not have developed to
values used in design calculations. Also, warm-up and cool-down cycles over a
period of time may result in progressive movement of the buried line toward the
surface of the ground, reducing the effect of cover over the pipe. All overbends,
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-4 Chevron Corporation
tight sidebends, sidebends with large angles of deflections, and buried-to-above-
ground transitions should be inspected.
Temperatures of fluids entering the pipeline should not exceed the design
maximum, in order to avoid risk of severe consequences of coating damage, pipe
buckling in compression, and "popping" out of the ground due to insufficient
restraint by the soil.
820 Gas Hydrates
Gas hydrates are very complex, solid crystalline compounds formed when hydro-
carbon gases containing water are cooled. Hydrates can form at temperatures well
above the freezing point of water. Hydrate formation is a function of gas composi-
tion, water content, temperature, and pressure. In general, higher water content,
higher pressure, and lower temperature promote hydrate formation.
Gas hydrates appear like ice or closely packed snow. The crystals will accumulate
on the walls of pipe, especially at elbows and orifices and other restrictions.
Hydrate plugs are as strong as ice plugs and more difficult to remove since they
require higher temperatures to melt.
821 Hydrate Prediction
The engineer must be able to predict hydrate formation. Hydrates must be consid-
ered whenever one is handling hydrocarbon gases containing water. Hydrates may
be a problem in the following situations.
High-pressure gas lines where the gas is cooled in transit
Valves or other throttling devices that cool gas by expansion
High-pressure process lines
In these and many other instances, it is important that the engineer be able to
predict the hydrate formation temperature in order to:
Determine whether special precautions are necessary to prevent hydrates
Determine whether installation of a gas dehydrator or gas heater, insulation of
lines and equipment, or other plant modifications represent the economical
way of preventing hydrates
Prepare specifications for heaters, dehydrators, and other special equipment
required
Charts are available that allow the prediction of hydrate formation based on gas
composition, pressure, temperature and water content. The reader should refer to
the references at the end of this section or to the Engineering Data Book, Volume 2,
Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA), for more complete information and
charts.
The solubility of water in various hydrocarbon liquids varies substantially, and the
effects of composition increase with pressure. High gravity gases are less linear in
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-5 November 1988
their solubility behavior. When the gas contains more than about 5% CO
2
and/or
H
2
S, one should correct for the acid gas components, especially above 700 psia.
Figure 800-1 shows one correlation for lean, sweet natural gases containing more
than 70% methane and small amounts of heavy ends. This figure has been widely
used for gas dehydrator design and is adequate for most first approximations. In the
figure, hydrates will probably form for conditions below and to the left of the
hydrate formation line.
For systems that are more complicated, a more rigorous treatment should be
performed. The methods in the GPSA Data Book offer correction factors for most
deviations from normal. However, for best results, a gas compositional modelling
computer program, such as PPROP (available on the VM System), should be used.
Hydrates most commonly form when wet gas is expanded. Figures 800-2 to 800-7
correlate gas gravity with permissible gas expansion without forming hydrates.
Like Figure 800-1 they are first approximations only.
822 Hydrate Prevention
Because water is necessary to form hydrates, prevention of hydrates is most effec-
tively accomplished by removing the free water. This may be done in two ways:
dehydration
inhibition
Dehydration is generally preferable because it removes the water from the gas
stream. The higher capital cost must be weighed against the continuous cost of inhi-
bition chemicals.
Inhibition is usually accomplished by injection of methanol or a glycol into the gas
stream to preferentially absorb the water. Methanol is expensive but effective and
preferred at cryogenic conditions. Ethylene glycol is less expensive and more easily
recoverable, except at low temperatures where its viscosity is very high. It is also
less soluble in the liquid hydrocarbons that tend to occur in producing field gas
systems. Diethylene and triethylene glycol can also be used. The glycols can be
recovered and regenerated for reuse.
Inhibitors are injected into gas lines easily with low cost equipment. However to be
effective the inhibitor must be present at every point where the gas is cooled to its
hydrate temperature.
The minimum inhibitor concentration necessary to prevent freezing in the free
water phase is given by the Hammerschmidt equation:
(Eq. 800-1)
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-6 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 800-1 Water Content of Hydrocarbon Gas
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-7 November 1988
Fig. 800-2 Pressure-Temperature Curves for
Predicting Hydrate Formation
Fig. 800-3 Permissible Expansion of a 0.6 Gravity
Natural Gas without Hydrate Formation
Fig. 800-4 Permissible Expansion of a 0.7 Gravity
Natural Gas without Hydrate Formation
Fig. 800-5 Permissible Expansion of a 0.8 Gravity
Natural Gas without Hydrate Formation
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-8 Chevron Corporation
where:
d = difference between gas hydrate temperature and system tempera-
ture, F
K
H
= 4000 for glycols
= 2335 for methanol
I = inhibitor ratio, lb
m
/MMSCF
MW = molecular weight of inhibitor
The total quantity of inhibitor injected must also be sufficient to inhibit the vapor
phase and provide for the solubility of the inhibitor in any liquid hydrocarbons.
Significant quantities of methanol will vaporize while glycol will not. The total
quantity of inhibitor needed in the vapor phase may be three times that needed for
the water phase.
823 Hydrate Removal
Once formed, hydrates are often very difficult to remove.
Hydrates in above ground piping usually can be heated easily. Torches are quick
and effective but cannot be used in hazardous areas. Steam, glycol, or electric
tracing are slower but safe, if available. Directly applied steam may be available.
Even an induction heating coil may be desirable.
Fig. 800-6 Permissible Expansion of a 0.9 Gravity
Natural Gas without Hydrate Formation
Fig. 800-7 Permissible Expansion of a 0.1 Gravity
Natural Gas without Hydrate Formation
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-9 November 1988
Hydrates that form in pipelines must be treated carefully. Because pressure helps
form hydrates, depressuring the pipeline will often let the hydrate sublime. This is
the simplest method for lines that can be taken out of service.
When service must be maintained, large amounts of inhibitor (methanol is preferred
for this) may be injected. Sometimes the application of increased pressure will
loosen and blow out the hydrates. One must be careful not to exceed the maximum
allowable operating pressure (MAOP) of the pipeline.
For problem blockages in short gathering lines, try depressuring and circulation
with hot oil to heat the hydrate and the pipe. Pressure is often applied in conjunc-
tion with the hot oil. Again, be careful not to exceed the MAOP or maximum
temperature of the pipeline or its coating.
In extreme cases, the only solution is to sectionalize the pipeline by hot-tapping to
locate and remove the hydrate plug.
824 Hydrates Bibliography
The following published reports are available on the subject of hydrates:
1. Gas Hydrates and Their Relation to the Operation of Natural-Gas Pipe Lines
United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Monograph 8.
2. Natural Gas HydratesTechnical Data Book, Hydrocarbon Research, Inc.,
Curves E-16.300 to E-16.304, inclusive.
3. Donald L. Katz, Prediction of Conditions for Hydrate Formation in Natural
Gases, (Technical Publication No. 1748 of the American Institute of Mining
and Metallurgical Engineers). Petroleum Technology. June 1944.
4. Pryor, Arthur W. Memorandum on the subject Study of Possible Hydrate
Formation at McDonald Island Pipe Line No. 2 Control Station. November 8,
1949.
5. Ingersoll, W. L. Memorandum on the subject Use of Alcohol to Prevent
Hydrate Formation. March 9, 1950. Memorandum.
830 In-Service Inspection and Testing
In-service inspection and testing are prudent measures to verify the integrity of an
operating pipeline system over the years. These include:
Wall thickness inspection by electronic inspection pigs
Corrosion coupons inspections
Hydrostatic testing
Coating quality inspection
Cathodic protection surveys
The Department of Transportation requires that the operator of a pipeline system
prepare an operations and maintenance plan (see 49 CFR 195.402 and 192.605),
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-10 Chevron Corporation
but specific inspection and testing measures and frequency are not defined. Each
pipeline operating organization should therefore develop a program suitable for its
particular facility. Other than where federal or state regulations mandate specific
inspection and testing intervals, the program must be tailored to the individual pipe-
line system. Consultation with Chevron Pipe Line Company is suggested for guide-
lines on in-service inspection and testing.
831 Electronic Inspection Pigs
Provision for running electronic inspection pigs should be incorporated in the
design for the line (see Section 453 of this manual). The Linalog Tool of Tubo-
scope, Houston, TX, and the Vetcolog pig of Vetco Services, Houston, TX, are
widely used; both employ the magnetic flux principle. Others are available (see
Section 453 of this manual). If the line design did not originally consider running
an inspection pig, the data specified in Section 453 should be sent to the inspection
service company to evaluate the suitability or limitations in running the inspection
pig.
Satisfactory functioning of the inspection pig is also influenced by line operating
temperatures, speed of travel, and internal condition of the pipeline section being
inspected. The duration of exposure to high temperatures may be critical. A means
of determining the location of the pig along the line is important; magnetic markers
or electromagnetic coil transmitters may be needed. Normally, a dummy inspection
pig is first run to assure satisfactory passage of the instrumented pig through the
line.
832 Corrosion Coupons
For corrosive fluids, for which a specific corrosion allowance has been provided in
determining the pipe wall thickness, it may be advisable to install corrosion
coupons at points in the system representative of flow conditions and where they
can be isolated and removed. These would normally be in the station or terminal
piping or on flowing branch lines, rather than on the main pipeline. Where the
piping must be kept in operation while removing or replacing coupons, a valved by-
pass can be provided. If necessary to install a coupon in the main line, devices are
available for withdrawing and re-inserting the coupon with the line in service. The
Materials and Engineering Analysis Division of the Engineering Technology
Department can be consulted regarding the need and type of coupon and method
for placing it in the flowing stream. Also see the Corrosion Manual for a descrip-
tion of devices for installing corrosion coupons.
833 Hydrostatic Testing
Two types of pressure testing of operating liquid lines are:
Testing after displacing lines with water at hydrotest pressures at 1.25 times the
maximum allowable operating pressure.
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-11 November 1988
Line pack or standup testing with the fluid normally handled after isolating
the section, at a pressure not exceeding the maximum operating pressure
The maximum allowable operating pressure should be determined taking into
consideration actual normal and abnormal operating pressures, limitations by
design codes for pipe grades and wall thickness, and limitations by valves, flanges
or other line appurtenances.
Operating demands usually limit the time available for testing. Therefore, the test
procedure must be well planned, giving consideration to all aspects and contingen-
cies. All needed facilities, including communications, should be ready, as well as
materials and construction equipment in event of a leak or a break. When testing in
wet weather or wet areas, consideration of using a water-soluble dye in the test
water may be warranted for identifying leak locations. Disposal of displacement
water must be arranged to comply with environmental restrictions.
Lines that have been idle for over 3 months and up to a year should have a satisfac-
tory standup test before returning to service. A line that has been idle for a year or
more should be hydrostatically tested with water to 1.25 times the maximum oper-
ating pressure before returning to service.
Guidelines for testing operating pipelines are available from Chevron Pipe Line
Company. These guidelines recommend that lines tested periodically be held at test
pressure for at least 4 hours. Also see Section 770 for discussion of completion
testing of new pipelines.
834 Coating Quality
Overall quality of pipe coating to effectively protect the pipe from corrosion is indi-
cated by cathodic protection surveys at frequent intervals and by monitoring the
current from rectifiers needed to maintain cathodic protection on the pipeline.
If areas of severe coating failures and defects are suspected, coating holidays can be
located with equipment such as the Pearson null-method detector manufactured by
Tinker & Rasor, San Gabriel, CA, providing the pipe is buried in relatively moist
soil conditions. The Pipe-CAMP PCS-2000 equipment recently developed and used
in Australia is claimed to have greater sensitivity and ability to detect defects in dry
and rocky soil and under pavement; it is available through US agents, such as
Farwest Corrosion Control, Gardena, CA.
840 Leak Detection by Physical Methods
SCADA leak detection systems will trigger the need for corrective action or repairs
and may indicate the general area of the suspected leak. To precisely locate a pipe-
line leak, however, on-the-ground detection methods must be used. These include:
Visual observation by air or on the ground for evidence of line stock or effect
on vegetation
Combustible gas detectors
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-12 Chevron Corporation
Injection of odorants into gas and odor detectors
Sonic instrumentation
Pressure-wavefront instrumentation
Heath Consultants, Stoughton, MA; Goldak, Glendale, CA, and Metrotech, Moun-
tain View, CA, offer instruments and equipment for leak detection.
Information on leak detection for gas lines is presented in ANSI/ASME Code
B31.8, Appendix M, Gas Leakage Control Criteria. Appendix M relates to gas
distribution piping, not transmission pipe lines, so that judgment should be used in
considering the action criteria outlined in Section 5 of Appendix M.
850 Hot Tapping
Hot tapping of pipelines is similar to both hot tapping of process piping and pipe-
line sleeve repair welding. For more details on hot tapping equipment and proce-
dures see Section 500 of the Piping Manual. The Piping Manual includes a
checklist of the questions to be asked and preparations to make before preforming a
hot tap.
Wall Thickness
Pipelines with a wall thickness of 0.188 inch and above can be hot tapped with low
hydrogen electrodes without risk of burn through. Thinner wall thicknesses require
special procedures. See Section 500 of the Piping Manual. Wall thickness at the
point of hot tap should be checked by ultrasonic testing.
Welding Procedure
Low Hydrogen Electrodes. Only welding procedures and welders qualified with
low hydrogen electrodes (vertical up) should be used for hot taps and repair welds
on live pipelines. Low hydrogen electrodes have both a lower risk of burning
through and of weld cracking.
Welding Electrode Selection. For high strength pipe, the electrode strength must
be selected to match the pipe strength.
Pipe Grade
Special welding considerations are not required for the high strength X grades (X56
and above). These grades of steel have chemistries that are designed to be very
weldable. A weld rod with sufficient strength should be selected for these grades.
Inspection
Preweld Inspection. Prior to hot tapping, the wall thickness at the proposed hot tap
location should be checked with an ultrasonic thickness gauge.
Postweld Inspection. Following completion of the hot tap welding, a visual inspec-
tion and magnetic particle inspection of the attachment welds should be done.
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-13 November 1988
Inspection methods and procedures are explained in Section 700 of this manual.
860 Repairs, Welding Sleeves
Special Repair Fittings
The various Plidco fittings described in Section 365 are useful in maintenance
repairs to damaged or corroded pipe, particularly Plidco Weld & Ends couplings. A
pair of these fittings with a length of replacement line pipe can be used to quickly
repair a leak or install a prefabricated line valve or branch assembly, without
requiring any "hot work" until the line is back in service. The section of pipe
containing the leak, or at the location of the new prefabricated assembly, is
removed by "cold-cutting," taking proper action to control drainage from the line.
Before making a cut, the bonding cable should be clamped to the line to electrically
bond across the gap. A Weld & Ends coupling is then slipped over each exposed
end of the line; the replacement pipe section is positioned to fill the gap; the
couplings are then centered on the joints and the clamping and thrust screws tight-
ened to seal the connections. See Figure 800-8.
Also useful are Stopple fittings, used with sandwich valves and Stopple plugging
machines, such as furnished by T. D. Williamson, Tulsa, Oklahoma. These are
installed before cutting out a sectional pipe and will plug the line to avoid draining
the line. T. D. Williamsons Lock-O-Ring flanges can be provided on the Stopple
fittings and for flanges on hot-tapped tees for temporary by-pass lines so that Lock-
O-Ring plugs can be inserted after line modifications are made, so that it is not
necessary to leave branch valves on the line. Refer to T. D. Williamson catalog for
details of use and installation.
Split Welding Sleeves
Many of the considerations applicable to hot tapping discussed in Section 850 also
apply to pipeline repairs that are made using full encirclement sleeves. When pipe-
line repairs are required because of corrosion, defects, or damage to the pipe, the
Company preference is to replace the section of pipe requiring repair. This gener-
ally entails cutting out the affected section and installing a new piece of pipe (pup).
The circumferential welds to install the pup piece are straightforward pipeline
welds that can be inspected by standard radiographic practices and the pipeline can
Fig. 800-8 Repair with Weld and Ends
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-14 Chevron Corporation
be returned to service in good condition. This practice requires shutting down the
pipeline; when schedule considerations make this impractical, other repair methods
have to be employed, such as Plidco sleeves or full encirclement welded sleeves.
Full encirclement sleeves are recommended for repairs because, when properly
installed, they are load bearing, and Type B sleeves (fillet welded endssee
Figure 800-9) are pressure retaining for through-wall defects. The practice of using
partial sleeves (half soles) is restricted by the codes to lower strength, older mate-
rials and has generally been discontinued because of the stress intensification along
the longitudinal fillet welds and the greater risk of failure if a surface defect such as
undercut or toe crack has been left.
Another application of full encirclement sleeves has been for the attachment of
anode leads when greater than a No. 15 Cadweld charge is required because of the
risk of copper contamination and cracking on the surface of the pipe. Direct attach-
ment of the anode leads to the pipe has been permitted for Cadwelds using a No. 15
or smaller charge.
Because full encirclement sleeves are generally used to repair pipelines that cannot
be taken out of service, their use must be given the same considerations as required
for hot tapping. These are:
Fig. 800-9 Type of Sleeves Evaluated
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-15 November 1988
Stability of the product in the pipeline during welding and risk of explosive
reaction (e.g., spontaneous decomposition of ethylene)
Minimum thickness to avoid burnthrough (0.188 inch)
Reducing the operating pressure (generally to two-thirds or less) during repair
for personnel safety and to allow the sleeve to share hoop stress at operating
pressure. This is frequently not possible with liquids that convert into a vapor
at lower pressures (e.g., liquid petroleum gas and carbon dioxide)
Risk of hydrogen cracking in the heat-affected zone for sour service operating
conditions
Welding Procedures
API RP 1107 covers Recommended Pipe Line Maintenance Welding Practices for
qualification of welding procedures and welders for full encirclement sleeves.
Welding procedures qualified to API RP 1107 are valid within the range of essen-
tial variables of their qualification. The test assembly for procedure qualification is
shown in Figure 800-10. Changes in essential variables requiring requalification are:
Fig. 800-10 Procedure Qualification Test Assembly for Position 6G
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-16 Chevron Corporation
Change in welding process
Change in pipe, fitting, and repair materials. Materials are grouped into three
categories:
a. SMYS of 42 ksi or less
b. SMYS of more than 42 ksi but less than 65 ksi
c. SMYS of more than 65 ksi (each grade requires separate qualification)
Change in joint design
Change in position, except qualification in the 6G positions (45 degrees from
horizontal) qualifies for all positions
Change in material thickness group:
a. Less than 3/16 inch
b. 3/16 inch to 3/4 inch inclusive
c. Over 3/4 inch
Change in filler metal or shielding (change from cellulosic to low hydrogen or
more than one electrode size)
Change in direction of welding (vertical uphill versus vertical downhill)
Change in travel speed range or time lapse between passes
Welder Qualification
Welder qualification requirements for pipeline welding are discussed in
Section 750. The multiple qualification test does not qualify for sleeve welding
performed with low hydrogen (E7018) electrodes as recommended later on in this
section. The use of low hydrogen electrodes requires a separate welder qualification
test (a separate welding procedure qualification test is also required) which consists
of welding with the pipe and sleeve positioned 45 degrees from the horizontal (see
Figure 800-11). Essential variables requiring requalification are:
Change in process
Change in direction of welding (vertical uphill versus vertical downhill)
Change from cellulosic to low hydrogen electrodes
Change in diameter group except qualification on NPS 12 pipe qualifies for all
pipe diameters
Change in nominal wall thickness group (same as procedure)
Sleeve Design
Several options exist regarding the design of full encirclement sleeves. Choices
exist for the welding of the ends of the sleeves and the joint design of the longi-
tudinal seams (see Types A and B sleeves in Figure 800-9)[1]. Sleeves with the
Pipeline Manual 800 Operations and Maintenance
Chevron Corporation 800-17 November 1988
ends not welded are referred to as Type A sleeves. Type B sleeves have welded
ends. Longitudinal seams are either butt welded or lap welded using a butt strap.
The Company practice is to weld the ends (Type B sleeve) in order to retain pres-
sure and prevent corrosion in the crevice between the sleeve and the pipe. The use
of lap-welded joints is not recommended because tests [1] have shown them to be
inferior to butt-welded sleeves. The joint preparation for the butt welds in the sleeve
should be beveled and have a gap sufficient to be able to obtain a full penetration
weld. Full penetration sleeve welds will penetrate into the carrier pipe. In cases
where local wall thinning causes the wall thickness under the sleeve welds to be
less than 0.188 inch, a thin mild steel backing strip (1/16 inch) should be used to
help prevent burnthrough. These should be slipped underneath the sleeve as shown
in Figure 800-12. Backing strip material should be weldable and compatible with
the pipeline material. Materials other than mild steel should not be used.
In all cases, a sleeve should be fit as tightly as possible against the pipe in order to
provide structural strength. Sleeve thickness should provide sufficient strength to at
least match the line pipe strength or system flange rating pressure, whichever is
limiting. Where line pipe is limiting, sleeve thickness can be calculated as follows:
Fig. 800-11 Welder Qualification Test Assembly
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-18 Chevron Corporation
(Eq. 800-2)
where:
T
s
= minimum sleeve thickness, in.
T
p
= nominal pipe thickness, in.
S
p
= SMYS for pipe, psi
S
s
= SMYS for sleeve, psi
D = pipe outside diameter, in.
If flange rating pressure P
f
is limiting,
(Eq. 800-3)
In either case, the sleeve thickness should not be less than the pipe wall thickness.
Welding
From the section on hot tapping, it can be noted that welding sleeves on pipelines
containing fluids can produce faster quench rates in the welds and heat-affected
zones. Depending upon the grade and carbon equivalent (C.E.) of the pipe,
C.E. = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Cu + Ni)/15
(Eq. 800-4)
Fig. 800-12 Longitudinal Sleeve Weld with Backup Strip
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Chevron Corporation 800-19 November 1988
heat-affected zone hardness can rise above the threshold where cracking can occur
if hydrogen is present from the weld metal. This is called hydrogen-assisted
cracking and is generally thought to require a microhardness above about 350
Vickers (Rc 35) in the heat-affected zone, high tensile stress, and a source of
hydrogen for it to occur. Heat-affected zone hardness is difficult to control because
more frequently than not, pipeline materials, thicknesses, and fluids being carried
will combine to produce fast cooling rates and high hardness. Residual stresses are
inherent to the welding process and also difficult to reduce. Of the three variables,
only hydrogen can be controlled to reduce the risk of cracking. This can be done
through the use of a welding procedure using low hydrogen electrodes (E7018). An
additional feature of using low hydrogen electrodes is their characteristic of less
penetration than obtained with cellulosic electrodes (e.g., E6010 and E7010)
conventionally used for pipeline welding. This provides an additional margin of
safety to avoid burnthrough when welding on thinner materials.
Dents
When full encirclement sleeves are used to repair dents, the space between the dent
and the sleeve should be filled with a hardenable material like an epoxy resin so
there is good contact between the pipe and the sleeve. One method is to apply the
epoxy resin to the dent with a trowel and then contour it to the original pipe circum-
ference before the sleeve is installed and welded in place. Care should be taken to
assure that the void between the sleeve and the pipe is completely filled.
Inspection
The fillet welds at the ends of full encirclement sleeves have been the site of under-
bead cracking which was the cause of at least one recent pipeline failure [2]. While
the use of cellulosic electrodes and higher strength pipe (X52) were separated out
as the main causes of cracking, it was brought out that inspection of these welds
should be routinely done even with low hydrogen electrodes. Inspection should be
by visual examination and magnetic particle inspection. Particular attention should
be given to looking for cracks along the toe of the fillet on the pipeline side.
870 Maintenance Program in Areas of Unstable Soils or Earthquakes
Nearly all pipeline systems are required to have normal operating and emergency
contingency plans. These plans specify immediate operating action in event of land-
slide, subsidence, or earthquake. In addition to normal maintenance surveillance,
the following measures are suggested for areas of unstable soils and seismic risk:
As-built documentation should be on hand so that any changes from design or
design assumptions are recognized, documented, and evaluated for their effect
on pipeline integrity
The inspection plan should include a recognition of the key components of
design, to ensure the integrity of the line, and a program for monitoring these
components
Measurement surveys should be conducted periodically to detect changes in
field conditions and in the line
800 Operations and Maintenance Pipeline Manual
November 1988 800-20 Chevron Corporation
A contingency repair plan should be prepared for corrective actions for situa-
tions of varying degrees of severity. It should identify (1) recurring problems
requiring routine periodic correction, (2) problems that may arise for which
standard procedures can be implemented without engineering involvement, and
(3) critical problems requiring engineering investigation and resolution. Neces-
sary materials and construction equipment to make repairs on an urgent basis
should be available near the areas of risk
A postevent monitoring plan with checklist for reporting as soon as possible
whether damage is severe or relatively minor. The initial inspection checklist
should identify specific system components and ground conditions that are
good indicators of damage. Ground condition indicators include: ground
cracks; misalignment of roads, trees, fences, pole lines, railroad tracks, etc.;
ground sags, sinkholes, or uplifts; signs of damage to other nearby utility lines.
As soon as possible after strong events, a thorough investigation should be
made by responsible operations and technical personnel to determine the condi-
tion of the pipeline, safety of resuming operations, and necessary corrective
repairs or replacement
In making repairs to a line damaged by ground displacement, precautions should be
taken in cutting the pipe to avoid fire or injury in view of likely sudden release of
high strain energy stored in the line. Also precautions should be taken for possible
hydrocarbon spills in the soil and for unstable ground conditions.
880 In-Service Line Lowering
When land surface grading is to be done over an existing pipeline, such as for a new
highway or other new land use, that will expose the pipeline either to mechanical
damage and/or excessive stresses from wheel loads, measures must be taken to
protect the pipeline, preferably without removing the line from service. One
method consists of lowering the pipeline into a deeper trench so that it will be posi-
tioned farther below the new graded surface. The rationale for lowering is that in its
new, deeper position the pipeline will experience stresses from wheel loads that are
acceptably small and that the pipeline will be safe from mechanical damage during
the grading and excavation.
Guidelines for safely lowering pipelines without taking them out of service were
established by a Batelle Columbus Laboratories study published in 1985,
undertaken jointly by the Office of Pipeline Safety Regulation of the U.S. Depart-
ment of Transportation, ASME, and API; see Reference 3, Section 890. The study
presents detailed guidelines for conducting a pipeline lowering operation, equations
for predicting the lowering induced stresses; it establishes reasonable limits on the
lowering-induced stresses, so that the pipeline will not be damaged or ruptured due
to lowering operations. The study is not an endorsement of lowering as a method of
addressing the safety of an existing pipeline, but provides guidance to pipeline oper-
ators or contractors who choose lowering as their preferred alternative. Elements to
be considered in lowering a line are:
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Chevron Corporation 800-21 November 1988
Factors that affect loweringthe pipe, the pipeline and its condition, terrain,
soil, and stress
Safetypressure reduction, excavation safety, response to emergencies, protec-
tion of personnel and the public
Stressesexisting stress in the pipeline, lowering induced stresses, measuring
and calculating stresses, support spacing, safe limits on stresses
Failure modesruptures, leaks, or buckles from improper lowering operations
ProceduresInitial review, trench types and profiles, lowering alternatives,
measuring stresses, minimizing temporary stresses, inspection
The following computer programs are available from Chevron Pipeline Co., San
Francisco.
PDROP. Calculates trench length, maximum pipeline stress, and added stress for
free deflection of a pipeline
TRENCHZ. Calculates trench length and profile during lowering while keeping
below a given stress limit
SUPPORT. Calculates the range of distance between pipeline supports required to
minimize the stress in the pipeline during lowering
PLIFT. Calculates the lift-off lengths, maximum stress, and force required to lift
the center of the pipeline to the specified height. (This program can be used to deter-
mine initial pipeline stress)
These programs have been validated. However, the TRENCHZ program may not
produce exact results in every situation, especially with small diameter pipelines,
due to the inaccuracy of the PC FORTRAN in calculating soil/pipeline interaction
stresses. The accuracy level is adequate for most pipeline applications.
890 References
1. Kiefner, J. F., Repair of Line Pipe Defects by Full Encirclement Sleeves,
Welding Journal, June 1977.
2. U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Pipeline Safety. Alert Notice.
March 13, 1987.
3. Kiefner, J. F., T. A. Wall, N. D. Ghadiali, K. Prabhat, and E. C. Rodabaugh,
Guidelines for Lowering Pipelines While in Service, Batelle Columbus Labora-
tories, February 25, 1985.
Chevron Corporation 900-1 November 1994
900 Offshore
Abstract
This section discusses worldwide offshore pipeline design and construction prac-
tices. These practices are similar in many respects to onshore practices. This section
focuses on the U.S. regulations for design techniques, construction methods, and
specialized components required for offshore pipelines. It also discusses subsea
pipeline repairs.
The position taken by this Offshore section of the manual is that a minimum the
Company will use U.S. Standards and Codes, worldwide, but not necessarily U.S.
regulations in foreign locations. Where there are no regulations, Company Pipeline
specifications govern. Regulations on a worldwide basis, are not covered since they
are quite different in some countries.
Contents Page
910 Regulations, Pipeline Permits, Recommended Practice, and Certification 900-3
911 Regulatory Jurisdictions/Codes
912 Pipeline Permits
913 Recommended Practices
914 Certification
920 Route Selection and Surveying 900-6
921 Route Selection
922 Surveying
923 Environmental Data
930 Design 900-14
931 General Design Considerations
932 Subsea Line Sizing
933 Pressure Design
934 Pipeline Collapse and Buckling
935 On-Bottom Stability
936 Pipeline Laying Analysis Using the SEAPIPE Computer Program
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-2 Chevron Corporation
937 Protection of Appurtenances
938 Submarine Pipeline Cost Estimating Guide/Computer Program SUBPIPE
939 Pipeline Design Calculations
940 Detailed Design/Analysis 900-65
941 Design Analysis Programs
942 Contractors Stress Analysis
950 Component Selection 900-72
951 Subsea Pipeline Valves and Actuators
952 Subsea Pipeline Mechanical Connections
953 Concrete Weight Coating
954 Corrosion Coatings
955 Insulation
956 Flexible Pipe
957 Cathodic ProtectionAnode Systems
958 Safety Requirements and Component Selection
959 Coiled Steel Tubing Flowlines
960 Construction and Installation 900-128
961 Pipelay Methods
962 Pipelay Personnel and Equipment
963 Construction Operations
964 Pipe Joining Methods
965 Pipeline Tie-in Methods
966 Inspection During Installation
967 Shore Crossings
968 Pipeline Burial or Trenching
969 Pipeline Crossings
970 Operations 900-167
971 Submarine Pipeline Repairs
972 Pipeline Inspection
973 Abandonment
980 Ultra-Deepwater Pipelaying 900-180
990 References 900-186
991 Jurisdiction of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Facilities
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Chevron Corporation 900-3 November 1994
910 Regulations, Pipeline Permits, Recommended Practice, and
Certification
This section discusses the types of regulations, regulating authorities, codes, pipe-
line permits, recommended practices, and certifications to be considered when plan-
ning an offshore pipeline project. For the purpose of this section offshore pipelines
are considered to be in the United States Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) outside of
state waters. Due to frequent changes in regulations and standards, project areas
should be investigated prior to undertaking a design and construction project to
ensure current information is used.
911 Regulatory Jurisdictions/Codes
The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - Title 49 Parts 192 and 195 and Title
30 Part 250 consists of the following (also see Section 410):
DOT Pipelines
Part 192Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline: Minimum
Federal Safety Standards
Part 195Transportation of Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline
DOI Pipelines
Part 250Oil and Gas and Sulfur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf
The two governing Departments concerned with pipeline-related matters are the
Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Department of Transportation (DOT). Per
their Memorandum of Understanding, the DOIs area of responsibility includes
those pipeline facilities beginning where hydrocarbons are first produced and
continuing to the outlet flange at each facility where the produced hydrocarbons are
first separated, dehydrated, or otherwise processed. The DOTs area of responsi-
bility extends from this outlet flange shoreward. See Section 991.
The major source of regulations pertaining to both DOT onshore and offshore
liquid pipeline design is 49 CFR 195, which contains a complete list of industry
standards, codes, and specifications (see Part 195.3) that are incorporated. The most
valuable is ANSI/ASME B31.4 which contains design requirements in Chapter 2.
Corrosion allowance, internal pressure, and external pressure are discussed, as well
as the presentation of equations (also see Section 410).
Similarly, the major source of regulations pertaining to both DOT onshore and
offshore gas pipelines is 49 CFR 192. Appendix A of Part 192 contains a list of
industry standards, codes, and specifications that are incorporated. This includes
ANSI/ASME B31.8. Multiphase pipelines shall be designed in accordance with
ANSI/ASME B31.8.
Annual reports and incident reports for DOT pipelines are covered by 49 CFR 191.
DOI offshore pipelines are regulated by 30 CFR 250. This document is a must for
offshore liquid and gas pipelines. Documents incorporated by reference are given in
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-4 Chevron Corporation
Part 250.1. Subpart J contains requirements for Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-
Way.
912 Pipeline Permits
All pipeline designs and proposed routes must be submitted to and approved by the
appropriate governmental agencies. The scope of the following discussion is
limited to those pipelines that originate, traverse, and terminate in the OCS, i.e.,
Federal waters. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) approves pipeline
routing and construction in OCS waters.
Pipelines are classified as either lease term, or right-of-way pipelines:
Lease Term. Pipelines that are wholly contained within the boundaries of a single
lease, the boundaries of unitized leases, or the boundaries of contiguous (not
cornering) leases which are of the same owner or operator are lease term pipelines
if installed by a leaseholder.
Right-of-Way. Right-of-way pipelines include: (a) those installed by nonlease-
holders within the above limits, (b) those which traverse across lease boundaries,
outside the above limits, or across unleased blocks, (c) those within the boundaries
of contiguous (not cornering) leases which do not have a common lessee or oper-
ator, and (d) those within the boundaries of contiguous (not cornering) leases which
have a common lessee or operator but are not owned and operated by that common
lessee or operator.
MMS conducts a technical review for each proposed pipeline to assure compliance
with 30 CFR 250, pertinent adopted Standards of the National Association of Corro-
sion Engineers (NACE), API Publications (as referenced in 30 CFR 250), and 49
CFR Parts 191, 192, and 195, where applicable. The basis is the application
submitted by an operator which details the design and routing.
The purpose of the MMS Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Regional Supervisors letter of
April 18, 1991, reference MS 5232 is to provide clarification, description, and inter-
pretation of the requirements contained in 30 CFR 250.150 through 30 CFR
250.164 which pertain to the approval, installation, operation, maintenance, and
abandonment of lease term and right-of-way pipelines and to the granting, modifica-
tion, and reliquishment of pipeline ROWs in the GOM Outer Continental Shelf.
Most of Chevrons U.S. offshore pipelines are located in this area. Similar docu-
ments should be obtained, if available, for other areas.
When preparing to construct a pipeline that will traverse state regulated waters or
wetlands, permits from other federal (such as the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers,
are also needed in the Gulf of Mexico), state and local agencies must be obtained.
The previous discussion may or may not be applicable to such a case, so further
investigation into the matter will be necessary. A Revised Edition of API RP 1111,
Second Edition, November 1993 is available from API, Tel. No.: 202-682-8375.
This recommended practice sets out criteria for the design, construction, testing,
operation, and maintenance of offshore pipelines engaged in the transportation of
hydrocarbons from the outlet flange of a production facility where hydrocarbons
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Chevron Corporation 900-5 November 1994
are first processed. The criteria also apply to any transportation piping facilities
located on a production platform after separation and treatment, including meter
facilities, gas compression facilities, liquid pumps, and associated piping and appur-
tenances.
Each overseas location may have similar requirements to obtain approval of pipe-
line permits.
913 Recommended Practices
This subsection briefly discusses American Petroleum Institute Recommended Prac-
tices (API RPs).
API RP 1111 - Recommended Practice for Design Construction, Operation and
Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines
It is intended for application in all climatic regions.
The design, construction, inspection, and testing provisions of API RP 1111 are not
intended to be applied to offshore hydrocarbon pipeline systems designed or
installed before its issuance (March, 1976). The operation and maintenance provi-
sions of this RP are generally suitable for application to existing and new facilities.
(Incorporation by reference of API RP 1111 in 30 CFR 250.152(a) for DOI pipe-
lines has been deleted.)
API RP 14E - Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore
Production Platform Piping Systems - Risers
Risers and piping on production platforms are covered by API RP 14E. The design
and installation of platform (not pipelines) piping should conform to ANSI/ASME
B31.3, as modified in API RP 14E. Risers (for which B31.3 is not applicable),
should be designed and installed in accordance with API RP 14E, Section 1.2.
(Comment: ANSI/ASME B31.4 and 31.8 should govern designs for pipeline-
specific facilities on a platform which can include headers and pig barrels.) For
DOI pipelines, 30 CFR 250.152(a) has been modified to incorporate B31.8 by refer-
ence.
In determining the transition between risers and the platform piping to which API
RP 14E applies, the first incoming and last outgoing valve which blocks pipeline
flow is the limit of application.
Per API RP 14E, Section 5.11, risers should be designed for maximum wave
loading, internal pressure, marine traffic (may require bumpers), and other environ-
mental conditions. Per Section 6.5.a, risers should be protected in the splash zone
from corrosion.
(For DOI pipelines, incorporation by reference of API RP 14E in Part 250.152(b)
has been deleted.)
API RP 17A - Recommended Practice for Design and Operation of Subsea Produc-
tion Systems - Pipelines and End Connections
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-6 Chevron Corporation
Some key sections of API RP 17A are the following:
Section 3 of API RP 17A presents guidelines intended for the design, construction,
testing, and installation of subsea pipelines and end connectors used in a subsea
production system. The guidelines cover the unique factors of subsea systems
which are high pressure, multi-phase flow, multiple lines, subsea connections, and
Through Flowline (TFL) systems. Engineering considerations commonly encoun-
tered in subsea pipelines and end connectors are discussed.
API RP 17A does not replace API RP 1111. API RP 1111 should also be used for
subsea pipelines intended for the transportation of hydrocarbons to other destina-
tions.
Section 6 of API RP 17A addresses the structural analysis procedures, design guide-
lines, component selection criteria, and typical designs for production risers oper-
ated in conjunction with subsea production systems and Floating Production
Platforms.
Section 7.3.5 of API RP 17A discusses transportation, installation, testing and oper-
ation of pipelines/umbilicals. Similarly, Section 7.3.6 discusses risers.
API RP 17B - Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe
API RP 17B provides guidelines for the design, analysis, quality assurance, storage,
handling, transportation and installation of flexible pipe systems. The application of
flexible pipe to production risers is covered in API RP 17A.
914 Certification
Following completion of pipeline construction, in the U.S., a completion report
must be filed with the permitting agency (for DOI pipelines, see 30 CFR Part
250.158). Information to be included in the completion report includes an as-built
plat showing coordinates of key pipeline locations, a complete set of all hydrostatic
test data, and the results of the hydrostatic test. The permitting agency reviews this
information and, if everything is in order, issues a letter of certification. The letter
of certification must be maintained on record for the life of the pipeline.
920 Route Selection and Surveying
This section discusses route selection and surveying for offshore pipelines. It notes
items that should be considered in selecting a route and typical surveys needed to
provide design information and/or required by regulation.
921 Route Selection
The most direct route is generally preferred for an offshore pipeline, and this can
usually be accommodated more easily than for onshore pipelines. However, a
number of factors must be considered when finalizing the alignment. Their influ-
ence will vary with the site-specific application. It is important that routing deci-
sions be made carefully and address all of the factors. This ensures that adequate
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Chevron Corporation 900-7 November 1994
survey coverage is arranged for and provides appropriate descriptions for right-of-
way applications.
Route selection progresses in stages. Initially, based on available seabed informa-
tion and general routing requirements, a possible corridor is identified. As site-
specific information from surveys and pipeline design becomes available, the align-
ment is firmed. In certain instances, optional alignments may be carried, until an
installation technique is selected.
The following factors should be addressed during the route selection process.
(Items 3 through 10 are design considerations.)
1. End points. At a platform, the location of risers or J-tubes will suggest routing.
The location of a riser on a particular face of a platform can lead in many cases
to lines having significant curvature. The minimum curvature is determined
based on the nominal tension and soil friction, see Section 936. This is not
normally necessary for thermal expansion or other stress considerations. A
pipeline end manifold (PLEM) will also have a preferred approach. A shore
crossing point will fix the termination and influence the associated alignment.
2. Intermediate points. Current or future plans may include additional tie-ins from
other facilities. It may be advantageous to run the first line close to these other
locations and thus minimize the expense of connecting the other pipelines.
Should tap valves be installed on the line as it is laid, it is preferred that they be
in a straight run to minimize the rolling tendency.
3. Thermal expansion. An allowance may be necessary for thermal expansion. An
offset (or Z bend) is typically provided in these cases.
4. Access by others. In congested areas, for example around platforms, the ability
to install all anticipated facilities (pipelines, cables, mooring systems) should
be provided for. A clear area should be left for a Jack-up drilling rig (or Tender
drilling rig mooring) for applicable water depths/platforms.
5. Line crossings. Crossings are undesirable because they are expensive and may
require future inspection and maintenance. They should be avoided if it is
possible to reroute the pipeline at lesser expense, see Section 969.
6. Tie-in methods. Flanges, mechanical connectors, or welding are typically used.
The need for flexibility using spools, deflect-to-connect methods, etc., will
suggest different pipeline routing.
7. Installation method. The ability to spot the pipeline in a location is important.
Towing techniques usually require a straighter alignment than surface deploy-
ment from lay or reel barges. Whether the pipeline is laid to or from an end
point will likely influence the local route. For multiple lines, the ability to
maintain separation is critical. The installation method, pipeline, and seabed
characteristics will determine the allowable curvature (or minimum radius) in
the alignment (see Section 936).
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-8 Chevron Corporation
As an example, adjacent pipelines offshore Cabinda, Angola require a
minimum separation distance of 50 feet, except when the pipelines approach a
platform.
8. Marine activity. Fishing activity should be considered. In the Gulf of Mexico,
pipelines are buried out to 200-foot water depths. This avoids most heavily
fished areas.
If the sea floor soil is very soft, sometimes the pipeline undergoes self burial
(see Section 968).
Normally a trawl board will go over a small-diameter unburied pipeline, but
there is high risk of damage. Therefore, small diameter lines in the North Sea
are typically buried or rock covered or otherwise protected. On the other hand,
large lines (greater than 16-inch O.D. in U.K. waters) are robust enough to
withstand trawl impacts and are typically left unburied. Trawl gear will also
ride over these lines although spans may allow gear to snag. For unburied lines
offshore California or in the North Sea, appurentances will likely require
shrouding or placement below the mudline to minimize snagging.
Anchoring of construction equipment during construction and for maintenance
is important. Agencies are concerned about anchor placements on hard bottom
features. With an adequate hazard survey and careful anchor placement, most
hard bottom features can be missed during construction. Large areas of hard-
bottom features may determine what pipeline construction technique is used,
presumably one that minimizes anchoring. However, personnel and construc-
tion equipment safety are primary considerations. Anchoring during construc-
tion should be considered and the alignment adjusted to allow safe mooring
(see Section 963).
9. Seabed profile. Gradual gradients are preferred. Where slopes must be
traversed, for example, a shore approach, it is usually desirable to run pipelines
perpendicular to the contours. This will minimize loading on the pipeline
should a slope failure occur.
10. Seabed characteristics. Outcrops, hard bottoms, unstable ground, and man-
made obstructions should be avoided. In these situations, undesirable pipe
spans may occur requiring expensive intermediate supports (sand-cement bags,
anchors, etc.). Soil properties may suggest a preferred route. Pipeline lateral
and vertical stability and burial requirements may be optimized by routing
through the most favorable soils. In mudslide areas the pipeline should be
aligned closely to the known mudslide flow direction. In the Gulf of Mexico,
breakaway connectors should be considered for protection of a platform or
other pipeline. For oil service the connector should include a check valve to
minimize oil spillage.
When routing lines in shallow water which are parallel to the shore, ensure that
the route considers minimum draft requirements for the type of installation
equipment to be used. If the line is routed in water too shallow for available
equipment, special installation methods must be devised: a longer route that
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Chevron Corporation 900-9 November 1994
provides adequate water depth for common lay barges may prove to be a less
expensive option than a direct route through shallow water.
Minimum water depths for pipeline routing should consider the effect of tidal
variations and ground swells in addition to the minimum draft requirements of
the lay vessel. For instance, in Nigeria, swells in excess of 8 ft were recorded
during the installation of the Inda pipeline; this made installation of the pipe-
line in water depths less than 20 ft along the shore approach difficult and more
dangerous than installation in deeper waters.
922 Surveying
Once the area of possible construction is defined, surveys are contracted to obtain
site-specific information supporting design and/or agency requirements. This
includes bathymetry, seabed characteristics, soil properties, stratigraphy, hazards,
cultural resources, biological activity, and environmental data. Survey data acquisi-
tion should be appropriately scheduled as there can be time constraints on the
acceptability of the data by agencies.
A good understanding of the regional shallow geology often helps in anticipating
geohazards and planning the scope of the surveys. In the Gulf of Mexico, one can
expect complex seafloor conditions on the continental slope and relatively uniform
conditions on the shelf.
To avoid expensive remobilizations, a firm understanding of the coverage and field
data requirements should be in hand before initiating the survey process. While the
offshore work can be done relatively quickly, it is relatively expensive. Be sure that
adequate data is collected to satisfy the regulatory agencies and the contractors
bidding on the project, and to allow for possible modifications to the proposed
route. Data reduction is time consuming. The data use and the consequences of vari-
ances should be well understood. This will permit making decisions on data acquisi-
tion alternates. For example, if jetting into the seabed is planned, obtaining a soil
boring may be attractive to ensure that contractors are working with confirmed, and
not inferred, data. This is not necessary in mature areas, such as the Gulf of
Mexico, if the Company has confirmed data for the block/area.
Agencies will typically have requirements for conducting pre- and postconstruction
surveys. The type of survey, tie-line spacing, report format, and raw data to be
collected should be identified. (Note: Federal and State requirements are usually
different in some respects. Discussion of the proposed program with the involved
agencies is recommended prior to bidding and data acquisition.)
Surveys are generally conducted simultaneously from a surface vessel on a predeter-
mined survey grid. Today, satellite positioning is the primary system for conducting
offshore surveys and locating construction vessels. Alternatively, a radio posi-
tioning system from shore or fixed platforms could be established to locate the
vessel while conducting the surveys. There are a few radio positioning systems still
in use but are considered secondary systems in most cases. Navigational posi-
tioning system accuracy can be plus or minus 20 feet, depending on the system.
Current MMS requirements specify a minimum accuracy of five meters or less.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-10 Chevron Corporation
Surveys may include bathymetry, side-scan sonar, magnetometers, acoustic
subbottom reflection profiles, measurement of depth of cover over pipelines,
sampling, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), submersibles, and divers.
Bathymetry
Echo sounders are run continuously over the area; and the trace, after calibrating
for the effects of salinity and temperature, provides raw depth readings. These must
be further adjusted for tides and transducer location to develop depths related to a
datum (e.g., mean-lower low water, MLLW). The data are contoured and an isobath
map produced. Analog profiles of the bathometry are used to detect gas rising to the
surface from the sea floor.
Side-Scan Sonar
A tool is towed behind the boat at a constant height above the seafloor along a
predetermined grid that will provide a 100 percent coverage of the area of interest.
Sonic pulses are emitted toward the seabed, reflected, and received by the tool and
recorded on the boat. The shadows and shading on the record are interpreted for
seabed materials and objects on the sea floor. Obstructions, outcrops, anchor scars,
pipelines, etc., can be identified and mapped. A mosaic of the side scan records can
be assembled showing the seabed configuration, but is not required by the MMS as
a part of the preconstruction survey documentation. The MMS only requires a
paper copy of the side scan data. A short baseline acoustic tracking system may be
used to rovide more accurate positioning of the sonar tool. However, such a
tracking system does not improve the quality of the side-scan data. Side-scan sonar
data is also used to identify gas rising to the surface from the sea floor.
Use of side-scan sonar can be limited in locations close to platforms and structures
because of difficulties towing the tool close to the platform and signal reflection
from structural members can cause distorted images. Radial scan sonars (i.e. those
tools that provide a full 360 coverage around a point) are widely available. These
are designed to be deployed from platforms. Divers are often used to supplement
side scan-conar near platforms and structures.
Magnetometers
A tool is towed behind the boat on the surface, continuously recording the magnetic
field. Magnetometers are commonly used to locate pipelines and metallic objects.
Changes are correlated with ferrous metal objects, and large changes may be identi-
fied on the side-scan sonar records. Magnetic anomalies are one means of estab-
lishing cultural resources, but because of the limited data collected on the survey,
significant features may be missed. This is particularly true of data from a surface-
towed tool in deep water. MMS standards are normally 1 gamma sensitivity with a
noise level not exceeding 3 gammas peak-to-peak (i.e., plus or minus 1.5 gammas).
Gradiometers, which consist of an array of magnetometer sensors, are often used
for similar applications.
Acoustic Subbottom Reflection Profiles
A tool is towed behind the survey boat to collect data from the seafloor and
subbottom reflections (the MMS standards for resolution are better than 1 to 2
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-11 November 1994
meters within the upper 15 meters of sediment.) The energy source is typically
piezo-electric or electromechanical. De-coupling and/or active compensation for
wave heave is used in seastates greater than Beaufort Force 2 to achieve clearly
interpretable recordings. In deep water, near-bottom towing or narrow-beam sound
sources are usually necessary to achieve cleaner horizontal resolution. The signals
are reflected when they reach different material interfaces and are recorded. The
traces sometimes allow interpretation of the seabed material and stratigraphy when
referenced to available samples. Faults, gas sands, mudslides, dip of subsurface
strata, sediment thickness, etc., can be mapped.
Medium depth acoustic profilers known as sparkers or boomers, that are often
used in seismic surveys, can be used to profile the subbottom to a depth of 300
meters. The MMS standards do not waive the use of medium depth acoustic
profiles for shallow hazards survey.
Pipeline Depth of Burial Measurements
Depth of burial measurements for offshore pipelines may be required as part of the
as-built surveys. In the North Sea, all pipelines less than 16-inch nominal must be
trenched to provide cover over the pipeline regardless of water depth. In the Gulf of
Mexico, pipelines larger than 4-inch nominal constructed in water depths less than
200 ft must be trenched with a minimum of 3 feet of cover. Typically, the Company
buries pipelines at a platform in water depths to 300 ft, with a depth of cover of 3-ft
in the Gulf of Mexico or 30-inches offshore Cabinda or Nigeria for a length of 200
ft from the base of the riser, then tapering to the seafloor for an overall length of
300 ft. Recent legislation, in the Gulf of Mexico (PL101-599) has required surveys
of existing offshore pipelines in water depths less than 15 feet, MSWL to measure
depth of cover over the pipelines.
Several methods are available which can be used to determine pipeline depth of
cover. The most commonly used methods are:
Chirp Sonar is a sub-bottom profiler system that utilizes a frequency-modulated
acoustic pulse to profile the seabed. Pipelines can be identified and their depth of
burial measured from the profile plot.
Innovatum is a pipe tracking system which utilizes a gradiometer array to measure
the strength of a pipelines magnetic field at various positions while crossing the
pipeline, and then calculates the depth of cover over the pipeline.
TSS 340 is a pipe tracking system that operates by inducing a pulse of electro-
magnetic energy to set up an energy-magnetic field in the pipeline. It measures the
rate the induced field decays and calculates the depth of burial.
These methods are usually deployed in a towed tool, by a Remotely Operated
Vehicle (ROV), or on a sled which is pulled along the seabed by a survey vessel.
Other methods are available to measure the depth of cover over pipelines, but have
not gained wide acceptance or use. Divers are often used in shore crossing areas to
measure burial depth using tee-bar probes that are manually pushed into the
seabed to detect a pipeline.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-12 Chevron Corporation
Precision Gas Pipeline Location - A Technology Study (PRC/AGA/SRI Inter-
national [49]
This study was undertaken to survey and evaluate the technology available to deter-
mine accurately the position of submerged or buried gas transmission pipelines, and
to assess the applicability of some of the emerging technologies. The objectives are
to increase accuracy and reliability while reducing the cost of the surveys.
This report is organized to provide an overview of the elements applicable to the
problem of pipe detection, identification, and location. These elements include
basic sensors and pipe-location systems made up of sensors, computers, periph-
erals, and data links. The report includes a qualitative comparison of both sensors
and systems using a number of performance criteria. A brief description of relevant
technologies that have been developed for uses other than pipeline location, as well
as new emerging technologies, is also included.
Sampling
Drop cores, grab samples, borings, and vibra cores are means for obtaining seabed
samples. The first two are relatively easy and inexpensive to deploy. However, they
may not obtain the required penetration. Grab samples may not always be represen-
tative, and later testing of soil engineering properties may be impossible or not
meaningful. Borings and vibra cores may be necessary in these circumstances.
Samples are preserved in a near-natural state and then analyzed in a laboratory to
determine the engineering properties needed for pipeline design.
In Situ Testing
Seafloor deployed cone penetrometer and field vane tests, when used in conjunction
with sampling at key locations can be an effective alternative to sampling alone.
These in-situ tests cause less disturbance to soil than drop cores and grab sampling.
They are also easier to set up than soil borings.
Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs)
ROVs may be used for pipeline inspection. They are used to perform visual inspec-
tions and to take cathodic protection system potential readings. These devices are
deployed from a surface vessel and may have video cameras, still cameras, and
manipulators. They have a positioning system that is referenced to the boat. The
ROVs thrusters are controlled from the surface vessel, and video tapes record what
is being observed. ROVs are useful in biological surveys for monitoring popula-
tions and to obtain samples for subsequent identification. They may also be used to
view the seabed, outcrops, or other features and confirm other remotely gathered
data. The use of ROVs is limited in areas and depths with low visibility.
The Technology of Submersible Remotely Operated Vehicles ((PRC/AGA) [50]
The PRC/AGA has sponsored this development project with the purposes: 1) to
provide a description of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and the tools and
support systems they employ to support underwater pipeline operations; 2) to
describe the ROV work accomplished and the techniques employed in support of
pipeline tasks, from route surveys to repair; 3) to provide an assessment of the work
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-13 November 1994
accomplished in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the ROVs and the tools
and techniques employed and 4) to identify research and development now
underway that will eliminate current ROV deficiencies in support of underwater
pipeline operations.
The main type of ROV used in support of offshore pipeline operations are tethered,
free-swimming vehicles. Best results using ROVs can be achieved by employing
experienced operators and marine crew. In this regard, it is not wise to contract on
the basis of the lowest bidder, but based on previous experience/cost.
Subsea instrumentation for ROV pipeline support can include: cameras, pipe
trackers, cathodic protection, side scan or scanning sonar, sub-bottom profiler, alti-
tude/depth sensors, bottom profilers, monitors, ultrasonic thickness measurement
and dredges.
Potential application of this technology includes: route surveys, underwater inspec-
tion, maintenance and repair of offshore pipelines using various types of ROVs,
manned submersibles, etc.
Submersibles
Manned vehicles can also be deployed. They serve the same function as ROVs, but
put personnel in closer proximity.
Divers
In shallow water areas, for example at shore crossings, divers may be used to gather
seabed data. Video, still pictures, and samples can be obtained. One difficulty is
locating the diver during the survey. A staff protruding above the water and
surveyed from shore has been used effectively. Hand or jet probes have been used
to identify the thickness of loose sediments (15-foot maximum).
923 Environmental Data
To calculate on-bottom stability, information on the local wave and current environ-
ment is needed. These criteria are generally provided in terms of the n-th year
storm, where n is usually 1, 5 or 100. Historically, on-bottom stability has been
calculated by combining the nth-year wave and nth-year current. Research over the
past decade has shown that this leads to excessively conservative design since the
probability of both the n-th-year wave and nth-year current occurring simulta-
neously is low. To eliminate some of this conservatism, it is best to use the nth-year
wave (current) with the associated or expected value of the current (wave). The
nth-year parameter will be the one that causes the largest portion of the force and
this will depend on the site. In general, the wave will dominate the force in water
depths less than 300 ft. Consequently the nth-year wave and associated current
should be used. Conversely, on the continental slope or in rivers, the current will
dominate the force, and the associated wave should be used, although it will usually
be negligible.
Criteria is usually developed through a combination of measurements and hindcasts
using numerical computer models. Measurements and hindcast results are available
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-14 Chevron Corporation
for heavily developed regions in the Gulf of Mexico shelf. In some frontier regions,
measurements and hindcasts may be needed. CPTCs Facilities Engineering Depart-
ment - Offshore Systems Division (Contact: Cort Cooper, CTN 842-9119) can
provide environmental criteria using a combination of their extensive data base and
numerical models.
Offshore pipeline environmental criteria is slightly different than that required for
platform design. Environmental data is required for on-bottom stability design/anal-
ysis (see Section 935 for procedures). For shallow water depths, i.e. less than about
65 ft offshore West Africa, it is important to consider directionality in the wave and
current. The maximum wave height and current values may not be the most critical
if they are parallel to the pipeline. Lower values perpendicular to the line may result
in higher loads. CPTC should be given the pipeline route details so that direction-
ality can be considered in determining the worst case wave and current values.
930 Design
This section presents methods that permit determination of important pipeline
criteria necessary for preliminary selection of pipeline parameters. Figures 900-1
and 900-2, provided by Brown and Root, show all the steps required for preliminary
and detailed engineering design. Section 930 does not cover all of these. Also see
API RP 1111.
931 General Design Considerations
External Loads
External loads can significantly affect pipeline design. Some of the causes of
external loads include thermal expansion and contraction, impact, vibration, vortex
shedding, and soil movement (i.e., mud flows, scour). Generally, most of these
external loads would not be a factor. Accordingly, this manual does not deal with
design considerations for such cases but serves to make the engineer aware of prob-
lems that may exist in individual areas. API RP 1111 and ANSI/ASME B31.4 and
B31.8 should be consulted for further information regarding these subjects.
Pipeline Design/Analysis Considerations
In many cases, such as laying a large diameter pipeline in deep water, the most crit-
ical stresses are induced by the laying operation, rather than by the working pres-
sure of the pipeline. Laying stresses are due to the S-Curve configuration of the
pipe and tensile load as it passes over the stinger aft of the lay barge and drops to
the sea floor (See Figure 900-3). It is necessary to maintain adequate tension on the
pipe to prevent buckling in the sagbend, or as it goes over the end of the stinger.
We advise consulting CPTCs Facilities Engineering Department - Offshore
Systems Division (OS) in San Ramon, CA to review conditions, such as environ-
ment, water depth, size and weight of pipe to be laid, horizontal alignment and
Contractors calculations. Most Contractors and OS have the necessary stress anal-
ysis computer programs.
P
i
p
e
l
i
n
e

M
a
n
u
a
l
9
0
0


O
f
f
s
h
o
r
e
C
h
e
v
r
o
n

C
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
9
0
0
-
1
5
N
o
v
e
m
b
e
r

1
9
9
4
Fig. 900-1 Preliminary Engineering Flowchart (Courtesy of Brown and Root)
9
0
0


O
f
f
s
h
o
r
e
P
i
p
e
l
i
n
e

M
a
n
u
a
l
N
o
v
e
m
b
e
r

1
9
9
4
9
0
0
-
1
6
C
h
e
v
r
o
n

C
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
Fig. 900-2 Detailed Engineering Design (Courtesy of Brown and Root)
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-17 November 1994
Another design consideration is that of the pipelines specific gravity (see
Section 935). Understandably, it is not desirable to have a pipeline that has a posi-
tive buoyancy, as the pipeline would float. Specific gravity is generally a problem
when dealing with large diameter lines and is solved by the addition of weight
coating (see Section 953).
Minimum Yield Strength
Historically lower grade pipe (Grade B) has been used for small diameter pipes in
shallow water areas and higher grade pipe used for larger diameters and/or deep
water. (For small diameter, short pipelines in water depths less than 300 feet,
consideration should be given to using Grade B, extra strong pipe because it may be
available from Company stock, and surplus pipe can be stored for later use. Also
see Section 442.) Suggested values, to begin a design, for minimum yield strength
are shown in Figure 900-4.
Type Of Pipe
Seamless and submerged arc welded pipe have been used exclusively for offshore
pipelines by the Company, until recently. For diameters up to NPS 16 seamless has
been used, while for diameters from 18 to 36 inches NPS double submerged arc
weld pipe (DSAW) has been used. Electric welded pipe (ERW) has been avoided
because of its past reputation for poor quality. However, pipe produced today in
Fig. 900-3 Notations for a Suspended Pipe and Curved Stinger, Conventional S-Curve Lay Barge
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-18 Chevron Corporation
modern mills with high quality material should be considered for offshore applica-
tions. ERW is available in sizes up to 24 inch NPS and is usually less in cost
compared to seamless above about 10 inches and with DSAW from 16 to 24 inches.
Savings of 20 to 25 % have been seen in bids on recent projects. See Section 300 of
this manual for an ERW selection decision tree which gives guidance on specifica-
tions, inspection and mill sources for ERW pipe.
Whenever the costs are comparable between ERW and seamless or between ERW
and DSAW , seamless pipe is the preferred product.
Electric welded pipe, including ERW can now be made with quality manufacture
and lower cost and should be considered for use in non-critical services. For
example, $4/ft (1992 dollars) can be saved as compared with seamless for a 12.75-
inch O.D., 0.500-inch wall thickness pipe having a length of 25 miles.
COPI/Chevron Nigeria plan to use ERW pipe for the Inda, Idama, Opuekeba and
Okan II projects where cost effective. A project specification was developed for the
Okan II Bid Package for seamless, DSAW or electric welded. (For future and
current projects, please contact CRTCs Materials and Equipment Engineering
Unit, Richmond, CA for a list of qualified pipe manufacturers and prepara-
tion/review of line pipe specifications.)
Minimum Handling Thicknesses
Sections 432 and 441 provide criteria for minimum handling thicknesses. These are
dependent upon the method of transportation. The reader should be aware that pipe
of high D/t ratio, if stacked too high in the hold of a ship could be damaged beyond
repair.
Fig. 900-4 Suggested Values for Minimum Yields Strengths (ksi) for Pipe
Pipe Diameter,
OD, In.
Water Depth, Ft.
0-300 300-600 600-900 +900
6.625 35 42 52 60
8.625 35 42 52 65
10.750 35 42 60 65
12.750 35 42 65 65
14 42 42 65 65
16 42 52 65 65
18 52 60 65 65
20 52 60 65 65
24 52 60 65 65
30 60 65 65 65
36 60 65 65 65
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-19 November 1994
Corrosion Allowance
Carbon steel pipelines have been commonly designed without corrosion allow-
ances. In services were corrosion is anticipated a corrosion allowance should be
considered to extend the life of the pipeline. Corrosion allowance for a water injec-
tion line may be taken as 0.125-inches. For conceptual design cost estimates
assume 0.0625-inches. For corrosive products such as high CO2/H2S/H2O gas, etc
please contact the CRTC Materials and Equipment Engineering Group in Rich-
mond, CA for a recommendation on corrosion allowance. (See also Section 315 of
this manual and API 1111.)
932 Subsea Line Sizing
Subsea line sizing is essentially the same as land line sizing (see Section 430 and
the Fluid Flow Manual). Nevertheless, there are two issues worth noting.
The first concerns the flow regime on two-phase (gas and liquid) flow. The two-
phase flow regime can be different in the horizontal seabed line than it is in the
risers from the seabed to the platform deck. Therefore, the flow regime needs to be
checked independently for the two sections when doing hand calculations. A two-
phase program (like PIPEFLOW-2) will perform the calculations if the geometry of
the sections is described properly in the input data.
The second issue concerns the enhanced effect that seawater has on the temperature
of the pipeline fluid. This effect expresses itself through the external heat transfer
coefficient (HTC) defined for the system. (See Section 1000 of the Fluid Flow
Manual). Details that go into the external HTC are bottom ambient temperature,
coating type, and water current velocity (if required), and the level to which the
pipe sinks into the bottom mud or silt (see Section 941).
Sea bed temperatures, currents, and mud conditions are seldom known precisely.
Therefore, calculated HTCs will only be approximate. External HTCs of from 0.5
to 1.0 agree with some offshore Cabinda (Angola) field data where the calculated
value was 0.9 (Btu/hr ft
2
F) [1]. For the Point Arguello pipeline the overall design
calculated HTCs ranged from 0.16 to 3.06 (Btu/hr ft
2
F).
When sizing subsea lines, one should also consider the flow conditions, throughout
the field life, i.e., a 5000 BOPD production rate at 800 psi initial condition could
become a 1500 BOPD rate with 8000 BWPD at 300 psi condition.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-20 Chevron Corporation
933 Pressure Design
Pressure design procedures are contained in 30 CFR 250, Section 250.152 and API
RP 1111 which references ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8. (Also see Section 442 of
this manual and Section 192.111(d) of 49 CFR 192 for DOT gas pipelines.)
Per API RP 1111, the minimum wall thickness of steel pipe for any given internal
design pressure should be calculated by the following equations:
or,
(Eq. 900-1)
where:
P = Internal design pressure, psig (the differential pressure between
the maximum internal pressure and the minimum external pres-
sure at any point in the pipeline system during normal flow or
static conditions)
D = Nominal outside diameter of the pipe, in.
S = Applicable allowable hoop stress value as provided below, psig
t = Nominal wall thickness, in.
From API RP 1111, the allowable hoop stress value(s) to be used for the above
design calculations for new pipe of known specification is:
S = F E SMYS T
(Eq. 900-2)
where:
S = Allowable hoop stress value, psig, except when further limited as
follows: when pipe that has been cold worked for the purpose of
meeting the SMYS is heated to 316C (600F) or higher
(welding excepted), the allowable hoop stress (S) is limited to 75
percent of F E SMYS. (Comment: the S value shown in
ANSI/ASME B31.4, Table 402.3.1a is based on F = 0.72. When
other design factors are used, the value of S should be adjusted
accordingly.)
F = Construction factor, dimensionless
The design factor, F, should be equal to 0.72 for submarine gas
and liquid hydrocarbon pipelines; 0.60 for liquid risers; and 0.50
for gas risers.
t
PD
2S
------- - for
D
t
---- 10 > =
t
PD
2S 0.8P +
------------------------ for
D
t
---- 10 =
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-21 November 1994
Note Per ANSI/ASME B31.4 and B31.8, factors differ based on loading: 0.72 for
normal pressure; 0.9 for pipeline flooded during hydrotesting; 0.96 for combined
loading including operation and environment. Per API RP 14E, Section 1.2 the
design stress should be no greater than 0.6 times SMYS for production platform
risers. However, the 0.6 design factor does not meet the minimum requirement for
DOT gas lines. 49 CFR 192.111(d) requires a design factor of 0.50 or less for
risers on gas pipelines and must be used for gas pipeline risers on production plat-
forms in the U.S.
E = Weld joint factor (Refer to ANSI/ASME B31.4, Table 402.4.3 or
ANSI/ASME B31.8, Table 841.1B.) Note that E is equal to 1.00
for all pipe manufactured to API Specification 5L.
SMYS = Specified minimum yield strength, provided in the pipe manufac-
turing specifications, according to API 5L or B31.4 or B31.8.
T = Temperature derating factor, normally 1.0 (see B31.4 or B31.8
for high temperatures).
For the U.K. Sector of the North Sea , please refer to British Standard BS 8010,
Part 3 for the hoop stress and wall thickness formulae.
934 Pipeline Collapse and Buckling
The objectives of this section are to define pipeline mechanical design criteria and
limitations and to provide a procedure for determining the required wall thickness
and material grade as a function of pipe diameter, water depth, and installation
method. Pipeline design considerations include collapse, buckle initiation, buckle
propagation, and the combined effects of external pressure and bending during
installation. In addition, two PC programs, PLDESIGN and DEEPD are briefly
described.
The minimum wall thickness required to resist external hydrostatic pressure is deter-
mined based on current industry practice such that the risk of collapse, buckle initia-
tion, and buckle propagation are reduced to reasonable proportions.
Buckle Propagation
Experiments on pipe buckling conducted by Battelle Columbus Laboratories in the
early 1970s revealed a buckle phenomena referred to as a propagating buckle.
This describes the situation where a transverse dent (that may have been caused by
excessive bending during installation, dragging anchors, trawl board damage or by
any other cause) changes its configuration into a longitudinal buckle and propagates
along the pipe, possibly causing collapse along the entire pipeline length. The
driving energy that causes a buckle to propagate is the hydrostatic pressure.
The nature of a propagating buckle is that a greater pressure level is required to
initiate a propagating buckle (called the buckle initiation pressure, P
i
) than the pres-
sure required to maintain propagation of the buckle (called the buckle propagation
pressure, P
p
). As a consequence of this, a buckle initiated in an offshore pipeline
propagates and collapses the line until the external pressure becomes equal to or
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-22 Chevron Corporation
less than the propagation pressure. This assumes that the pipe properties (wall thick-
ness and yield strength) remain the same.
Theoretical and experimental equations have been developed to predict the propaga-
tion pressure. A summary of the different equations that have been proposed to
predict buckle propagation pressure is presented as follows:
Of the above equations, the theoretical one by Palmer (Equation 900-3) is the most
conservative.
Buckle Propagation Design Minimum Wall Thickness
The minimum required wall thickness of a steel pipeline to prevent buckle propaga-
tion for any given water depth should be calculated using the above Shell equation,
Equation 900-7, presented as follows:
(Eq. 900-8)
where:
t = Minimum wall thickness to prevent buckle propagation, in.
D = Outside diameter of the pipe, in.
K
p
= Safety factor of 1.20
W
d
= Water depth, ft

y
= Specified minimum yield strength (SMYS), psi
Buckle Initiation
The pipeline D/t ratio may be sized so that it falls between the buckle initiation pres-
sure and the propagation pressure. This means that the hydrostatic water pressure
may or may not be high enough to transform a local buckle into a propagating
buckle. The uncertainty lies in the actual shape of the local buckle. If the pipeline
were designed to resist a propagating buckle, a local buckle would not be able to
propagate. This would be the only case where buckle arrestors would not be
required. (Note that the exact values where the initiation and propagation pressures
occur are subject to debate. There have been several different experimental
programs performed over the years to define these values and each has come up
with slightly different results.)
Source P
p
, Propagation Pressure
Palmer
y (t/D)
2 (Eq. 900-3)
Battelle 34
y (t/D)
2.5 (Eq. 900-4)
DnV 1.15
y [t/(D-t)]
2 (Eq. 900-5)
Kyriakides 14.5
y (t/D)
2.25 (Eq. 900-6)
Shell 24
y (t/D)
2.4 (Eq. 900-7)
t D
K
p
W
d

54y
-------------------


0.4167
=
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-23 November 1994
The initiation pressure depends on the geometry and, particularly, on the initial size
of the buckle. P
i
may be significantly higher than P
p
for minor damage, but may
approach P
p
for a severely damaged pipe. If the local damage is a buckle developed
by pure bending, then P
i
= 1.5 P
p
. The two different experimental equations that
have been proposed to predict buckle initiation pressure are as follows.
Timoshenko Collapse Pressure
The Timoshenko formula for the critical, elastic, buckling collapse pressure of pipe
is:
(Eq. 900-11)
where:
P
c
= Critical collapse pressure for the pipe, psi
E = Elastic modulus, psi
= Poissons ratio = 0.3
D = Pipe outside diameter, in.
t = Pipe wall thickness, in.
The critical elastic buckling pressure is valid for pipe with a very high D/t ratio
(greater than 75). In practice, residual ovalization is usually present, and significant
deformation of the pipe surface may occur prior to collapse. Hence, the hydrostatic
collapse pressure is also a function of the yield properties.
Theoretical P
i
, Initiation Pressure
Battelle 6.055 10
5
(t/D)
2.064
(Eq. 900-9)
Shell 36
y (t/D)
2.4 (Eq. 900-10)
P
c
2E
1
2

---------------
1
D
t
----
D
t
---- 1


2
-------------------------- =
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-24 Chevron Corporation
An expression for determining the critical buckling pressure of perfectly round
pipe, which accounts for the pipe yield stress, has been included in the Det Norske
Veritas (DnV) rules:
(Eq. 900-12)
or,
for
where:
(Eq. 900-13)
Collapse Design - Minimum Wall Thickness
Figure 900-5 shows the collapse pressure, P
c
, for pipe with an ovality of 1.5 percent
for D/ts from 10 to 50 and pipe grades from Grade B to X70. (Combined bending
and collapse is discussed in a subsequent section.) This table should be used for
pipe laid using the S-Curve method, J-Lay method, or pull methods. (The pipe
as manufactured should have an out-of-roundness of less than 1 percent.) For pipe
laid using a reel lay vessel, Figure 900-6 should be used. (Reeling is expected to
produce an out-of-roundness of less than 2 percent.) Reeling will produce an out-of-
roundness which is a function of the diameter of the reel, the pipe D/t and of the
applied tension. The effect of tension on collapse is usually small and is neglected.
This can be modeled using currently available tools as part of the detailed design by
the Contractor, if high tensions are of concern. When necessary, CPTCs OS Divi-
sion can provide technical assistance to assess this effect.)"
The following procedure should be used for collapse design:
Calculate the collapse pressure, P
c
, produced by the seawater at depth,
including a safety factor and seawater gravity of 1.03:
(Eq. 900-14)
where:
K
c
= Safety factor to prevent collapse = 1.33
W
d
= Water depth, ft
P
c
2
e
t
D
---- for
e
2
3
---
y
=
P
c
2
y
t
D
---- 1
1
3
---
2
y
3
e
---------



2
=

e
2
3
---
y
>

e
E
t
D t
----------- -


2
=
P
c
K
c
W
d
/2.25 =
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-25 November 1994
Use either Figure 900-5 or 900-6, based on the above discussion of the pipelay
method. Reading down the column for the chosen pipe grade (i.e., minimum
yield strength), let P
c
= P and interpolate to obtain D/t.
Knowing the outside diameter of the pipe D; calculate the required minimum
wall thickness, t, to prevent collapse.
Alternatively, the PLDESIGN PC program or Shells equations for P
c
may be
used. (See the PC program description provided below or Combined Bending and
Collapse, Eq. 900-16).
Design Criteria
Pipelines can be designed to meet propagation pressure criteria or collapse criteria.
For shallow water pipelines, the pipe should be designed to meet propagation
criteria (discussed earlier in this section).
For larger diameter pipelines or in water depths greater than about 1200 feet,
selecting a pipe wall thickness adequate to resist a propagating buckle can make the
pipe expensive, too heavy to install by conventional means, or, in the event of a
flooded pipeline during construction, the suspended pipe weight may become exces-
sive. Therefore, the less conservative collapse criterion discussed above should be
applied, and the use of buckle arrestors is necessary (see the discussion below). The
cost of materials continues to increase with increasing water depths beyond 1200
feet and is limited because of this change in the controlling wall thickness criterion.
For installation methods that require minimal submerged weight, the collapse
design criterion is preferred. In addition, tow methods induce minimal bending
stress in the pipe; therefore, the risk of inducing collapse is low. Pipe collapse
criteria, rather than buckle propagation, are preferred for all pipe diameters using
installation by towing methods. (If your application possibly falls in the last two
categories, we recommend that you contact the OS Division of CPTC for assis-
tance.)
Combined Bending and Collapse (Shell Formulas)
Wall thickness may be based on the equations given in Section 21-1 of the Deep-
water Pipeline Feasibility Study by Shell Development Company. The equations in
the Shell Study are actually collapse equations that are modified to account for out-
of-roundness and an allowable bending strain.
Equation 900-15 is the failure function that provides a criterion for predicting
failure of the pipe in the sagbend under the combined effects of external pressure
and bending:
P/P
c
+ /
c
(Eq. 900-15)
1, safe
1 > , unsafe
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-26 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 900-5 Collapse Pressure P
C
(psi) for Pipe with Ovality D/D = 1.5%. No Bending Applied.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-27 November 1994
Fig. 900-6 Collapse Pressure P
C
(psi) for Pipe with Ovality D/D = 2.5%. No Bending Applied
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-28 Chevron Corporation
where:
P = External pressure differential, psi
P
c
= Critical external pressure for pure collapse, considering ovality of
the pipe, psi
= D/2
= Critical bending strain at the maximum bending moment
= Pipe centerline radius of curvature at maximum bending moment,
inch.

c =
Critical bending strain for pure bending, including ovality of the
pipe
If either the bending strain or the external pressure differential is zero, the equation
reduces to pure collapse or pure bending.
As shown in Figure 900-7, this equation represents a straight line. The particular
location of the failure function with respect to this failure boundary is controlled by
the values of
o, Po
, and the out-of-roundness function g, which are in turn
controlled by the values of D/t, grade (yield strength
,

y
), and ovality

(D/D) of the
pipe, as described in the equations below:
P
c
= g P
o
= g [2
o / (D/t)]
(Eq. 900-16)

c =
g

o
= g [D / (2 o)]
(Eq. 900-17)
where:
Po = Critical external pressure for pure collapse of round pipe, psig

o =
t/(2D)
= Critical bending strain for pure bending of round pipe, inch/inch

o
= Critical pipe radius of curvature for pure bending of round pipe,
inch

o
=
y

E / (

y
2
+

E
2)
1/2
= Critical hoop stress for pure collapse of round pipe, psi

E =
23.55 106/((D/t)-1)2, for steel pipe
= Critical hoop stress for elastic collapse, psi

y
= Pipe yield strength, psi
g = Out-of-roundness function
= 1 for perfectly round pipe
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-29 November 1994
D = Out-of-roundness prior to loading, in.
= (D
max
D
min
)/2
Fig. 900-7 Buckling Collapse Failure Boundary
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-30 Chevron Corporation
Equation 900-15 may be solved using graphical/tabular methods or by trial and
error, as follows.
We define:
(Eq. 900-18)
We assume: b
o
= 1
We substitute to obtain:
P
o
2t

o
D
------ =
d
D
t
-------- =
f d ( ) 1 d
2
+ ( )
1 2 /
d =
r
y
E
------- =
g r d , ( )
f d ( ) 1 r
2
+ ( )
0.5
1 r
2
f d ( ) [ ]
2
+ ( )
0.5
------------------------------------------- =

o
-----
1
b
o
-----
D
2
p t
-------- =
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-31 November 1994
As a simplification, if we assume elastic behavior, then the allowable bending strain
is conservatively limited by the allowable bending stress as follows:
(Eq. 900-19)
where:

ab =
Allowable bending stress (for shallow water, use 0.8 y; for ultra-
deep water sy may be used)
E = Modulus of Elasticity of pipe
(In ultra-deep water it may be necessary to allow plastic behavior for economic
reasons and/or maximum tension limitations on the available equipment. However,
this calculation is beyond the scope of this manual.)
Figure 900-8 gives the out-of-roundness function g for a pipe ovality of 1.5 percent,
for D/ts from 10 to 50 and pipe grades from Grade B to X70. Figure 900-9 is for
an ovality of 2.5 percent.
We can then substitute the expressions in Equations 900-18 and Equation 900-19
into Equation 900-20 and solve for D/t by trial and error.
(Eq. 900-20)
Equation 900-20 can also be solved using Figures 900-5 through 900-8 if rewritten
as follows from Equation 900-16.
(Eq. 900-21)
A PC program is also available for the solution of these equations as described
below.
Pipeline Design Using the PLDESIGN Computer Program
The PLDESIGN PC computer program, developed by APTECH for the Company
circa 1989, is for the design and analysis of offshore pipelines. The program is

ab
/E, and =

o
-----
D
t
----

ab
14.75 10
6

---------------------------- =

o
-----
P
P
o
------ + g =

o
-----
gP
P
c
------ + g =
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-32 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 900-8 Out-of-Roundness Function g for Ovality (D/D = 1.5%)
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-33 November 1994
Fig. 900-9 Out-of-Roundness Function g for Ovality (D/D = 2.5%)
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-34 Chevron Corporation
intended for use by engineers and designers during pipeline initial design, or for
verifying contractors analysis and data [19]. It is used to determine:
1. Pipe grade (See Section 931).
2. Minimum wall thickness for internal pressure design. (The default value for
corrosion allowance is 0.0625 inches.)
3. Minimum wall thickness for buckle propagation design.
4. Minimum wall thickness for critical collapse.
5. Minimum wall thickness for critical collapse with bending.
6. Basic buckle arrestor design parameters, when needed.
7. Cathodic protection system calculations for sacrificial zinc anodes.
The program also determines general recommended minimum wall thickness and
the feasibility of laying the pipeline using the pipe reel installation method. This
program is available through the OS Division of CPTC and is free-of-charge for
Chevron OPCOs.
Deepwater Pipeline Design Using the DEEPD Computer Program
Tera, Inc., has developed for the Company an IBM PC computer program, DEEPD,
for designing deepwater pipelines. The program is based on procedures developed
in Shells JIP, Deepwater Pipeline Feasibility Study - Phase I, Chapter 21-4.
DEEPD is intended for use in economic feasibility studies where the number of
cases under consideration make manual calculation impractical. The program is
limited to deep water only (for bare pipe deepwater is approximately 180-foot
water depth for NPS 6, 295-foot depth for NPS 12, 400- to 500-foot depth for NPS
24, and 525- to 777-foot depth for NPS 48 pipe). The program assumes that the crit-
ical condition for pipe failure is buckling due to combined bending and pressure in
the sagbend portion of the suspended pipe span. The program was written for the
purpose of selecting acceptable combinations of pipe properties, lay vessel tension
capacity and stinger lift-off angle for laying deepwater pipelines. Pipe yield
strengths and wall thicknesses which satisfy the sagbend buckling conditions are
selected for a range of lay vessel tensions. This program is available through the OS
Division of CPTC and is free-of-charge for Chevron OPCOs.
Buckle Arrestors
Buckle arrestors should be considered for use in all water depths where the pipes
buckle propagation pressure is less than or equal to the external hydrostatic pres-
sure (See the discussion on buckle propagation design above).
A buckle arrestor is a device, such as a thick pipe section or steel ring, which is
welded to or otherwise firmly attached to the pipeline. A properly designed system
of buckle arrestors can confine any propagating buckle to a relatively short span
which can be repaired at a tolerable cost. Sizes and strengths of buckle arrestors can
be determined from the design equations presented later in this section.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-35 November 1994
The spacing between arrestors is a discretionary choice between the increased cost
of installing arrestors at shorter intervals and the risk of failure of longer lengths of
pipeline, which would be expensive to repair.
When designing a system of buckle arrestors, it generally is better to err on the
conservative side, using arrestors that are hell for stout and installing plenty of
them. The spacing between buckle arrestors should be limited to the maximum
convenient repair length, which is about the length of a barge or ship used to assist
in the repair, i.e., in the range of 200 to 500 feet.
Types of Buckle Arrestors
Figure 900-10 illustrates several types of possible buckle arrestors.
Free-ring. A free-ring buckle arrestor is a thick-wall ring or sleeve that is clamped,
grouted, press-fitted, or otherwise fitted snugly to (but not welded to) the exterior or
interior surface of the pipe. The maximum crossover pressure for a very thick-wall,
snug fitting, free-ring buckle arrestor usually will be considerably below the pipe
collapse pressure, particularly for deepwater pipeline applications where D/t 40.
For this reason, external free-ring buckle arrestors are suitable only for relatively
shallow water pipeline applications where D/t > 40.
Welded-Ring. A welded-ring buckle arrestor is similar to the free-ring arrestor
except that it is fillet welded at both ends to the pipeline. The end welds must be of
good size and penetration in order to develop the full effectiveness of a welded-ring
arrestor. Observations from experimental tests have indicated that welded-ring
buckle arrestors are roughly twice as effective as free-ring buckle arrestors. An
internally mounted ring generally is a more effective buckle arrestor than one
mounted externally on the pipe. The improved performance occurs because an
internal ring generally will be deformed more than an external ring for a given
deformation of the pipe. Also an internal ring minimizes problems associated with
external coatings. A disadvantage of an internal ring is that it introduces an obstruc-
tion to the passage of pigs and scrapers. If the obstruction is sufficiently small, it
can have a taper and allow for passage of a pig.
Integral-Ring. An integral-ring buckle arrestor is a thick-wall ring, or pipe section
that is formed into or welded in series directly into the pipeline. This type of buckle
arrestor is the most effective because the least amount of added material (steel) is
required to stop a propagating buckle failure on a given pipe. Thickened sections
formed or welded onto the ends of each pipe joint for the purpose of making up the
pipeline via mechanical joints (either screwed or friction-held joints) could serve
effectively as buckle arrestors. Any thickened section that is an integral part of a
pipe joint could also provide a strong point for gripping and applying tension to a
pipeline. If heavy-wall pipe joints are used, the I.D.s of the pipe and arrestor can be
specified to be equal, thus facilitating sphering or pigging operations. This type of
arrestor is preferred for deepwater applications.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-36 Chevron Corporation
Design Equations for Buckle Arrestors
The following equations are recommended for the design of ring-type buckle arres-
tors. While the equations below are probably the best available for predicting the
crossover pressures of ring-type buckle arrestors, they should be used with caution.
Fig. 900-10 Types of Buckle Arrestors
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-37 November 1994
The propagation pressure of a long buckle arrestor (L/D >4) if exposed by itself to
external pressure can be expressed by analogy with Shells formula for P
p
from
Equation 900-7 as:
(Eq. 900-22)
where:
P
a
= Propagation pressure of arrestor, psi

a =
Yield strength of the arrestor, psi
h = Arrestor wall thickness, in.
D
a
= Outside diameter of the arrestor, in.
The maximum pressure for a buckle to propagate past the buckle arrestor depends
on the dimensions and mechanical properties of the pipe and the buckle arrestor
and is called the crossover pressure, P
x
. A buckle arrestor will be effective in stop-
ping and containing the propagating buckle provided the crossover pressure, P
x
, is
greater than the local hydrostatic pressure, P, plus a dynamic overpressure that is
generated during the deceleration of the propagating buckle. The following expres-
sions are for the crossover pressures, P
x
, of the various types of buckle arrestors, in
which the arrestor length, L, is a variable.
Integral-ring buckle arrestor:
(Eq. 900-23)
External welded-ring or internal ring arrestor:
(Eq. 900-24)
External free-ring buckle arrestor:
(Eq. 900-25)
P
a
24
a
h
D
a
------


2.4
=
P
x
P
p
P
a
P
p
( ) 1 60t
L
D
2
-------


exp =
P
x
P
p
P
a
1 60t
L
D
2
-------


exp =
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-38 Chevron Corporation
where:
F(c/D) = 0 if c/D >1/4
= 1 - 4c/D if c/D <1/4
L = Arrestor length, in.
D = Outside diameter of pipe
P
x
= Crossover pressure of arrestor, psi
P
p
= Propagation pressure of pipe, psi
c = Clearance between arrestor and pipe, in.
t = Pipe wall thickness, in.
and,
P
x
= K
x
P
where:
K
x
= Safety factor of 1.5 for buckle arrestor
P = Hydrostatic pressure, psi
The term F(c/D) gives the reduction in the crossover pressure due to an initial clear-
ance, c, between the pipe O.D. and the arrestor I.D. The function min should be
interpreted to mean: compute the two factors and then choose the smaller value.
These two factors correspond to the two deformation modes that a pipe can assume
in attempting to crossover past an external free-ring buckle arrestor. The pipe cross
section will assume either the typical dogbone shape or a crescent shape, depending
on the relative stiffness of the pipe wall and the buckle arrestor wall. This change of
mode shape does not occur for welded-ring, internal-ring, or integral-ring buckle
arrestors.
Safety Factor for Buckle Arrestors
For design purposes the crossover pressure, P
x
should exceed the hydrostatic pres-
sure, P, by a safety factor of 1.5.
Design Equations for Long Buckle Arrestors
For long buckle arrestors (L/D>4) the previous equations can be simplified.
Integral-ring buckle arrestor:
(Eq. 900-26)
P
x
P
a
24
a
h
D
a
------


2.4
= =
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-39 November 1994
External welded-ring or internal ring arrestor:
(Eq. 900-27)
External free-ring buckle arrestor:
for a snug fit, F(c/D) = 1
(Eq. 900-28)
935 On-Bottom Stability
This section presents a simplified procedure for determining the minimum
submerged weight necessary for an offshore pipeline to resist hydrodynamic forces
(wave and current). See also Section 941. The simplified procedure does not
account for soil liquefaction, pipeline scouring, unsupported pipeline spans, or
allowable pipeline movement, but produces a conservative answer. These effects lie
beyond the scope of this design procedure. For conceptual pipeline design/cost
studies, in water depths less than 300 feet, the specific gravities for typical line
sizes listed in Figure 900-11 will satisfy most on-bottom stability requirements.
(Use a minimum specific gravity of 1.2 in sea water, for water depths less than 600
feet and 1.09 for water depths greater than 600 feet.) The Facilities Engineering
Department Offshore Systems Division (OS) of CPTC in San Ramon, CA should
be contacted for pipelines requiring detailed on-bottom pipeline stability analyses.
The OS team is also available to check the contractors calculations.
The minimum submerged pipe weight required for on-bottom stability is deter-
mined from a static force balance between the hydrodynamic drag/lift force and
pipeline soil friction force/submerged weight (see Figure 900-12 and
Equation 900-29). These forces are determined from site-specific storm parameters
and sea floor characteristics (see Section 923). For on-bottom stability, the
minimum water depth, not the maximum, will govern design.
To check the stability of a given pipeline, the actual submerged weight is compared
to a calculated minimum submerged pipe weight. The minimum submerged pipe
weight can be determined from Equation 900-29. The actual submerged pipe
weight per foot is the sum of the steel, corrosion coating, concrete coating, any oil
or gas, per foot of pipeless the buoyancy force per foot of pipe. (Typical concrete
densities are 140 or 190 pcf. Also the minimum concrete thickness is 1 inch and is
P
x
P
p
P
a
+ =
24
y
t
D
----


2.4
24
a
h
D
a
------


2.4
+
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-40 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 900-11 Conceptual Pipeline Size Estimates for Water Depths Less Than 300 Feet
Fig. 900-12 On-Bottom Stability Schematic
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-41 November 1994
typically specified in 1/8 inch increments). If the actual submerged pipe weight per
foot is greater than the calculated minimum (required on-bottom stability)
submerged pipe weight, then additional weight is not required. Concrete coating,
anchoring, or rock dumping is required if the actual submerged pipe weight is less
than the calculated minimum (required on-bottom stability) submerged pipe weight.
(Selection of weight and corrosion coating are addressed in Sections 953 and 954.)
Water absorption should be considered when calculating the submerged weight of
concrete pipe. Typical values are 3 to 5 percent of the concrete weight in air.
The stability analysis should be performed for two conditions:
5-year storm, pipeline empty (laying)
100-year storm, pipeline filled with product (operational)
Note The 100-year storm case is only applicable if the pipe line is not trenched.
Further iterations are required for those cases in which the outer diameter is signifi-
cantly increased (1 in.) by the concrete jacket.
A pipeline design with a route that covers large water depth variations will involve
more than one design wave height/wave theory, which in turn will result in more
than one minimum required pipe weight. Therefore, an optimum design may
consist of several concrete coating thicknesses over the length of a pipeline.
Minimum Pipe Submerged Weight
The minimum pipe submerged weight (W
m
) required to prevent pipeline movement
is determined from the following equation:
W
m
= F
l
+ (SF/u) (F
d
+ F
i
)
(Eq. 900-29)
where:
W
m
= Minimum submerged pipe weight, lb/ft
F
1
= Hydrodynamic lift force, lb/ft
F
d
= Hydrodynamic drag force, lb/ft
F
i
= Hydrodynamic inertial force, lb/ft
u = Soil friction coefficient
SF = Safety factor (use 1.1)
Hydrodynamic Forces
Hydrodynamic forces, created by wave and current, are classified as drag, lift, and
inertial.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-42 Chevron Corporation
The hydrodynamic drag force (F
d
)can be determined from the following equation:
F
d
=

(1/2) C
d
D U
2
(Eq. 900-30)
= Drag force, lb/ft
where:
C
d
= Drag coefficient
= Fluid density (sea water)
= W/g = 64.0/32.17 = 1.99 slug/ft
3
W = Weight (sea water) = 64.0 lb
f
/ft
3
g = Acceleration of gravity = 32.17 ft/sec
2
D = Pipe outer diameter, ft
U = U
w
+ U
c
, ft/sec
U
w
= Horizontal wave particle velocity, ft/sec
U
c
= Bottom current, ft/sec
The horizontal wave particle velocity (U
w
) should be evaluated at the center of the
pipeline. The combined horizontal velocities are based on site-specific environ-
mental data (see Environmental Parameters below). A drag coefficient (C
d
) of
1.0, which is based on full-scale test data should be used in the above equation.
The hydrodynamic lift force (F
l
) is determined by:
F
l
=

(1/2) C
l
D U
2
= Lift force, lb/ft
(Eq. 900-31)
A lift force coefficient (Cl) of 1.0, which is also based on fullscale test data,
should be used in Equation 900-31. (The remaining parameters in the equation have
been previously defined.)
The hydrodynamic inertial force (F
i
) is determined by:
F
i
= (1/4) C
m
D
2
U
(Eq. 900-32)
= Hydrodynamic inertial force, lb/ft
U = Horizontal particle acceleration, ft/sec
2
(Note: Evaluate at the center of the pipeline)
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-43 November 1994
The inertial force coefficient (C
m
) should be set equal to 2.5 (see Equations 900-33
through 900-35 below for determining U).
Environmental Parameters
For any particular location in the world, site-specific bottom currents, design wave
heights, design wave periods for a 5-year (laying operation) and 100-year (in-
service) storm return period can be obtained from the OS Division of CPTC in San
Ramon, CA.
A design wave height (significant wave height, H
s
) will vary with depth (shoaling)
and with the angle between the wave crest and underwater contours (refraction
should be accounted for in determining a shallow water design wave height. In
shallow water, the design wave height may be limited to the breaking wave
height. Wave refraction, shoaling, and breaking effects are design details that
should be obtained from OS Division in San Ramon, CA. The design period (signif-
icant period, T
s
) is not affected by variations
Horizontal Particle Velocity and Acceleration
Once the environmental design parameters have been established, the horizontal
particle velocity and acceleration can be calculated with the appropriate wave
theory. The selection of a valid wave theory is based on the wave steepness (H
s
/g
T
s
2) and Ursell parameter (d /gT
s
2), where g is the gravitational constant
(32.2 ft/sec
2
). This selection is made by entering Figure 900-13 with the Ursell
parameter (x-coordinate) and wave steepness (y-coordinate). The horizontal particle
velocity and acceleration equations for Stream Function (Fourier) theory are compli-
cated and lie beyond the scope of this design procedure. The following horizontal
particle velocity and acceleration equations for linear wave theory can be used as an
approximation to the higher order Stream Function wave theory.
(Eq. 900-33)
(Eq. 900-34)
where:
U = Horizontal particle velocity, ft/sec
U

= Horizontal particle acceleration, ft/sec


2
U
1
2
-- -
H
S
T
S
g
L
-----------------
2Z
L
----------


cosh
2d
L
--------- -


cosh
--------------------------- cos =
U
gH
S
L
--------------
2Z
L
----------


cosh
2d
L
----------


cosh
--------------------------- sin =
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-44 Chevron Corporation
L = [(g T
s
2) /(2 )] [tanh (2 d/L) ]
(Eq. 900-35)
= Wave length, ft (must be solved iteratively)
Z = Height of pipeline center above sea floor, ft
T
s
= Significant wave period, sec
H
s
= Significant wave height, ft
g = Gravitational constant (32.2 ft/sec
2
)
d = Water depth, ft
= Wave phase angle (0 under wave crest, 180 under trough)
To simplify the analysis, a wave phase angle of 0 degrees should be used to calcu-
late the approximate maximum force on the pipeline.
Fig. 900-13 Regions of Validity for Wave Theories (See the Shore Protection Manual)
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-45 November 1994
Soil Friction Coefficient
The soil friction coefficient for the pipeline/soil interface is also site specific. The
friction coefficient in the minimum pipe submerged weight equation
(Figure 900-29) should be based on the mudline soil classification and selected
from the following values. (Note: the following values account for settling of the
pipeline.)
Soil friction coefficients for clay/sand mixtures (sandy clay, clayey sand) should be
classified as either clay or sand depending on the higher concentration. A minimum
safety factor (SF) of 1.1 is recommended, but special circumstances (poor data,
regions of soil instability, sloping sea floor, etc.) may warrant a higher value and
more detailed analysis. 0.5 is typical of a stiff clay. A soft clay (like in Nigeria and
much of the Gulf of Mexico) can have a much higher friction factor when settling
of the pipe is considered. For this case, the use of 0.5 may lead to overly conserva-
tive designs.
If soil boring data is available, including an estimate of the Soils Cohesive Shear
Strength, if mostly clay or the Relative Density, if mostly sand, then the AGAs
Level 2 procedure, described in Section 941 and [26], and the Companys PC
program PLS may be used to calculate pipeline sinkage and on-bottom stability.
Feasible Concrete Coating Thicknesses Based on Foundation Stability
Excessive pipeline weights may result in settlement depending on the soil density
and undrained shear strength. The following equation has been adopted to deter-
mine the maximum allowable specific gravity to avoid settlement. This equation is
based on an Experimental Investigation of Pipeline Stability in Soft Clay [21].
Example values (*) are given below for offshore Zaire [27].
SG max = SG soil + 2 (c) / [ (p) (D)]
(Eq. 900-36)
where:
SG max = Maximum allowable pipeline SG
SG soil = Soil specific gravity (0.48*)
c = Undrained shear strength, psf (62.5*)
p = Fluid density, pcf (64.0*)
D = Outside diameter of the pipe, ft
A PC program is also available for the solution of the equations for on-bottom
stability as described below.
Clay (cohesive) = 0.50
Sand (cohesionless) = 0.80
Hard rock = 1.00
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-46 Chevron Corporation
On-Bottom Stability Design Using the PLS Computer Program
The PLS-PC program, developed by APTECH for the Company circa 1991, is for
the design and analysis of offshore pipelines for on-bottom stability. The program is
intended for use by Company engineers and designers during pipeline initial,
preliminary or final design, or for verifying the Contractors analysis. PLS-PC is
based on the AGAs on-bottom stability, Level 1, analysis procedure [26]. The PC
program has default values for the Companys recommended values for hydrody-
namic and soil coefficients and uses the theory discussed previously in this Section.
The objective of the PLS-PC program is to provide a user friendly procedure and
software for analysis or design of offshore pipelines. The basis of the AGAs Level
2 procedure is described in Section 941 and [26]. Analysis using Level 1 assumes a
soil friction coefficient as input data and thus one can not determine the pipe
sinkage. Analysis using Level 2 requires that near bottom soil data (for clay, the
shear strength in psf) be measured and used as an input to the analysis for the deter-
mination of pipe sinkage. On lines requiring concrete, having the proper near
bottom soil data and being able to do a Level 2 design may result in a significant
savings, $MMs in cost, particularly if the line is large and long.
The program determines the minimum required concrete thickness for pipe hydro-
dynamic stability for a given current and wave data. The corresponding specific
gravity and submerged weight are also determined. The program has User
Friendly formats for both input and output. It prompts the user for all input, and
default values are incorporated into all appropriate parameters, such as hydrody-
namic and soil friction coefficients, corrosion thickness, length of the concrete cut
back, wave angle, etc. The user can accept these defaults or enter desired values.
An important feature is included in the program, where an alternate solution is
provided for the case, where the concrete thickness is less than 1-inch. In this
instance, the program increases the wall thickness, and the hydrodynamic analysis
is done to determine the minimum required steel pipe wall thickness for stability
with no concrete weight coating.
PLS-PC is available through the OS Division of CPTC in San Ramon, CA and is
free-of-charge for Chevron OPCOs.
Development of Pipeline Stability Design Guidelines for Liquefaction and
Scour American Gas Association (AGA) Report [46]
This report undertakes a detailed overview of current practice in analyzing the
effects on pipeline stability for liquefaction and scour. Guidelines are developed to
establish stability and safety for submarine pipelines in areas prone to these occur-
rences. Scour problems have occurred on pipelines offshore Australia, in the North
Sea and at river crossings. Liquefaction may also occur in earthquake areas.
The primary emphasis of this study is to document and evaluate state-of-the-art
technology in assessing pipeline stability for both liquefaction and scour condi-
tions. These practices are summarized and practical engineering methods estab-
lished for the analysis of pipeline stability under liquefaction and scour conditions.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-47 November 1994
In addition to the written report, two interactive, PC-based computer programs were
developed to provide a means for rapid assessment of pipeline stability conditions.
Guidelines for these programs are provided in the report.
The report is useful in the assessment of liquefaction and scour for the design of
pipelines and an assessment of the Contractors proposed design.
Pipeline Spanning and On-Bottom Stability
Spanning will affect the pipeline both positively and negatively. From a structural
point of view, unsupported spans may cause the pipe to be over stressed. However,
as far as stability is concerned, pipeline spans can reduce hydrodynamic forces.
Both vertical lift and horizontal drag forces are reduced as a pipeline moves away
from a boundary (See the 1981 Det Norske Veritas, DNV Rules for Submarine Pipe-
line Systems and Section 969). Also, where the pipeline touches down, it will
embed further into the soil, thus developing larger passive lateral soil resistance
than a pipeline not embedded into the soil. (This is mostly true in granular material.
In cohesive soil, under certain situations the lateral resistance may be less.) This is
because the entire weight of the pipe is still supported by the soil; however, there
will likely be less lift force to reduce the vertical load on the soil.
If movements of the pipeline due to hydrodynamic forces are excessive and are not
alleviated within a reasonable time, the structural integrity of the weight coating
may deteriorate and the pipeline may experience some loss of coating, and ulti-
mately become unstable. Vortex shedding vibrations may also cause fatigue damage
to the line.
Sediment Transport
Scour, erosion, natural backfilling, and other sediment transport phenomena also
affect pipeline stability. This will mainly depend on the soil type, bottom current
and the height of the pipe above the seafloor. Any embedment or elevation above
the seabed will reduce lift, drag, and inertial forces. Soil resistance forces will
increase significantly when sediment transport phenomena (i.e., sand waves, natural
backfilling, etc.) partially bury a pipeline, also see the comments above on spanning.
However, scour can increase a pipeline span and thus lead to vortex shedding prob-
lems.
Det Norske Veritas On-Bottom Stability Code
The Company does not advocate the of use codes and standards which lead to high
cost pipelines such as DNVs code for on-bottom stability, which is overly conserva-
tive and if applied, costs the Company millions of dollars for no apparent benefit.
936 Pipeline Laying Analysis Using the SEAPIPE Computer Program
The Companys SEAPIPE-PC computer program can be used for the analysis of
offshore pipeline installations [2]. However, this analysis is only a two dimensional,
simplified, static one and thus neglects the hydrodynamic effects of current and
waves and the dynamics of pipelaying. These simplified calculations are usually
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-48 Chevron Corporation
sufficient for conceptual/preliminary design studies; however, more detailed calcula-
tions using finite element techniques should be done (by the contractor or the
Company) prior to actual pipelaying as part of the detailed design (see Section 940).
Both the conventional S-Curve and vertical J-Lay installations can be analyzed by
this program. (See Figure 900-14.) The analysis is valid for pipe in tension in
shallow and deepwater applications. Large deflection applications, which typically
require highly nonlinear analysis with the aid of large computers, are included.
Fig. 900-14 SEAPIPE Flow Chart: Two-dimensional
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-49 November 1994
SEAPIPE-PC can be run on a hand-held Hewlett-Packard HP-41C, HP-41CV, or
HP-41CX computer. An IBM PC version has been developed by Applied Offshore
Technology Co. for the Company. One of our objectives in developing SEAPIPE-
PC is to have a conventional pipelay analysis program that is easy to use. The PC
program permits multiple runs, rapid analyses, and file retention. This program is
available through the OS Division of CPTC, in English or metric versions and is
freeofcharge.
SEAPIPE-PC is intended for use by the Companys design and construction or
offshore pipeline engineers at different stages of an offshore pipeline project to
perform an in-house design or to check the contractors calculations:
To determine the feasibility of laying a specific pipe in a given water depth(s)
To determine the ability of a pipelay vessel to lay a specified pipeline
To evaluate the capability of a bidders equipment to lay a specified pipeline
To set the barge and stinger for a given pipe installation
To monitor pipe stress conditions during pipe laying
To determine the minimum route radius for laying curved pipelines.
The program also determines the location of the pipe touchdown point on the
seabed, an aid for simultaneous pipe laying and trenching operations.
Pipelay Analysis: S-Curve
The conventional pipelaying method, the S-Curve method, is illustrated in
Figure 900-15. Input parameters to SEAPIPE-PC are divided into the following
groups:
Pipe parameters
Vessel parameters
Water depth and tension
Some of the more important output is:
Maximum sagbend stress
Bottom tension in the pipe
Minimum required stinger length
Pipe departure angle at the tip of the stinger
Horizontal distance of the suspended pipe
Average overbend strain
Stinger tip depth
Pipelay Analysis: J-Lay
The J-Lay vertical pipelaying method is considered mainly for deepwater applica-
tions. Figure 900-16 illustrates the method with a semisubmersible vessel. This
method can also be accomplished using a ship (see Section 980).
The SEAPIPE-PC input parameters and output are the same as for conventional
pipelaying analysis (see Figure 900-14).
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-50 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 900-15 Conventional S-Curve Pipelay Illustration
Fig. 900-16 Vertical J-Lay Pipelay Illustration
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-51 November 1994
Discussion of Results
During conventional pipelaying by the S-Curve method, the pipeline extends from
the tensioner, along the barge ramp, over a stinger and down to the seabed. Two
regions are typically defined along the pipe string. These are the overbend and the
sagbend regions (see Figure 900-3).
The overbend region includes the pipe string from the tensioner to the departure
(lift-off) point from the stinger or barge ramp. The sagbend region represents the
pipe from the inflection point, where the bending moment in the pipe is zero, to the
seabed.
In the overbend region, the barge ramp rollers and stinger are adjusted such that the
pipe bends gently downward toward the seabed. Often these rollers are set up at a
general radius of curvature, selected based on the pipe yield strength, y, and a
Company design factor (typically 0.80 for shallow water). Even when the rollers
are not adjusted to a given radius of curvature, bending of the pipe is accomplished
in a controlled manner and the pipe is restrained from further bending by the
rollers.
The design factor of 80 percent of the yield strength is usually selected to allow for
localized increases in the moment at the rollers. In practice this is acceptable,
unless the rollers are spaced at large intervals and the pipe weight is very heavy. In
any case the pipe is subjected to controlled bending, and overstressing usually
occurs either in the sagbend due to insufficient tension or at the stinger tip due to
insufficient stinger length. Since bending is controlled in the overbend, in excep-
tional cases it is possible to allow 95 to 100 percent of the yield strength for the
combined maximum pipe stresses on the stinger, assuming that three dimensional,
finite element, static and dynamic calculations are performed, including the environ-
mental conditions, barge movement, etc. However, this should not be typical design
practice.
SEAPIPE-PC is designed to provide accurate analysis and results for both the
sagbend stresses and minimum stinger requirements. The required stinger length
calculated and provided as a result of the overall pipelaying analysis ensures a
smooth transition of pipe from overbend to sagbend. The program calculates the
minimum required stinger length for the given pipe and barge parameters and
tension. The stinger must be at least this long (but may be longer).
The calculated overbend stress is a result of pipe bending to the average overbend
radius and tension in the pipe. The sagbend stress is the combined stress due to
bending and tension and is calculated based on a two dimensional static analysis.
This accounts for tension in the pipe and includes large deflections where nonlinear
bending equations apply.
In analyzing a particular problem, the user is advised to make several runs varying
tension from a minimum likely value to a maximum likely value. Plots of the
maximum sagbend stress vs tension, required stinger length vs tension, and others
may then be developed (see Figure 900-17 and Reference [3]). The 180 ft length
limit criteria shown in Figure 900-17 is the actual length of the existing stinger.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-52 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 900-17 Pipelay Tension and Stinger Requirements
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-53 November 1994
Nominal Vessel Tension
A nominal or optimum vessel tension can then be selected from the plots and
remaining SEAPIPE-PC output (overbend stress and bottom pipe tension). The
nominal tension is that tension at the lay vessel tensioner(s) that satisfies the pipe-
line stress, pipeline route, and barge limitations. The primary governing parameters
for selecting a nominal tension are the maximum pipeline sagbend and overbend
stresses. A selection procedure is given in [2]. Also see Section 942. The final
nominal lay vessel tension (plus or minus the dead band) should satisfy all those
requirements mentioned and be less than the maximum available tension. The
tensioner dead band is required so that interruptions in the laying process (welding,
inspection, etc.) are kept to a minimum (i.e., the pipe does not move relative to the
barge.) Contact the OS Division of CPTC for pipeline lay analyses.
Minimum Route Radius For Laying Curved Pipelines
The minimum pipeline route radius, Rs, to prevent slippage of a curved pipeline on
the sea floor while laying can be calculated either according to the following
formula or by SEAPIPE-PC:
R
s
= T/(wf)
(Eq. 900-37)
where:
R
s
= Minimum slippage radius, ft
T = Nominal bottom tension, lb (or that obtained from SEAPIPE-
PC analyses)
w = Pipe submerged weight, lb/ft
f = Pipe lateral friction coefficient in installation condition (typically
use the same as for on-bottom stability, see Section 935).
The expansion and longitudinal stresses due to pipe bending and design operating
pressure should be considered for the minimum route radius (see ANSI/ASME
B31.4, Section 402.3.2 (D) and B31.8a-1990). The minimum radius due to expan-
sion and longitudinal stresses for the line as laid, R
a
, is calculated as follows:
R
a
= ED/(24
y Fd
)
(Eq. 900-38)
where:
R
a
= Minimum radius due to expansion and longitudinal stresses, ft
E = Modulus of elasticity of the pipe, psi
D = Pipe outside diameter, in.

y =
Pipe minimum yield strength, psi
F
d
= 0.72 0.75 = 0.54
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-54 Chevron Corporation
The larger of the two calculated radii, R
s
or R
a
, is the minimum radius permitted
along the pipeline route.
937 Protection of Appurtenances
Applications
Offshore pipelines may include appurtenances such as lateral tie-ins, valves, subsea
pig receivers/launchers, anchors, or supports. These facilities are discontinuities in
the normal smooth profile of the pipeline itself. In the Gulf of Mexico, these facili-
ties must either be buried with a minimum of 3 feet of cover as for pipelines to the
200 ft water depth contour or protected with some device/grout bags/shroud at
water depths over 200 ft to ensure that the facilities are not damaged and are
compatible with other users of the area, such as fishermen.
Design Considerations
The following items should be considered.
Expected Interaction. Dropped objects, fishing gear, anchors, and mudslides are
the major potential hazards for a pipeline and appurtenances. Based on the assumed
interaction, design forces can be developed. The design consideration should
adequately address impact and static pull forces generated by:
Dropped objects that can vary in size and shape
Fishing gear contacts. Studies have been done in the North Sea to quantify
trawling equipment/pipeline interaction; these data should be modified, as
required, to treat the fishing type, size, and methods in the area of concern;
impact forces and static pull forces are a function of these data.
Small anchors can usually be designed in accordance with other design consid-
erations.
Large anchor interaction is unlikely in some areas and control within the pipe-
line corridor may be possible. Because of the size of large anchors and the
seabed penetration, complete protection is not usually possible.
Mudslides may require the use of a section of flexible pipe for pipeline/riser
connections and safety joints (shear connectors).
Access. The need to use, operate, and maintain the appurtenances will affect protec-
tion design. In this regard, tie-ins have an ongoing need, while supports or anchors
do not.
Installation. Protection devices for small appurtenances may be laid with the line;
however, line rotation is possible. This method is the most cost effective. Separate
structures installed after laying the pipeline are expensive and involve risk of pipe-
line damage.
Smooth Profile. Fishing compatibility requirements in most codes and permits
require pipelines to have a smooth profile. The intent is that fishing gear ride over
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-55 November 1994
the facility without hanging up. In some instances, demonstrating the interaction
with tests is required.
Protection Options
A number of approaches are listed below. The method(s) selected should satisfy the
design criteria established in the preceding section and be cost effective.
Burial. In the Gulf of Mexico, tap valves have typically been buried to provide
protection. This requires hand jetting in the vicinity of the tap to ensure it is not
damaged. Access is restricted with burial. Possible shifting of seabed materials that
may expose the component should be considered.
Rock Cover. Placing gravel or larger rock over the appurtenance may provide the
required protection. Placement methods must ensure that the component will not be
damaged. Access is limited. Additional rock may be necessary if seabed currents or
interaction is a problem.
Mats. Enclosures in various shapes and sizes are available that can be placed over
an appurtenance, then filled with grout. Other mat designs involve concrete beams
tied together with threaded cables that provide some flexibility to conform to an
irregular shape. Care should be exercised in the design to ensure that the mats will
not become an obstruction.
Artificial Seaweed. Mats with buoyant artificial fibers are available to be placed in
the vicinity of an appurtenance. The fibers reduce the current velocity, allowing
sediments to deposit. In active seabed areas, buildup of material is quite rapid.
Protection is then obtained by the appurtenance becoming buried.
Shrouds. For small items concrete, steel, plastic, or fiberglass can be used. These
shrouds can have a smooth profile and may be deployed while laying. Large compo-
nents have been protected with concrete, steel, or fiberglass shrouds installed after
the pipeline is in position. These devices can become very large when sloped sides
are provided to ensure fishing gear will not be obstructed and clearances are suffi-
cient to accommodate all equipment and access requirements. Building a shroud by
stacking sand-cement bags in a pyramid shape is frequently used. Placing a
template with the desired final configuration has been used as a guide for the diver.
Interlocking or stacking the exposed bags may be necessary so they will not
dislodge and cause a hazard to fishermen.
938 Submarine Pipeline Cost Estimating Guide/Computer Program
SUBPIPE
The objective of the Companys Submarine Pipeline Cost Estimating Guide and its
accompanying IBM PC cost estimating program, SUBPIPE, is to provide an expe-
dient method for preparing preliminary cost estimates for offshore pipelines in the
Gulf of Mexico and other regions throughout the world [4]. With an understanding
of the guide and some familiarity with the location, order-of-magnitude cost esti-
mates can be obtained. The guide is meant for field development screening studies
(lease sales, acquisition, conceptual design, etc.), comparative estimates, and for
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-56 Chevron Corporation
preliminary OPCO economics. (Estimates for appropriations and firm budgets
should be made in greater detail and should recognize current local market condi-
tions.)
SUBPIPE-PC, Version 4.0 applies to the following offshore locations: 1) Gulf of
Mexico, 2) Atlantic - Canada, 3) Atlantic - USA, 4) California Coast - North, 5)
California Coast - South, 6) Lower Cook Inlet, 7) Bering Sea, 8) Arabian Gulf, 9)
North Sea - North, 10) North Sea - South, 11) Mediterranean Sea, 12) South
America, 13) Nigeria, 14) Cabinda/Zaire, 15) Southeast Asia, 16) South China Sea
and 17) Western Australia.
The cost estimating computer program serves the same function as the cost esti-
mating guide with its accompanying figures and tables. The computer program
utilizes a Lotus 123 spreadsheet format and incorporates tables of materials and
installation cost data for use in estimating submarine pipeline costs.
Cost estimating parameters include: 1) Material Costs, including: line pipe, corro-
sion coating, concrete coating, zinc anodes and buckle arrestors, 2) Mob/Demob, 3)
Pipelaying, vessels including: shallow-water, conventional, third generation, J-lay
and reeling, 4) Trenching, 5) Shore Crossings, 6) Risers, 7) Lateral Tie-ins, 8) Pipe-
line Crossings, 9) Testing, 10) Surveying, 11) Contractor Design, etc, 12) Company
Support, 13) Modifications, 14) Onshore Pipe Make-up for Reeling and 15) Insur-
ance.
The SUBPIPE-PC program 1992 enhancements include: 1) insulated, and/or 2)
towed and/or pulled pipelines. Insulated pipeline materials include: 1) Thermal
Insulation Materials, 2) Protective Jacket Materials, 3) Bulkheads, 4) Water Stops
and 5) Centralizers. Pipe Towing cost estimating installation methods include: 1)
Bottom, 2) Off-bottom, 3) Controlled Depth and Near-surface Tow.
SUBPIPE-PC, Version 4.0 Guide/program diskette enhancements include: 1)
Updated 1990 Guide cost curves/PC program to reflect 1993 costs, 2) Revised loca-
tions and reviewed area factors, 3) Identified the cost data used and specific cases
used to verify the program, 4) Adjusted the default wall thickness values, and 5)
Prepared a separate algorithm for enhancing material transportation costs.
Figure 900-18 shows first quarter, 1988 cost estimates for short pipelines in the
Gulf of Mexico. The figure was developed using the program.
Copies of the Guide and computer program may be obtained free-of-charge for
Chevron OPCOs from CPTCs OS Division in San Ramon, California.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-57 November 1994
939 Pipeline Design Calculations
The following example detailed pipeline design calculations are for an offshore
pipeline with a route in water depth ranges from 200 to 250 feet in the Gulf of
Mexico. The line is required to handle a maximum flow rate of 40,000 barrels of 40
degree API oil and a maximum operating pressure of 1,000 psi. The friction pres-
sure drop, surge pressure, pipeline flow, and fluid properties are covered in the
Fluid Flow Manual in Sections 400, 800, 900, and 1000, respectively. The example
pipeline assumes a 22-psi pressure drop over a 2-mile length. The line sizing
involves preliminary pipe selections, economic considerations, comparing system
alternatives (annual throughput rates, pipeline and pumping facilities, pumping
energy) and finally a detailed design. (Refer to Section 430 and Figure 400-6 for
Line Sizing). The route area has the following environmental conditions.
Fig. 900-18 Cost Estimates for Short Pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico
Return Period
5 year 100 year
Significant wave height, ft 25 35
Significant wave period, sec. 14 16
Bottom current, ft/sec 0.5 0.5
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-58 Chevron Corporation
Sizing for Flow
The Darcy-Weisbach equation in the Fluid Flow Manual is used to determine the
pipeline diameter.
P = [ (f L W
2
)/ (D
5
(7.4 1010))]
(Eq. 900-39)
where:
P = Pressure drop, psi
f = Darcy friction factor
L = Length of pipeline, ft
W = Mass flow rate, lbm/hr
D = Pipe inside diameter, ft
= Fluid density, lbm/ft3
Specific gravity = 141.5/ (131.5 + API)
= 141.5/ (131.5 + 40)
= 0.825
= 62.4 (0.825)
= 51.5 lb
m
/ft
3
W = 40,000 bopd (day/24 hr)(5.62 ft
3
/bbl)(51.5 lb
m
/ft
3
)
= 4.82 10
5
lb
m
/
hr
Assume:
f = 0.04
L = 10,560 ft(2 mi)
Solving Equation 900-39 for the pipe inside diameter:
D
5
= (f L W
2
)/ (P 7.4 10
10
)
D
5
= (0.04)(10,560)(4.82 10
5
)
2
/(22)(51.5)(7.4 10
10
)
D = 1.03 ft or 12.36 in.
Therefore, assume the outer diameter is 14 inches (API Specification 5L, X 42) for
the remaining calculations.
Because the outer diameter has been established, a wall thickness may be deter-
mined based on the maximum operating pressure, buckle propagation, collapse,
combined bending and collapse, and on-bottom stability.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-59 November 1994
Pressure Design
Determine the hoop pressure at the required depth:
External pressure = (depth)( salt water)/144 in
2
/ ft
2
= (200 ft)(62.4 lb/ft
3
)(1.03) / (144 in
2
/ft
2
)
= 89 psi
Internal pressure = 1000 psi
P = 1000 - 89 = 911 psi
Determine the allowable hoop stress from Equation 900-2 with:
E = 1.0
F = 0.72
and SMYS = 42,000 psi:
S = F E SMYS
From (Eq. 900-2)
= (0.72) (1.0) (42,000)
= 30,240 psi
Determine the required wall thickness from Equation 900-1:
t = PD / 2S
= (911)(14)/(2)(30,240)
= 0.21 in. (minimum for pressure design)
Therefore, since D/t = 67, it is valid to use the equation:
t = PD/2S
(Refer to Section 933 for applicable pressure design equation.)
Buckle Propagation Design
Determine the minimum wall thickness to prevent buckle propagation from
Equation 900-8:
t = D [ K
p
W
d
/ (54) (SMYS)]
0.417
From (Eq. 900-8)
= 14 [ (1.2) (250)/(54) (42,000)]
0.417
= 0.34 in. (minimum for buckle propagation design)
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-60 Chevron Corporation
Collapse Design
Determine the collapse pressure from Equation 900-14:
P
c
= K
c
W
d
/2.25
From (Eq. 900-14)
= (1.33) (250)/2.25
= 148 psi
Using Figure 900-5, with P
c
= 148 psi and grade X 42, determine the minimum
pipeline thickness. The D/t ratio is off the chart, but if we use a maximum D/t value
of 50, then the corresponding thickness would be t = 14/50 = 0.28 inches, which is
less than the buckle propagation criteria of t = 0.34 in.
Combined Bending and Collapse Design
A wall thickness may be assumed in order to perform the combined bending and
collapse design. The largest thickness obtained from calculations for pressure,
buckle propagation, and collapse design should be used. These are:
Pressure = 0.21 in.
Buckle propagation = 0.34 in.
Collapse = 0.28 in.
Therefore, use the value for thickness obtained from the calculation for buckle prop-
agation, 0.34 in.
Determine the critical hoop stress for elastic collapse from Equation 900-17:

E =
23.55 10
6
/[(D/t) 1]
2
= (23.55 10
6
) /(14/0.34 1)
2
psi
= 14,590 psi
Determine the critical hoop stress for pure collapse of round pipe:

o
= SMYS
E
/ (SMYS
2
+
E
2
)
1/2
(Eq. 900-40)
= (42,000) (14,590)/[(42,000)
2
+ (14,590)
2
]
1/2
= 13,782 psi
Determine the critical external pressure for pure collapse of round pipe, from
Equation 900-18:
Po = 2t
o/D
= 2 (0.34) (13,782)/14
= 669 psi
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-61 November 1994
Determine the out-of-roundness function from Figure 900-8:
D/t = 14/0.34 = 41
g = 0.898
Determine the critical external pressure for pure collapse, considering ovality of the
pipe, from Equation 900-16:
Pc = g P
o
= (0.898) (669)
= 601 psi
Determine the critical bending strain for pure bending of round pipe from
Equation 900-17:

o =
t/2D
= 0.34/[2(14)]
= 0.012
Determine the critical bending strain for pure bending, including ovality of the pipe
from Equation 900-17:

c
= g
o
From (Eq. 900-17)
= (0.898) (0.012)
= 0.011
Determine the critical bending strain at the maximum bending moment by using
Equation 900-19:
= 0.8 SMYS/E
where:
E = Modulus of Elasticity of steel
= 0.8 SMYS/E
= 42,000 / 29.5 106
= 0.00113
Determine the following ratios and enter Figure 900-7 to determine if the assumed
thickness is safe or unsafe, from Equation 900-15:
P/P
c
+ /
c
From (Eq. 900-15)
1, safe
1 > , unsafe
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-62 Chevron Corporation
P / Pc = 148/601
= 0.25
/
c
= 0.00113/0.011
= 0.10
0.25 + 0.10 = 0.35 < 1
Therefore, the combined bending strain and collapse pressure = safe.
If the figure had indicated that it was unsafe, then an iteration process involving
increasing wall thicknesses would be required.
Pipeline Size
A standard pipeline thickness of 0.344 inches will be used for the on-bottom
stability and lay stress analyses. This standard wall thickness satisfies the governing
design criteria, which is the buckle propagation.
On-bottom Stability Design5-year Storm
The submerged weight of the empty pipeline is equal to the pipe weight in air less
the buoyancy force. The submerged weight for the empty NPS 14 pipe with a wall
thickness of 0.344 inches is -18.2 lb/ft, meaning it would be buoyant. Therefore, the
initial on-bottom stability calculations will be made for a NPS 14 pipeline with
1 inch of 140 lb/ft
3
concrete.
Submerged Weight = 9 lb/ft (includes 5 percent water absorption in concrete).
Determine the valid wave theory for the 5-year storm conditions using
Figure 900-13:
H/(gT
2
) = 25/(32.2) (14)
2
= 0.004
d/(gT
2
) = 200/(32.2) (14)
2
= 0.032
Therefore, the valid wave theory is the Stream Function.
Determine the horizontal particle velocity at the center of the pipeline from
Equation 900-33:
U
w
= 2.96 ft/sec
Then from the definitions for Equation 900-17:
U = U
w
+ U
c
= 2.96 + 0.50
= 3.46 ft/sec
Determine the hydrodynamic drag force from Equation 900-30:
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-63 November 1994
F
d
= (0.5) C
d
D U
2
= (0.5) (1.99) (1.0) (1.33) (3.46)
2
= 15.8 lb/ft
Determine the hydrodynamic lift force from Equation 900-31:
F
l
= 1/2 C
l
D U
2
= 15.8 lb/ft
where:
F
l
= hydrodynamic lift force, lb/ft
F
d
= hydrodynamic drag force, lb/ft
D = pipe diameter, ft
C
d
= drag force coefficient
C
l
= lift force coefficient
= fluid density, slugs
Determine the on-bottom stability safety factor from Equation 900-29 when the soil
friction for sand = 0.8 and the hydrodynamic inertial force is zero:
W
m
= F
l
+ (SF/u) (F
d
+ F
i
)
From (Eq. 900-29)
9 lb/ft = 15.8 + (SF/0.8) (15.8 + 0.0)
Therefore:
SF = NEGATIVE
Therefore, the empty pipeline is very unstable for a 5-year storm return period,
because the safety factor is much less than 1.1. The concrete density should be
increased to 190 lb/ft
3
and the pipeline safety factor recalculated. Several iterations
are required, with the concrete thickness increasing by 1/8-inch each time until the
safety factor is greater than 1.1:
1. Concrete thickness = 1 inch
Concrete density = 190 lb/ft
3
Submerged weight = 25.4 lb/ft
Safety Factor = 0.40
Make Concrete Density = 190 lb/ft
3
2. Concrete thickness = 1.125 in.
Submerged weight = 32.2 lb/ft
Safety Factory = 0.80
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-64 Chevron Corporation
The safety factor is calculated in the following manner. Using Equation 900-30 the
Drag Force is:
F
d
= (0.5) (1.99) (1.0) (1.40) (3.46)
2
= 16.67 lb/ft
The Lift Force from Equation 900-31 is:
F = 15.8 lb/ft
On-bottom stability safety factor (Equation 900-29),
W
m
= F
l
+ (SF/u) (F
d
+ F
i
)
44.5 = 15.8 + SF/0.8 (16.67 + 0)
SF = 1.38
Therefore, the empty pipeline is stable for a 5-year storm return period provided
that the pipeline has 1.375 inches of concrete coating, having a density of 190 lb/ft
3
.
On-bottom Stability Design100-year Storm
The Submerged Weight with the pipe full of 40 API oil is,
W
m
= 91.1 lb/ft
Determine the valid wave theory for the 100-year storm conditions using
Figure 900-13:
H/gT
2
= (35)/(32.2) (16)
2
= 0.0042
d/gT
2
= (200)/(32.2) (16)
2
= 0.024
Thus, use Stream Function wave theory.
Determine the horizontal particle velocity at the center of the pipeline from:
U
w
= 4.9 ft/sec
U = U
w
+ U
c
= 4.9 + 0.5
= 5.4 ft/sec
3. Concrete thickness = 1.25 in.
Submerged weight = 38.3 lb/ft
Safety Factor = 1.07
4. Concrete thickness = 1.375 in.
Submerged Weight = 44.5 lb/ft
Safety Factor = 1.33
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-65 November 1994
Determine the hydrodynamic drag force:
F
d
= (0.5) (1.99) (1.0) (1.40) (5.4)
2
= 40.6 lb/ft
Determine the hydrodynamic lift force:
F
l
= 40.6 lb/ft
Determine the on-bottom stability safety factor:
W
m
= F
l
+ (SF/u) (F
d
+ F
i
)
91.1 = 40.6 + (SF/0.8) (40.6 + 0.0)
SF = 1.00
Therefore, the pipeline (full of 40 API oil) will be slightly unstable for a 100-year
storm because the safety factor is less than 1.1. The concrete coating thickness
should be increased another 0.125 inches:
Concrete thickness = 1.5 in.
Submerged weight = 97.2 lb/ft
Safety Factor= = 1.09
The pipeline is still unstable. A concrete coating thickness of 1.625 inches is neces-
sary to satisfy the on-bottom stability requirement.
Lay Stress Analysis
A lay stress analysis was performed with the Companys PC program, SEAPIPE,
on the example pipeline. (Note: The lay vessel parameters should be obtained from
the project-specific pipelaying contractor.)
The lay stresses in the sagbend region are above the 80 percent of SMYS criterion
for vessel tensions less than or equal to 40,000 pounds. Therefore, the nominal
tension must be greater than 40,000 pounds. If the lay vessel is capable of pulling
more than 40,000 pounds plus or minus the allowable percentage for the dead band,
then no alterations to the wall thickness will be necessary. The nominal lay vessel
tension is selected by comparing the required stinger length to the available stinger
length.
940 Detailed Design/Analysis
941 Design Analysis Programs
The design of pipelines was covered in Section 930. Contractors are normally
responsible for detailed finite element analyses using their own programs. However,
in most cases it is beneficial to verify these calculations in-house. The Company
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-66 Chevron Corporation
has obtained several computer programs through joint industry projects (JIPs)
since 1978:
1. APJTUB - Analysis of J-Tube Riser Pull-Ins
APJTUB-PC was developed at our request by Applied Offshore Technology
(APTECH) of Houston, TX. It performs a detailed analysis of a steel pipeline
pull-in through a J-Tube riser. The analysis is based on a finite beam element
formulation. Nonlinear moment curvature properties are considered which
account for plastic pipe deformation and unloading and for ovalization of the
pipe during bending. The collapse condition is also examined during the pull to
ensure that the pipe does not buckle.
The program calculates the pull load, maximum strains and stresses, contact
loads and locations, and pipe free span parameters during pipe initiation into
the J-Tube and for each pull step thereafter.
The purpose of the J-Tube Riser Design Manual is to guide designers of J-
tubes and J-tube riser pipe installations, including the use of APJTUB-PC [5,
36]. The Manual considers the principal variables which affect pull loads and
pipe stresses, including entrance orientation and configuration, bend radius,
exit configuration, pipe size vs J-tube size, pipe coatings and material proper-
ties, for example. A discussion of basic equipment requirements is also
included.
The Manual guides the designer in appropriate choices of the APJTUB-PC
input variables and suggests suitable assumptions when exact values are not
available. The proper use of the program to optimize a design is also discussed.
Example problems and sensitivity of pull loads to variations of key parameters
are also provided.
The program has been verified by a field measurement program conducted by
Columbia Gas on Chevrons Garden Banks Block 236 platform for a 16-inch
riser [20]. When actual pipe material properties and actual pipe installation
conditions are used the program accurately predicts observed results.
APJTUB-PC is available through the OS Division of CPTC in San Ramon, CA
and is free-of-charge for Chevron OPCOs.
2. OFFPIPE - Pipelaying Static/Dynamic Analysis Capabilities
OFFPIPE is a static/dynamic, three dimensional, finite element PC program
developed specifically for the modeling and structural analysis of nonlinear
problems encountered in the installation of offshore pipelines [23]. The
program performs dynamic analyses for both regular and random seas,
including current. Analyses should be performed by the Offshore Systems
(OS) Division of CPTC. for the purpose of checking the contractors final
design calculations. The PC program performs the following:
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-67 November 1994
Pipelaying analyses for a broad range of laybarge and stinger configura-
tions,
Pipelaying initiation, abandonment and recovery analyses in which a cable
is used to raise or lower the pipeline to the seabed, and Davit lift analyses
for conventional riser installations and subsea tie-ins.
OFFPIPE can model the following pipelaying equipment:
Conventional lay barges, lay ships and semisubmersible vessels,
Vertical or steeply inclined pipeline assembly ramps, as in the J-Lay
method,
Articulated, flexible and rigid fixed-curvature stingers,
Fixed stern ramps, and
Pipelaying without a stinger.
3. PIPETOW - Shell Pipe Towing Simulator
This program is available on the OELIB disk but has not been verified.
PIPETOW was developed for predicting the gross horizontal movements of
floating pipe strings during towing and handling.
This program is useful for:
Planning specific maneuvers
Embarkation from shore
Towing along restricted routes
Planning general strategies
Effect of storing (anchorage of) pipe strings in currents
Best methods for maneuvering into proper laying alignment
Types of tug maneuvers
Lay rates to avoid damage to the pipe or ramp
Guidelines for offshore operations
Recommended tug maneuvers during alignment, handover, and pipel-
aying
Emergency procedures such as the loss of tug service or suddenly
applying lateral loads to avoid collisions
A users guide is contained in Reference [7].
4. AGA Submarine Pipeline On-bottom Stability Report/PC Program
The Offshore Systems (OS) Division has the American Gas Associations
(AGAs) two-volume report and associated PC program to assist in conceptual,
preliminary and detailed on-bottom stability design [26]. The program is state-
of-the art; however, it is not written to be user friendly. Stability questions
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-68 Chevron Corporation
that require an advanced level of analysis should be referred to the OS Division
of CPTC for solution.
Volume One is an extensive discussion of the state-of-the-art of offshore pipe-
line on-bottom stability analysis and is based on over ten years of large and
small scale testing. Volume Two is the PC software manual for the three levels
of stability analysis:
a. Level 1 - Traditional static analysis (uses the same method as in
Section 935),
b. Level 2 - Quasi-static analysis, and
c. Level 3 - Dynamic analysis.
The three levels of design are required depending on the familiarity with the
location and environment, etc. The AGA Level 2 and 3 programs account for
the following factors, which are not addressed in traditional static analysis:
a. Oscillatory flow conditions due to surface wave-generated particle motion.
(Hydrodynamic forces predicted by static analyses are generally much
lower than the forces calculated in dynamic analyses.)
b. Effects of past cyclic loading history on pipe/soil resistance forces. (The
actual soil resistance forces are typically larger than predicted by the static
method.)
Level 2 analysis or design requires site specific soil data, which may be avail-
able from the soil boring at the platform location. If clay, input the Soil Cohe-
sive Shear Strength, PSF. If sand, input the Soil Relative Density.
This technology can be applied to the conceptual, preliminary and detailed
engineering of offshore pipelines. The PC calculations can be used to provide a
review of contractor-proposed pipeline designs, including a comparison of on-
bottom stability calculations.
5. Submarine Pipeline On-Bottom Stability - PRC/AGA Software and
Manuals - Enhancements, 9/93 (Brown & Root) [51]
These include one diskette containing the new revised, executable Software
and Manual. The AGA enhancements to offshore pipeline software include the
following: Level 2 incorporates new soil model coefficients for cohesive soils
(clays) which more accurately models the pipe and soil interaction. The result
is less conservative designs in clays. Level 2 also incorporates changes to the
wave simulation routines which allow the analyses to be performed in deep-
water without the program failing to run. Recently, the state-of-art in pipeline
stability design has been changing very rapidly. The physics governing on-
bottom stability are much better understood now than they were previously.
This is due largely because of research and large scale model tests sponsored
by the PRC/AGA. Analysis tools utilizing this new knowledge have been devel-
oped. These tools provide the design and construction engineers with a rational
approach for weight coating design, which he/she can use with confidence
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-69 November 1994
because the tools have been developed based on full scale and near full scale
model tests. These tools represent the state-of-the-art in stability design and
model the complex behavior of pipes subjected to both wave and current loads.
The PC program can be used to perform conceptual and preliminary design of
pipelines for on-bottom stability and to assess the Contractors proposed
design."
6. Pipe Lift Analysis - PC Program (SEALIFT-PC) (Chevron/APTECH) [52]
Contractors frequently use barge single point crane or davits to lift a pipe end
to the surface for riser stalk-on or subsea flowline tie-ins.
SEALIFT was developed to solve single or multiple davit pick-up problems.
Pipe parameters, number of lifting points and their spacing and water depth are
specified inputs. The analysis of the lift includes all important parameters, such
as wire angles and take-up, tensions and pipe stresses at each lifting point until
the pipe end is at the specified distance above the water surface.
The program is user-friendly, IBM compatible and provides an efficient
design/analysis tool for pipeline davit pick-up in the form of a Users Manual
and PC software.
The program is intended for use by engineers and designers during pipeline
initial design, and for general verification of the pipeline Contractors analysis.
It can also be used to plan actual pipe lifts and aid in designing the lift proce-
dures.
Multiple point lifts are generally limited to less than 350 ft water depth,
whereas single point pipe lifts are generally limited to about 800 ft water
depths.
7. Pipe Span Analyses - PC Program (SEASPAN-PC) (Chevron/APTECH)
[53]
SEASPAN-PC was developed to provide a span analysis, i.e. for vortex shed-
ding, and static loading. (To assess the hoop stress due to operating or
hydrotest the user should run PLDESIGN-PC. The PLS-PC Pipeline Stability
Computer Program can be used to calculate the inertial drag, lift, and inertial
forces (force per foot) which act on the pipeline. The SEAPIPE-PC program
can be used to estimate the pipeline residual tension from installation.)
SEASPAN-PC can also be used to determine the maximum clamp spacing for
conventional risers or the maximum allowable span length for pipe placed on
an irregular seabed. The user inputs the pipe parameters and environmental
design criteria. The static stress analysis is based on the beam analysis of pipe
segments. Tension in the pipe is included in the analysis. The seabottom is
assumed rigid. A pipe span may be subject to vortex oscillations if the excita-
tion frequency is close to the natural frequency of vibration of the pipe span.
The program is user-friendly, IBM compatible and provides an efficient
design/analysis tool for pipeline span static stresses and for vortex shedding in
the form of a Users Manual and PC software.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-70 Chevron Corporation
The program is intended for use by engineers and designers during preliminary
or final riser/pipeline design, and for the verification of the pipeline
contractors analyses or as- builts to assess spans which do not meet specifica-
tions. It can also be used to plan modifications to stabilize a pipeline which
later develops spans after construction. This has occurred offshore California
and Australia.
The user is required to specify the basic pipe, span and current parameters.
(For vortex shedding, a 5-year storm condition should be used, if necessary
contact CPTCs, Cort Cooper at 510-842-9119.) Several default values are
incorporated in the program to make it easy to use.
Should you need additional information or assistance in running/installing the PC
programs, please contact the OS Division of CPTC in San Ramon, CA.
942 Contractors Stress Analysis
The contractor shall submit a Stress Analysis based on the following discussion:
The contractor shall compute, by methods acceptable to the Company, stresses to
be expected during all phases of operations. Nowhere shall the maximum total
combined stress exceed 80 percent of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength
(SMYS) during installation (see Section 963). During hydrostatic testing the
maximum total combined stress shall not exceed 90 percent of the SMYS. The
contractor shall submit a complete set of calculations to ensure that installation
stress shall be maintained within the allowable limit. Calculations shall show a plan
and profile of the lay barge, stinger and pipeline from the bow of the barge to the
touch-down point on the ocean floor.
The contractors three dimensional pipe lay stress analysis shall account for
tensioner dead band and environmental conditions. Stress control computations
shall include analysis extensions to determine laying operational limits due to varia-
tions between plan and actual field conditions. As a minimum, considerations shall
include:
Pipe wall thickness variations
Weight coating thickness variations
Weight coating density variations
Stinger angle/depth variations.
The davit lift calculations shall account for any planned horizontal movement of the
line.
Nominal Vessel Tension
A nominal or optimum vessel tension shall be selected by the contractor (see
Section 936).
The actual length of pipe on the stinger during laying operations shall be expressly
identified in the contractors analyses. For the nominal tension, a length of approxi-
mately two-thirds of the total stinger length is our recommendation as a guide-
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-71 November 1994
line for initial selection for rigid stingers. However, a longer length may be used
based on the contractors three dimensional pipelay analyses, which should include
environmental conditions, wave and current. It is preferable that the pipe does not
bear on the last stinger roller, since this may produce a large bending moment in the
pipe or shear stress due to vessel motion or low tension. With this in mind it is very
important to have a long enough stinger and the proper nominal vessel tension to
avoid these concerns.
Pipelaying Analysis Extensions - Procedure
These extensions to determine laying limits and pipeline route radius (also see
Section 936) are a part of three more general problems that govern pipeline stress
control:
Pipeline weight control,
Stinger angle/depth control, and
Tension control.
For pipeline weight control the contractor shall take the nominal weight. A final lay
stress check shall be performed based on the average measured coated pipe weight.
For stinger angle/depth control, stress control computations shall show the lower
and upper attitudes of the stinger that lead to 80 percent of SMYS in the overbend.
For tension control, the contractor shall anticipate a minimum 20 percent variation
of the nominal tension, i.e., a dead band of plus or minus 20 percent of T, where T
is the nominal tension. The following matrix, which assumes no variation in pipe-
line weight (W), results:
The contractor shall carry out calculations for the following cases:
Case 1 : T nominal, W nominal, S nominal
Case 2 : T low, W nominal, S nominal
Case 3 : T high, W nominal, S nominal
Case 4 : T nominal, W nominal, S low
Case 5 : T nominal, W nominal, S high
For a grey fine to medium sand, the lateral soil friction coefficient may be taken as
0.9 for a newly laid pipeline which is empty and has not settled down in the seabed.
Pipelaying Initiation
The contractor shall issue a calculation note for the Companys approval for
connecting of return sheaves at the bottom or top of any Company jacket leg for the
Tension (T) Stinger Attitude (S)
Low dead band Low
Nominal tension Nominal
High dead band High
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-72 Chevron Corporation
pipelaying initiation. Alternatively, calculations are to be provided for pipelaying
initiation using a dead man anchor.
950 Component Selection
This topic covers selection of components unique to submarine pipeline operations.
Additional discussion of pipe, valves, fittings, etc., is included in Section 300.
951 Subsea Pipeline Valves and Actuators
Subsea Pipeline Valves
Subsea pipeline valves provide an efficient and cost effective method of controlling
product flow in subsea pipeline systems [8]. Placing the valves subsea can optimize
system configuration and provide flexibility without using up space and other
support equipment on the platform. The main trade-off is that subsea valves are not
accessible for repair/inspection. However, with increased industry use, experience,
and steady product improvement, subsea pipeline valves and actuators have func-
tioned reliably since 1960 with few problems. Use of subsea pipeline shut-down
valve (SDV)/actuator or manual ball valve/check valve (FSV) technology for plat-
form isolation is a recent development, primarily occurring in the North Sea.
Three types of valves are commonly used:
Ball valve
Check valve
Gate valve (Not discussed in this manual [8].)
In recent years, in the vast majority of subsea pipeline applications, ball valves have
been used in preference to gate valves due to size (especially with actuator) and
lower cost [48]. Christmas tree valves are typically gates and give excellent service.
Applications
Typical applications of subsea pipeline valves are:
Provision for platform isolationa shut-in subsea valve/check valve installed
in the pipeline upstream and/or downstream of the platform riser can permit
the platform riser and facilities to be depressurized without depressurizing the
pipeline; such isolation valves also help minimize (or prevent) hydrocarbon
spills in case of pipeline damage (also see Section 958). The valves will not
necessarily minimize pollution from the pipeline, but will minimize pollution
from the platform.
Control of product transfer between platforms and export loading facilities
Tie-in of a peripheral field to an existing export system; a valved tee installed
during the laying of the trunk line provides for later tie-in of the lateral pipeline
with minimum disruption of the trunk line
Interconnection of two or more trunk lines at a subsea pipeline junction
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-73 November 1994
Flow diversion and control for subsea production facilities such as production
fluid flow from templates, single and clustered satellite wells, and commin-
gling of production fluids and pigging of the pipelines
Design Considerations
Factors that influence or dictate the design and application requirements of subsea
pipeline valves are:
System operating pressure and temperature
Fluid composition including H
2
S, CO
2
, sand, and other solids
Hydrate formation
Valves in a static condition, either open or closed for long periods of time
during installation and operation
Long service life requirement
External corrosion from sea water
Debris from product and construction activities
Capability to test against a lateral without a spill or flow disruption
Passage of pigs
Restricted maintenance access due to a protective subsea structure
Subsea Pipeline Valve Design
Basic subsea pipeline valve (mainly ball valve) design is similar to that used for
onshore pipelines. Subsea valve material would generally not be different from that
for a surface valve. For example, for sour service, NACE MR-01-75 would be speci-
fied for either location. Higher quality materials might be warranted for some items
such as elastomeric or metal-to-metal seals and valve trim because subsea valves
are less accessible than surface valves. However, the user should be left to deter-
mine the appropriate standards. Chemical injection may be used to prevent hydrate
formation in pipelines, if necessary. Permafrost will likely require some form of
pipeline/valve insulation. Permafrost may be found in the offshore Arctic and very
deepwater areas.
Valves should meet the requirements of API-6D and ANSI B16.5, B16.10 and
B16.34 as a minimum.
External corrosion protection is usually provided by the cathodic system protection
of the pipeline. Coal tar epoxy or other coating systems are available from manufac-
turers to provide additional corrosion protection.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-74 Chevron Corporation
The sizes and pressure ratings of subsea ball valves are similar to those used on
land. Some of the commonly used subsea ball valve manufacturers, ranges of sizes
and pressure ratings, and design features are listed below:
Cameron ball valves are generally forged steel, welded body design, chrome plated
alloy steel ball, and Nylon seal inserts. Injection ports are provided for both the
main valve bore and stem seals for injection of sealant for temporary repair of seal
leaks.
Grove ball valves are cast or fabricated steel body design, with a nickel plated steel
ball, nickel plated steel metal-to-metal seat using a Viton O-ring back-up. The
metal-to-metal seals are designed to be bubble tight. An injection port is provided
for the main valve bore seals. A coal tar epoxy coating is available for application
to the exterior of the valve for additional corrosion protection.
Neles ball valves are a cast steel body design, with a stainless steel ball and Nylon
seats. Metal-to-metal seats are available using Stellite on stainless steel seats and a
chrome plated stainless steel ball. (However, a metal-to-metal seal may not provide
a bubble tight valve bore seal in this design.)
Other manufacturers of subsea pipeline valves include Cooper Oil Tool (WKM),
TK, Borsig, Cort, and Mapegaz.
Company Criteria for Reliability of Pipeline Valves/Actuators
Reliability depends on the valve type and operating experience with such valves.
Some form of protection may also be required to prevent damage from external
sources. (Furthermore, because a subsea SDV or FSV would be a secondary safety
measure, it is not necessary that it be bubble tight.)
Cooper Industries (See Appendix G)
2 through 48 inches 150, 300, 600 ANSI
2 through 36 inches 900 ANSI
2 through 30 inches 1500 ANSI
Grove Valve Co.
2 through 48 inches 150, 300, 600, 900 ANSI
2 through 20 inches 1500 ANSI
2 through 12 inches 2500 ANSI
Neles (See Appendix G)
1 through 36 inches 150, 300 ANSI
1 through 24 inches 600 ANSI
2 through 36 inches 900 ANSI
2 through 8 inches 1500 ANSI
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-75 November 1994
The Company should choose seals for selected valves based on the hydrocarbons
composition. (The Company should provide this information to the valve manufac-
turer(s).)
Careful consideration should be given to selection of valve/actuator materials.
A quality assurance inspection should be required by the Company: 1) during valve
assembly to check the ball plating for holidays, 2) for actuator operation (stroking
the valve)/testing, and 3) after assembly for an onshore (at factory) valve hydrotest
(and air test) per API 6D. These tests should be witnessed/reviewed by a Company
representative/inspector.
Acceptance testing of valve and actuator should include application of the
maximum operating pressure in both directions in separate tests. The valve should
be shown to be closed or opened fully from a previously open or closed position
with 90 percent of the normal operating hydraulic fluid pressure applied to the
valve.
Start-up, during the installation phase, can be a significant problem area. The line
and valve should be kept clean and free of construction materials, such as welding
rods, scale, etc. Also, normally a cleaning pig is run after pipeline construction,
prior to start-up. This type of debris can damage the ball coating and elastomeric
seat seals.
The Company should require a corrosion inhibitor when the pipeline is to be filled
with sea water for more than six (6) months. (The valve seat and stem seals must be
compatible for the service conditions, including the corrosion inhibitors.)
Ball Valve Testing. Testing of ball valves should include breakaway torque for a
valve with full pressure on both sides of the valve. There have been instances where
the ball cavity blew down when the downstream section of the line (gas) was blown
down. The line was repressured from the downstream end to avoid sudden pressure
surge or cutting of the seats when the surface valve was reopened. The seats of the
valve clamped the ball so severely the actuator (pneumatic) had to have extra oper-
ating pressure applied to move the ball. When it moved the reaction was so swift
and powerful, the valve bonnet was cracked. The stem seals held so no catastrophe
occurred, but the line had to be shut down to replace the bonnet. Use of speed
retarders probably would not have helped. A hydraulic operator would have been
much more appropriate.
Subsea Shutdown Valve (SDV) Testing. Subsea SDV testing should include an
annual test with the valve fully closed with leakage noted and corrected, and a bi-
annual test for partial closure.
Testing of the valve can be achieved from the surface providing there is a means to
detect when the valve is cycling. (Provide for partial closure of the valve with a test
stop. Use limit switches and a Test Position to allow testing without shut-in of the
platform.)
Pressure Venting. Pressure venting should not be necessary for subsea valves
during production operations. However, the valve should be fitted with vent valves
or plugs to allow safe maintenance.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-76 Chevron Corporation
Bi-Directional Operations. Block valves should be designed to seal against design
pressure from either direction.
Pigging Operations. Pipeline riser design needs to accommodate pigging. Selec-
tion of bend radius is dependent on the types of pigs that will be used. For normal
spheres or poly pigs, a long radius (1-1/2 diameter) is usually sufficient; however,
in the North Sea and most other operating locations, the use of 5-D induction bends
for risers is standard. To accommodate the passage of smart inspection pigs, a
larger radius is required for small diameter pipe.
In addition, some pipelines are pigged regularly and others have chemical injection
to prevent/minimize corrosion problems, for example, lines having a high CO
2
or
H
2
S content in the gas. For pigging operations, the valve should be through-
conduit full bore. Ball/check valve design should allow the passage of spheres or
scrapers in either direction.
Performance Acceptance Testing. Newly fabricated valves and actuators should
be tested together on-shore under the simulated conditions, prior to acceptance by
the operator, i.e., the actuator should be installed by the valve manufacturer and
tested and actuated under load conditions in his shop.
To enhance performance the design, manufacture and testing procedures of the
valves and actuators should be thoroughly evaluated.
Additional Design Considerations. Subsea valves should be removable, i.e.,
bolted-flanged or provided with a mechanical connector. Flanges should have ring-
type joints. Lifting eyes for lifting the complete valve and actuator assembly should
be provided. For large diameter pipelines, the flanges should be designed to spread
hydraulically for gasket removal and reinstallation. A double seal design for the
seats and stem is recommended.
A top entry requirement for a ball valve is not necessary, but may be of interest for
small diameter valves in very deep water.
Consider having the contractor install a wrap-around sleeve to protect the flange
gasket. Consider a shrink wrap. (Provide a rust preventative for the machined
surfaces and also for bolting and caps.)
The design of subsea valves should take into account external hydrostatic pressure.
Water depth will influence selection of the installation method. Depth will also
affect choice and difficulty of repair methods.
Subsea Valve Design Considerations and Specifications
The subsea check valve shall be a lock open (by diver or ROV) design. This is
a standard RTJ, flanged swing check valve.
A minimum ANSI 900 rating shall be used for the valves and flanges.
The subsea ball valve shall have a gear operator, with a position indicator and
locking device, if the pipeline is greater than or equal to 8-inches NPS and a
wrench. The gear box shall be pressure compensating type.
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The ball valve shall be manually actuated (by diver or ROV).
The valves shall meet the requirements of API-6D and ANSI B16.5 and
B16.10, as a minimum.
Coal tar epoxy or the manufacturers recommended coating system, 3 coats
minimum, shall provide external corrosion protection.
The ball valve shall have a 3-mil (minimum thickness, electroless nickel plated
steel ball and be designed per the manufacturers recommendations for the
Companys intended service.
The subsea valves shall be removable and replaceable in-lin, i.e., bolted flaned.
The flanges shall have a ring-type joint, RTJ. The studs shall be B7M mate-
rial, with a coating per the manufacturers recommendations for subsea service.
Lifting eyes for lifting the valve(s) shall be provided.
The flanges shall be designed to spread hydraulically for oval ring gasket
removal and reinstallation.
A double seal design, compatible with the intended service, including corro-
sion inhibitors if specified, for the ball valve seats and stem shall be used. Ports
shall be provided for seal injection by diver or ROV, if required for future valve
maintenance. Design shall include sealant injection fittings with double ball
checks, compatible for the service and the subsea environment.
Contractor shall install a wrap around sleeve to protect the flange gasket.
Consider a Trenton wax tape. Contractor shall provide a rust preventative,
compatible for service in the subsea environment for the machined surfaces
and also for bolting and caps, on all valves and flanges.
Check and ball valves shall be full conduit and allow for passage of spheres
or scrapers in either direction.
Two-inch NPS bleeder valve exclusions: 1) Lifting eyes, 2) ability to spread
flanges hydraulically, 3) double ball check fittings for sealant injection, i.e., in
the event of damage to the face seal, sealant can be injected through the drain
fitting to provide a temporary seal, and 4) 3-mil (minimum) thickness nickel
plating, i.e., use a 1-mil (minimum) thickness.
Maintenance of Subsea Pipeline Valves
Subsea pipeline valves have a history of reliable service. Most of these valves are
designed to not require periodic maintenance or seal lubrication. The majority of
the maintenance operations on these valves are to repair flow path or stem seal
leaks and actuators. Some of the common repair methods are as follows:
Leakage of subsea valves around the valve ball and seats or stem seals can
sometimes be repaired temporarily by injecting sealants at the valve seats
through ports provided for that purpose.
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November 1994 900-78 Chevron Corporation
Repair of an inoperable valve or permanent repair of seal leakage usually
requires the replacement of the valve actuator, valve stem, ball or seats. Divers
or ROVs are used to assist in the repair. Large valve repair usually requires the
retrieval of the valve to the surface and replacement.
The mobilization of equipment required for a major repair job is substantial (satura-
tion diving, heavy duty lift crane, etc.)
Other reported problems associated with subsea pipeline valves are:
Failure of ball plating due to poor workmanship, corrosion and galling leading
to a valve unable to adequately seal and isolate
Damage to the valve ball and seals by debris and pigging operations
Failure of valve stem to ball connection resulting in an inoperable valve
Improper material selection resulting in failure due to corrosion or mechanical
breakage
Subsea Pipeline Valve Actuator (See Appendix G)
The actuator for a subsea pipeline valve may be manually or remotely operated.
Manually operated actuators can be designed for operation by divers or remotely
operated vehicles (ROVs). Remotely operated actuators are mainly hydraulically
operated. Manual overrides for the hydraulic operators are sometimes provided and
can be operated by divers or ROVs.
All remotely operated subsea ball valve actuators are hydraulically operated except
in very shallow water where pneumatic operators may be used. There are two main
types of hydraulic actuators for this application: a rotary piston operator and a
rotary vane operator.
Rotary Piston. The rotary piston actuator is available in both spring return
(Figure 900-19) and double acting styles. The spring in the spring return type actu-
ator provides a fail-safe action in case of a hydraulic failure. Rotary piston actuators
are capable of producing a torque of 2,000,000 in-lb with 1000 psi hydraulic
control pressure. Rotary piston actuators with spring return are generally limited to
less than 200,000 in-lb of torque with 1000 psi hydraulic control pressure. Major
manufacturers of this type of actuator are Shafer Valve Company, GH Bettis, and
Kracht.
Rotary Vane. The rotary vane type actuator is shown in Figure 900-20. It is not
available in the spring return configuration. This type of actuator is capable of
producing torques up to 5,800,000 in-lb. with 1000 psi hydraulic control pressure.
Shafer Valve Company is the only major manufacturer of this type of actuator.
For the double acting rotary piston actuator and the rotary vane actuator, fail-safe
valve action will require subsea accumulators installed close to the actuator.
Sizing of the actuator for a subsea ball valve must take into account the breakaway
and running torque of the specific valve at its maximum operating conditions
(consult the manufacturer), installation water depth plus the elevation of the valve
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Chevron Corporation 900-79 November 1994
control system above sea level, and the hydraulic supply line size, and aging. There
are two considerations: 1) Water depth plus the elevation of the control system to
account for the hydrostatic head of the control fluid and 2) the hydrostatic head
affecting the operator due to sea water in a case where the control line develops a
leak. The Specific Gravity of common hydraulic control fluids ranges from 1.011 to
1.055.
The actuator should be suitable for use with water or oil-based hydraulic fluid.
Facilities should be provided for flushing the actuator, through a hose connected by
a diver or ROV. The actuator design must provide travel adjustment to give accurate
alignment of the valve ball for clear, free passage of pigs. (Valves with a stop built
in at the time of manufacture are preferred to stops on the actuator.)
The actuator should be designed for removal from and refitting to the valve subsea
with the pipeline at pressure. Unique orientation of the actuator attachment to the
valve is required. The actuator should be provided with a clear visual and tactile
indicator showing the valve position to a diver or ROV. The indicator should be in
line with the pipeline when the valve is open.
The hook-ups (hydraulic control cable, attachment, fittings) for the actuator should
be designed to be substantial to resist damage from the marine environment.
Compatibility of the materials used should be considered.
Subsea Check Valves (Gas pipelines)
Operators are increasingly considering and installing subsea emergency shutdown
(ESD) systems in order to mitigate the consequences of a gas pipeline failure in the
Fig. 900-19 Typical Spring Actuator with Seaport
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November 1994 900-80 Chevron Corporation
vicinity of manned facilities (also see Section 958). Check/ball valves have been
used as part of the shutdown systems in the North Sea at several locations. The loca-
tion of the check valve with respect to the platform is an important consideration in
this case. The same check valve manufacturer (Tom Wheatley of Houston, TX) has
been specified on each occasion since it is one of the few check valve designs that
allows the passage of spheres or scrapers in either direction. Check/ball valves have
also been used in the Gulf of Mexico. Company experience has been primarily with
Wheatley Gaso Inc of Tulsa, OK, a different valve company than Tom Wheatley.
The Company has also used Wheatley check valves.
Reference Lists of Subsea Pipeline Valve Users/Applications
Lists of subsea pipeline valve users/applications are contained in Appendix G.
Fig. 900-20 Rotary Vane Actuator Features
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952 Subsea Pipeline Mechanical Connections
General
Subsea pipeline mechanical connections are needed during new pipeline construc-
tion, repair (see Section 971), or a lateral tie-in to a main line [3]. Connections can
be made for a pipeline tie-in to a riser or between a pipe and a subsea-tap assembly.
Connections can also be made between pipe segments to provide a continuous pipe-
line, such as in the case of a repair, when pipe segments are layed by different
vessels, or when pipeline segments are towed to location from a distant fabrication
site.
In shallow water, connections can be made on the surface by lifting pipes to a
vessel, making the connection, then lowering the pipe to the sea floor. In-line
connection methods that connect two pipe segments, such as flanges or welding,
can generally be used to connect the pipe and the riser. Other methods to connect
pipe and riser include hyperbaric welding and J-tube (see Section 965).
Good subsea positioning of the pipe ends to be connected greatly facilitates the
connection process. Spool pieces may be used to bridge a gap, especially when
connecting to a riser.
Mechanical Connection Methods
Various mechanical connection methods/connectors exist for joining the ends of
subsea pipelines. These methods include:
Flanged connection for pipeline-riser tie-Ins
Flanged spool
Angular misalignment (ball joint) assemblies
Mechanical connector systems
(Other tie-in methods for pipelines and risers are generally discussed in
Section 965.)
Flanged Connection for Pipeline-Riser Tie-Ins
In shallow water, flanged connections are sometimes used for pipeline-riser tie-ins.
Pipe spools, fabricated aboard a work vessel, may be used with flanges. Flanges are
RTJ, ANSI Class 600 or 900 minimum rating. Alternatively, ball joints have been
used to accommodate angular misalignment between the pipe and riser (discussed
later). The spools may have right-angle or Z-bends to provide flexibility in accom-
modating thermal and pressure expansion. In many cases, rotating (swivel-ring)
flanges are used to ease the installation. (One advantage of flanges is that they
permit easier repair in the remote event of pipeline/riser damage or corrosion.)
The Company has experience with standard flanges used in very shallow water,
swivel ring flanges, and misalignment-ball joint flanges. The type of flange to be
used is a function of the equipment, line size, water depth, and previous experience
of the personnel involved. These have been used to install risers in-board of a plat-
form, rather than using the out-board above water riser tie-in method which
provides an all-welded connection. Experience has been good with flanged subsea
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November 1994 900-82 Chevron Corporation
connections; no problems of leaks after installation/testing have been reported. In
the Gulf of Mexico, these are normally installed by divers from a jack-up or spud
barge rather than from a pipelay barge.
Flanged Spool Method
Flanges may be preinstalled on each pipe end during laying. The pipe ends are posi-
tioned approximately in line, with a gap in between. An adjustable fixture
(template) is lowered to the sea floor and temporarily attached to the flanges. The
fixture is locked in position, released, and raised to the surface. A rigid pipe spool
is prepared to match the exact dimensions of the fixture, lowered to the seabed, and
bolted into place.
This method is generally limited to applications involving relatively small diameter
pipe and shallow water, although rotating flanges have been used to 36-inch diam-
eter in water depths to 500 feet in the North Sea.
Flanges are low in cost, but they can take a long time to install. However, they are
considered trouble free once they have been installed and tested.
Rotating (Swivel-Ring) Flange
A rotating (swivel-ring) flange is used (by divers) on one spool end to facilitate
alignment of the bolt holes in the flanges. It can be attached to a preinstalled
conventional weld-neck flange (see Figure 900-21; this flange looks like a welding
neck flange, but has a retainer and a rotatable ring). Swivel-ring flanges are typi-
cally available in 300 ANSI Class (12- to 42-inch OD pipe), 600 and 900 ANSI (3-
to 42-inch OD), 1500 ANSI (3- to 24-inch OD) and 2500 ANSI (3- to 12-inch OD).
The Company has used these manufacturers: Preferred Machine Works, South-
western Flange & Fittings Co., Coffer Flange, Cameron, HydroTech and Gripper.
Fig. 900-21 Gripper Rotating (Swivel Ring) Flange
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Underwater Hydraulic Bolt-Tensioning Tool
The process of tightening large flanges has been made considerably easier and
faster by the use of a hydraulic bolt-tensioning tool. For example, the Hydra-Tight
Tool, sold in the U.S. by Flexatalic Gasket Co., has been used by divers in the
North Sea for many years. It consists of a series of hydraulically operated
tensioners that are attached to the protruding ends of the flange studs. Hydraulic
power provided from the surface causes the tensioners to tension each stud
uniformly. The nuts may then be tightened in less time. The primary advantage,
however, is uniform tensioning of the studs. This reduces the likelihood of a leak,
especially for large flanges. (Another similar device is the Gripper-Snapper-Stud
Tensioning System.)
Angular Misalignment Method Single Ball Joint
A variation of the flanged spool method is the use of a misalignment ball joint
flange to accommodate angular misalignment. Small diameter lines (10.750- to 12-
inch OD or less) in 200- to 300-foot water depths may be lifted to the surface to
make a connection using a ball connector. One end is raised by one or more lifting
points. A ball-connector half is welded to this first pipe end. A joint or two of pipe
is first welded on to bridge any gap between the two pipe ends.
The first pipe end is lowered to the sea floor so that it overlaps the second pipe end.
A measurement is taken on-bottom, and the second pipe end is raised to the surface.
The pipe is cut, the second ball half is welded onto the pipe, and the pipe is lowered
to the sea floor. The two pipe ends are then lifted slightly, and the ball halves are
mated. The connected pipe is lowered to the seabed, and the bolts are tightened to
lock and seal the ball joint. (If the pipes must be dewatered for lifting, temporary
end blind flanges are attached to the ball halves, before the pipe ends are
lowered. A smallperhaps 2-inchball valve allows the pipeline to be flooded or
dewatered as needed. A laying/pulling head can be added to the blind flange to
facilitate lowering/raising of the pipeline. After the pipes are flooded, the temporary
end flanges are removed.)
This method may not work on the first try, since each time the pipe is lifted some
slack is pulled out. This could also be performed by aligning the pipelines, taking a
measurement, and adding pipe.
Angular Misalignment Method Pair of Ball Joints
The ball connectors may also be used as a pair at the ends of a rigid spool for new
construction or for a long spool repair where the pipe ends can be lifted to the
surface. Measurement of the required spool length must be accurately made
because the ball connectors will provide only limited length adjustment. Moreover,
an axial movement of about one pipe diameter may be needed to make the
connection.
Misalignment Flange Ball Joint Connector
The misalignment flange (MAF) is a special type of flanged ball joint connector
that provides for angular misalignment between two pipelines being connected
underwater (see Figure 900-22). It is a ball joint connector similar in principle to a
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November 1994 900-84 Chevron Corporation
standard ring joint flange, but with significant installation and functional advan-
tages. The MAF uses a replaceable metal seal for high integrity and long-term
sealing.
The MAF may reduce the time needed for subsea pipeline and riser connections.
Subsea assembly and make-up are accomplished by divers with the same tools used
to assemble and tighten a standard flange. Forced alignment of the pipeline may not
be necessary because an MAF allows up to 12 degrees of misalignment in any direc-
tion. Some manufacturers require a pull-in capability of only one-fourth the pipe
diameter to mate the ball and housing. The Company has used these manufacturers:
Hunting Oil Field ServicesBig Inch Division, Cameron, HydroTech and Gripper.
CABGOCs Experience with Spool Piece Construction
Angular misalignment flanges (ball joints) are discussed above and in general.
Cabinda Gulf Oil, CABGOC prefers not to use them and views them as a potential
leak source. They allow the pipeline Contractor to use a spool for the pipeline to
riser tie-in, but do not allow the use of a ball joint in this spool for misalignment.
The spool must be hard piped and any misalignment made up with a 5D pipe band.
They also require the Contractor to align the pipeline and riser to minimize
misalignment as much as possible. CABGOC has never had a problem hard piping
the tie-in and the equipment used to measure distance and angle for the spool fabri-
cation is normally very accurate so there hasnt been a problem with repetitive
modifications to the spool to make it fit. The spool does have swivel ring flanges on
each end.
Fig. 900-22 Hydrotech SystemsMisaligning Flange Ball Connector
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Mechanical Connector Systems
Several mechanical connector systems are available for in-line subsea pipeline
connections. These include the Big Inch (FlexiForge), the Cameron connection
system (Camforge), the Gripper connector system, and the HydroBall/Hydrocouple
system by HydroTech [3].
Mechanical connector systems are faster and less expensive than hyperbaric
welding. Also, they can be less costly to install than surface tie-in methods, but
require about the same amount of time to complete. The installation is also less
weather sensitive than surface welding, which may be an important advantage in
bad weather areas.
Mechanical connector systems consist of a means for attaching the connector to the
pipe on the sea floor, provisions for length adjustment, ball joints, and a rigid pipe
spool. A means of manipulating the connector assemblies may be provided by the
installation contractor or by the equipment manufacturer.
The manipulating equipment can take a variety of forms; the choice is normally
made by the installation contractor or the operator. If the pipelay contractor uses his
lay barge as a work platform, the barge davits can be used. In deep water, inflatable
airbags may be used to buoy the connector assembly off the bottom.
For small pipe sizes up to about 12 inches, a simple A-frame may be sufficient with
come-alongs to maneuver the assembly into position. For large pipe sizes, an
alignment frame may be of benefit. (Subsea cranes have been used in the North Sea
and offshore Indonesia.)
Gripper and HydroTech offer special bottom-manipulating equipment for use with
their connector systems. Very large alignment frames, as used for hyperbaric
welding, are not normally required with these mechanical-connector systems
because precise alignment of the pipe ends is not necessary.
Big-Inch Marine Systems
Big-Inch, a division of Hunting Oilfield Services, is best known for its Flexiforge
end connector, a means for cold forging a fitting onto the end of a pipe on the sea
floor. However, Big-Inch has also developed a complete connector system for new
construction. This includes either conventional ring joint flanges or boltless flanges
to connect the system to the pipe ends, ball joints, and slip joints. All components
have metal-to-metal seals. Each component may be disassembled on the sea floor
by unbolting, if it becomes necessary to remove the system.
The boltless flange is a hydraulically operated mechanical pipe connector, designed
to effect rapid connection in lieu of a bolted ring joint flange. The slip joint
provides axial adjustment of up to several times pipe diameter, facilitating pipe
section or spool piece length adjustment.
The Flexiforge System consists of a cold forging tool and associated power and
control equipment that is used for installing end connectors. The tool forges an end
connector on to a pipe to make a mechanically-joined, 100 percent metal-to-metal
sealed connection, stronger than the pipe. The tool is available in a range of sizes
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November 1994 900-86 Chevron Corporation
from 6 to 36 inches. The finished connection has a smooth inside surface that does
not impede production or pigging operations. The Company has used this device on
pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico.
Cameron
The Cameron in-line connection system includes two collet connectors with inte-
gral or separate actuators and positioners, four pipeline swivels, and two rigid pipe
spools. A mating Cameron hub with a tie-in base is pre-attached to each pipe end to
be joined. (The Camforge tool may be lowered to the sea floor and used to cold
forge the ends of the pipeline to the collet connector mating hubs.) Temporary end
caps are required for each pipe end to retain air in the pipelines during laying and
positioning. These may be attached by means of Cameron clamps. The Company
has used the Cameron system on pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico.
The system may be operated from a work vessel equipped with a crane or other
equipment to lift the spool assembly. Guide cables are attached to each tie-in base.
The spool is made to the correct length with swivels and collet connectors welded
in place. The spool assembly is attached to a spreader bar and lowered on the guide
wires to the sea floor.
Once the assembly is on the bottom and the connectors are landed on the two tie-in
bases, a diver operates controls to position each connector and actuate the collet
fingers to grip the mating hub and effect the seal. The seal made by each connector
is then tested to confirm integrity of the connection. Then the actuators and support
equipment are retrieved for re-use.
Up to four swivels may be used to provide the required axial movement of the
connectors and to accommodate misalignment. (Camerons length compensating
joint can shorten the overall required spool piece length significantly. This joint can
be used to replace the midpoint swivels and to facilitate handling.)
Gripper (Now part of Hydrotech)
Gripper offers the Grip and Seal Mechanical Coupling (GSMC) and Gripper Ball
Connector - Flange LOK (GBCFL) devices for new construction and repair. The
GSMC unit incorporates metal tension and compression gripping collars and soft
packing in a cylinder that slips over a pipe end. It is set and sealed by tightening a
series of stud nuts, and it may be removed from the pipe by loosening the nuts. The
Company has used the GSMC on pipelines in the Gulf of Mexico. The GBCFL unit
is a ball-joint flange with metal-to-metal seals. It is designed to make-up pipe
connections that are out of alignment up to 10 degrees.
The Gripper Metal Seated Coupling unit slips over and seals against the cut end of
a pipe. The unit has no provision for length adjustment. It is intended for riser
repairs where the riser pipe can be machine cut to provide a smooth sealing surface.
It could also be used to attach a flange or fitting to a pipe on the seabed, provided
that the pipe end is machine cut.
The Gripper Pipe Length Compensator (GPLC) device is a slip joint intended for
new construction. Metal seals are set against a machined cylindrical surface. The
GPLC unit is used in a spool, with a GBCFL unit at each end.
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Chevron Corporation 900-87 November 1994
HydroTech
HydroTech manufactures several products for pipeline connections. The main prod-
ucts include the HydroBall/HydroCouple System, the misaligning flange (MAF),
and the HydroBall swivel and bias-cut flange.
The Mark IV HC units include gripping and sealing mechanisms, along with
temperature compensation, and have not experienced leakage. The Mark IV unit is
hydraulically set with separate tension and compression slips. The seals are sepa-
rately actuated metal-contained elastomers.
The Mark V unit is a more compact tool with interfacing tension and compression
slips and metal-contained seals. The slips and seals are set simultaneously by tight-
ening a ring of bolts. The device structurally attaches to and seals off bare ended
pipe. It also provides telescopic adjustment of one pipe diameter or 12 inches,
whichever is greater. The telescopic adjustment allows for error in diver measure-
ment when preparing the spool piece and will also provide the necessary adjust-
ment to accommodate ball swallow.
The Pressure Balanced Safety Joint by HydroTech Systems is a pipeline fitting
designed to separate at predetermined externally applied loads, independent of pipe-
line pressure. It functions when a dragging anchor, mud slide or other external force
is applied to the pipeline.
Employing the Pressure Balanced Safety Joint with a check valve eliminates loss of
pipeline content. In the event of an accident, this will assure minimal environmental
damage.
Subsea Lateral Tie-In to a Mainline
In some cases, it may be necessary to provide for a lateral pipeline tie-in to a subsea
mainline. If the operator is aware of the future need for a tie-in, then the mainline
can be laid with a side tap assembly and temporary spool as shown in
Figure 900-23, Step 1 (shown using HydroTech equipment as an example). (An
unplanned tie-in could require a subsea hot-tap.) Any lateral tie-in to a mainline
should consider the need to be able to pig the lateral. We do not use the welded-in
valves as shown in the figure, but bolted [40].
In U.S. waters, 30 CFR Part 250 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the
Outer Continental Shelf - Final Rule dated April 1, 1988, Subpart 250.154(b)(6),
Safety equipment requirements for DOI (Department of the Interior) pipelines
states that Pipelines incoming to a subsea tie-in shall be equipped with a block
valve and FSV, flow safety valve (check valve). Bidirectional pipelines connected
to a subsea tie-in shall be equipped with only a block valve." (See Section 958.) In
the Gulf of Mexico, CUSAs GOMBU has previously installed 24 lateral tie-ins,
with valves having an ANSI 900 rating, in most cases, in sizes to 20 inches. (The
block valve is a manually actuated ball valve). The valves for a single direction
lateral are shown in Figure 900-23, Step 3.
Figure 900-23, Step 2 shows the lateral line, as laid, with the temporary spool and
anchor flange bracket removed. Figure 900-23, Step 3 illustrates the tie-in spool
assembly, after lowering from the surface as attached to the side tap assembly and
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November 1994 900-88 Chevron Corporation
Fig. 900-23 Subsea Lateral Tie-in
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to the anchor flange bracket. This assembly is then attached to the lateral pipeline
using a swivel ring flange, with provision for misalignment using a spool piece and
an MAF.
Side Tap Installation Procedure
The in-line side tap valve assembly installation procedure is designed to ensure that
the assembly is properly buoyed with temporary buoyancy that will cause the
assembly to be landed on the seabed in a near vertical orientation. The orientation
of the main subsea ball valve stem should be within plus or minus ten (10) degrees
of vertical in its final position on the seabed (i.e., the ball and check valves, RTJ
flanges, temporary spool, blind flange and 2-inch NPS bleeder valve shall be
located directly above the pipeline). Two anchor flanges should be provided to
structurally support the side tap assembly. During installation, the orientation of the
assembly should be visually monitored to determine that it is within this required
orientation tolerance.
After the lateral tie-in has been placed on bottom, the Contractor should place sand-
cement or grout bags around the assembly for protection. The sand-cement or grout
bags and filler should be the same as that specified for pipeline crossings.
Further detailed design considerations and specifications for a side tap assembly
may be found in [39].
Underwater Branch Connection Study (PRC/AGA/R.J. Brown) [54]
This report was prepared with the object of developing guidelines for designing
underwater connections of branch lines at existing tap valves and hot taps in diver
accessible water depths. The report considers ANSI Classes 600 and 900 branch
lines of up to twelve (12) inches nominal diameter that conform to API Specifica-
tion 5L.
Loads due to gravity, buoyancy, internal and external, thermal expansion, hydrody-
namics and random events are considered. External corrosion, temperature cover,
bottom conditions, stability, testing, commissioning, trenching, and pigging are also
addressed. A general discussion of these issues is included in the body of the report.
Methods of analysis are included in the appendices and in various references.
Lotus 123" spreadsheets that compute the expansion stresses resulting from pres-
sure and temperature at points on a generic piping geometry are presented. A
program diskette is included with the report.
Future requirements should be considered when the initial pipeline is being
designed and when a branch connection is planned. If future connections are antici-
pated, additionally tap valve assemblies should be installed at strategic locations in
the main line and when a branch line is being connected, provisions should be
made for additional connections at that point.
Before any branch connection is installed, the extent and nature of pigging require-
ments should be decided.
If a wye connection is not required, hot taps can be used where a tap valve
assembly is not available. Wye connections cannot be installed with a hot tap. It is,
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November 1994 900-90 Chevron Corporation
therefore, particularly important to anticipate types of through-pigging which
require a wye connection.
953 Concrete Weight Coating
(Also see the Coatings Manual, Specification PPL-MS-4807 and Appendix H.)
Design Considerations
Concrete Weight Coating Thickness. Offshore pipelines are weight coated for
two reasons. The primary reason is to give the pipeline negative buoyancy for on-
bottom stability. A secondary reason for weight coating is to protect the underlying
corrosion coating from mechanical damage. The weight coating concrete density
and thickness are determined by the on-bottom stability design, see Section 935.
Concrete Slippage and Surface Sliding. Pipelay analysis will determine the axial
tension required during pipe laying to avoid line buckling on the lay barge; axial
tension is applied to the pipeline by the tensioner as a shear force on the concrete
coating surface.
The weak link in the shear transfer from the tensioner to the pipe is typically either
the tensioner link slipping on the concrete surface or the concrete slipping at the
concrete/corrosion coating interface. Surface sliding is minimized by increasing the
grip pressure or by increasing the pipe/tensioner link contact area. A spacer
installed over the bare pipe joints prior to their entering the tensioner provides
added contact area and resistance to slippage from the next joint.
The likelihood of slippage of the concrete at the concrete/corrosion coating inter-
face is largely dependent on the type of corrosion coating. Experience has shown
that coal tar enamel and asphaltic wrap coatings typically do not have a problem
with concrete slippage. However, fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) coatings do not
develop as high a shear strength with the concrete weight coating and are suscep-
tible to slippage.
Concrete Weight Coating Slippage Calculations. Using concrete/corrosion
coating shear data [9] and the contact area of the contractors proposed tensioner,
the maximum Safe Tension can be estimated. An example calculation is given in
Figure 900-24.
Avoiding Concrete Slippage. Research and experience have shown that concrete
slippage problems on FBE coated pipe can be avoided in several ways [10,25]. In
order of decreasing effectiveness, these include:
Two Part Epoxy: A two part epoxy mix is applied just a half rotation before
the compression of the concrete. The epoxy wicks into the moist concrete and
adheres to the surface of the FBE and upon curing provides a mechanical lock
between the two.
Rough Band: On the bow end (i.e., the last part in the tensioner) of each pipe
joint, prior to weight coating, a 40-inch-wide circumferential band of 15-mil-
thick liquid epoxy is applied to the FBE coating and small flint chips are
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-91 November 1994
embedded in the liquid epoxy while it is curing. Meticulous care must be used
when handling and transferring the pipe to the welding line on the lay barge or
both ends should be coated with the rough band to assure that the banded end
is properly oriented relative to the tensioners.
Ring: On both ends of each pipe joint, a 1-1/2-inch high and 3-inch wide ring
of cementitious epoxy is applied prior to weight coating.
Barrier Coating: Along the entire length of the joint, an 80-mil polymer
cement intermediate (or barrier) coating is applied prior to weight coating. This
intermediate coating is temperature cured and is usually applied in the coating
mil by the coating applicator immediately following the FBE coating while the
pipe is still warm.
Raised FBE Spiral: During FBE application, a 20-mil high and 0.2-inch wide
spiral of FBE is superimposed on the pipe joint.
Tests have shown that the rough band and epoxy cement ring methods are the most
economic and effective methods of avoiding concrete slippage. Barrier coating (an
option when the concrete weight coating is applied by the impact method) and
epoxy spirals decrease the chance of slippage, but do not always prevent it.
Avoiding Concrete Slippage on Plastic. The best method to avoid concrete slip-
page on multi-layer plastic pipeline coatings systems like Himont, Elf Atochem,
DuVal, and Du Pont Canada is to apply a suitable plastic powder with a sintering
weir onto the pipe surface to create a rough (sandy) surface condition. It is impor-
tant that the plastic powder bites into the extrusion layer to anchor it, but still
leaving a rough, textured finish. This must be done immediately after the applica-
tion of the extruded outer plastic jacket and before the cooling step in the pipe
coating mill."
Other Damage. The concrete weight coating is susceptible to damage other than
slippage at the corrosion coating/concrete interface. The tensioner grips can slide
on or crush the concrete surface. Assuming the concrete is adequately reinforced,
these grip pressure problems can be minimized by optimizing the grip pressure; the
grip pressure should be high enough to prevent slippage, but low enough to avoid
localized crushing of the concrete surface.
The concrete can also crack; either circumferential or longitudinal cracks can occur.
Longitudinal cracks result from inadequate reinforcement or from excessive grip
pressures. Recent tests have shown that longitudinal cracking of the concrete may
occur when the out-of-roundness reaches 1.375 percent, due to excessive grip pres-
sure and compression.
Some circumferential cracking will always occur when the pipeline is put into
tension as it passes over the stinger and into the sag bend. Cracking is only detri-
mental if it results in significant spalling (i.e., loss of weight) of the concrete.
In some cases circumferential cracking can be significant. The reinforcement and
axial tension in the pipeline will influence the severity of circumferential cracking.
If the concrete coating is not adequately reinforced, circumferential cracks can
permit significant spalling of the concrete to occur.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-92 Chevron Corporation
Circumferential cracking of the concrete is more of a problem with coal tar enamel
(CTE) and asphaltic wrapped coatings. These coatings are not as prone to concrete
slippage, hence higher axial tensions can be applied to the pipeline, making cracks
more likely.
Detrimental circumferential cracking is typically not a serious problem for FBE
coated pipelines, because the concrete will slip before it cracks. If the concrete is
successfully inhibited from slipping, circumferential cracking might be a problem
on FBE coated pipe.
Fig. 900-24 Example Tensioner Slipping Calculation
An example derrick lay barge uses a single dual-track tensioner machine. Each track is equipped with 14 links in
contact by two points to the pipe. The width of a link is 220 mm. The length of contact area per track is 3,080 mm.
There are two tracks. The lateral pipe loading (compression) capabilities of the tensioner is a maximum of 80
metric tonnes on each side of the pipe. The tensioning band is adjustable such that the variations of the tension
around the nominal value will not create an action of the machine.
Assumptions:
Pipe Diameter = 24 inches
Width of Link = 220 mm = 0.722 foot
Length of Contact = 3,080 mm = 10.10 feet
Open Length Between Joints = 2 feet
Effective Length of Contact = 8.10 feet
Assumed Contact on Circumference = D/3
Area = 8.10 x 12 x 24 /3 = 2,443 in
2
(Eq. 900-41)
Calculations:
Tension test information, for a FBE corrosion coating and wrapped applied concrete coating, obtained as part of
the Shell Deepwater Pipeline Joint Industry Project (JIP) dated 3/16/77, indicates the following:
Failure Shear Stress = 41.6 psi
The corresponding Failure Tension for a 24-inch O.D. line is:
41.6 x 2,443 = 101,621 lb = 46.1 metric tonnes
(Eq. 900-42)
The first safe test value is 35.9 psi, i.e., the"Safe Tension" is:
35.9 x 2,443=87,698 lb = 39.8 metric tonnes
If we assume an effective contact length of only half of the track length, the design allowable value of tension
would be 24.8 metric tonnes, giving a safety factor of 1.6 over the Safe Tension of 39.8 metric tonnes.
The JIP performed a second test using a higher value of lateral pipe loading (compression). For this case, shear
stress reached a value of 49.6 psi without failure. This is a factor of 1.38 above 35.9 psi. The amount of grip
(compression), therefore, does affect the slipping of concrete wrapped coating upon FBE.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-93 November 1994
Concrete Application
There are two primary ways of applying concrete weight coating: the compression
wrap method and the impact method. The compression coat wrap method is
preferred, but the impact method is acceptable.
Compression Wrap Method. The compression coat method is a relatively new
proprietary process. It has been commercially available since 1975. The
commercial name is Compression Coat.
Capabilities of the Compression Wrap Method. The compression wrap method
has been used on pipe sizes NPS 3 to NPS 54. The concrete thickness applied has
varied from less than 1 inch to 7.5 inches and the density from 140 to 190 lb/ft
3
.
For pipe sizes NPS 4 to NPS 24, typically a density of 140 pcf is preferred. For pipe
sizes greater than NPS 24 or thickness greater than 2.75 inches, 190 pcf density
should be considered. The pipe joint length (usually 40 feet) can vary from 26 to 80
feet.
Description. Refer to Figure 900-25. Concrete is fed from a mixer through a
hopper and onto a polyethylene outer wrap which is supported by a delivery belt.
The concrete coating is put into compression by loading this belt and compressing
the concrete between the outer wrap and the pipe. Hence the derivation of the trade
name Compression Coat. The concrete is wrapped onto the rotating pipe in a
continuous spiral about 6.5-inches wide beneath the polyethylene outer wrap. The
edges of the spiral are formed to ensure that the seam is adequately joined. The
concrete thickness is accurately controlled by an adjustable compaction roller on
the underside of the (pipe) end of the material delivery belt.
At the same time, through another preset adjustable guide on the applicator, the
specified reinforcing wire is fed through at the same rate as the polyethylene outer
wrap. The distance between the reinforcement and corrosion coating (as well as the
polyethylene film) is controlled by guides built into the rear of the feed applicator.
Following application, the weight coating ends are cut back, the pipe is weighed,
and stacked for curing. For the joints which require anodes or buckle arrestors, the
green concrete and reinforcement are cut back prior to curing; the anodes and
buckle arrestors are attached after the concrete has sufficiently hardened to handle
in the yard. In the case of pre-installed welded-in buckle arrestors, the concrete
may be applied over the entire pipe length as normally done.
Because the concrete is in compression by the outer polyethylene wrap, freshly
coated small diamter pipe can be immediately stacked. Typically, pipe diameters up
to NPS 24 with up to 3.75 inches of concrete can be stacked immediately.
Reinforcement Compression Coating. There are two ways to reinforce compres-
sion wrapped concrete. Compression coats standard mesh is Bekaert (Belgium)
Armapipe, a spot welded netting made of galvanized low-carbon steel. The mesh
compreises 8 line wires which are deeply crimped in the jiddle between cross wires.
The second way is a generic wire mesh. Some specifications call for wire reinforce-
ment which is a wire mesh with dimensions, 1-1/2 inch x 17 gauge for NPS 10 and
above and 1-inch mesh by 18 gauge for smaller pipe. Both provide adequate cross
sectional area of steel mesh under normal conditions to keep the concrete in place.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-94 Chevron Corporation
The compression coat method does not typically have longitudinal reinforcement.
However, in addition to the wire mesh, a continuous spiral of 8-mm rebar has been
successfully introduced into the concrete coating during application.
The reinforcement should be isolated from the pipe, so that it is not electrically
bonded to the pipe cathodic protection system.
For concrete thickness greater than 2.75 inches, two layers of wire mesh are used.
Impact Method
This method is the original method of applying concrete weight coating to corro-
sion coated pipe.
Description. The corrosion coated (and intermediate coated if FBE or 22-mil dry
film thickness if FBE) pipe is supported on its ends, rotated, and passed in front of
the throwing unit. The throwing unit applies the concrete by using a belt/brush unit
or a belt/belt unit which is counter rotated at high speed. The concrete is impinged
on the rotating pipe until the required thickness is obtained.
Surface scraping to remove irregularities and a spray-applied curing compound
complete the process. Pipe weight coated by the impact method should not be
stacked until the concrete has sufficiently cured.
Fig. 900-25 Compression Wrap Method of Concrete Application
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-95 November 1994
Reinforcement. Impact concrete weight coating can be reinforced in one of two
ways:
At the same time as the concrete application, depending on the thickness of the
applied weight coating, one or two layers of woven hexagonal wire mesh are
spooled onto the pipe.
Prior to the concrete being applied, a rebar cage is attached to the pipe. The
rebar cage would typically consist of 8-mm diameter circumferential bars at
100-mm longitudinal spacing with 5-mm diameter longitudinal bars 30 degrees
apart around the circumference.
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Impact and Compression Coat
Methods
Compression Coat Method
Pipeline Installation
Weight Coating of the Joints. Weight coating of the joints provides protection of
the field joints. The joints need not be weight coated if the stinger arrangement will
not damage the joint coating during pipe laying and the joint does not require
weight coating for protection during service. (However, the on-bottom-stability
analysis, see Section 935, should account for any missing joint material.) The
contractor should determine if the absence of field joint material will cause unac-
ceptable high stresses locally on the pipe during laying.
Advantages: Does not require an intermediate coat to protect the FBE
corrosion coating
Uniform concrete thickness, therefore good adherence
to weight tolerance
Sizes to NPS 24 may be stacked immediately after
coating
The polyethylene outer wrap allows consistent concrete
curing
Plant is portable for large orders
Impact Method
Advantages: May be the only method available for small orders in
some parts of the world
Can improve the longitudinal reinforcement by using a
reinforcing cage
Disadvantages: Requires an intermediate coating to prevent damage of
the FBE corrosion coating or an FBE dry film thickness
of 22-mils nominal
Concrete coated pipes can not be stacked until the
concrete is cured
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-96 Chevron Corporation
Concrete Coating Repairs. Following installation, the line should be inspected by
an ROV or diver. Cracks need not be repaired. Loose or spalled concrete up to 10
percent of the area of the pipe joint should be acceptable, with no need to restore
the nominal design negative buoyancy. Damage in excess of 10 percent of the area
should be reviewed to determine the need to restore the nominal design negative
buoyancy. Negative buoyancy can be restored by placing grout or sand bags over
the pipeline. Weight coating of oil pipelines is normally only required for the
purpose of pipe installation. The repair decision should be based upon the in-
service requirements, as well as constructability.
954 Corrosion Coatings
Pipeline Coatings
For more information on pipeline coatings, see Sections 340 and 953 in this book,
and also see the Coatings Manual.
Common Offshore Pipe Coatings. Most new offshore pipelines are coated with
fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) or coal tar enamel which should be used up to an oper-
ating temperature of 200F. FBE at 14-mil dry film thickness (DFT) is limited to
150F, but for higher temperatures, 30-mil DFT should be used. If the pipe is to be
concrete coated using the impact method of application and a FBE corrosion
coating is to be used, then the DFT should be 22-mils rather than only 14-mils to
prevent damage to the FBE during application of the concrete. This method of appli-
cation was successfully used on the Papua New Guinea, Kutubu offshore loading
line. Tests were run by the Contractor prior to acceptance of the winning bid to
verify the method. (FBE can be purchased using Company Specification COM-MS-
4042.) (A typical density of FBE is 87.4 pcf. For coal tar enamel a range of thick-
nesses from 94 to 156 mils is appropriate. Typically 94 mils is used for non-weight
coated and 156 mils for weight coated pipe. The typical density of coal tar enamel
is 92.7 pcf.)
New lower moisture absorption FBE pipeline coatings now exist such as Scotch-
kote 226N and OBrien NapGard Gold 7-2501/7-2504). Presently, offshore expe-
rience with these new FBE pipe coatings systems is very limited.
New offshore pipeline coating systems that many pipeline operators are using in the
operating temperature range of 200 to 235F are multi-layer pipe coating systems
such as DuVal, Elf Atochem, and Himont. this new pipe coating uses FBE as a
primer with either a single or two layer polyoropylene outer jacket.
Joint Coating Options. The field joints for offshore pipelines are typically covered
by shrink sleeves. Shrink sleeves are available with various temperature ratings; the
shrink sleeve selected should have an adequate temperature rating for the intended
service. Currently, heat shrink sleeves are not available for the new multi-layer
polypropylene pipeline coating systems. Check with CRTC M&EE (Materials and
Equipment Engineering, Richmond, CA) for updated information on coating the
field joints of this new pipeline joint coating system and for pipe coating specifica-
tions.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-97 November 1994
The girth welds of FBE pipe joints can be coated with FBE on the offshore lay
barge. Field applicators of FBE include: Commercial Resins Company (CRC),
Commercial Coating Services Incorporated (CCSI), and Pipeline Induction Heat
(PIH).
The girth welds of multi-layer polypropylene coating pipe joints can be coated with
a two layer polypropylene pipe coating on the offshore lay barge. Field applicators
of the two layer polypropylene girth weld coating system include: Commercial
Coating Services Incorporated (CCSI), and Pipeline Induction Heat (PIH).
Pipeline Riser and Conductor Coatings
Different coatings are used to protect the pipeline risers and conductors in the
splash zone. The most common riser coatings are rubber and Monel. Epoxy splash
zone coatings are also used.
Rubber. Vulcanized rubber (e.g., Mark Tool Splashtron) is used on pipeline risers
and conductors operating at temperatures up to 160F (special formulations are
good to 200F). The elastomer EPDM (ethylene propylene diene polymer) has been
used at 212F and can probably go even higher. These coatings are applied by hot
vulcanizing the rubber directly to the steel in an autoclave. The main disadvantage
is availability and scheduling, because the pipe to be coated must be sent to the
applicators shop. The rubber is not easily damaged, but when damaged it is nearly
impossible to repair. Mark Tool has repair kits available.
For risers in the splash zone the Company typically coats a 40-ft joint with 1/2-inch
of Splashtron or equivalent for later offshore installation. For J-tube risers the entire
length of riser pipe to be pulled inside the J-tube is coated with a 1/2-inch thickness
of Splashtron or equivalent. A Splashtron or equivalent stopper is coated on to the
bottom of the riser pipe to later seal with the mouth of the J-tube during installation
and prevent seawater from entering the annulus. The annulus is then filled with
corrosion prevention chemicals.
Some suppliers propose attaching the rubber with an adhesive to allow field applica-
tion; this procedure is not the preferred method of application.
Application with an adhesive will typically have a lower reliability and temperature
rating than rubber attached by vulcanizing.
Monel. Monel sheathing is used on risers and conductors at temperatures up to
250F. The disadvantages of Monel are high cost and risk of damage during installa-
tion. The Monel can be repaired by either dry welding or using an underwater
epoxy repair compound.
Epoxy Splash Zone Coatings. Epoxy splash zone coatings (e.g., Ameron Tide-
guard) are used on risers and conductors operating at temperatures up to 140F
which are not pressure tested. The coating is usually applied above the riser
sheathing up to an elevation of plus 12 feet. Pressure testing of the line can cause
the coating to crack. Epoxy splash zone coatings are the cheapest option for protec-
tion of the riser. As with any corrosion coating, the surface preparation and applica-
tion methods are critical for satisfactory service performance.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-98 Chevron Corporation
Grout Filled Steel Sleeves. Grout filled steel sleeves, similar to monel, provide a
seal which protects the riser from impact and corrosion.
Internal Corrosion Control
NACE RP-01-75 should be followed for design, installation and evaluation of the
results of an internal corrosion mitigation program (see API RP-1111). Where
necessary, internal corrosion may be mitigated by one or more of the following:
Running pipeline scrapers at regular intervals, dehydration, inhibition, bactericides,
oxygen scavengers, and internal coating. The variables and severity of each case
will determine the preventive methods that should be used. A monitoring program
should be established to evaluate the effectiveness of the internal corrosion mitiga-
tion systems or programs. Appropriate corrective measures should be taken when
evaluation indicates that protection against internal corrosion is required. (For assis-
tance in evaluating inhibitors, contact CRTCs Materials and Equipment Engi-
neering Unit in Richmond, CA.)
955 Insulation
Submarine pipeline insulation is rarely required. Heat tracing may sometimes be
added to an insulated pipeline. The following information is from a Joint Industry
Project (JIP) [11]. (The reader is cautioned to get CRTCs Materials and Equipment
Engineering Group and CPTCs Offshore Systems Division involved early in any
insulated subsea pipeline project.) Concrete coating and/or burial provides limited
insulation when required.
Design and Installation of Insulated Submarine Pipelines
Insulated submarine pipelines have been installed in several locations worldwide
since 1973. Most of these pipelines have been relatively short distance lines with
small diameters. There is a trend toward larger diameter and longer length insulated
pipelines driven by the development of offshore oil/gas reservoirs which have less
favorable characteristics (high pour point, waxy crude oil, or wet gas) or are
in/offshore arctic regions.
Because insulated pipelines designed for subsea applications represent an integra-
tion of several specialized technologies when compared to conventional offshore
pipelines, there are some critical areas where present industry experience and tech-
nology are limited. Reference [11] addresses relevant aspects of insulated subma-
rine pipelines and provides a rationale and technical basis for:
Selection of cost effective materials
Establishment of design considerations
Evaluation of installation methods
The JIP addresses the interrelated aspects of corrosion prevention designs, insula-
tion integrity monitoring, damage prevention, and compatible repair methods to
assist in providing guidelines for developing a thorough design and operating
philosophy for use during conceptual/preliminary engineering of specific insulated
submarine pipeline projects.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-99 November 1994
Budgetary cost data are also provided as a basis for evaluating and selecting insu-
lated pipe designs, materials, and installation methods. These data indicate that the
total installed cost for an insulated deepwater pipeline is about double that of the
line without insulation.
Insulated Pipeline Design Concepts
Insulated pipelines generally consist of the following components:
Carrier pipe
Insulation material
A protective casing or jacket pipe to protect the insulation
A corrosion prevention/coating system
A concrete weight coating
Water stops or bulkheads to seal the ends of each pipe joint to prevent water
intrusion at the field joints
Existing insulated pipeline design concepts vary for shallow water and deepwater
applications, with major differences in the design/selection of the protective casing
and insulation materials. Three commonly used insulation design concepts are as
follows:
A polyethylene (PE) or crimped steel jacket/high density polyurethane foam
(PUF) system
A steel pipe/low density PUF system
A rubber jacket/PVC foam system
Typical cross sections for the above design concepts are depicted in Figure 900-26.
A review of progressive technical developments indicates that material selection
and design criteria for water stops or bulkhead integrity and corrosion prevention
vary significantly and in many cases are inconsistent. For shallow water applica-
tions, brush applied bitumastics, butyl rubber tapes, PE based heat shrinkable
sleeves, and polyurethane elastomers have been used for water stops or end seal
coatings in conjunction with a PE or crimped steel jacket. For deepwater applica-
tions (greater than 150 feet) a steel casing pipe is sealed and structurally connected
to the interior (carrier) pipe at each end by either a welded or forged bulkhead.
Corrosion prevention coatings used on the carrier pipe exterior surfaces include
fusion bonded epoxy, coal tar epoxy, polypropylene, and inorganic zinc primer.
Sometimes, corrosion coatings are not used. Although not explicitly discussed in
the literature, all operators and design engineers contacted during the JIP expressed
concern about the lack of commercially available high temperature resistant corro-
sion prevention coatings. This concern is compounded by questions regarding
protective casing and insulation material shielding effects on an effective cathodic
protection system. (The Company has tested high-temperature pipeline coatings.
9
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Fig. 900-26 Insulation System Design Concepts
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-101 November 1994
Results are available upon request from CRTCs Materials and Equipment Engi-
neering Unit; see Reference [18].)
Relevant insulated pipe/tubular design concepts that have potential for subsea appli-
cations are also reviewed in Reference [11]. These concepts include insulated well
casings or tubulars used for downhole or steam injection applications. The appli-
cable experience noted for the insulated casings/tubulars are the welded annular
seal designs and the prestressing technology developed specifically for high-temper-
ature applications. Finally, the review includes insulated and heat traced flexible
pipe.
Insulated Pipeline Installation Methods
Insulated submarine pipelines have been installed by the lay barge, reel, bottom
tow, and mid-depth tow methods. (See Sections 961 and 980).
For offshore insulated pipelines installed to date, there have been no reported fail-
ures of insulation systems during installation or while in service. However,
continued performance of existing offshore insulated pipelines (up to a 30-year
design life) is dependent on the long-term reliability of the end seals and the effec-
tiveness of the corrosion prevention system design.
Companys Joint Venture Experience-Insulated Pipelines
The Company has participated in several Joint Venture Projects which included
insulated pipelines.
South China Sea Offshore Indonesia, Udang A - Operated by Conoco. In
1978, Conoco installed dual insulated 1.1 mile long 8-inch diameter pipelines in the
Udang A Field offshore Indonesia in a water depth of 300 feet. The dual lines
required insulation in order to carry 100 deg F pour point crude oil. The lines were
insulated with 1.25-inch thick, banded 9.6 pcf rigid polyurethane and protected by a
12.75-inch O.D. steel outer casing. The casing is sealed and structurally connected
to the interior pipe by a welded steel bulkhead at each end of the 40-foot long
joints. Syntactic foam was rejected because of its high water absorbency at 150 psi
hydrostatic test pressure and 200 deg F. Installation was by the lay barge method.
South China Sea Offshore Indonesia, Udang B Operated by Conoco. In
1980, Conoco installed dual insulated 3 mile long 12-inch pipelines connecting the
Udang B Field with the Udang A offshore platform. The lines were insulated
with 2.2-inch thick, 3.2 pcf polyurethane foam and each protected by an 18-inch
steel outer casing. Steel end washers were attached to provide a water tight seal and
pressure tested to insure water tightness. Installation was by a combination derrick
and lay barge method.
Insulated Pipeline Study - Santa Inez Unit Development Project - Option A -
Hondo B - Pescado - Operated by Exxon. This study [12] determined the feasi-
bility of designing, fabricating and installing two 20-, 14-, 12.75-, or 10.75-inch
insulated steel jacketed subsea oil/water emulsion pipelines. One of the lines was to
run a distance of about 6.5 miles from the Pescado Platform, located in a 1,082-foot
water depth, to the Hondo B Platform, located in a 1,183- foot water depth. The
maximum water depth along this route is 1,350 feet. The other pipeline was to run a
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-102 Chevron Corporation
distance of 3 miles from the Hondo B platform to Exxons existing Hondo A
platform in a 840-foot water depth on OCS Lease P-0188. A unique feature of this
project is that insulated subsea pipelines have never before been installed in this
depth of water.
Pearl River Mouth Basin of the South China Sea, Huizhou 26-1, Operated by ACT.
Huizhou 26-1 is located in the Pearl River Mouth Basin of the South China Sea at a
water depth of 360 feet. Insulated pipe joints were fabricated utilizing the Snampro-
getti Double Pipe Insulated System.This system consists of concentric 12.75-inch
O.D. and 16-inch O.D. pipes. The pipes are connected using a proprietary tapered
Special Joint Connector at each end and then filled with 3.1 to 3.7 pcf polyurethane
foam. The 12-inch pipe is welded at each joint. PVC was considered but would not
retain its long term insulating characteristics if exposed to high operating tempera-
tures and hydrostatic pressure. Installation was by the laybarge method.
North Sea, Alba Field Development Project. A 1.6 mile bundle carrying a 4.5-
inch O.D. fuel line and an insulated, 12.75-inch O.D. oil export line was installed in
the Alba field, located in the North Sea in a water depth of about 450 feet. Alba
crude does not have a high pour point. Insulation was specified to minimize the
heating requirements on the Floating Storage Unit, FSU. Maintaining temperature
also controls viscosity and results in better hydraulics. Pipeline installation was by
Controlled Depth Tow Method. Both lines are protected by a 27-inch O.D. carrier
pipe.
High Density and Low Density Polyurethane are being considered for the insulation
material. Simulated service tests will be done to verify product applicability. These
include material degradation tests at the 140F operating temperature and water
absorption tests at the hydrostatic pressure of 660 psia. Bundle installation will be
by the near surface tow method. For more information on the above examples and
other insulation projects, please contact CPTCs OS Division or CRTCs Materials
and Equipment Engineering Groups.
Deepwater Flowlines - Wax/Hydrate Study[30]
The purpose of this study is to investigate ways to control paraffin, hydrates and
flowing temperatures in deepwater flowlines/pipelines, including: 1) use of chemi-
cals, 2) internal coatings, 3) insulation, 4) heat tracing and 5) purging.
As an example application of this technology, the report cover letter discusses the
implications for the crude/gas properties found at Green Canyon 205, located in the
Gulf of Mexico in 2,670 ft water depth, and provides a brief assessment. This tech-
nology is also beneficial for shallow water, warm and cold, producing areas, such as
West Africa, The Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Canada, in the Arctic, etc where
wax/hydrates may be of concern for flowlines or pipelines.
Operational experience with wax and hydrate problems in pipelines is presented for
Texaco - Offshore Angola, Conoco - Jolliet TLP, Shell - Gulf of Mexico, Panarctic
Oils Ltd - Canadian Arctic Islands and Exxon - Mobile Bay. The Appendices
include information on insulation materials and a vendors and suppliers list."
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-103 November 1994
956 Flexible Pipe
This section presents an overview of current information of flexible pipe. Addi-
tional information of flexible pipe is contained in API Recommended Practice 17B.
The primary suppliers of flexible pipe are Coflexip and Wellstream.
Application
Flexible pipe is generally used to achieve flexibility with high pressure capability,
in both static and dynamic applications. Typical applications are listed below and
are shown in Figures 900-27 and 900-28.
Flowlines from a subsea completed well to a fixed platform
Flexible pipeline to platform connections in mudslide areas
Flexible spool pieces between a steel pipeline and a subsea facility
Dynamic risers connecting pipelines to floating production facilities or single
point moorings
Fig. 900-27 Example of Static Applications for Flexible Pipe
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-104 Chevron Corporation
Types
Nonbonded Construction. The structure of nonbonded flexible pipe, such as
manufactured by Coflexip or Wellstream, is shown in Figure 900-29. The pipe is
made up of several individual separate layers having no adhesion between them.
Alternating layers may be stainless steel, carbon steel or extruded thermoplastic.
Each layer has a primary purpose such as collapse resistance, fluid containment,
internal pressure resistance or axial tension. Flexible pipe is engineered for a
specific application; depending upon size and paressure rating, all layers shown in
the figures may not be required.
In dynamic applications, adjacent steel layers may rub against one another causing
wear, galling and eventual failure, if the pipe is not designed properly. Coflexip has
supplied that is being successfully used for dynamic applications in the North Sea,
Brazil and Australia. Wellstream has furnished pipe for a few dynamic applications
Fig. 900-28 Examples of Dynamic Applications for Flexible Pipe
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-105 November 1994
in Brazil and Austrailia. Wellstreamss dynamic design provides a thin thermo-
plastic layer between adjacent steel layers to minimize wear.
Typical size vs. pressure ratings are given below for pipe actuallly supplied by
Coflexip and Wellstream. In most cases, pipe with lesser pressure ratings has also
been supplied.
Nonbonded flexible pipe can be manufactured in very long lengths. Limiting
factors for length are the capacity of installation reels and weight of the pipe.
Manufacturers of nonbonded flexible pipe, other than Coflexip and Wellstream, do
not have an established track record and are not recommended at this time.
ID, in. Maximum Working Pressure (psig)
Coflexip Wellstream
4.0 10,000 10,000
6.0 7,500 5,000
8.0 5,000 5,000
10.0 4,500 (built for a dynamic bench test program) 2,000
12.00 2,500
16.00 750
Fig. 900-29 Nonbonded Flexpipe Construction
1. Interlocking stainless steel outerwrap protects
outer thermoplastic layer.
2. Outer thermoplastic layer protects steel struc-
tural components from corrosion; resists abra-
sion and chemicals.
3. Contiguous layers of spiraling steel wire provide
tensile strength.
4. Steel carcass of interlocking, spiraled Z-section
withstands high internal and external pressures,
resists kinking.
5. Inner thermoplastic liner makes the assembly
leaktight, isolates steel components from fluids,
resists abrasion and chemical effects.
6. Interlocking stainless steel liner protects the ther-
moplastic layer from damage by TFL tools.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-106 Chevron Corporation
Bonded Construction. The second type of flexible pipe uses a bonded construction
(see Figure 900-30). One company, PAG-O-FLEX, Germany, is marketing this type
of pipe. The bonded type of construction is generally built up on a mandrel with
helically wound steel wires and a polymer material. After assembly, the pipe is
vulcanized to create a bonded assembly. Some pipes use an inner steel carcass that
is not bonded to the adjacent layer. A potential advantage of bonded construction is
that there is no wear, abrasion or galling of adjacent metal layers during bending.
However, fatigue of wires and delamination between the polymer and the wires is a
design consideration for dynamic applications.
Bonded pipe is only manufactured in relatively short lengths of 50 meters or less,
due to limitations in the size of vulcanizing furnaces.
End Terminations
End terminations are usually built-in during pipe manufacture, but they can also be
installed in the field. The most common type of end termination for flexible pipe is
shown in Figure 900-31. Epoxy is injected into the termination to anchor and seal
the pipe layers. Terminations of this type are done by hand and are very time
Fig. 900-30 Bonded Flexible Pipe Construction
A. STAINLESS STEEL STRIP WOUND INTERLOCK TUBE
B. ELASTOMERIC LINER
C. ANTI-EXTRUSION LAYER
D. HIGH TENSILE STEEL STRAND REINFORCEMENT
E. ANTI-CHAFFING LAYER
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-107 November 1994
consuming. Any common end connection such as API line pipe threads, bolted
flanges, clamp hubs, proprietary connectors, and butt weld joints can be incorpo-
rated into the termination.
Minimum Bend Radius
The allowable minimum bend radius varies by manufacturer; a value of 10 times
the pipe ID can be used for preliminary evaluations. Bend limiters are often
provided at the end terminations to protect the pipe from overbending during instal-
lation and operation.
Temperature Limits
In general, nonbonded flexible pipe uses thermoplastics (usually a nylon
compound) that limit long term operating temperature to less than 200F. Coflexip
has published the following guidelines for use of their standard pipe liner material,
Rilsan [55].
Coflexip is using a fluorocarbon plastic. Floraflon (Polyvinylidene Fluoride),
which they call Coflon, for high temperature applications. They claim that it is
suitable for temperatures in excessof 250F [55]. Industry experience with Coflon
is limited.
Fig. 900-31 Typical End Termination for Nonbonded Flexible Pipe
Description Temp Limit F Estimated Service Life (Years)
Crude with no water 212 10
Crude with no water 194 20+
Crude with 10% water (max.) 194 20+
Crude with up to 100% water 158 10
Crude with up to 100% water 140 20+
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-108 Chevron Corporation
Installation
Flexible pipe is typically laid from a portable reel or reels that are installed on the
back of a workboat. Typically the vessel of choice has been a specially equipped,
dynamically positioned, North Sea pipe carrier, see Figures 900-32 and 900-33.
Pipe is spooled onto the installation reel(s) onboard the installation vessel. Pipe is
paid out over a sheave or steel chute in a catenary shape (similar to a J-lay opera-
tion). Pipe is tensioned by the portable reel. Figure 900-32, or by shape (similar to a
J-lay operation). Pipe is tensioned by the portable reel. Figure 900-32, or by
tensioners, Figure 900-33. Alternatively, flexible pipe can be laid from vessels that
Fig. 900-32 Winch, Chute
Fig. 900-33 Sheave, Winch, and Tensioner
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Chevron Corporation 900-109 November 1994
carry pipe in large carrousels and install pipe in a manner similar to that employed
for long submarine cables.
Coflexip operates two dynamically positioned installation vessels and a third which
will be in service in late 1994.
Performance Survey of Flexible Pipe in Static & Dynamic Service - Final
Report [31]
The objective of this survey was to obtain experience based operator data that
documents the applications and performance history of actual offshore installations
of the various types of flexible pipe in static and dynamic service. The survey was
able to obtain detailed information on actual performance, including both successes
and failures, of flexible pipe in 155 installations in the Gulf of Mexico, the North
Sea, and the Far and Middle East.
In all cases the installations involve flexible pipe in production related applications,
including oil production, gas lift, water injection, etc.
Major conclusions are summarized as follows:
1. The great majority of flexible pipes that have been installed perform as good or
better than expected,
2. The majority of flexible pipes are in static type applications and have been in
service for 10 years or less,
3. The majority of problems with flexible pipe seem to occur during the installa-
tion phase,
4. Costs are the major deterrent against the use of flexible pipe,
5. There are a number of deepwater developments that specify flexible pipe for
one or more applications: This illustrates the overall acceptance of its reli-
ability and long term performance.
957 Cathodic ProtectionAnode Systems
API RP 1111 recommends that the design and installation of cathodic protection
systems should be in accordance with NACE RP-06-75, Recommended Practice
Northern Installer - North Sea pipe carrier that can accommodate up to ten
220 ton reels of pipe or two 1,500 ton carousels.
Flexservice 1 - Ship that can carry up to 3,500 tons of pipe in two carrou-
sels. This vessel has been operating in Brazil laying flex-
ible pipe for Petrobras for several years.
Sunrise - A new build scheduled for delivery in the second half of
1994. This ship will be operating initially for Petrobras in
Brazil. It will have the capability of carrying 6,500 tons
of flexible pipe. Sunrise will be able to lay three lines
simultaneously.
900 Offshore Pipeline Manual
November 1994 900-110 Chevron Corporation
for the Control of Corrosion on Offshore Steel Pipelines (also see the Corrosion
Prevention Manual, Section 1200). Cathodic protection may be provided by a
galvanic anode system, an impressed current system, or both, capable of delivering
sufficient current to protect the pipeline. (In recent years, the Company has used
anodes rather than impressed current systems for offshore pipelines.) The following
items should be considered in the design of cathodic protection systems:
1. Galvanic anode systems should employ only alloys which have been success-
fully tested for offshore applications, typically zinc or aluminum.
2. Galvanic anode systems should be designed for the life of the protected pipe-
line, typically 20 to 30 years.
3. Cathodic protection system components should be located and installed to
minimize the possibility of damage.
4. Design consideration should be given to minimizing electrical interference
currents from neighboring pipeline or structures. (Severe CP problems have
resulted in the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific OCS, and the North Sea where pipe-
lines have caused major deficiencies in platform CP systems where the plat-
form relied on an impressed current system for part or all of its CP.)
5. Design considerations should include allowance for water depth and provision
for the effect of electrical current variation with time.
6. Insulating joints should be installed in the pipeline system where electrical
insulation of portions of the system is necessary for proper cathodic protection.
If practical, these devices should be installed above water.
Det Norske Veritas, DnV RP B401 is an important document for cathodic protec-
tion, CP design in the North Sea. However, the Company is not an advocate of
codes and standards which may lead to high cost pipelines such as this code for
anode design, which is overly conservative and if applied, costs the Company a lot
of money for no apparent benefit.
Materials
Overseas, the Company uses aluminum bracelet anodes manufactured of an
aluminum-zinc-indium alloy. The alloy is typically Galvalum III, manufactured
under license from Dow Chemical Company or Sealloy-150 made by Kaiser Chem-
ical. All steel used in the anode bracelet construction is ASTM A-36 plate. In the
Cabinda field, zinc alloy bracelets were previously used for the larger lines. In the
marsh/swamp where brackish water is found, zinc anodes are preferred for pipe-
lines and are used in Louisiana and Nigeria, for example.
In the Gulf of Mexico, the company uses zinc alloy bracelets, such as manufactured
by American Corrosion Services. The zinc alloy should not include mercury.
Figures 900-34, 900-35, and 900-36 provide selection tables for zinc and aluminum
anodes. When the surface temperature of the pipeline exceeds 120 to 140F,
aluminum bracelets are used. Typically, a system design life of 20 or 30 years is
specified.
Pipeline Manual 900 Offshore
Chevron Corporation 900-111 November 1994
Bracelet anode sizes for weight coated pipelines must be individually calculated
due to the wide range of coating thicknesses. These are usually Special Order
unless the manufacturer happens to have the necessary size mold available. (See
Figure 900-37 for readily available zinc anodes from one manufacturer.) Indi-
vidual circumstances require specific calculations and must include consideration
of:
Variations in soil resistivity due to varying moisture and/or salinity
Water salinity
Pipe surface temperature
Oxygen content of the water
Fig. 900-34 Weight and Spacing of Zinc Alloy Bracelets for the Gulf Of Mexico
Pipe Nom. Size, in. Pipe OD, in.
20-Yr. System
(Weight, lb. @ Spacing, ft.)
30-Yr. System
(Weight, lb. @ Spacing, ft.)
2 1/2 2-7/8 24 lb. @ 530 24 lb. @ 350
3 3-1/2 36 lb. @ 650 36 lb. @ 435
4 4-1/2 36 lb. @ 505 36 lb. @ 335
4 4-1/2 48 lb. @ 675 48 lb. @ 450
6 6-5/8 60 lb. @ 575 60 lb. @ 380
6 6-5/8 72 lb. @ 690 72 lb. @ 460
6 6-5/8 84 lb. @ 805 84 lb. @ 535
8 8-5/8 72 lb. @ 530 72 lb. @ 350
8 8-5/8 96 lb. @ 705 96 lb. @ 470
8 8-5/8 108 lb. @ 795 108 lb. @ 530
10 10-3/4 84 lb. @ 495 84 lb. @ 330
10 10-3/4 120 lb. @ 710 120 lb. @ 470
10 10-3/4 132 lb. @ 780 132 lb. @ 520
12 12-3/4 108 lb. @ 535 156 lb. @ 355
12 12-3/4 144 lb. @ 715 144 l