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SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN AGAMA (P) ALMASHOOR

PULAU PINANG

TITLE OF PROJECT:
BIOFUEL FROM BANANA WASTE


STUDENT’S NAME:
1. HANIS ZAKIAH YUSRA BT MOHD YUSNI 980603075754
2. NAJWA BT MOHAMMAD FADZIL 980905075776
3. NURUL ADILAH BT SAARI 981028075794


ADVISOR’S NAME: PUAN NURUL HIDAYAH BINTI AB RAZAK





ABSTRACT

With increase in the demand of fuels, the prices of coals are increasing worldwide. Hence,
alternative sources of energy for running our daily activity such as cooking are being considered
worldwide. Till now the scientific community is trying to produce biofuels from various sources
such as algae and etc.

Our main objective is to search for a relatively cheaper source for the production of coals and to
develop easier techniques for the production. So the common people can also produce it by
themselves. For this purpose we are taking fruit wastes (banana peels) as a substrate for the
production of cooking gas by mincing and mixing them with soda. The compression of wasted
banana peels are heated to make them into solid. By heating them, biofuel solid can be obtained.

It has various advantages over the traditional fuel as it can be prepared by anyone in their
kitchen. It is much cleaner and better for the environment and releases no toxic gases, hence not
harmful to human yet to health. The waste materials after the fermentation can be used in
the soil as a fertilizer.










CONTENT

Title Pages
1.0 Introduction 1-2
1.1 Background project 1
1.2 Problem statement 1
1.3 Significant research 2
2.0 Methodology / Research processes 3-6
2.1 Design project 3
2.2 Materials and apparatus 3-4
2.3 Procedure 5-6
3.0 Experiment 7
3.1 Data 7
4.0 Result 8
4.1 Implication 8
4.2 Uses 8
5.0 Discussion 9-11
6.0 Conclusion 12
7.0 References 13

APPRECIATION

A big appreciation to the Principal of Almashoor Islamic Girls’ School, Puan Hajah Solehah
binti Awang. We get to join this competition because of her allowance.
We would like to deliver our thanks to our advisor, Puan Nurul Hidayah binti Ab Razak for
motivating and advising us throughout this experiment in order to make it success.
A very thank you to our lab assistant who let us use the lab for the experiment and always
give us cooperation.
Thanks to our parents and friends for supporting and advising us to gain ideas. Besides, to
those people who help us in getting the materials needed too.
Last but not least, a zillion thanks towards the organizer of the Science and Technology
Education Carnival for giving us the chance to present our project that have been done by us.











1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background project
Biodegradable and decomposing fuels, especially those based on renewable resources
from the agricultural industry, are an essential innovation. The produce of ‘BaCoal’ is
one of the alternatives to replace fossil fuels made from natural materials in a safe and
nature friendly. This project also becomes one of the efforts in creating a greener
earth. Biofuels based on banana peels use the benefits of natural fuels and the
availability of raw material and process technology.

1.2 Problem statement
In crude oil contains over 17000 complex substances, which is why the most
important raw material for the chemical industry and fuel production. The fossil is
widely used in the production fuels. Generally, fuels produced from fossil require
fossil supplies that also include coal, petroleum and natural gas. Those substances
have many disadvantages towards living things and environment.

In manufacturing process substance such as coal, petroleum and etc are limited
substances. We are almost half of the oil reserves of conventional sources in the
world, about two trillion barrels. There are about one trillion barrels left, not included
that are burn 32 billion barrels per year. At this rate, it will run at approximate
decades. By extracting and processing, worrying the substances contributes to
environmental pollution, especially to air pollution. A non-renewable resource, which
means that once consumed a quantity, it cannot be replaced. In the long term, this
leads to depletion of these fuels.

This biofuel innovation made from agricultural raw material such as banana peels are
environmental friendly. Therefore, this biofuel to be one of the solutions that can help
preserve the environment because it is easily decompose. Biofuels is indeed already
in the market but most of them did not last long as they are expensive and used from
rare natural substances such as algae. Thus, we come up with a project in which we
focus on the biofuel and at the same time using a low cost.

1.3 Significant research
Biofuel innovation from us also known as ‘BaCoal’ made up from banana peels has
various advantages and benefits towards living things and environment.

First, it is low in emissions. One of the biggest knocks against fossil fuels is that they
give off toxic emissions. Biofuels do not release as much carbon as fossil fuels do,
and because of this, there are fewer harmful emissions out of biofuels.

Next, it is from a renewable source. Being made from organic materials, and even
organic waste, there is practically an infinite amount of biofuels available. We can
grow it ourselves by producing banana, which is currently the product most used to
make biofuel. Not to mention, using waste means we don't need to lose energy getting
rid of our waste, but reverse the process and make sure we get all the energy out of it
that we can.

Biofuel is much safer. Finding these fossil fuels in the earth is dangerous. There is
drilling, mining and other activities that are done to get to traditional oil reserves.
There is not as much danger when you just need to grow the biofuels on a farm.










2.0 METHODOLOGY / RESEARCH PROCESSES

2.1 Design and project

‘BaCoal’ is produced after been heated in an oven for one hour.



2.2 Materials and apparatus
Materials :

Banana peels Sodium bicarbonate






Apparatus :


Laboratory blender Spatula

Laboratory knife Beaker

Filter paper Sieve

Test tube holder electronic balance



2.3 Procedure
1. The banana peels are cut into small piece to make them easier to blend.
2. The banana peels are blended until it becomes pulverized.

3. The pulverized banana peels is filtered using a sieve.

4. 1.0 g of sodium bicarbonate is weighed, added and mixed with the pulverized banana
peels.


5. The banana peels is compressed.

6. The dried mixture is put in oven for an hour at 105 degree Celsius.
7. A natural coal of biofuel is formed.

8. The experiment is repeated by using different amount of sodium bicarbonate such as
2.0 g.
9. The reaction of coal upon heating is observed.





3.0 EXPERIMENT

Data


Observation








Amount of sodium
bicarbonate (g)
Quantity of banana peels Reaction of BaCoal upon
heating.
A 1.0451 3 Burns around 15 to 20 seconds
B 2.0673 3 Burns around 50 to 60 seconds
4.0 RESULT

4.1 Implication
The biofuel from banana peels have many advantages especially to nature. The main
advantage is this biofuel can reduce the amount of waste in our country. Malaysians
are one of the highest fuel consumers in the region where even price increases have
not deterred motorists. Since 2004, we have consume more than 400 litres per capita
annually. To reduce the usage of petroleum in fuels, biofuel that made from banana
peels is the best alternative.

4.2 Uses

Why banana peels?
People usually throw out banana peels everywhere. To decrease the removal of
banana peels, it is better to reuse by making it into biofuel. This is because, banana
peels are easily found in Malaysia yet we do plant banana trees every year. Besides,
‘pisang goreng’ has been a popular food in Malaysia. Hawkers selling ‘pisang
goreng’ don’t use the peels. Thus, we can get banana peels for free without wasting
money.
Why sodium bicarbonate?
Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with
the formula NaHCO
3
. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often
appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of
washing soda. Sodium bicarbonate in combination with other ingredients can be used
to make a substance dry faster. So, the rate of evaporation of water in banana peels is
faster. Sodium bicarbonate is suitable for thermal decomposition.
2NaHCO
3
→ Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
O + CO
2

Above 50 °C, sodium bicarbonate gradually decomposes into sodium carbonate, water and
carbon dioxide. The conversion is fast at 200 °C.

5.0 DISCUSSION

How biofuels are different to fossil fuels?

Advantages of biofuels
 Lower emissions. One of the biggest knocks against fossil fuels is that they give off
toxic emissions. These pollutants, called greenhouse gases, trap the sun rays inside
our atmosphere. This causes global warming. Biofuels do not release as much carbon
as fossil fuels do, and because of this, there are fewer harmful emissions out of
biofuels. However, because plants and trees are the raw material for biofuels and
because they need carbon dioxide to grow, the use of biofuels does not add carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere, it just recycles what was already there.
 Renewable. Being made from organic materials, and even organic waste, there is
practically an infinite amount of biofuels available. We can grow it ourselves by
producing banana, which is currently the product most used to make biofuel. Not to
mention, using waste means we don't need to lose energy getting rid of our waste, but
reverse the process and make sure we get all the energy out of it that we can. This
may be one of the biggest reasons that biofuels are getting more popularity.
 Biodegradable. Biofuels are made out of organic substances, which are
biodegradable. These fuels are much less toxic in the event that something happens
like the oil spills that occur, whether it is the Exxon Valdez spill or the one in the
Gulf of Mexico. These spills are made worse due to the fact that it is oil. If these
spills were of biofuels, they would break down naturally, and the environment would
not be affected nearly as much.
 Safer. Finding these fossil fuels in the earth is dangerous. There is drilling, mining
and other activities that are done to get to traditional oil reserves. There is not as
much danger when you just need to grow the biofuels on a farm.


Disadvantages of fossil fuels
Fossil fuels currently give out various dangerous toxic gases such as below:-
 Benzene. Benzene is one of the largest-volume petrochemical solvents used in the
fossil fuel industry. It is a major component in all major fossil fuel production: oil,
coal and gas. It is a well-established carcinogen with specific links to leukemia as
well as breast and urinary tract cancers. Exposure to benzene reduces red and
white blood cell production in bone marrow, decreases auto-immune cell function
(T-cell and B-cells), and has been linked to sperm-head abnormalities and
generalized chromosome aberrations.
 Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from
oil, coal and natural gas are two primary examples of particle-forming air
pollutants from coal power plants. Particulate matter is known to contribute to
serious health problems, including lung cancer and
other cardiopulmonary mortality. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are both
highly toxic to human health, and contribute directly to thousands of
hospitalizations, heart attacks and deaths annually.
 Petroleum Coke. Petroleum coke is an increasingly abundant by-product of tar
sands bitumen oil processing. It is a heavy dust which resembles coal. It
contains dozens of dangerous chemicals and heavy metals, including chromium,
vanadium, sulphur and selenium. Research on its risks to public health have been
scant, the little research so far is inconclusive. The burning of pet coke not only
poses significant health risks of it is also an egregious contributor to
global climate change. When burned, petroleum coke emits five to 10
percent more carbon dioxide even than coal.
 Silica. Crystalline silica from natural gas is known as human carcinogen.
Breathing silica dust can lead to silicosis, a form of lung disease with no cure.
 Formaldehyde. Formaldehyde produced by natural gas is a carcinogen with
known links to leukemia and rare nasopharyngeal cancers, according to
the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Formaldehyde is highly toxic
regardless of method of intake. It is a potent allergen and genotoxin. Studies have
linked spontaneous abortions, congenital malformations, low birth weights,
infertility and endometriosis to formaldehyde exposure. Epidemiological
studies link exposure to formaldehyde to DNA alteration. It is also contributes to
ground-level ozone.
 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH). Many PAHs from oil and coal are
known as human carcinogens and genetic mutagens. In addition, there are
particular prenatal health risks: prenatal exposure to PAHs is linked to childhood
asthma, low birth weight, adverse birth outcomes including heart malformations
and DNA damage. Recent studies link exposure to childhood behavior disorders;
researchers found a strong link between prenatal PAH exposure and early
childhood depression. Infants found to have elevated PAH levels in their
umbilical cord blood were 46% more likely to eventually score highly on the
anxiety and depression scale than those with low PAH levels in cord blood. The
study was published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.
 Mercury. Mercury produced by coal is a dangerous neurotoxin. It damages the
brain and the nervous system either through inhalation, ingestion or contact with
the skin. It is particularly dangerous to pregnant women and children. It is known
to disrupt the development of the in-vitro brain.
 Radon. Produced by natural gases, it is a colorless, odorless, tasteless radioactive
gas which causes lung cancer. About 20,000 people die per year from lung
cancer attributed to radon exposure according to the National Cancer Institute.
 Hydrofluoric Acid. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most dangerous acids.
Hydrofluoric Acid can immediately damage lungs, leading to chronic lung
disease; contact on skin penetrates to deep tissue, including bone, where it alters
cellular structure. Hydrofluoric Acid can be fatal if inhaled, swallowed, or
absorbed through skin. It is a common ingredient used in oil and gas extraction.





6.0 CONCLUSION

This biofuel from banana peels also known as ‘BaCoal’ will help the community to reduce the
emissions of toxic gases and at the same time our Earth will become cleaner and greener. Thus,
biofuel is recommend to decrease the pollution of air in our country because in the production of
fossil fuels, more polluted air is produce through the process of combustion.

















7.0 REFERENCES

 Research on 10
th
February 2014
http://biofuel.org.uk/advantages-of-biofuels.html
 Research on 11
th
February 2014
http://www.energyfuturecoalition.org/biofuels/benefits_env_public_health.htm
 Research on 12
th
February 2014
http://www.thegreencarwebsite.co.uk/blog/index.php/2010/02/12/biofuel-the-pros-
and-cons/
 Research on 13
th
February 2014
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_bicarbonate#Fire_extinguisher
 Research on 14
th
February 2014
http://www.biofuels.apec.org/me_malaysia.html
 Research on 15
th
February 2014
http://biofuel.org.uk/third-generation-biofuels.html
 Research on 16
th
February 2014
http://gas2.org/2012/02/14/biofuel-plant-converts-fruit-waste-into-alternative-fuel/
 Research on 17
th
February 2014
http://feeds.feedburner.com/oilpricecom
 Research on 18
th
February 2014
http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Biofuels/Turning-Fruit-Trees-into-
Biofuel.html
 Research on 19
th
February 2014
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTZx4eIHbqQ
 Research on 20
th
February 2014
http://civilengineersforum.com/petroleum-advantages-disadvantages/