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YANGON TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING





DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN INDUCTION FURNACE:
COOLING SYSTEM



BY

MAUNG THANT ZIN WIN




Ph.D. THESIS



NOVEMBER, 2005
YANGON






YANGON TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING




DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN INDUCTION FURNACE:
COOLING SYSTEM



BY

MAUNG THANT ZIN WIN



A THESIS SUBMITTED TO
THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR
THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)




NOVEMBER, 2005
YANGON



YANGON TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

We certify that we have examined, and recommend to the University Steering
Committee for Post Graduate Studies for acceptance of the Ph.D. thesis entitled:
"DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN INDUCTION FURNACE:
COOLING SYSTEM" submitted by Maung Thant Zin Win, Roll No. Ph.D. M.7
(October, 2003) to the Department of Mechanical Engineering in partial fulfilment of
the requirements for the degree of Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering).

Board of Examiners:

1. Daw Yin Yin Tun
Associate Professor and Head .
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. (Chairman)

2. Dr. Mi Sandar Mon
Associate Professor .
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. (Supervisor)

3. Daw Khin War Oo
Lecturer .
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. (Co-supervisor)

4. Dr. Sandar Aung
Associate Professor .
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. (Member)

5. Dr. Kyaw Sein
Professor and Advisor .
Ministry of Science and Technology (External Examiner)
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, the author sincerely wishes to express my deep gratitude to
His Excellency Minister U Thaung, Ministry of Science and Technology, for opening
special intensive courses leading to Ph.D Degree in Yangon Technological
University.
Special thanks are extended to Minister Dr. Chan Nyein, Ministry of
Education, for his guidance and kind help, and deep thanks are due to Deputy
Minister U Kyaw Soe, Ministry of Science and Technology, for his advice and keen
interest to produce the cooling system of induction furnace.
The author also wishes to thank Daw Yin Yin Tun, Associate Professor and
Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering, for her invaluable guidance and
helpful suggestions throughout the study.
Associate Professor Dr. Mi Sandar Mon, my thesis supervisor, provided me
with expert guidance throughout the study and the author is deeply grateful for it. She
was very helpful. Also, Daw Khin War Oo, my thesis co-supervisor, supported me
with the helpful suggestions in improving the thesis.
Sincere thanks are then extended to Associate Professor Dr. Sandar Aung, for
her critical review and inspiring guidance. Special thanks are extended to Professor
Dr. Kyaw Sein for his participation in the Board of Examiners of my thesis. His help
and advice are gratefully acknowledged. The author shall not forget Ko Cho Min Han,
who skillfully drew the necessary figures for my thesis.
Furthermore, the author would like to express my heart felt gratitude to my
parents and to all my teachers who taught me everything from childhood till now.
Finally, thanks are to the persons who contributed directly or indirectly towards the
success of this thesis.




ii



ABSTRACT

In coreless induction furnaces, water cooling system is the heart of the
induction coil which consists of a hollow section of heavy duty and high conductivity
copper tubing, and the coil must be water-cooled because of its high temperature
about 78C. The purpose of this thesis is to prevent overheating and damage to the
induction coil due to heat generated by the passage of alternating current to induce the
charge around the coil and heat transferred through the refractory lining from the
molten metal. For this reason, cooling pond system is theoretically designed and
practically constructed for 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace. It is used in two
induction furnaces for the alternative melting in foundry shop.
The calculations of required pond area and volume are carried out according to
the temperature difference between the hot water and cold water. The mass flow rate
passing through the inside of induction coil is mainly calculated according to the
increasing temperature. For 0.16 ton melting capacity of electric induction furnace,
the centrifugal pump, the size which is of 11 kW and pumping capacity 0.69 m
3
/min
is used to suck the amount of water sufficiently. To be a free flow of water, the size of
2.5 inches diameter galvanized iron pipes for inlet and outlet section of water from
cooling pond, and 1.5 and 2 inches diameter polyvinyl chloride plastic (PVC) pipes
have been used for the connection of pipelines to induction coil, capacity bank and
control panel.
Moreover, cooling tower system with induced draft counter flow type has been
designed for the continuous operating time and mass production in the melting
process. In addition, cooling tower is more efficient rather than cooling pond in that
the duration of operating time is limited with its volume. As a result, cooling pond
surface area 1,000 ft
2
and volume 6,000 ft
3
are obtained for 0.16 ton melting capacity
of two induction furnaces. Finally, their influences and operating capacity on cooling
system of induction furnace have been discussed with the recommendations.



iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
ABSTRACT ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF FIGURES vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
NOMENCLATURE ix

CHAPTER TITLE

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Objective 2
1.2 Outline of Thesis 2
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3
2.1 Electric Melting Furnaces 3
2.1.1 Arc Furnace 4
2.1.2 Induction Furnace 6
2.1.3 Resistance Furnace 9
2.2 Operating Principle of Coreless Induction Furnace 10
2.3 Features of Induction Melting Furnace 12
2.4 Energy Requirements and Coil Cooling Energy Losses 13
2.5 Heat Balance of Induction Furnace 15
2.6 Water Cooling System 17
2.6.1 Water Requirements 19
2.6.2 Effects of Water Quality 20
2.6.3 Water Purification/ Maintenance 20
2.6.4 Filtration 21
2.6.5 Effects of Impurities 21
2.6.6 Energy Water Supply and Cooling System 22
2.7 Types of Cooling Water System for Electric Induction Furnace 23
2.7.1 Cooling Pond System 23
2.7.2 Spray Pond System 24
iv
2.7.3 Evaporative Cooling Tower-Open Circuit System 25
2.7.4 Fan-Radiator Closed-Circuit System 26
2.7.5 Water/Water Heat Exchanger Dual System 27
2.7.6 Dual System with Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower 28
2.8 Selection of Cooling System 28
3 FLOW CALCULATION AND PUMP SELECTION 30
3.1 Consideration of Flow Velocity 30
3.1.1 Specifications of Induction Coil 31
3.1.2 Effect of Electrical Resistance in Induction Coil 32
3.1.3 Heat Generation Rate Calculation 34
3.1.4 Calculation of Heat Transfer Rate in Composite 36
Refractory Shells
3.1.5 Flow Velocity Designation 38
3.2 Pump Selection 39
3.2.1 Essential Parameters Required in Selection 40
3.2.2 Selection Procedures 40
3.2.3 Calculations for Pump Selection 44
4 COOLING POND DESIGN 57
4.1 Pond Design Parameters 57
4.2 Conceptual Study for Steady-State Cooling Pond Design 58
4.2.1 Classification of Ponds 59
4.2.2 Equilibrium Temperature and Surface Heat Flux 61
4.2.3 Traditional Model 67
4.3 Design Model Consideration 69
4.4 Design Calculation 72
5 EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM 80
5.1 Cooling Tower Fundamentals 80
5.1.1 Principal Criteria 81
5.1.2 Classification of Cooling Towers 81
5.1.3 Main Components and Tower Operation 84
5.1.4 Cooling Tower Fill 87
5.2 Conceptual Study for Induced Draft Cooling Tower System 89
5.2.1 Cooling Tower Theory 89
5.2.2 Heat-Balanced Process 91
v
5.2.3 Tower Coefficients 92
5.2.4 Factors Affecting on Cooling Tower Performance 93
5.3 Design Calculations 94
5.4 Operation Considerations 99
6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 101
6.1 Flow Velocity Calculation Results 101
6.2 Cooling Pond Performance 102
6.3 Cooling Tower Performance 106
6.4 Process Influence on Tower 107
7 CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND 110
FURTHER SUGGESTIONS
7.1 Conclusion 110
7.2 Recommendation 111
7.3 Further Suggestions 112

REFERENCES 113
APPENDICES 117
APPENDIX A PROGRAM 117
APPENDIX B GRAPHS 121
APPENDIX C TABLES 125














vi



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

2.1. Electric Arc Furnaces 4
2.2. Pictorial Diagram of Coreless Induction Furnace 7
2.3. Pictorial Diagram of Channel Induction Furnace 8
2.4. Pictorial Diagram of Electric Resistance Furnace 10
2.5. Simplified Cross Section of Coreless Induction Furnace 10
2.6. Melting Design Difference between Heel Method and Batch 11
2.7. Heat Balance Diagram of Crucible Type Induction Furnace 15
2.8. A Sample Induction Coil with Cooling Water 18
2.9. Sample of Damaging Induction Coil 18
2.10. Typical Sketch of Cooling Pond System 23
2.11. Sample Spray Pond System 25
2.12. Open-Circuit System with Evaporative Cooling Tower 25
2.13. Fan-Radiator Closed-Circuit System 26
2.14. Dual System with Water/Water Heat Exchanger 27
2.15. Dual System with Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower 28
3.1. Internal View of 0.16 ton Coreless Induction Furnace 30
3.2. Variation of Resistance with the Temperature 33
3.3. Temperature Distribution for a Composite Refractory 36
Cylindrical Shell
3.4. Approximate Relative Impeller Shapes and Efficiency Variations 43
for Various Specific Speeds of Centrifugal Pumps
3.5. Functional Layout Diagram of 0.16 ton Cooling Pond System 45
3.6. Sketch of Flow Branches in Pipes 45
3.7. Pipe Network for Joint E 46
3.8. Sketch of Suction and Discharge Line in Pumping System 49
4.1. Correlation between Pond Number, IP and Normalized 60
vii
Temperature Gradient,
o
v T T /
4.2. Components of Surface Heat Transfer 63
4.3. Example of Plug-Flow Pond 67
4.4. Schematic Elevation View of Completely Mixed Pond 67
4.5. Illustrative Example of Cooling Pond Model 69
4.6. Illustration for the Equilibrium Condition 70
4.7. Heat Transfer Mechanism in Cooling Pond and 72
the Symbolic Notations
5.1. Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers 82
5.2. Natural Circulation Cooling Towers 83
5.3. Cutaway View of Induced Draft Counterflow Cooling Tower 85
5.4. Drift Eliminator used in Induced Draft Counterflow Cooling Tower 86
5.5. Water Distribution System 86
5.6. Illustration of Typical Splash Fill 87
5.7. Illustration of Typical Film Fill 87
5.8. Typical Film Fill Shape and Texture 88
5.9. Process Heat Balance Diagram of Counterflow Cooling Tower 91
5.10. Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram of Air and Water 96
5.11. Toolkit Software Dialog Box 98
5.12. Output Results Comparison 98
6.1. Cooling Pond Performance Curve 102
6.2. Effect of Cooling Pond Configurations 104
6.3. Comparison of Different Temperature Ranges at 107
Constant Water Quantity
6.4. Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram of Air and Water 108
by Changing L/G Ratio
6.5. Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram of Air and Water 109
at the Close Approach Condition
B.1. Skin Effect in Isolated Rounded Copper Tubings 121
B.2. Composite Rating Chart for a Typical Centrifugal Pump 122
B.3. Moody's Diagram 123
B.4. Nomograph of Cooling Tower Characteristics 124

viii



LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

2.1. Induction Furnace Categories 8
2.2. Electricity Use in Electric Melting Furnaces 14
3.1. Specifications of Induction Coil 32
3.2. Pumps Classes and Types 42
3.3. Total Losses for Pipe Sections 50
3.4. Operating Speed versus Required Specific Speed 52
3.5. Pump Types Listed by Specific Speed 53
3.6. Atmospheric Pressures at Various Altitudes 55
4.1. Iterative Solutions of Equilibrium Temperature 74
4.2. Resulting Values of the Water Temperature and the Operating Time 78
5.1. Enthalpy Difference by Using the Numerical Integration Method 95
5.2. Enthalpy Difference by Using the Chebyshev Method 97
6.1. Comparison of Process Variables in Tower Design 108
C.1. Pipe Roughness - Design Values 125
C.2. Resistance in Valves and Fitting expressed as Equivalent Length 125
in Pipe Diameters
C.3. Properties of Water at Various Temperatures 126
C.4. Comparison of Different Roofing Materials 126
C.5. Characteristics of Modern Pumps 127








ix



NOMENCLATURE

A area of pipe line, m
2
A
p
pond surface area, m
2
A
1
, A
i
copper conductor area in general, and for inner area,
respectively, cm
2
a, b regression coefficient
C cloud cover of the sky
C
p
specific heat of constant pressure, kJ/kg K
D diameter of a pipe, m
D
o
outer diameter of induction coil, cm
D
i
inner diameter of induction coil, cm
D
v
vertical dilution
e
a
vapour pressure, mmHg
e
sat
saturation vapour pressure, mmHg
E thermal energy, W
f rated frequency, Hz
f fraction factor
f internal fraction factor
) ( ), (
2 1
W f W f wind speed function for analytical, and empirical, respectively
o
F densimetric Froude number
g gravitational constant
G air loading, kg/(hr m
2
)
h loss, m
h
l
energy losses from the system, m
H enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at the
wet bulb temperature, J/kg
H' enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at the
bulb water temperature, J/kg
H
a
atmospheric pressure, m
x
H
f
total friction-head loss, m
H
n
net heat exchange rate, W
H
p
pond depth, m
H
s
total suction head or lift, m
H
t
actual total head on the pump, m
H
ts
total static head, m
HDU height of a diffusion unit, m
I rated alternating current, A
IP pond number
I
sc
solar constant
k
A
, k
B
, k
C
thermal conductivity for silica lining, for asbestos sheet, and for
asbestos cloth, respectively, W/mC
k
r
water retention rate, m/min
k
T
thermal rate, min
-1

K heat exchange coefficient, W/m
2
C
K
x
overall enthalpy transfer coefficient, kg/(hr m
2
)
K
x
aV/L tower coefficient
l length of copper conductor, m
L liquid loading, kg/(hr m
2
)
L
1
height of crucible, m
L length of flow path, m
m slope of the straight-line portion of the curve
m& water mass flow rate, kg/s
n Julian day number
n
d
number of diffusion unit
N pump rotative speed, rpm
N
s
pump specific speed, rpm
p pressure, Pa
p
s
possible sunshine hour, hr
P
g
power loss of induction coil, kW
q
r
heat transfer rate, kW
Q water outflow rate, m
3
/min
Q
t
total heat transfer rate, W
Q
v
volume flow rate, m
3
/min
xi
Q
T
total volume flow rate, m
3
/min
r pond cooling capacity
r
1
, r
2
, r
3
, r
4
radii at various interfaces, m
R water inflow rate, m
3
/min
Re Renold number
R
H
relative humidity, %
1
,
1 DC
R R resistance at temperature t
1
, and at temperature 20C,
respectively,
2
,
2 DC
R R resistance at temperature t
2
, and at temperature 60C,
respectively,
S heat transfer surface, m
2
S monthly average of the sunshine hours per day at the location,
hr
o
S monthly average of the maximum possible sunshine hour per
day at the same location, hr
t operating time, hr
t
1
, t
2
temperature of the copper tubing related to the resistance R
1
,
and R
2
, respectively, C
t
c
coil thickness, cm
T temperature, C
v
T average temperature difference between the surface and bottom
of the pond, C
o
T temperature difference between the surface and the bottom of
the pond, C

i
T normalized intake temperature, C
v, v
E
, v
i
flow velocity, for joint E and for the inside of induction coil,
respectively, m/sec
V volume, m
3
w pond width, m
W
c
circulating water flow rate, m
3
/min
W
d
drift loss, m
3
/min
W
e
water evaporative loss, m
3
/min
xii
W
m
make-up water, m
3
/min
W
2
wind speed at two meters above the water surface, mph
z, z
E
elevation in general, and for joint E, respectively, m
Z height of cooling tower, m

Greek Letters
1
temperature coefficient of resistance
E
kinetic energy coefficient
coefficient of thermal expansion

proportional factor
c specific heat of water, J/kgC
roughness, mm
kinematic viscosity, m
2
/min
water density, kg/m
3
1
resistivity, cm
latitude of the location, degree
n


net solar heat flux, W/m
2
sn


net solar (short-wave) radiation, W/m
2
an


net atmospheric (long-wave) radiation, W/m
2
br
back (long-wave) radiation, W/m
2
e
evaporative heat flux, W/m
2
c
conductive heat flux, W/m
2
s
solar radiation at water surface, W/m
2
sr
reflected solar radiation, W/m
2
a
atmospheric (long-wave) radiation, W/m
2
ar
reflected atmospheric radiation, W/m
2
o
sc
extraterrestrial solar radiation, kJ/m
2
. day
sc
clear sky solar radiation, kJ/m
2
.day
s
sunset or sunrise angle, degree
declination angle, degree
xiii
Subscripts
a ambient air
atm atmosphere
AC alternating current
b pond number
c copper conductor material
d dew point
DC direct current
E equilibrium
i inlet into the pond
m major
m,i entering water into the coil
m,o leaving water from the coil
n minor
o outlet from the pond
p pond
s surface
sd static discharge head
sl static suction lift
s,1 molten metal
s,2 silica lining
s,3 asbestos sheet
s,4 asbestos cloth
t tower
w wet bulb
1 hot water
2 cold water
1



CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The basic metal melting processes require application of heat to raise the
metals to their respective melting points. The major melting processes available for
foundry industries include electric induction furnace, arc furnace, resistance furnace,
gas furnace and cupola furnace. Among them, the electric induction furnace is
suitable for not only ferrous and non-ferrous applications but also high temperature
melting because of its energy concentration, and installation space is reduced as
compared with other types of melting furnace. Especially, coreless induction furnaces
are used for the various types of metal.
An induction furnace consists of a refractory structure surrounded by high
conductivity copper tubing with the cooled water in which the alternating current is
passed. This current generates a magnetic field that induces a current on the surface of
the metal. The heat generated by this current is conducted into the metal, causing
melting. Heat carried away through the refractory lining due to the molten metal
inside the crucible, and heat generated by the magnetic field (frequency of the power)
and its intensity (power input) inside the induction coil itself, are simultaneously
conducted and reach the water-cooled coil which is wound into a helical coil. Its heat
causes the melting effect to the water-cooled coil. Not to be damaged and not to melt
the induction coil, it is essential for the water cooling system to feed the cooling water
to the coil. There are different varieties of cooling system used in induction furnaces.
Most of the newer coreless induction melting system uses a recirculating system for
getting a great quality of cooling water. To be more efficient and effective, some
foundry industries are using the cooling ponds, cooling towers, fan radiators, and heat
exchangers for operating continuous batch method during the day.
Nowadays, industrial zones are rapidly growing and the demand of coreless
induction furnace for foundry industries is also increasing. In Myanmar, it has the
promising regions for installing and setting up the induction furnaces to produce the
good quality products more efficiently. If the induction furnaces can be built in
foundry industries locally and commercially, it will save cost, and improve the
2
productivity towards the industrialized nation. Thus, the design and construction of an
induction furnace essentially requires careful selection, installation, and maintenance
of the water cooling system. Here, the further investigations of mostly used cooling
system such as cooling pond and cooling tower system are of broad interest to design
more compact and efficient in coreless induction furnace.

1.1. Objective
The objectives of the present study are:
(a) To design and construct the cooling pond system for 0.16 ton melting capacity.
(b) To design the evaporative cooling tower (induced draft counterflow type) system
for the continuous operating time and mass production in melting process.
(c) To support the foundry industries in melting with coreless induction furnace
where the cooling system is an essential part of furnace.

1.2. Outline of Thesis
This research is directed to the understanding of the design and construction of
an induction furnace with water cooling system. The objectives and outline of the
thesis are expressed in chapter one. In chapter two, the relevant literature on cooling
system of coreless induction furnace is reviewed. There are significant differences
among cooling systems. Flow calculation and pump selection of cooling pond system
are described in chapter three. In chapter four, design and calculation of cooling pond
system is presented by using the concepts of equilibrium temperature and surface heat
flux. Theoretically, it describes design processes of the evaporative cooling tower
system (induced draft counterflow type) in chapter five. The results and discussions
on the study with all the problems are presented in chapter six. Finally, conclusion,
recommendation and further suggestions are expressed in chapter seven.
3



CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter covers the literature review of electric melting furnace essentially
required in foundry sector without any calculation for design, and energy
requirements and cooling coil energy losses. Various types of water cooling system
mostly used in induction furnaces are described with the necessary diagrams. Water
related problems and effects of impurities for induction melting system are presented
in this chapter.

2.1. Electric Melting Furnaces
In electric melting furnaces, energy is introduced by radiation, convection, or
induction directly to the metal to be melted. Raw ferrous materials consist mostly of
scrap and some cold pig iron. For this reason, the electric furnace plays an important
role in the recovery and recycling of waste iron resources. In area where an abundant
supply of scrap and electric power are available, the properties of steelmaking via the
electric furnace route is relatively high, because both energy consumption and
equipment investment are substantially smaller than via the integrated route using a
blast furnace and blast oxygen furnace to produce steel from ore.
They are being increasingly used for melting metal and many new and
improved types of furnace have been produced in year by year and installed at
foundries. Electric melting methods are flexible in terms of the metal charged and can
have very high melting rates. Their relative importance and the various types can be
seen in the order of their industrial significance. Electric melting furnaces are usually
divided into three main classes according to the method of pouring the metal from the
crucible, the heating method, and several configurations. They are:

1. Arc furnace
2. Induction furnace
3. Resistance furnace

4
2.1.1. Arc Furnace
Electric arc furnaces are refractory-lined melting furnaces that obtain heat
generated from an electric arc within the furnaces. They are used more extensively for
steelmaking and the other majority of applications, including the melting of gray iron,
brass, bronze and gunmetal, as well as many nickel alloys, because its capacity is
large and production efficiency is high. They are also capable of melting a higher
fraction of alloy scraps. There are two main types of arc furnace, the direct arc and the
indirect arc, as shown in Figure 2.1.

Power lead
Carbon electrodes
Door
Spout
Slag
Metal
Rammed hearth

(a) Direct Arc Furnace


Water-cooled roof
Upper electrode
(cathode)
Water-cooled panel
Eccentric bottom taphole
Bottom electrode
(anode)
Tilting device

(b) Indirect Arc Furnace

Figure 2.1. Electric Arc Furnaces
5
In Figure 2.1. (a), direct arc furnace is so called because an arc is struck
directly between the electrode and the metal to be melted. The electrodes are of
graphite or amorphous carbon, and the furnaces are either single-phase unit for very
small furnaces or more generally, three-phase unit with three overhead, vertically
disposed electrodes suspended over what is normally a bowl-shaped refractory hearth.
Practically all modern arc furnaces are circular in plan, the kettle-shaped
structure with a removable lid, with refractory sidewalls and a domo-shaped roof
provided with holes for inserting the electrodes. The carbon electrodes provide the
current for the process. They are totally removable in an upward direction to allow the
top of the furnace to be removed. The tapping spout is used at the end of the process
to allow the molten steel to be poured from the furnace. During the process it is sealed
to keep the heat in. The operating door on a top-charged furnace is used for making
alloy of slag additions, for rabbling the molten metal and for removing the slag if
necessary. The furnace can usually be tilted backwards to assist this operation.
Direct arc furnaces are either acid or basic-lined, depending on the melting
operation to be carried out. Basic linings are used for steelmaking when sulphur and
phosphorus removal are required and are generally recommended for high-alloy steels,
such as stainless and manganese steels. Acid linings consist entirely of siliceous
materials and are restricted to the melting of cast iron and the production of steel
castings from scrap requiring no removal of sulphur and phosphorus.
The changing process to the furnace is in itself damaging the refractory lining
by both impart and the chilling effect of the cold scrap. The aggressivity to the
refractory lining is further increased by rapid temperature increase during melting,
combined with the attack by slag fluidizers such as fluorspar. Preferential attack of the
refractory lining occurs in the hot spot areas (opposite the electrodes) caused by flare,
and at the slag line, owing to low basicity slags, and high FeO slags, often employed
to aid phosphorous removal.
Indirect arc furnaces are so called because the arc is struck between two
carbon electrodes and is therefore independent of the charge, which is heated
indirectly by radiation. A typical indirect electric arc furnace is shown
diagrammatically in Figure 2.1. (b). The efficiency of heating, melting, and
decarburization in the indirect arc furnace has been substantially increased by
adopting an ultra high-power transformer and an oxy-fuel burner, as well as by
supplying coal power and pure oxygen gas.
6
Cooling the furnace walls and ceiling with water-cooled panels have also been
enhanced, enabling an increase in production efficiency from 80 to 120 ton/h. The
indirect arc furnace offers lower unit consumption of power, electrodes, and
refractories, and both noise and flicker are also lower. The preheating and continuous
charging equipment for scrap decrease the energy consumption because preheating is
carried out by the high temperature exhaust gas, and heat loss by opening the furnace
lid during conventional scrap charging can be prevented. The eccentric bottom-
tapping allows efficient tapping without tilting the vessel, and is desirable for
maintaining the cleanliness of the molten steel, because the carry over of oxidizing
slag into the ladle during tapping can be prevented.

2.1.2. Induction Furnace
Electric induction furnace is used in both ferrous and nonferrous melting
applications. It is also an AC electric furnace in which the primary conductor
generates, by electromagnetic induction, a secondary current that develops heat within
the metal charge. Many small furnaces are being used by the foundry can be operated
in several configurations, including single furnace system, tandem operation, melter
and holder configuration, and power sharing.
In the conventional single furnace system, each furnace body is supplied from
its own power supply. In tandem operation, two furnace bodies (usually identical) are
fed from a single power supply that is switched from one furnace to the other.
In melter/holder systems, an additional small power supply is used for holding
requirements. The power sharing configuration is similar to melting/ holding except
that a single power supply simultaneously provides melting power to one furnace and
holding power to the second. In both these configurations, the two furnaces alternate
in their melting and pouring roles. Metal production can be increased by up to 20
percent with this type of operation presented by Mortimer [1].
The advantages and disadvantages of induction melting systems are:
Advantages
- The system permits but does not require the use of a slag.
- The system exhibits good melt agitation, relatively easy fume control and
rapid heat-up.
- It is not as inherently dusty as electric arc melting, producing only 20 percent
as much effluent dust.
7
Disadvantages
- There is an increased risk of cross-contamination between melts due to
reactions between refractory lining and the metal and also the slag.
- Molten slag is removed by skimming for which the furnace may be opened
releasing fumes and dust.
There are two main types of induction furnace. They are coreless type
induction furnace and core or channel type induction furnace.

(i) Coreless Induction Furnace
In a coreless induction furnace, a water-cooled helical copper coil surrounds a
refractory-lined cavity containing the charge material, as shown in Figure 2.2. An
induced current is produced in the charge material by an alternating current in the coil.
Once the charge is molten, stirring action occurs as a result of the interaction of
currents in the melt with the magnetic field.


Steel shell
Cooling coil
Magnetic yoke
Power coil
Refractory lining
Cooling coil

Figure 2.2. Pictorial Diagram of Typical Coreless Induction Furnace

Stirring velocity increases at high powers and lower frequencies. The amount
of stirring is characterized by the velocity of the molten metal circulation as well as
the resulting height of the molten metal meniscus. Horwath et al. [2] classified three
categories of induction furnace depending on the capacity and melting rate required,
and the frequency of the current supplied as shown in Table 2.1.
8
Table 2.1. Induction Furnace Categories
Frequency Designation Frequency (Hz)
Mains (or line) 50-60
Low 150-500
Medium or high 500-10,000

For melting high melting point alloys, all grades of steels and irons as well as
many non-ferrous alloys, the coreless induction furnace has been widely used in
foundry as the crucible furnace. This furnace can be used for remelting and alloying
because of the high degree of control over temperature and chemistry while the
induction current provides good circulation of the melt.

(ii) Core or Channel Induction Furnace
Another type of induction melting furnace is the channel furnace or core type
induction furnace. The configurations may be horizontal drum type furnace or semi-
drum or low-profile furnace with removable cover or vertical type furnaces. In a
coreless induction furnace, the power coil completely surrounds the crucible. In a
channel furnace, a separate loop inductor is attached to the upper-body, which
contains the major portion of the molten metal bath.


Movable lid
Upper case lining
Back-up castable Cover plate
Insulating brick
Pouring spout
Furnace platform
Upper case assembly
Upper case hearth
Throat
Blasch inductor lining
Transformer
Back-up castable


Figure 2.3. Pictorial Diagram of Channel Induction Furnace
Hydraulic cylinder
Inductor assembly
Bushing
Coil
core
9
Attached to the steel shell and connected by a throat is an induction unit which
forms the melting component of the furnace. The induction unit consists of an iron
core in the form of a ring around which a primary induction coil is wound. This
assembly forms a simple transformer in which the molten metal loops comprise the
secondary component. The heat generated within the loop causes the metal to
circulate into the mail well of the furnace. The circulation of the molten metal effects
a useful stirring action in the melt. A vertical channel furnace may be considered a
large bull ladle or crucible with an inductor attached to the bottom. In Figure 2.3, it is
illustrated that the furnace has insoluble components, such as slag, accumulate over
time in the induction loop or throat area. Buildup on the sidewalls of channel furnaces
is also a common occurrence.
Channel induction furnaces are commonly used for melting low melting point
alloys and or as a holding and superheating unit for higher melting point alloys such
as cast iron. They can be used as holders for metal melted off peak in coreless
induction units, thereby reducing total melting costs by avoiding peak demand
charges. Channel induction melting furnaces have been built with capacities
exceeding 100,000 pounds. Overall required efficiency should be around 75 percent.
Channel induction furnaces have capacities in the range of 1 ton to 150 tons.

2.1.3 Resistance Furnace
The electrical- and heat-resistance reverberatory melting furnace is used for
zinc and aluminum melting. This furnace is constructed with an aluminum-resistant
refractory lining and a structural steel shell. The furnace is heated by silicon carbide
or carbon electrode or other resistance elements mounted horizontally above the both.
Heat is transferred through direct radiation from the refractory roof and sides. The
details are seen in ACMA et al. [3].
Another type of electric resistance furnace uses electric immersion-type
elements. The elements are inserted into silicon carbide tubes that are immersed in the
molten aluminum. Through radiation, the element passes its heat to the silicon carbide
tube. Through conduction, the tube releases its heat into the bath.
To clarify the structure of electric resistance furnace, the example of electric-
resistance ash melting furnace is shown in Figure 2.4 and it uses carbon electrodes
and performs the reduction melting treatment of ash in a fully closed structure. Molten
10
slag and molten metal are separated by the difference in specific gravity and each has
a separate discharge port. Molten slag is discharged utilizing the head pressure.
Power supply
Incineration ash +Fly ash Exhaust gas
Ash layer
Radiated heat
transfer
Molten slag layer
Heat convection
Molten metal layer
Molten slag
Molten metal


Figure 2.4. Pictorial Diagram of Electric Resistance Furnace

2.2. Operating Principle of Coreless Induction Furnace
The principle of operation of the coreless induction furnace is the phenomena
of electromagnetic induction. Many induction furnaces are widely constructed by
using the phenomena of electromagnetic induction. All electrically conductive
materials can be heated quickly and cleanly with pollution free induction heating. A
simplified cross section of a coreless induction furnace with the molten charge and the
crucible lining is shown in Figure 2.5.
It is composed of a refractory-lined container with electrical current carrying
coil that surrounds the refractory crucible. Holding the molten container which is
surrounded by a water cooled helical coil is connected to a source of alternating
current. A metallic charge consisting of scrap, pig iron and ferroalloys are typically
melted in such a container. Electrical current in the coil forms a magnetic field, which
in turn creates thermal energy, melting the charge.


Figure 2.5. Simplified Cross Section of Coreless Induction Furnace
11
Otherwise, the induction (generation) of the electrical current in a conductive
metal (charge) placed within a coil of conductor carrying electrical current is known
as electromagnetic induction of secondary current. The magnetic currents in the
molten metal cause an intense stirring action, thus ensuring a homogenous liquid.
During the melting process, slag is generated from oxidation, dirt, sand and
other impurities. Slag can also be generated from the scrap, erosion and wear of the
refractory lining, oxidized ferroalloys and other sources. It normally deposits along
the upper portion of the lining or crucible walls and above the induction coils. The
hottest area of high frequency coreless induction furnaces is at the mid-point of the
power coil, where insufficient metal turbulence from magnetic stirring occurs.
Two methods or melter are used for operating a coreless induction furnace. In
the heel method (also called tap and charge), a portion of the liquid charge is
retained in the furnace and solid charge material is added. The batch method requires
the furnace to be completely emptied between melts. Batch melting on a large has
become more common for the development of reliable high-power components for
variable frequency equipment and technology that allows utilization of full power
input during the entire melting cycle.
The energy losses associated with holding iron between melts, as well as the
larger overall furnace sizes resulted in high overall energy consumption rates. The
basic design differences between heel melt and batch melt induction furnaces are
shown in Figure 2.6.

Metallic
Charge
Water-Cooled
Induction
Coils
Molten Metal
Heel
Batch Melter
Refractory
Lined
Steel Shell
Heel Melter


Figure 2.6. Melting Design Difference between Heel Method and Batch Method
12
The older power supplies were also very inefficient, with losses approaching
40 percent. The heel was used primarily to help reduce stirring associated with line
frequency melting, and it also required that charges be preheated to ensure that no wet
charges were put into the molten iron in the furnace heel.
As more sophisticated solid-state power supplies with increasingly higher
power ratings become available, the batch furnace increases in numbers. A batch-
melting furnace empties the furnace after each melting cycle, reducing the holding
power requirements. Over time, methods were developed to increase the frequency of
the power supplies, allowing for increased power densities and smaller furnace sizes.
Another inherent advantage of the batch induction melter is that when a
magnetic charge such as solid scrap iron and cold pig iron are melted, the coil
efficiency can be as high as 95 percent, compared to 80 percent when heating the
molten bath in a heel melter. Hysteresis losses associated with induction heating of a
solid ferrous material are responsible for this increased coil efficiency during the first
part of the melting cycle.

2.3. Features of Induction Melting Furnace
In metallic material placed in magnetic field generated by the current in
induction coil of the furnace, electromotive force is induced by the action of
electromagnetic induction, and induced current flows to heat up the material by its
J oules heat. Compared to other types of melting furnace, induction furnace has the
following features:
1. Its heat efficiency is high because the material is directly heated by
electromagnetic induction.
2. No carbon dioxide is produced and little smoke and soot is emitted because
cokes are not used as fuel.
3. Metal loss by oxidation is little, thus little contamination of metal because of
heating without air.
4. Temperature control is simple, uniform composition of metal product is
attained by agitation effect and alloyed cast iron is easily produced.
5. Induction melting is suitable for high temperature melting because of its
energy concentration, and installing space is reduced as compared with other
types of melting furnace.
13
6. It is possible to melt not only steels very low in carbon but also ferrous and
non-ferrous metals because there are no electrodes in arc furnace and
resistance furnace.
7. As the electricity causes heat in an induction furnace, and the molten metal/air
interface is relatively small, off-gas volumes are smaller for induction furnaces
than for electric arc furnace given by A.D. Little [4].

2.4. Energy Requirements and Coil Cooling Energy Losses
The overall efficiency of coreless induction furnaces depends on furnace
operating parameters and factors related to the charge. Energy consumption in
coreless induction furnaces is affected by the contaminants (e.g. rust, sand, oil, water,
coatings) on the charge since these materials contribute to slag formation. Removing
the slag requires additional time during the melt cycle, thereby lowering the efficiency.
About 20 percent more energy is required to melt virgin gray iron in coreless
induction furnaces than using scrap metal. Researchers theorize that it takes a higher
temperature and longer melting time to melt the virgin material to produce carbon.
These differences between virgin materials and scrap have not been shown, however,
for carbon and low-alloy steel. Further details can be found in Horwath et al. [2].
Other variables affecting energy use during coreless induction melting include
the melting method (heel versus batch); power application (step power versus full
power); use of covers; and furnace condition (e.g. hot, medium, or cold). For ferrous
materials, heel melting typically requires less energy than batch melting (in the order
of 5 percent less for stainless steel), as does the use of a hot furnace (about 2 percent
to 4 percent less for gray iron and low-alloy steel compared to cold conditions).
Coreless induction melting furnaces have electrical efficiencies in the range of
76 percent to 81 percent although the efficiency of an inductor is around 95 percent.
Induction furnaces operated in tandem can achieve a maximum electric power
utilization exceeding 80 percent (excluding power plant losses).
About 75 percent of the energy delivered to the furnace is used for increasing
the temperature of the metal. The main source of energy loss is via the coil water
cooling system, typically a 20 percent to 30 percent loss. The above energy percents
are given by ACMA et al. [3], and Smith and Bullard [5].
Other energy loses in a coreless induction furnace come from
- conductive losses through the lining,
14
- heat losses associated with the slag, and
- radiation losses when the furnace lid is open.
Heat losses associated with slag are a function of the temperature and
composition of the slag produced. The heat content of a typical slag in furnace is
about 410 kWh/ton at 1,538C. Unless large quantities of slag are produced, the heat
loss due to slag does not detract substantially from the overall performance of the
furnace [6].
Radiation heat loss from an uncovered molten bath and the bottom of an
opened cover can reach 130 kW for a 10-ton furnace. However, radiant heat loss
caused by iron melting is less than that by aluminum melting. Table 2.2 summarizes
the energy requirements for various types of electric melting furnaces.

Table 2.2. Electricity Use in Electric Melting Furnaces
Electricity Use in Electric Melting Furnaces
(kWh/metric ton of metal)
Induction
[10
6
Btu/ton
a
]
Electric Arc
[10
6
Btu/ton
a
]
Electric-Resistance
Furnace
[10
6
Btu/ton
a
]
520 800
b
[5.0 7.6]
500 550
c
[4.3 4.8]
500 600 [4.3 5.2] 600 825 [5.2 7.9]
Sources: Smith and Bullard (1995), Booth (1996) and Process Metallurgy
International (1998)

a Using electricity conversion factor of 10,500 Btu/kWh.
b Ferrous melting. Medium frequency coreless. When an ancillary equipment
energy use is included, the tool ranges from 550 to 650 kWh/metric ton of
metal.
c Molten, efficient furnaces.

Energy consumption for medium-frequency induction melting is generally in
the range of 520 to 800 kWh/metric ton. The use of furnace covers can reduce
melting-rated energy consumption to as low as 500 kWh/metric ton. Allowing for
holding power requirements and ancillary equipment, overall energy consumption is
reported to be in the range of 550 to 650 kWh/metric ton.
15
With modern, efficient, solid state power electronics, the energy required in
many induction furnaces can be as low as 500 kWh/metric ton for aluminum or iron at
high utilization rates. Energy consumption for electric arc furnaces ranges from 450 to
550 kWh/ton of charge, depending on the scrap type and length of time heat is applied.
For the electric resistance furnace, the only heat loss is through the shell and from
exposed radiant metal surfaces.

2.5. Heat Balance of Induction Furnace
As the induction furnace is operated with the large amount of temperature,
heat balance of the furnace must be understood fully to make the proper decision
about cooling effects inside the induction coil to resist the overheating condition and
power source side such as frequency conversion equipment and power-factor
improving capacitor. Efficiency of induction furnace is expressed as a total, deducting
electrical and heat transfer losses. Heat balance diagram of crucible type induction
furnace is shown is Figure 2.7.
Input
Input
100%
100%
Water-cooled
Transformer
Transformer
(1)
cable
Water-cooled cable
(1.5)
(1)
(1.5)
Bus bar
Coil Inverter
Coil (17)
condenser
(16) (4)
(2)
Bus bar
condenser
(2)
Slag, etc.
Heat conduction
(1.5)
(7)
Heat
conduction
Heat radiation
(4.5)
Total
Total (3)
efficiency
efficiency
Heat
radiation
67%
69%
(2)
(b) Distribution of losses in (a) Distribution of losses in
low-frequency furnace. high-frequency of furnace.
Heat loss (%) is given in ( ). Heat loss (%) is given in ( ).


Figure 2.7. Heat Balance Diagram of Crucible Type Induction Furnace
Source: Energy Conservation in Iron Casting Industry (1998)

In above figure, 100 percent of input energy is used fully in both of these
furnaces; high-frequency and low-frequency crucible type furnace which have
electrical and heat losses. Electrical losses consist of transformer, frequency converter,
water-cooled condenser, bus bar, wiring, cable and coil. Loss in coil is an essential
factor, on which the furnace capacity depends. Heat losses in induction furnace
16
consist of conduction loss of heat escaping from furnace wall to coil side, radiation
loss of heat released from melt surface, absorption loss in ring hood and slag melting
loss. Heat efficiency of high-frequency furnace (69%) is slightly larger than that of
low-frequency furnace (67%). Low-frequency furnace is larger in heat loss
(conduction and radiation) due to long melting time, while high-frequency furnace is
larger in electrical loss (transformer, inverter and bus bar) due to short melting time.
To improve heat efficiency of furnace, the proper decision about the kind of
material, size and shape of charging materials to be melted, melting amount,
connection with pouring line and layout of the melting shop should be made and
adjusted carefully by users side. Induction furnace equipment should be melted with
minimum distance between each of equipment to reduce wiring losses. To reduce the
wiring losses remarkably, it is essential to shorten the distance between furnace body
and power-factor improving capacitor as very large current flows between them.
Moreover, skin effect and effect of agitation are considered to improve the
heat efficiency and induction current flows concentratedly in the surface of material to
be melted. This concentration of current becomes more remarkable as the frequency
become higher, resulting in better heating efficiency. Diameter or thickness of
material to be melted in the furnace may be decreased accordingly as the frequency
becomes higher when cast iron is melted in high-frequency induction furnace, there is
practically no limitation in its size, but in low-frequency furnace when starting with
cold metal, melting has to be started only by the use of starting block. Continuous
melting is to be preformed with residual molten metal.
In the effect of agitation, molten metal is agitated to raise its surface in the
center because molten metal is excited by current opposite to current flowing in
induction coil. Surface of molten metal is raised higher as frequency becomes lower.
So, agitation of molten metal occurs stronger in low-frequency furnace than in high-
frequency. This effect of agitation makes it possible to ensure uniform temperature of
molten metal and its uniform quality as well as to promote entrapment of material
charged and fusion of chemical composition adjusting agents, specially carbon
addition. In this respect, as compared with low-frequency furnace, high-frequency
furnace can be charged with larger electric power at the same agitation degree, which
will speed up the melting and improve the furnace heat efficiency because high-
frequency furnace can be operated with power density about three times larger than
low-frequency furnace.
17
To improve the heat efficiency in operating condition, the following should be
carried out as:
(a) Lower tapping temperature
To keep the tapping temperature lower, it is necessary to take care
throughout measurement such as ladle traveling distance and preheating and
covering of ladle.
(b) Close furnace cover
In practice of furnace operation, especially in case of small-sized
furnace, furnace cover sometimes remains open carelessly. It is important to
train personnel and make necessary preparation so as to charge materials and
adjusting agent regulator as quick as possible.
(c) Required temperature and duration for melting metal
Molten metal should be held, when required, at low temperature, or
turn off power supply. Preparatory operations should certainly be performed
so that there is no unmatching with mold assembly or waiting for crane.
(d) Dust collecting hood
Dust collecting degree and time should be controlled according to
furnace running conditions.
(e) Clean of sand, rust and other dirts
Sand or rust adhered to cast iron or steel scrap may react with furnace
refractory to form slags. Power loss at 1500C is about 10 kWh/ton if slags are
formed about 1 percent in melting of 3 tons iron.

2.6. Water Cooling System
In coreless induction melting systems, water is vital to the success of a
complete operating system. It needs the high quality water to maximize system
reliability and component longevity for the cooling of power supplies and furnaces. In
a coreless induction furnace much of the heat loss by the metal passes through the
furnace lining. Heat is also generated in the power coil or induction coil itself by the
passage of current. To prevent damage and overheat to the coil it must be water
cooled. A sample of the cooling water passing through inside the thick-walled copper
tubing is shown in Figure 2.8.

18


Figure 2.8. A Sample Induction Coil with Cooling Water



Figure 2.9. Sample of the Damaging Induction Coil

Flow velocity and monitoring of all water circuit should be considered for the
cooling of induction coil. Bailey [10] recommended that all cooling-passages should
be designed so that the flow velocity is not less than 1 meter per second, to prevent
any suspended solids settling-out in the system. All complete water circuits should be
designed so that the flow can be monitored, either by open-ended pipes or by
instrument indication. Monitoring with instrument indication may be expensive, but
accuracy is good and reliable for the whole system. Temperature should also be
monitored at each outlet. Flow switches should be provided at each outlet to trip out
the furnace power supply in the event of a failure. The over flow-bucket types are
preferred in an open system.
If the cooling water cannot be sufficiently provided to the induction coil and
the necessary components in some installations such as the frequency-conversion
equipment, the power cables, the control panel and the capacitors, the coil may be
damaged and exploded to the surrounding where the employees will be working
19
inside the foundry shop. Simultaneously, it will affect the productivity, the mental and
physical power of workers and all works of industry. A sample of the damage of
induction coil is shown in Figure 2.9.
Sometimes, it may also be necessary in some installations to cool the water in
the frequency-conversion equipment, the capacitors and power cables. In channel
furnaces the coil and the inductor casing are usually water-cooled. The cooling water
supply temperature should not be below 25C, to prevent condensation on the cooled
components. The upper limit of water temperature leaving the coil should be no more
than 70C, and that from the capacitors and frequency-conversion equipment should
not exceed the value specified by the manufacturers. If too cold water is allowed to
return to the system (cold temperature is defined as water temperature lower than the
ambient air temperature), condensation will then form on the electrical parts and the
coil. The life expectancy of these components is related to their operating temperature
and maintenance.
There are various types of cooling system to support the induction coil,
frequency- conversion equipment, the capacitors and the control panel. They are
installed and constructed in many foundry shops according to the requirements of
installation space, the annual operating costs, the furnace sizes and capacities, and the
environmental conditions, and the area of the industry. The types of water cooling
system used in most of the application for coreless induction melting systems will be
described in section 2.7.

2.6.1. Water Requirements
The quality and quantity of water required to cool a coreless induction melting
system should be specified in the equipment manufacturers literature or quotation. If
a new coreless induction melting system is proposed to be installed in an existing
facility with established plumbing in place, several design factors relating to water
flow and pressure must be considered. Additional water supply must exist within the
plant. Then, there is adequate flow and pressure to satisfy the equipment
manufacturers specifications. The present water quality characteristics do meet the
specifications of the induction furnace manufacturer. The addition of the new system
will affect flow and pressure to the existing and new system may be required. If a new
line is required, it should be designed to eliminate friction losses along with assuring
that there is an adequate supply of emergency water.
20
2.6.2. Effects of Water Quality
There are three detrimental effects of poor water quality in melting equipment
cooling paths are:
(a) The reduction in the ability to transfer heat that leads to subsequent damage to
the components from overheating.
(b) Electrochemical corrosion of tubing.
(c) Degradation of the electrical performance of the melting equipment due to the
water having too high an electrical conductivity.
All of these effects are directly related to impurities in the water scale
formation, fouling due to products of corrosion or fouling due to biological growth.
When this fouling does occur, in order to maintain the same heat transfer, the
temperature difference between the water and the component will increase. As the
fouling continues to build up, the temperature increases and the components fails.
This process is further aggravated by the reduction of water flow caused by the
reduction in the cross sectional area of the path.
Electrochemical corrosion is the deterioration of solids by liquid electrolytes.
In this case, the electrolyte is the contaminated cooling water, which attacks metal
components in the system. Under severe corrosion conditions the components can
corrode or rust in less than a year time. High electrical conductivity is directly related
to the amount of dissolved solids in the water. The resulting problems are the
distortion of the electrical control signals to solid-state devices and the desensitizing
of the ground detector circuits.

2.6.3. Water Purification/Maintenance
The highly de-ionized water has very corrosive properties and it can cause
damage to the induction coils. Corrosion of iron in the piping can add enough iron in
suspension to affect conductivity. Therefore, the newer water systems will usually
include a de-ionizer to main the conductivity of the water at acceptable levels. The de-
ionizers are used to maintain a water conducting level of 50 micromhos/cm or lower.
It is generally accepted that an operational water conductivity range of 100 to 300
micromhos/cm is adequate for operation for the water system.
In a closed water system if the water is not changed periodically a microscopic
organism will develop. This organism will attack the copper surfaces of the water
system and if not addressed will eventually lead to water leaks throughout the system.
21
By removing a hose on the furnace coil and inspecting the inside diameter of the
copper tubing it can be determined if there are microorganisms present. The inside of
the copper tubing will show a shiny black surface and will be very slipping.
Treatment for microscopic organisms can be done by draining the system of all water,
then acid wash the entire system with water. Then refill the system, making sure to
remove all of the entrapped air.

2.6.4. Filtration
Many filtration units have been used with high maintenance requirements. The
centrifugal separator, one of the filtration units, is used in water systems to remove
solids from liquids. Many advantages of using these devices are as follows:
1. No moving parts to wear out
2. No screens, cartridges, cones or filter elements to replace
3. No backwashing
4. No routine maintenance or downtime requirements
5. No standby requirement needs
6. Low and steady pressure loss
7. Easily automated
By removing the solids from the water, the life of the pumps can be extended,
fouling of cooling towers and heat exchangers can be virtually eliminated and allow
for optimum efficiencies.

2.6.5. Effects of Impurities
It is important that there are the effects of impurities in circulating water
system. Typical water impurities affect water quality. High water conductivity can
result in distortion of control signals and it can lead to corrosion of pipe nipples. If the
water is over saturated with calcium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate will form on the
piping interior. This deposited scale will restrict water flow and decrease heat transfer.
The suspended solids can also accumulate in equipment, particularly at low points,
causing clogging and reducing heat transfer. Suspended solids in makeup and
circulating water can be removed by either filtration or centrifugal separation.
Water that contains a high amount of free mineral acid is required. Acidity is
evidenced by effervescence when in contact with carbonate. This makes the water
very corrosive. The measure of pH of a solution is a measure of acidity of the solution.
22
Acid solutions have a pH of less than 7. Other effects of impurities are alkalinity,
slime and algae biological fouling, and dissolving oxygen and corrosion. If the
alkalinity is determined to be in excess, treatment of water with acid may be
necessary. Slime and algae biological fouling can offer and occur in once through and
open circulating systems. It is formed by the excessive growth or accumulation of
lower forms of plant life. Chemical treatment, usually chlorine, may be used for
control of these growths to avoid loss in heat transfer and to minimize biological
fouling on metal surfaces.
Dissolving oxygen and corrosion is accelerated by dissolved gases such as
oxygen, ammonia, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide, dissolved solids and high
temperature. The gases mentioned cannot be removed by mechanical means because
they tend to ionize in the water. The life of electrical conducting components in
induction systems relies heavily on the quality of the water supplied by the water
system. Nevertheless, the selection of a high quality cooling system for coreless
induction melting systems is of prime importance.

2.6.6. Emergency Water Supply and Cooling System
In all coreless induction furnace systems, a source for emergency water must
be used to supply cooling water to the furnace during times when the water system
loses power or has a pump failure. Many water systems are provided with a standby
pump in case of primary pump failure; but in a case where there is a power outage and
the recirculating pumps cannot be run, an emergency water system is the only
alternate source for cooling water. This is due to the fact that both the molten metal in
the furnace and the refractory system have significant amount of stored energy that
must be removed through the recirculating water at all times. Energy transfer to
unrecirculated water in the coil will cause the temperature of the water contained
within it to rise. The temperature will continue to elevate until the water turns to
steam where it will expand in volume.
Since the water is closed, the pressure in the coil will increase until hoses blow
off of the coil and all of the water contained within will be expelled. At this point
there is nothing to remove the stored energy in the furnace and it will transfer to the
coil and raise its temperature to that exceeding the ratings of materials in contact with
it. This will result in a significant expense to the foundry as regards to equipment
damage as well as loss of production due to loss of service of the equipment. In this
23
situation, if possible, there should be a procedure to empty the furnace immediately of
molten metal, thereby eliminating the largest amount of the stored energy that needs
to be removed.
The emergency cooling system should be provided to cool the furnace coil in
the event of power failure. The emergency water should be gravity-fed from a high-
level storage tank, supplied from the mains, and connected directly to the furnace coil
via a check valve that should be opened automatically when the pressure in the
normal, pumped supply falls. The emergency water will flow through the coil to the
buffer tank, and then to the drain through an overflow pipe.

2.7. Types of Cooling Water System for Electric Induction Furnace
Various types of cooling water system for electric induction furnace are as
follows:
1. Cooling pond system
2. Spray pond system
3. Evaporative cooling tower-open circuit system
4. Fan-radiator closed-circuit system
5. Water/water heat-exchanger system
6. Dual system with closed-circuit cooling tower

2.7.1. Cooling Pond System
Cooling pond system is one of the cooling systems of induction furnace
melting. When large ground areas are available, cooling ponds offer a satisfactory
method of removing heat from water. A pond may be constructed at a relatively small
investment by pushing up on earth dike 1.8 to 3.1 m (6 to 10 ft) high. For a successful
pond installation, the soil must be reasonably impervious, and location in a flat area is
desirable. Typical sketch of cooling pond is shown in Figure 2.10.
Hot water inlet Cool water outlet
Water surface

Pond

Figure 2.10. Typical Sketch of Cooling Pond System
24
In many cases, the pond water must be treated with chlorine, thus it is more
economical to use an open loop for the treated water. Acceptable circulation rates
vary from hour by hour for a complete change of water. They should be considered to
resist the corrosive effects of the chlorine in the pond water and scaling or corrosion.
Four principal heat-transfer processes are involved in obtaining cooling from
an open pond. Heat is lost through evaporation, convection, and radiation and is
gained through solar radiation. The required pond area depends on the number of
degrees of cooling required and the net heat loss from each square foot of pond
surface.

2.7.2. Spray Pond System
The hot water from the induction coil needs to be cooled to the desirable
temperature before pumping it. The cooling process is carried out in spray ponds after
which the water is pumped back to the induction coils.
In spray ponds, the exchange of heat between the hot water and ambient air is
performed by conduction process between the fine droplets of water and the
surrounding air. The efficiency of the system is mainly dependent on the relative
humidity of the air. Due to loss of water from the pond, fresh water makes up system
operating on pond level is required.
Spray ponds provide an arrangement for lowering the temperature of water by
evaporative cooling and, in so doing, greatly reduce the cooling area required in
comparison with a cooling pond. A spray pond uses a number of nozzles which spray
water into contact with the surrounding air. A well-designed spray nozzle should
provide fine water drops but should not produce a mist which would be carried off as
excessive drift loss.
The pond should be placed with its long axis at right angles to the prevailing
summer wind. A long, narrow pond is more effective than a square one, so that
decreasing pond width and increasing pond length will improve performance.
Performance can also be improved by decreasing the amount of water sprayed per
unit of pond area, increasing the height and fineness of spray drops, and increasing
nozzle height above the basin sides.
A typical spray pond system with evaporative cooling, which is by far the
most effective factor, is shown is Figure 2.11.

25


Figure 2.11. Sample Spray Pond System

2.7.3. Evaporative Cooling Tower-Open Circuit System
An induction furnace requires a great quality of cooling water, so a
recirculating system should be used to conserve water and save cost. In this system,
water from the furnace coil and, if necessary, the other ancillaries cascades through
the splash matrix of an evaporative cooling tower are cooled by a counter-current of
air supplied by a fan. The water gravitates to a sump, from which it is pumped
through the coil and other circuits before being returned to the tower via a buffer tank.
Simplified schematic arrangement of this system is shown in Figure 2.12.

Figure 2.12. Open-Circuit System with Evaporative Cooling Tower

This type of system has advantages and disadvantages as follow:
Advantages
- Simplicity.
- Low capital cost.
26
- Cooling water with the ambient wet-bulb temperature.
Disadvantages
- Water is lost by evaporation, so that solids dissolved in the system concentrate
and cause electrical conductivity problems.
- Airborne dust and impurities are drawn into the tower and cause corrosion and
fouling problems.
- If the make-up water is hard, scaling can result, reducing heat transfer and
even causing total blockage.
- Cooling towers are temperature and humidity dependent; in conditions of high
temperature and high humidity their efficiency will be decreased.

2.7.4. Fan-Radiator Closed-Circuit System
This system provides an essentially closed-circuit system which prevents
entrainment of dust particles and other atmospheric pollutants. It consists of a heat
exchanger in the form of a fan-blown radiator, a circulating pump, and a buffer tank
to allow for expansion. Schematic diagram of fan-radiator (closed-circuit) system is
shown in Figure 2.13.


Figure 2.13. Fan-Radiator Closed-Circuit System

Advantages and disadvantages in this system are as follow:
Advantages
- Water circuit can be made completely enclosed.
- Loss of water is slight, so expense for water is lower than in evaporative
towers.
27
Disadvantages
- Radiators are large for a given thermal duty.
- Radiator fins are subject to blockage by atmospheric dust, and may be difficult
to clean.
- Radiators are ambient temperature dependent and are less effective in warm
ambient conditions.

2.7.5. Water/Water Heat Exchanger Dual System
This system is shown in Figure 2.14. It consists of two circuits: primary open
circuit and secondary closed-circuit.
1. Primary open circuit _ with cooling tower, circulating-pump and heat
exchanger.
2. Secondary closed circuit _ with furnace coil and other circuits, buffer tank and
circulating-pump.

Figure 2.14. Dual System with Water/Water Heat Exchanger

The primary system supplied cooled water at near ambient temperature to the
heat exchanger, where heat is removed from the secondary circuit and returns to the
cooling tower. The secondary circuit carries heat away from all furnace circuits to a
buffer tank, from which the water is pumped back through the heat exchanger. Its
advantages and disadvantages are as follows:
Advantages
- The water/water heat exchanger is more compact and easier to clean and
maintain than the fan-radiator system.
28
Disadvantages
- A primary source of cooling-water is required.

2.7.6. Dual System with Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower
In this arrangement, the splash system of the normal evaporative cooler is
replaced by a tube bundle, through which the furnace cooling-water is circulated. The
primary water trickles over the bundle against the flow of air provided by a fan, and
so it is cooled at the same time as heat is transferred from the secondary water to the
primary water. Schematic arrangement of this system is shown in Figure 2.15. Its
advantages and disadvantages are as follows:
Advantages
- Water/water heat exchanger is eliminated.
- Piping and pumping costs are lower than in conventional tower with heat
exchanger.
Disadvantages
- Slightly more expensive than conventional tower with heat-exchanger.

Figure 2.15. Dual System with Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower

2.8. Selection of Cooling System
It depends upon:
1. Furnace size
2. Furnace environment
3. Local water board regulations
4. Nature of water supply available
29
5. Local noise-control requirement, particularly at night
6. Cost
To eliminate noise level in a furnace environment, cooling pond system gives
a satisfactory solution. This system reduces the maintenance costs compared with
other types of cooling system. Although it is suitable for small furnaces, the space
available in foundry for pond surface area becomes the major factor for the larger
furnaces. For small furnaces, it is often more economical to use a sample, open
recirculating system with a cooling-tower. For larger furnaces, a fan-radiator system
or dual system with a water/water heat exchanger is preferable. Fan radiators should
not be used in a dusty environment, or where noise is likely to be nuisance,
particularly at night. Noise can be reduced by installing fans at ground level, wherever
possible, and by using foundry buildings to screen the noise. A closed-circuit cooling-
tower may be useful for larger furnace, where it could be smaller than the normal
tower in a dual system.
30



CHAPTER 3
FLOW CALCULATION AND PUMP SELECTION

As the flow velocity of induction coil (power coil) and the feasible pump of
pumping the water sufficiently are the important factors, the considerations and
calculations based on these factors are solved analytically by using the solution
procedures. To obtain the prefect flow rates, pump selection should be carried out for
the cooling system. The required flow rate and pump for 0.16 ton coreless induction
furnace are focused in this chapter by using the equation of heat transfer and fluid
mechanics.

3.1. Consideration of Flow Velocity
To consider the flow velocity inside the induction coil, there are two portions:
heat transfer due to the effect of heat generated by the alternating current and
transferred through the refractory lining from molten metal and heat carrying from
fluid flow due to the pumping device. Before considering the flow velocity of the
induction coil, the internal structure of 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace is shown in
Figure 3.1.
Trunion
Shell
Molten metal Pouring spout
Refractory cement
Crucible
Copper induction coils
Rammed refractory
Tilting bail
Power leads
Water cooling hoses
Stand


Figure 3.1. Internal View of 0.16 ton Coreless Induction Furnace
31
Firstly, the temperature of molten metal in the crucible is approximately about
1,600C according to the melting points of various types of metal. This crucible is
made up of silica lining, which is surrounded by an asbestos sheet, which is again
surrounded by an asbestos cloth. Heat from molten metal passes through the silica
lining, asbestos sheet and asbestos cloth, and then it conducts to induction coil. The
temperature of coil will be maintained at about 78C because of the effect of cooling
water and the high flow velocity.
In accordance with the temperature of molten metal in the crucible, the flow
velocity of induction coil is considered for the cooling system. It should be selected
for the suitable pump corresponding to the designative flow velocity. Flow velocity
may affect not only the service life of high conductivity copper coil but also overall
system of furnace. It is also the main point among the most important design
parameters. Nevertheless, the flow velocity for all cooling passages, especially the
induction coil, should be designed more than 1 meter per second that had been met as
described in the aforementioned chapter.

3.1.1. Specifications of Induction Coil
The design of induction coil is typically manufactured with a copper tube
wound with a carefully selected tubing profile and number of turns on the coil to
match the melting process into the power supply used. It may be either flattened,
round, or elongated vertically [11]. The round section allows the large water passages
within the coil and assures maximum water circulation together with efficient cooling,
but the flatted section permits a higher input per unit of coil height.
The use of heavy copper tubing prevents coil distortion when the coil is
positioned and clamped immovably inside the casing. The power for the coil is carried
in flexible water cooled leads which can be connected either left hand or right hand
side of the coil.
One of the induction coils recommended by low power transmission resistance
is produced from copper material for 0.16 ton induction furnace made in Russia. The
specifications of induction coil concerning with the physical and electrical parameters
are described in Table 3.1. The electrical parameters such as input power, rated
voltage and frequency may be varied throughout the melting and pouring time. The
maximum possible ratings for the specifications of induction coil are also described in
Table 3.1.
32
Table 3.1. Specifications of Induction Coil
Physical Parameters Electrical Parameters
Material Copper Input power 95 kW
Coil outer
diameter
2.0828 cm Frequency 880 Hz
Coil inner
diameter
1.7018 cm AC current 1,500 A
Outer surface area 3.4071 cm
2
Rated voltage 650 V
Inner surface area 2.2741 cm
2
Water inlet temperature 28C (82.4F)
Number of turns 16 Water outlet temperature
54C
(129.2F)
Coil height 46.228 cm Water pressure 2 to 4 MPa
Total length 20.96 m Estimated melting time 1.56 hr

3.1.2. Effect of Electrical Resistance in Induction Coil
The electrical resistance due to the heat generating rate is formed inside the
induction coil itself while passing through the alternating current. It is a measure of
the degree to which a body or tubing opposes the passage of an electric current. The
electrical resistance of high conductivity copper tubing is similar to the hydraulic
resistance of a pipe and it varies directly with the length and inversely with the cross-
sectional area. This relation proposed by Loew [12] can be expressed as follow:
1
1
A
l
R
DC
= Equation 3.1
where, l = length of conductor in direction of current, cm
A
1
= area of conductor normal to direction of current, cm
2

1
= resistivity, cm
The resistivity is also called specific resistance of conductor material which
depends upon the chemical and physical properties and measured in micro ohm-
centimeters and micro ohm-millimeters. Resistivity is always expressed as at the
standard temperature 20C (68F). When the resistivity of copper tubing is known, the
total resistance of its material may readily be computed from its dimension. The
electrical resistance of a pure metal is directly varied with the temperature, as
33
illustrated in Figure 3.2 for the case of copper, and its resistance would be reduced to
zero when the temperature reached -234.5C.

R
2
R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
R
1
T
c
0 t
1
t
2 -234.5

Temperature, C

Figure 3.2. Variation of Resistance with the Temperature

Since the usual range of interest runs from perhaps 20C to a few hundred
degrees above zero, a straight-line law of variation may be assumed for the usual
condition. The resistance-temperature relationship is apparent from Figure 3.2 that the
rule of similar triangles may be applied to find the resistance R
2
of copper tubing at
any temperature t
2
, if the resistance R
1
at some other temperature t
1
, and the
temperature intercept T
c
of the conductor material of copper are known.
From similar triangle,
1
2
1
2
t T
t T
R
R
c
c
+
+
=

1
2 1
2
t T
) t (T R
R
c
c
+
+
= Equation 3.2
In another consideration of this relationship, if the slope of the straight-line
portion of the curve in Figure 3.2 is designed as m, the equation from analytic
geometry may be written as follows:
) t m(t R R
1 2 1 2
+ =
where
1
1
t T
R
m
c
+
= and therefore

+
+ =
+
+ = ) t (t
t T
R ) t (t
t T
R
R R
c c
1 2
1
1 1 2
1
1
1 2
1
1
34
The fraction 1/ (T
c
+t
1
) is usually considered as and is called the
temperature coefficient of resistance. Ultimately, the relationship of resistance
variation in a copper metal with temperature is shown as follow:
1

)] t (t [ R R
1 2 1 1 2
1 + = Equation 3.3
Because the temperature T
c
for copper is 234.5C the temperature coefficient
of resistance can be described as

1
1
5 234
1
t .

+
= Equation 3.4
On the other hand, the calculation formulas of the electrical resistance for
various conductor materials can be seen in electrical handbooks.

3.1.3. Heat Generation Rate Calculation
In the flow velocity consideration, the generation of heat in induction coil with
respect to the electrical resistance is one of the important factors. Paschkis and
Persson [13] studied the common feature in induction heating in which heat
generation is always localized, whereas in dielectric heating the generation of heat
may be uniform. The locality of temperature in the induction coil can be approached
by heat generation rate according to the supplied power, rated voltage and the usage
of frequency. Table 3.1 given by the specifications of induction coil for 0.16 ton
melting capacity will be used for the calculation of heat generation rate.

The area of copper tubing is

2
2 2 2 2
1
cm 1325 1
4
7018 1 0828 2
4
.
) . . ( ) D (D
A
i o
=

=
The resistivity of copper at 20C from Marks [14], cm 7 1
1
. =
By using the Equation 3.1, the DC resistance inside the coil is computed as
003183 0
1325 1
2096 72 1
1
1
1
.
.
.
A
l
R
DC
=

= =
From the Equation 3.4, the temperature coefficient of resistance is calculated
at t
1
= 20C,

00393 0
20 5 234
1
1
.
.

=
+
=

35
Another electrical resistance with the Equation 3.3 is calculated by using the
induction coil temperature, t
2
= 60C which is maintained by the effect of cooling
water. This temperature measures from the operating condition of induction furnace.

00368 0
20 60 00393 0 1 003183 0
1
1 2 1
1 2
.
)] ( . [ .
)] t (t [ R R
DC DC
=
+ =
+ =
AC resistance of induction coil R
AC
is taken from ratio that is read
from the curve for skin effect and proximity effect. The skin effect is the phenomenon
where the apparent resistance of copper tubing increases as the frequency increases.
For round copper tubing, the Figure B.1 of the Appendix taken from Dwight [15]
plotting the root of the ratio, frequency: DC resistance (ohm per 1,000 ft), versus
R
DC AC
/R R
AC
/R
DC
can be easily given to determine the AC resistance R
AC
. To compute AC
resistance of copper tubing, the ratio of coil thickness divided by outer diameter t
c
/d
must be known:
09146 0
0828 2
1905 0
.
.
.
d
t
c
= =
Based on DC resistance (ohm per 1,000 ft),

0535 0
m 96 20
m 3048 0 ft 1000 00368 0
ft 1000

2
.
.
. .
R
DC
=

=


128
0.0535
880
1000
f
2
=
=

DC
R

From Figure B.1 of the Appendix,

68) 1.04(0.003 04 1
04 1
2
= =
=
) (R . R
.
R
R
DC Ac
DC
AC

0038272 0 . R
AC
=
Finally, power losses or heat generation rate of induction coil due to the effect
of electrical resistance can be expressed as follows:

kW 61123 8
0038272 0 1500
2
2
.
. ) (
R I P
AC g
=
=
=
36
3.1.4. Calculation of Heat Transfer Rate in Composite Refractory Shells
In this calculation, a system with cylindrical symmetry and having heat
conduction only in the radial direction is considered as this situation occurs in
refractory shell in electric furnace. From the point of view of steady state heat
conduction, the heat transfer rate through the refractory lining from the molten metal
can be solved by using the prescribed physical conditions of induction coil. The
schematic diagram of temperature distribution for a composite refractory cylindrical
shell is shown in Figure 3.3.

L k
) r / r ln(
A
2
1 2
L k
) r / r ln(
B
2
2 3
L k
) r / r ln(
C
2
3 4


Figure 3.3. Temperature Distribution for a Composite Refractory Cylindrical Shell

Thermal insulations in refractory shell of furnace comprises low thermal
conductivity materials such as silica lining, asbestos sheet and asbestos cloth
combined to achieve an even lower system thermal conductivity. The radii at various
interfaces should be defined as - r
1
, r
2
, r
3
, the temperatures at these interfaces - T
s,1
,
T
s,2
, T
s,3
, T
s,4
and the conductivities of these materials - k
A
, k
B
, k
C
, respectively.
The heat transfer rate of the surface of induction coil is considered at
maximum melting point. In solving these heat transfer rates, all pertinent simplifying
assumptions are carefully listed as follows:
37
1. Steady state conduction.
2. One-dimensional heat transfer by conduction across the cylindrical walls.
3. Using pure metals with the maximum point (1,600C).
4. Supplying the induction coil with the electrical current 1,500 A, AC voltage
650 V, power 95 kW and frequency 880 Hz.
5. Constant properties.
6. Neglecting the interfacial contact resistance.
7. Neglecting the radiation heat transfer.
As the heat flow through the composite refractory shells is considered to be
under steady state, whatever heat enters into a layer at one end must also leave it at
the other. In the calculation of heat transfer, the values for the thermal conductivity of
asbestos sheet, asbestos cloth and silica lining have been read from Phelps [16],
Marks [14], and Kern [17]. From Figure 3.3 together with the thermal equivalent
circuit, the temperature at one side of induction coil is available at 74C measuring the
practical result and the other side is potentially maintained 60C from the practical
measurement owing to the cooling water. Fourier's law expressed in Incropera and
DeWitt [18] is used for the heat transfer rate as follow:


1
3 4
4 3
1
2 3
3 2
1
1 2
2 1
2
ln
2
ln
2
ln
L k
) /r (r
T T
L k
) /r (r
T T
L k
) /r (r
T T
q
C
s, s,
B
s, s,
A
s, s,
r

=

= Equation 3.5
By substituting the desired values: three different types of thermal
conductivity and length and various radii in Equation 3.5, the heat transfer rate will be
given by
.46228) (1.5116)(0 2
/0.194836) (0.1973336
.46228) (5.5189)(0 2
0.193336) (0.194836/
.46228) (7.2663)(0 2
0.12) (0.193336/
74 1600

ln

ln

ln
q
r
+ +

=
According to the calculation,
kW 58.7354 =
r
q

Finally, the heat transfer rate passing through the refractory lining and
insulation materials has been obtained as the amount of heat flowing. Using the result
of heat transfer rate, the flow velocity inside the induction coil will be determined in
the next section.
38
3.1.5. Flow Velocity Designation
In the previous subsections, the heat transfer rates have been computed by
applying the effect of electrical resistance in induction coil and steady state heat
conduction equation for composite refractory cylindrical shell. Now, the total heat
transfer rate will be considered for the designation of flow velocity circulated in
induction coil or power coil. The total heat transfer rate can be expressed as follows:

Total Heat Transfer Rate = Heat Generation Rate + Heat Transfer Rate
and substituting the required value from the previous subsections, it has been obtained
as follows:

kW 3469 67
kW 58.7357) (8.6112
.
Q
t
=
+ =

In case the analytical form of the total heat transfer rate, Q
t
is for 0.16 ton
induction furnace system, heat flow and generating heat are not uniform throughout
the operating condition. Both of these are dependent upon the frequency, supplied
power and current, rated voltage given by operator, and thermal conductivity of
insulation materials changing from the temperature. Assuming the maximum possible
condition in this furnace, it will be continued to solve the flow velocity.
According to the practical measuring result, the inlet temperature or cool water
temperature into the tubing is about 28C and the outlet temperature or hot water
temperature from the tubing is about 54C at the highest melting conduction in
induction furnace. In order to take into account of the flow velocity of induction coil,
Newton's law of cooling will be used for the heat exchange. Accordingly, Newton's
law of cooling for incompressible fluid presented in Incropera and Dewitt [18] may be
expressed as
) T (T C m Q
m,i m,o p t
= & Equation 3.6
where, Q
t
= total heat transfer rate or quantity of heat or heat exchange rate, kW
m& = the mass flow rate, kg/s
C
p
= specific heat at constant pressure, 4.179 kJ/kgK
T
m,o
= the leaving temperature of water from the coil, C and
T
m,i
= the entering temperature of water into the coil, C

Hence, using Equation 3.6 and putting in the desired values, the mass flow rate is
39

kg/s 0.6172
C 28) (54 K J/kg 4197
kW 67.3469
=

=

=

&
) T (T C
Q
m
m,i m,o p
t

From Mott [19], the mass flow rate, m& is related to the volume flow rate, Q
v
by
Equation 3.7
v
Q m = &
where = the density of the fluid, 986.4 kg/m
3
at 54C
The volume flow rate, Q
v
can be driven as follows:
Equation 3.8
i i v
v A Q =
where, A
i
= the inner area of the tubing, m
2
v
i
= the average velocity of flow, m/s
The inner area of the induction coil is calculated as:

2
2 2
m 0.00022746
4
0.017018
4
=

= =
D
A
i
i

Using Equation 3.7 and Equation 3.8, the average velocity of flow can be
solved as follows:

m/s 2.7507
m 0.00022746 kg/m 986.4
kg/s 0.6172
2 3
=

= =
i
i
A
m
v
&

Ultimately, the designation of flow velocity inside the induction coil can be
defined satisfactorily as 2.7507 m/s.

3.2. Pump Selection
When selecting a pump for the application of cooling system in induction
furnace, the possible factors must be considered to be economical and successful
throughout the melting cycle. These factors involve the nature of liquid to be pumped,
the required capacity to be sufficient, the total head on the pump and others.
Especially, there are two pumps used in induction furnaces.
For the induction coil to be circulated with cooled-water, one pump is
operated continuously during the melting process. If the emergency cases such as
power failure and unexpected error occur in the running condition, another pump or
stand-by pump will be used not to be lack the cooled-water for the furnace ancillary
and equipment. Hence the pumps are one of the equipments essential in cooling
system.
40
During the pump selection process, the alternative pumping station layouts
should be developed in sufficient detail so that the cost of pumps over the life of the
project can be determined. The cost of pumps should include the capital cost and the
operating costs which include cost of energy, maintenance, and replacement costs. It
is usually best to consider all types of pumps when developing the pumping station
layout unless it is obvious that certain ones are not applicable. The pump selection
corresponding to the cooling system with the pipe line arrangements should be done
in sufficient detail to follow the process without reference to additional catalogs or
other such sources.

3.2.1. Essential Parameters Required in Selection
The essential parameters required in selection of pumps are summarized as
follows:
1. Number of units required.
2. The nature of the liquid to be pumped.
3. The required capacity (volume flow rate) as well as the minimum and
maximum amount of liquid.
4. The conditions on the suction (inlet) side of the pump.
5. The conditions on the discharge (outlet) side of the pump.
6. The total head on the pump.
7. The continuous or intermittent service.
8. The type of system to which the pump is delivering the fluid.
9. The type of power source (electric motor, diesel engine and stream turbine)
10. Space, weight, and transportation limitations.
11. Location of installation.
12. Environmental conditions.
13. Special requirements of marked preferences with respect to the design,
construction, or performance of the pump.
14. Cost of pump operation and pump purchase.

3.2.2. Selection Procedures
There are various types of selection procedure to use a pump in pumping
system. Chopey [20] gave a step-by-step procedure for choosing the class, type,
capacity, drive and materials for a pump that will be used in an industrial pumping
41
system. Later, this procedure will be used for the pump selection in cooling system of
induction furnace. Solution procedures for any pumping system are expressed as
follows:

1. Sketch the proposed piping layout
In the first procedure, both single-path and multiple-path diagram of the piping
system should be sketched on the actual job conditions. Showing all the piping,
fittings, valves, equipment, and other units in the system and marking the actual and
equivalent pipe length on the sketch are involved in this procedure.

2. Determine the required capacity of the pump
The required capacity is the flow rate that must be handled in gal/min, m
3
/min,
or some similar measure. It has been obtained from the process conditions such as
boiler feed rate, cooling water flow rate and chemical feed rate. The required flow rate
for any process unit is usually given by the manufacturer. Once the required flow rate
is determined, a suitable factor of safety is applied. Typical safety factors are in the 10
percent range.

3. Compute the total head on the pump
The most common way of expressing the total head on a pump is the result in
meter or feet of water. To compute the total head on the pump, the total static head; in
meter or feet, must be considered from the pump piping arrangements with static
suction lift and static discharge head. When both the suction and discharge surfaces
are open to the atmosphere, the total static head equals the vertical difference in
elevation. When the supply source is below the pump centerline, the vertical distance
is called the static suction lift and otherwise, above the pump centerline, is called
static suction head. The total static head, as described above, refers to the head on the
pump without liquid flow. The friction losses in the piping system during liquid flow
must also be considered to determine the total head on the pump. Thus, the actual
total head on the pump is the sum of total static head and total friction-head loss.

4. Analyze the liquid condition
The liquid conditions on a pump-selection should include the name and
chemical formula of the liquid, maximum and minimum pumping temperature,
42
corresponding vapor pressure at these temperatures, specific gravity, viscosity at the
pumping temperature, pH, flash point, ignition temperature, unusual characteristics
(such as tendency to foam, curd, crystallize, become gelatinous or tacky), solids
content, type of solids and their size, and variation in the chemical analysis of the
liquid. Such these data are available from many pump manufacturers or can be
prepared to meet special job conditions.

5. Select the class and type of pump
Three classes of pumps: centrifugal, rotary and reciprocation are generally
used today. Each class of pump is further subdivided into a number of types as shown
in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2. Pump Classes and Types
Class Type
Centrifugal

Volute (or) Radial-flow
Diffuser or turbine pump
Regenerative - turbine
Vertical - turbine
Mixed - flow
Axial - flow (propeller)
Rotary

Gear
Vane
Cam and piston
Screw
Lobe
Shuttle - block
Reciprocating

Direct - acting
Power (including crank and flywheel)
Diaphragm
Rotary - piston

Note that these terms apply only to the mechanics of moving the liquid not
to the service for which the pump was designed. A general guide to the characteristics
of various classes and types of pumps to be used in industrial process is shown in
Table C.5 of the Appendix. This table describes that a centrifugal pump would
probably be best when a large capacity at moderate pressure is required.
It is also needed to be considered all the operating factors related to the
particular pump. These factors include the type of service (continuous or intermittent),
operating-speed preferences, future load expected and its effect on pump head and
capacity, maintenance facilities available, possibility of parallel or series hookup, and
other conditions peculiar to a given job.
Once the class and type of pump are selected, pump selector should be
consulted and adjusted with a rating chart, as illustrated in Figure B.2. of the
43
Appendix, or a rating table to determine if a suitable pump is available from the
manufacturer whose unit will be used. When the hydraulic requirements fall between
two standard pump models, it is usual practice to choose the next larger size of pump,
unless there is some reason why an exact head and capacity are required for the unit.
Some pumps are constructed for custom-built of a given job when precise head and
capacity requirements must be met. In the engineering information of manufacturer;
the characteristics curves for various diameter impellers in the same casing, variable-
speed head-capacity curves for an impeller of given diameter, and other supporting
data are included to be satisfied for the customers. More completed selection
procedures can be found in Church [21], Peerless [22], Dickinson [23], Walker [24],
Stepanoff [25], and Hicks and Edwards [26].

6. Evaluate the pump chosen for the installation
In evaluating the pump chosen for the installation, the specific speed of a
centrifugal pump is important to classify the impellers on the basis of their
performance. It should be checked by using one of the suitable methods. Once the
specific speed is known, the impeller type and approximate operating efficiency can
be found from Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4. Approximate Relative Impeller Shapes and Efficiency Variations for
Various Specific Speeds of Centrifugal Pumps (Worthington Corp.)
Source: Daily (1950)
44
. Then, it must be considered to see if the available net positive suction head
(NPSHA) is equal, or greater than, the required net positive suction head (NPSHR) of
the pump. In addition to the checking of net positive suction head (NPSH), horizontal
or vertical design of pump may be determined. From the stand point of floor space
occupied, required NPSH, priming, and flexibility in changing the pump use, vertical
pumps may be preferable to horizontal design in some installations. But where
headroom, corrosion, abrasion, and ease of maintenance are important factors,
horizontal pumps may be preferable.
Lastly, before making a final purchase decision, all above presented steps
must be checked and determined to be successful for the pumping system. In the next
section, the necessitated pump for cooling pond system used in 0.16 ton coreless
induction furnace will be chosen correctly according to the selection procedures.

3.2.3. Calculations for Pump Selection
In this section, the candidate pump in cooling pond system is calculated by
using the selection procedures for the given application. Calculation mainly involves
the determination of pumping capacity, total head, specific speed and net positive
suction head. Many manufacturers and system engineers currently use computerized
procedures to select a pump that is most suitable for each given application. Such
procedures are simply automated versions of the traditional selection method.
Nevertheless, the calculations for the selected pump must be carried out accurately
and correctly to meet the satisfactory system.

(i) Sketching the Piping Layout
Before selecting the pump, the piping layout diagram is sketched on the actual
job condition. The functional layout diagram of 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace
has been shown in Figure 3.5. The different diameters of pipe are used in the piping
system. The representation of bend or curve on the piping arrangements is illustrated
as fittings such as elbow, valve, sudden enlargement and sudden contraction.

(ii) Determining the Pumping Capacity
Based on the designation of flow velocity inside the induction coil, the
required flow rate for pumping is considered for 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace.
0.16 ton coreless induction furnace in Figure 3.5 consists of two induction furnaces.
45


Furnace No.2
Furnace No.1
Capacitor
Bank Control
Panel
Pump
Discharge Pipeline
Suction Pipeline
Cooling
Pond

Figure 3.5. Functional Layout Diagram of 0.16 ton Coreless Induction Furnace



B Q
2
Q
T



Figure 3.6. Sketch of Flow Branches in Pipes

Q
7
Q
3
Q
5
Q
10
Q
9
Q
11
Q
4
Q
6
A
C Induction Coil
Capacitor Bank
D
Water Cooled Cable
Q
1
Q
8
Control Panel
E Induction Coil
E Water Cooled Cable
46
According to the calculation of flow velocity designation in previous section,
the velocity 2.75 m/s is essentially needed for both furnace 1 and furnace 2 because
the high velocity rate causes the effective cooling. Omitting the frequency-conversion
equipment, induction furnaces, cooling pond, emergency pump and all return pipes,
the connections of pipe lines are schematically shown in Figure 3.6. To determine the
required pumping capacity, the pipe joint A, B, C, D, E and F are defined as node
points. First of all, the pipe from the outlet of pump holding the total flow rate, Q
T
is
in contact with the pipe joint A and it separates into two branches, Q
1
and Q
2
.
Similarly another pipe joints are also to go out in different directions as shown in
Figure 3.6.
Cooling system of coreless induction furnace has been constructed by using
the multiple-path system in the pipe line arrangement. As the multiple-path system
with pipe branches, the pipe flow regime is determined by the starting point of joint E.
Joint E is defined as the junction of the flow rate Q
9
and Q
10
. Pipe network for joint A
is shown schematically in the following Figure 3.7.

(a) Representation of Pipe System with Three Branches (b) Illustration of Flow Direction

Figure 3.7. Pipe Network for Joint E

The general energy equation to each branch recommended by Fox and
McDonald [28] is applied. This equation for the representation of the mechanical
energy per unit mass at a cross section expresses as follows:


L E
E
E
E
h gz
v

p
gz
v

p
+ + + = + +
9
2
9
9
9
2
2 2

0 0 0
0
47
The following assumptions are used in the above equation.
1. <<
2
E
v
2
10
2
9
v , v
2.
1
z z
E

3.
atm
p p p = =
10 9
4. Neglect loss due to flow split at


In the above equation, the kinetic energy coefficient, varies with Reynolds
number. For pipe flow calculations, is often assumed unity because it is reasonably
close to one for large Reynolds number. Hence

E

L
E
h
v

p
+ =
2
2
9
Equation 3.9
To know the corresponding flow rate for branch 8 and 9, it must be used one
of the assuming velocities. For the case of Joint E, the flow velocity of water passing
through the induction coil is known as 2.75 m/s in branch 9. It would be rounded of to
2.8 m/s throughout the calculation.
For branch 9, kinematic viscosity, m
5
10 5.04

=
2
/min at 28C
Viscosity may be changed with temperature and is given by Mott [19]
according to the different temperatures. Using the interpolation method, the kinematic
viscosity is driven at 28C because of the cooled water temperature from the outlet of
cooling pond. Determine the pipe Reynolds number.

4 9 9
9
10 4.2 = =

D v
Re
To find the friction factor, , pipe wall roughness,
9
f
9
is read from Table C.1
of the Appendix.
For leather tubing pipe, = 0.0000015 mm
9

0.0001
9
9
=

D

From Moody's diagram given in Figure B.3 of the Appendix,
022 0
9
. f =
The major is defined as h
m
and is solved by using the following equation given
in Mott [19].
2
168
0127 0
6975 2
022 0
2
2 2
9
9
9
9
= =
.
.
.
v
D
L
f h
m

48
If the valves and fittings are included in pipe branches, the minor loss, h
n
must
be determined with the equivalent length of pipe diameter, Le/D by using the Table
C.2 of the Appendix. There are no minor losses due to valves and fittings in branch 9.
0 =
n
h
Total head loss,
n m L
h h h + =
Substituting the calculating values into Equation 3.9 yields
80055 =

E
p
Equation 3.10
For branch 2,
Similarly,
10 10
96 503 v . Re =
006 0
10
10
.
D
=


0 =
n
h

2 0254 0
1524 0
2
10
10
v
.
.
f h
m
=
and

+ =
0254 0
1524 0
1
2
10
2
10
.
.
f
v

p
E
Equation 3.11
From the continuity equation,
4 42 4 42
0005 0 0212 0 0005 0


8 10 10 8
10 8
10 10 9 9 8 8
10 9 8
. v v or v . v
v . . v .
v A v A v A
Q Q Q
= + =
+ =
+ =
+ =

Using the above velocity relation, one of the flow velocities is assumed to be
substituted in Equation 3.11 and to know the fraction factor. When the calculated
value of / p
E
from Equation 3.11 is approximately balanced to the value of
Equation 3.10, the flow velocities can be determined for branch 8 and branch 10.
According to the calculating result, the velocity v
8
(6.8 m/s) and v
10
(6.1 m/s) are
satisfactorily obtained for pipe branch 8 and 10 with respect to the flow rate Q
8

(0.2064 m
3
/min) and Q
10
(0.1852 m
3
/min).
By using the same solution procedure, the flow rates in each branch could be
determined for each pipe joint. As a result, the flow rate Q
4
is obtained as the value
0.2742 m
3
/min, and the volume flow rate of Q
1
and Q
3
entered into the capacitor bank
and control panel are given the range of 0.1 to 0.2 m
3
/min and 0.1 to 0.25 m
3
/min
49
respectively by the equipment manufacturer. So, the average flow rate of Q
1
and Q
3

become 0.15 m
3
/min and 0.175 m
3
/min.
From the continuity equation,
2 1
4 3 2
Q Q Q
Q Q Q
T
+ =
+ =

Finally, /min m 0.5992
3
=
T
Q
Therefore, the required flow rate for 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace is
sufficiently given by 0.5992 m
3
/min as the pumping capacity. A pump of 0.69 m
3
/min
(182 gal/min), which is larger than the calculated flow rate, capacity would be
selected to be safe for providing flow circulated into the cooling pond. Generally,
many manufacturers may be given for all their equipments.

(iii) Computing the Total Head
To determine the total head on the pump, the unnecessary pipes from piping
arrangement must be omitted on the sketch of layout as shown in Figure 3.8.

0.0127 m (Copper tubing)
L 32.8011 m
Elbow 4 No:
Valve 1 No:
6
0.0254 m (GI)
5
L 2.4384 m
0.0635 m (GI)
Sudden contraction
4
L 11.5782 m
Elbow 8 No:
3
0.0508 m (GI)
L 2.1334 m
Elbow 4 No:
Valve 1 No:
Sudden enlargement 0.0635 m (GI)
2
L 12.1914 m
Elbow 7 No:
0.0508 m (PVC)
L 3.6574 m
1
Elbow 4 No:
Valve 2 No:
Sudden enlargement


Figure 3.8. Sketch of Suction and Discharge Line in Pumping System

In the above figure, the bend or curve is represented by the elbow due to the
small scale-size. Pipe sections are also defined as the number 1 and 2 for suction
50
pumping line, and 3, 4, 5 and 6 for discharge line according to its diameter, length,
usage of valves and fittings, and type of pipe. Gate valve for pipe section 3 and 6, ball
valve for pipe section 1, and 90 long radius elbow for all sections are used in suction
and discharge line of pumping system.
Using the volume flow rate of each pipe line, Reynolds number has been
computed first. From Moody's diagram, friction factor is determined according to
their relative roughness. All major and minor loss calculating procedures are similar
to the determination of pumping capacity. The total losses resulting from the
calculation are summarized in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3. Total Losses for Pipe Sections
Pipe
Section
Flow Rate
(m
3
/min)
Friction Factor
Major Loss
(m)
Minor Loss
(m)
Total Loss
(m)
1 0.69 0.0143 1.6892 3.9199 5.6092
2 0.69 0.0245 3.1613 2.3052 5.4665
3 0.69 0.0256 1.7640 3.7830 5.5471
4 0.622 0.024 2.3899 4.4870 6.8769
5 0.205 0.032 7.1188 0.7878 7.9067
6 0.015 0.022 11.2795 0.3624 11.6420

To calculate the total loss that is considered for each pump selection, the
computerized procedure with MATLAB program given in Appendix A could be
applied. As the continuity, the volume flow rate of pipe section 1, 2 and 3 are equal to
the required flow rate, 0.69 m
3
/min given by the determination of pumping capacity.
Since the water passes through a sudden enlargement or sudden contraction, the
equivalent length is also determined from Mott [19], Streeter [29], and Fox and
McDonald [28]. The kinematic viscosity is based on cooling water temperature (28C)
for pipe section 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and hot water temperature (54C) for pipe section 6.
Now, total friction-head loss, H
f
or the total loss of pipe and fittings for
suction and discharge line computed above is 43.0485 m (141 ft) which is the sum of
each of total losses from Table 3.3. Another consideration of total head is the total
static head, H
ts
that is the sum of static suction lift, h
sl
and static discharge head, h
sd
.
Because the vertical difference between the pump center line and the water surface
level in the pond is approximately about 0.3047 m (1 ft), the total static head becomes
51
as H
ts
= h
sl
+ h
sd
= 0.3047 + 1.5239 = 1.8286 m (6 ft). Note that the static discharge
head is computed between the pump centerline and the pipe outlet with a free
discharge. Then, the actual total head on the pump H
t
= H
ts
+ H
f
. For the selected
pump, H
t
= 1.8286 + 43.0485 = 44.8772 m (147 ft). Thus an appropriate pump
pumping total head 44.8772 m (147 ft) or above these meters must be chosen
correctly for cooling system of 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace.

(iv) Analyzing the Liquid Condition
Water which is pumped to all parts of the equipment is an essential part.
Especially, the water passing through the induction coil is very important to purify
throughout the melting process. Involving solid contents, foreign matters and other
suspended materials in water must be analyzed with the chemical technologies.

(v) Selecting the Class and Type of Pump
For the cooling system of induction furnace, centrifugal pump is selected
because there is a strong dependency between capacity and the pressure that must be
developed by the pump. Other characteristics of three classes of pumps are shown in
Table C.5 of the Appendix. Among types of centrifugal class of pumps, centrifugal
volute or radial flow type should be chosen as an appropriate pump for cooling
system. In actual practice, it has been found that in volute type of casing there is only
a slight increase in the efficiency of pump, because considerable loss of energy takes
place in eddies developed in the casing. Volute type or radial flow based on the
geometry of the flow path is significantly used where a small to medium quantity of
liquid is to be discharged to high head. Moreover, centrifugal volutes are more
economical compared with diffuser or turbine pump because there are no needs as
diffuser ring and guide vanes. This reduces the frictional losses in the pump.
When the required total head, pumping capacity, the class and type of pump
are known, a rating table or rating chart as shown in Figure B.2 of the Appendix
should be consulted to determine the exact horsepower requirement for that point of
operation. For the capacity, 0.69 m
3
/min (182 gal/min) and the actual total head,
44.8772 m (174 ft), the specific Head-capacity point falls above 10 hp (7.5 kW)
contour lines, the higher horsepower (11 kW) is selected in practice. In practice, more
efficiently and safely, the followings are applied for more efficient and safe cooling
system of 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace.
52
1. Total Head 46 m (160 ft)
2. Pumping Capacity 0.69 m
3
/min (182 gal/min)
3. Class and Type Centrifugal Volute (Radial-flow Type)

(vi) Evaluating the Pump chosen for the Installation
As discussed in selection procedure, the specific speed of a centrifugal pump
should be checked by using the flow and head coefficients. Before determining the
specific speed, it is assumed that the motor driving this pump might operate at 1160,
1750, 2900, or 3500 rpm. Note that alternating-current motors can operate at a variety
of speeds, depending on the number of poles. Impeller proportions run at the specific
speed. It is an important parameter for the installation of pump. It may be expressed
by a relation given as Church [21].

75 0
5 0
.
.
s
H
NQ
N = Equation 3.12
where, = pump specific speed
s
N
= pump rotative speed, rpm N
= flow at optimum efficiency, m Q
3
/min
H = total head at optimum efficiency, m
Using Equation 3.12, the specific speed is
computed. For each of the assumed speeds, the calculating results are tabulated in
Table 3.4 as follows:
N . / ) N( N
. .
s
2999 0 160 182
75 0 5 0
= =
Table 3.4. Operating Speed versus Required Specific Speed
Operating speed (rpm) Required specific speed (rpm)
1,160 346
1,750 522
2,900 865
3,500 1,045

The specific speed at each of the various operating speeds is analyzed using
the data in Table 3.5. This table shows that volute and diffuser types of pump are
pointed out the specific speed range below 2,000. In the practical installation, the
specific speed (2,900 rpm) and radial-flow type (centrifugal volute) are selected as the
operating speed at which a pump produces unit head at unit volume flow rate. Fox and
53
McDonald [28] recommended that low specific speeds are produced efficiently by
radial-flow type and high specific speeds are produced efficiently by axial-flow type.

Table 3.5. Pump Types Listed by Specific Speed
Specific Speed Range Type of Pump
Below 2,000 Volute, diffuser
2,000 5,000 Turbine
4,000 10,000 Mixed-flow
9,000 15,000 Axial-flow
Source: Peerless Pump Division, FMC Corporation (1979)

When the specific speed is known, the impeller type and approximate
operating efficiency can be determined from Figure 3.4. From the general relation
between impeller shape, specific speed, pump capacity, efficiency and characteristics
curve, the approximate operating efficiency (65 %) has been obtained at the specific
speed (865) and pumping capacity (182 gal/min or 0.69 m
3
/min). Radial-type impeller
in which the head is developed largely by the action of centrifugal force is selected
and is used for medium and high heads (above about 150 ft) in cooling system of
induction furnace. Under the N
s
= 1000 ordinate, a cross section of impeller, as shown
in Figure 3.4, appear directly and has a relatively moderate discharge area.
Now, the net positive suction head (NPSH) is checked for the given piping
system, to see if the available net positive suction head is equal, or is greater than, the
required net positive suction head of the pump.
Generally, net positive suction head required (NPSHR) is important in
designing a specific pump. In simple terms it is the pressure, measured at the
centerline of the pump suction, necessary for the pump to function satisfactorily at a
given flow. The flow and temperature vary with NPSHR, but altitude is not affected.
It may be measured in a pump test facility by controlling the input pressure.
NPSHR is usually determined by the pump manufacturer for the satisfactory
operation and by running cavitations test on the pump. Typically, NPSHR can be
calculated as follows:

3
4
5 0
1200

=
.
NQ
NPSHR Equation 3.13
54
Using the above equation, 5323 2
1200
69 0 2900
3
4
5 0
.
) . (
NPSHR
.
=

= m (8.3085 ft)
is obtained for the selected pump. In addition to NPSHR, the available net positive
suction head is another parameter which is a characteristic of the system in which the
pump operates. It depends upon the elevation or pressure of the suction supply,
friction in the suction line, altitude of the installation, and the vapor pressure of the
liquid being pumped. Both available and required NPSH vary with the capacity of a
given pump and suction system. NPSHA is decreased as the capacity is increased due
to the increased friction losses in the suction piping. The equation of NPAHA given in
Evans [30] is as follows:
vp s a
H H H NPSHA = Equation 3.14
where, = atmospheric pressure in meter
a
H
= total suction head or lift in meter
s
H
= vapor pressure in meter
vp
H
Atmospheric pressure as measured at sea level, is 14.7 PSIA because it is a
measurement using absolute zero (a perfect vacuum) as base. The height of head is
measured in foot.

Gravity Specific
31 . 2 psi
Head

=
For water it is:
ft 34
1.0
31 . 2 14.7
Head =

= = 10.36 m
Thus 34 ft is the theoretical maximum suction lift for a pump pumping cold
water at sea level. The relationship of altitude and atmospheric pressure is shown in
Table 3.6.
After knowing the atmospheric pressure at sea level, the relationship between
vapor pressure and temperature for cold water is considered from the Table C.3 in the
Appendix. From this table, vapor pressure can be given 1.28 ft at a temperature of
28C (82.4F). It follows then, that total suction head or lift (elevation difference)
from the level of fluid in the cooling pond to the centerline of pump inlet is measured
as negative sign because the pump is above the water surface of pond and it could be
found illustratively in Figure 3.5. Hence it is ready to specify NPSHA. The available
55
NPSH, NPSHA = 34.1-1.28 = 31.72 ft (9.6678 m), is determined at a function of the
station layout and suction water levels. Often a two-foot safety margin is subtracted
from NPSHA to cover unforeseen circumstances. When selecting a pump for the
conditions above, the NPSHR as shown on the characteristics curve of pump or supply
data from pump manufacturer should be 29.72 ft (31.72 2) or less to be operated
satisfactorily throughout the running condition of cooling system.

Table 3.6. Atmospheric Pressures at Various Altitudes
Altitude in feet
Atmospheric pressure
in feet of water
Deduction in feet of water
0 34.0 0
500 33.3 0.7
1000 32.8 1.2
1500 32.2 1.8
2000 31.6 2.4
2500 31.0 3.0
3000 30.5 3.5
3500 29.8 4.2
4000 29.4 4.6
4500 28.7 5.3
5000 28.2 5.8
5500 27.8 6.2
6000 27.3 6.7
6500 26.6 7.4
7000 26.2 7.8
7500 25.7 8.3
8000 25.2 8.8
8500 24.8 9.2
9000 24.3 9.7
10000 23.4 10.6
Source: http//www.pacificliquid.com/pumpintro.pdf

Unless NPSHA at least equals NPSHR at any condition of operation, the fluid
as water will vaporize in the pump inlet and bubbles of vapor will be carried into the
impeller. These bubbles will collapse violently at some point downstream of the pump
inlet (usually at some point within the impeller) and produce very sharp, crackling
noises, frequently accompanied by physical damage of adjacent metal surfaces. These
factors should be considered in the selection of pump. Horizontal type pumps are
more desirable for the applications where the quantity of water to be pumped is large.
56
In the cooling system of 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace, the horizontal type pump
for large quantity of water is used by providing a separate primary system.
According to the above procedures, the selection used in cooling system of
0.16 ton coreless induction furnace has been satisfactorily solved with step-by-step
solution. Moreover, one should consult with experienced system engineers to verify
that the system operating condition has been predicted accurately and the required
pump has been selected correctly.



57



CHAPTER 4
COOLING POND DESIGN

The design model consideration and design calculation of steady state cooling
pond system required in 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace is the focus matter of this
chapter. A few details of the conceptual study of cooling pond based on the solar heat
flux and the equilibrium temperature are covered. The amount of solar heat flux relies
on the meteorological conditions which are varied throughout the day. Hence, while
dealing with the above topics, emphasis will be on cooling pond. The commonly used
pond types are classified according to the degree of pond stratification (normalized
temperature gradient) and the pond number.

4.1. Pond Design Parameters
When designing the cooling pond for the application of induction furnace, the
following factors must be mainly considered:
1. The hot water or inlet temperature into the pond
2. The cool water or outlet temperature from the pond
3. The operating time occupied in melting and number of heats
4. The solar heat flux or solar energy identified as the main heating mechanisms
5. The pond volume and size corresponding to the equilibrium temperature
The hot water into the pond is characterized by the temperature at the total
outlet of induction coil, control panel and capacitor bank. The outlet temperature of
control panel and capacitor bank specified by the manufacturers is much lower than
the outlet temperature of induction coil. It may be neglected in the consideration of
total hot water outlet temperature into the pond, but the outlet temperature of
induction coil should be examined as an important design parameter.
The cool water temperature from the pond should not be below 25C (77F)
recommended by Bailey [10] which has been discussed in the aforementioned
chapter. To obtain the required cooled-water temperature, it is largely concerned on
the capability of the pond to dissipate waste heat. A cooling pond should also damp
out transient temperature fluctuations which arise due to the diurnal cycling or other
58
changes in meteorological conditions. On the other hand, the temperature of the inlet
and outlet for cooling pond usually depends on the operating time according to the
most economical production. Thus the operating time must be obeyed as the criterion
of design parameter.
Another parameter is solar heat flux or solar energy identified as the main
heating mechanism for pond. The major cooling mechanism is evaporation, but
convective cooling to the atmosphere is less significant. Net solar radiation can also
account for a significant amount of cooling during night hours. Conductive heat
transfer to the ground and pond wall is generally a relatively insignificant process, and
it can be neglected. The amount of solar radiation greatly affects the equilibrium
temperature, but variation of the amount is usually not known very accurately
throughout the day. The equilibrium temperature at which there is no net heat
exchange between the atmosphere and the water will be discussed in the next section.
Based on the above parameters, the volume and size of the circulating cooling
pond can be determined for 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace before constructing.
For studying the performance of a cooling pond, it is found that in the heat exchanges
occurring in the volume and on the pond surface area, and their influence on climatic
fluctuations of location, summarily, the cooling ponds are sized and selected based on
the requirement of cooling water supply temperature, the entering temperature into the
pond, the number of melting time, solar heat flux received on the pond surface, land
utilization and other economical considerations as well as constraints imposed by
system components.

4.2. Conceptual Study for Steady-State Cooling Pond Design
Generally, the conceptual study before designing and constructing the pond is
important for the designer who faces with the problem of land area requirements and
high investment costs, especially when diking is necessary. The cost of pond
construction and the available water supply dictate that the pond should be built as
small as possible. Maximizing the heat transfer from the pond surface, damping
transient fluctuations and building a pond as small and as cheaply as possible should
be aimed for the designer as the primary emphasis of conceptual study. In order to
understand the basic hydrodynamic concepts of various cooling pond configurations
as well as to provide the preliminary information to the designer of a cooling pond on
the effects of pond volume and size, the water flow rate, the inlet and outlet
59
temperature, some simple, the studies for steady-state cooling pond design are
reviewed here. Before discussing, however, an understanding of the classification of
ponds is necessary.

4.2.1. Classification of Ponds
Harleman et al. [31] classified as deep or shallow pond on their experimental
investigation of emergency heat releases from floating nuclear power plants. This
classification is dependent not only on the actual pond depth, but upon pond shape
and size, the temperature rise in the pond, the flow rate, and the degree of mixing
temperature at the pond entrance.
Deep or shallow ponds are also distinguished by thermal stratification which a
thin buoyant layer of heated effluent floats upon a cooler reservoir. The heated upper
layer which is vertically isothermal exhibits only horizontal temperature gradients due
to surface cooling while deep reservoir the temperature gradients, if any, are vertical
and isotherms horizontal. The above saying from the laboratory temperature profiles
is given by Cerco [32].
Hence the classified pond between deep and shallow may be expressed as the
degree of pond stratification. The distinction of pond stratification may be quantified
in several ways. A simple measure of stratification on pond temperature is shown as
the normalized temperature gradient
o
v T T / where v T is the average temperature
difference between the surface and bottom of the pond and
o
T is the temperature
difference between the pond inflow and outflow. This is related to a parameter which
is also called pond number, IP, defined by Harleman et al. [31]. Pond number is
calculated from the relation.

4
1
2 4
3 2
4


=
w gH T
L D Q f
IP
p o
v

Equation 4.1
where, =internal fraction factor, f
Q =water flow rate, ft
3
/ min
D
v
=vertical dilution,
L' =length of flow path, ft
=coefficient of thermal expansion, 0.115
g =gravitational constant, 3.4410
-8
ft
4
/ lb. sec
4
60
H
p
=pond depth, ft
w =pond width, ft
A correction between pond number, IP and the normalized temperature
gradient
o
v T T / is shown in Figure 4.1.



o
v
T
T

4
1
2 4
3 2
4


=
w gH T
L D Q f
IP
p o
v


Figure 4.1. Correlation between Pond Number, IP and Normalized
Temperature Gradient,
o
v T T /
Source: Cerco (1977)

Vertical dilution, D
v
may be calculated from J irka et al. [33] and expressed in
terms of discharge densimetric Froude number,
o
F as follows:
) 1 ( 2 . 1 1 + =
o v
F D Equation 4.2
The value of D
v
, 1.5 investigated in Ryan and Harleman [34] is taken as the
minimum which can be attained in a deep pond.

61
(i) Deep Pond
The criterion of the deep pond is 3 . 0 IP and it is a desirable configuration in
two respects. Firstly, the heated water in all parts of the pond spread out the buoyancy
of the surface layer, insuring that the entire surface area is effectively utilized for heat
dissipation. Secondly, the deep pond is isolated from diurnal and short-term surface
temperature fluctuations and responds only to long term meteorological variations
with time scales on the order of the cooling pond residence time. Therefore, it has
high thermal inertia that is the capability of a pond to damp out the highly desirable
transient conditions. Deep ponds are usually constructed by damming a river or
stream creating an artificial impoundment for the electric generating plants.

(ii) Shallow Pond
Shallow pond is defined as having a pond number, and it has the
advantage of being free from temperature regulations if constructed off-stream. Based
on the degree of stratification, shallow ponds may be further subdivided into partially
stratified or vertically well-mixed. Partially stratified ponds exhibit slanted isotherms
in a longitudinal cross-section and are characterized by having surface temperatures
warmer than the underlying water. Vertically well-mixed ponds exhibit vertical
isotherms and are characterized by uniform temperatures from surface to bottom at
any location. Cooling pond used for the induction furnaces may be either partially
stratified or vertically well-mixed. In shallow ponds, it does not predominate the
buoyancy currents as in deep pond. The internal baffles are frequently used in an
attempt to direct the throughflow to all portions of the pond.
3 . 0 IP

4.2.2. Equilibrium Temperature and Surface Heat Flux
Equilibrium temperature, defined by Cerco [32], is the theoretical temperature
of a natural water body at which incoming heat fluxes due to solar and atmospheric
radiation are exactly balanced by outward fluxes due to evaporation, back radiation,
and conduction. Most methods proposed to determine T
E
are iterative. It may be
calculated iteratively by the method of Ryan and Harleman [34] as

) . ( ) W ( f
] T . T )[ W ( f
T
a d sc
E
255 0 23
1600 255 0
2
2
+ +
+ +
=


Equation 4.3
where,
sc
=the clear sky solar radiation, Btu/(day.ft
2
)
62
=the proportionality factor

=the dew point temperature of the air, F


d
T

The wind speed function,
2 2
14W ) W ( f = , is used in the calculation of
equilibrium temperature. W
2
is the wind speed in mph measured at two meters above
the water surface. To iterate the equilibrium temperature, the proportionality factor is
computed by using the following formula.

2
2
000204 0
2
0085 0 255 0

+
+


=
d E d E
T T
.
T T
. . Equation 4.4
Equilibrium temperature is obtained recursively by assuming a value T
E
,
calculating by Equation 4.4, and then calculating a new T

E
via Equation 4.3. The
new value of T
E
is used to obtain a new until the T

E
obtained from Equation 4.3
matches the value used in the previous iteration.
When the equilibrium temperature is obtained, the heat exchange coefficient,
K related to the pond surface temperature, T
s
and net solar heat flux into the pond
surface,
n
, may be calculated from the relation.

) (
E s
n
T T
K

=

Equation 4.5
At this equation, the net heat flux into the water surface is a non-linear and
non-uniform process. The techniques and algorithms to model the net heat flux
through the surface of a water body and the transfer of heat across the water surface
have been well established in the most comprehensive references which are Ryan and
Harleman [34], and Edinger et al. [35].
There are two basic methods to compute the net heat transfer: the complete
heat budget and the linearized heat exchange method. The heat budget technique is
more accurate than the linearized method based on the equilibrium temperature and
surface heat exchange coefficient. In the calculation, an emphasis on the heat budget
technique in surface water bodies is applied for the separate calculation of the
individual heat flux components. Another method can be found in Shanahan [36].
Surface heat flux consisting of the five radiations and heat flux components is
illustrated in Figure 4.2.
63

sc

br
c
e

Figure 4.2. Components of Surface Heat Transfer

The sum five components to arrive at the net surface heat flux are given by
Shanahan [36] as follows:
c e br an sn n
+ = Equation 4.6
where,
n
=the net heat flux into the water surface,

sn
=the net solar (short-wave) radiation into the water surface,

an
=the net atmospheric (long-wave) radiation from the water surface,

br
=the back (long-wave) radiation from the water surface,

e
=the evaporative heat flux from the water surface,

c
=the conductive heat flux from the water surface, and
From Figure 4.2,
sc
=the clear sky solar (short-wave) radiation,

s
=the solar radiation at water surface,

sr
=the reflected solar radiation,

a
=the atmospheric (long-wave) radiation, and

ar
=the reflected atmospheric radiation
All heat flux components have the English system units of Btu/(day.ft
2
). To
change the unit in surface heat transfer calculations, the relationship (1 Btu/day.ft
2
=
0.0131 W/m
2
) can be used because it is hardly completed for hand calculations.
In Figure 4.2, the net solar radiation into the water surface is the incoming
radiation from the sun, less that absorbed or scattered in the atmosphere, blocked by
clouds and reflected at the water surface. The best solar radiation information is
predicted from measurements at the site, however these are usually unavailable. If
there is not required measuring instrument, calculations should be done based on the
solar radiation. The clear sky solar radiation suggested to Ryan and Harleman [34]

s

sr

ar
a

sn

an
64
from the empirical information is computed by accounting for reflectance and cloud
cover as follows:

sn
) 65 . 0 1 ( 94 . 0
2
C
sc
= Equation 4.7
raction of the sky covere
r number of
nths)

where, C =the f d by clouds (express as fraction)
The cloud cover of the sky is usually recorded as the percent (o
te of the sky that is covered by clouds. Occasionally, the quantity percent
possible sunshine will be given. The conversion from percent possible sunshine to
cloud cover can be made using an equation derived from relations given by TVA [37]
as follows:
2
1
3
2
)] 1 ( 2 . 1 [
s
p C = Equation 4.8
possible sunshine x essed s a fra ion) where, p
s
=the (e pr a ct
The calculation of the clear sky solar radiation
sc
is complicated for that the
influences from the climatic condition should be determined as a function of the
geographical latitude, the declination angle, the time of year, and the hour of the day.
In order to obtain the clear sky solar radiation, the extraterrestrial solar radiation on a
horizontal surface,
o
sc
is considered from the correlations. Various climatic
parameters have been used in developing empirical relations for predicting the month
average global solar radiation or the extraterrestrial solar radiation. Among the
existing correlations, the following relation is the generally accepted modified form of
the Angstrom-type regression equation from Duffie and Beckman [38].

o sc
sc
S
b a + =

Equation 4.9
S
o

The regression coefficients, a and b using the method of least squares can have
ifferen d t varieties of value. An interesting correlation which is believed to be
applicable anywhere in the world is given by Rietveld [39] as follows:

o sc
sc
S
62 . 0 18 . 0 + =

Equation 4.1
S
o

0
where,
sc
=the clear sky solar radiation or
y global radiation on a horizontal surface

the monthly average of the dail
at a location, kJ /m
2
.day
o
sc
= radiation or the extraterrestrial solar
65
the monthly average of the daily global radiation on a horizontal surface

at same location on a clear day, kJ /m
2
.day
S = per day at the location the monthly average of the sunshine hours
o
S =the monthly average of the maximum possible sunshine hours per day at
The extraterrestrial solar radiation on a horizontal surface is calculated from
the location
the following equation given as Magal [40].

+ =
s sc sc
n
I si sin 360 cos 033 . 0 1
24

+

s
o

sin cos cos n


365
Equation 4.11
where, =the solar constant, 5141 W/m
2
=
sc
I
n the J ulian day number

s
=the sunset or sunrise angle, degree
=the latitude of the location, degree
=the declination angle, degree
Copper's equation from Magal [40] has given the following relation for
lcula ca ting the declination.

+ = sin 45 . 23 ) 264 (
365
360
n Equation 4.12
r angle corresponding to sunrise or sunset o
1

Equation 4.13
ximum possible sunshi d ation also
llows
The hou n a horizontal surface can
be found as follows:
cos =
s
) tan tan (
The ma ne ur is given by Duffie [38] as
fo :

s o
S =
15
2
Equation 4.14
termining the clear sky solar radiation and cloud c After de over in sky, the net
solar radiation has been simplified by using Equation 4.7. As stated earlier, the net
atmospheric radiation,
an
caused by water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone and other
atmospheric constituents as been formulated by Brunt [41]. It may be written as:

h
) C . ( ) T )( e . ( .
a a
.
an
2 4 8 0
17 0 1 460 149 0 1 10 05 2 + + + =

Equation 4.15
here, the vapor pressure two meters above the water surface, m w e
a
= m Hg
T
a
=the air temperature two meters above the water surface, F
66
The back radiation,
br
form the water surface is given as:

4 8
) 460 10 4 + =

s br
(T Equation 4.16
water surface temperatu , F
heat budget, evaporation is the most
n 4.17
d speed function, has been e p ssed
Equation 4.18
ation 4.15 and 4 7, he vap r pres ure tw

where, T
s
=the re
Of the various components of the
uncertain. Evaporative heat flux is computed as the product of the latent heat of
evaporation, the gradient in vapor pressure from the water surface to the overlying air,
and an empirical wind speed function. It is recommended by Shanahan [36] as:
) e e )( W ( f ) T . . (
a sat s e
=

1
4
10 1 5 03 1 Equatio
where, the win x re in many different
1
) (W f
expressions. For the cooling ponds, Edinger et al. [35] is recommended owing to its
through calibration and long standing as follows:

2
2 1
70 W ) W ( f + =
The Equ .1 t o s o meters above the water
surface, e
a
is given by the following conversion of TVA [37] from dew point
temperature to air vapor pressure over water. This equation is valid for relative
humidity less than about 95%.

+
+

= 6609 . 0
5 . 395
9 . 236 5 . 7
3026 . 2 exp
d
d
a
T
T
e Equation 4.19
where, T
d
=the dew point temperature of the air, F
e expressed as the water vapor
Equation 4.20
relative humi ty, %
ure, mm Hg
m of the five component fluxes is
The humidity conditions of the air must b
pressure in the equations for calculation of evaporative and conductive heat flux. The
vapor pressure of the air is also computed by using either a psychometric chart from
relative humidity or the following relationship.

sat H a
e R e =
where, R
H
=the di
e
sat
=the saturation vapor press
Another heat flux in the calculation of the su
conduction in which a heat diffusion process occurs similar to the moisture diffusion
that drives evaporation. Thus, the equation for conductive heat flux is similar in form
to that of evaporative heat flux Shanahan [36] suggested that as follows:
) T T )( W ( f .
a s c
=
1
255 0 Equation 4.21
67
As stated previously, the net heat flux from the cooling pond surface is
obtained theoretically on the overlying air temperature, incoming solar radiation,
moisture contents, cloud cover and wind speed outlined above. Further details can be
found in Shanahan [36], Ryan and Harleman [34], Rietveld [39], Magal [40] and
Edinger et al. [35]. Note that all above equations concerned the equilibrium and
surface heat flux will be used in the calculation of cooling pond design required in
0.16 ton coreless induction furnace.

4.2.3. Traditional Model
Utilizing the concepts of equilibrium temperature and linearized surface heat
flux reviewed in section 4.2.2, a number of analytical steady-state models for cooling
pond design may be formulated by the recommendation of Cerco [32]. There are two
of the simplest models: plug-flow and completely mixed ponds.

Water inlet Water outlet

Figure 4.3. Example of Plug-flow Pond

Water outlet

Water inlet

Figure 4.4. Schematic Elevation View of Completely Mixed Pond

In a plug-flow pond, as illustrated in Figure 4.3, there is no mixing between
the heated discharge and the receiving waters and no dispersion along the flow path.
68
With long, narrow flow paths, lateral mixing as well as vertical mixing will be
suppressed and it is similar to the dispersive model which is incorporated to account
for the heat dispersion caused by cross-sectional velocity non-uniformities likely to be
encountered in a shallow. The solution of the governing heat conservation equation
for the plug-flow pond is analytically given as the classic exponential decay equation
by Cerco [32]
Equation 4.22
r
i
e T

=
where, is a normalized intake temperature.

i T
In contrast to the plug-flow pond, the normalized intake temperature is related
to the equilibrium temperature as follows:

E i
E o
i
T T
T T
T

Equation 4.23
where, T
o
is the outlet temperature from the pond and T
i
is the inlet temperature into
the pond.
The completely mixed pond may be schematized as in Figure 4.4. In this
figure, as the width of a cooling pond increases relative to its length and width, the
potential for lateral mixing and dilution is increased. It is also the fully mixed pond in
which the inflow is immediately mixed and dispersed throughout the pond,
corresponding to infinite entrance mixing and dispersion. For the completely mixed
pond, the normalized intake temperature, is given as:

i
T

r
T
i
+
=

1
1
Equation 4.24
where, r is the pond cooling capacity or the characteristics of cooling pond that is
calculated by Cerco [32].

Q c
KA
r
p

= Equation 4.25
In Equation 4.25, A
p
is the pond surface area and Q is the water flow rate. The
density and specific heat of water are described as and , respectively. c
Neither the plug-flow nor completely mixed models are realistic since some
entrance mixing and dispersion is always present, but infinite mixing is unlikely.
Although they were much used in the past, reflecting on incomplete understanding of
cooling pond hydrodynamics and surface heat transfer, the present usefulness of these
models is limited to providing theoretical limits on cooling pond performance.
69
Nevertheless, the plug-flow pond provides a best case, lowest estimate of and the
completely mixed pond provides a worst case, highest estimate, assuming the entire
pond surface is utilized. The design model consideration of completely mixed pond
on the cooling energy requirement is discussed in section 4.3.

i
T

4.3. Design Model Consideration
For the design consideration of cooling pond, the following model as well as a
lumped parameter model is applied to a problem as shown in Figure 4.5.

Interchange with Atmosphere
Cooling Pond
H
n

(a) (b)
Figure 4.5. Illustrative Example of Cooling Pond Model
(a) Schematic Diagram of Pond Model
(b) Illustration of Energy Balance in Cooling Pond
Thermal energy gives as:

=
v
p p
dV T c E
where is the density of water and is the specific heat of water. c
Energy balance equation for the cooling pond is

n p i p p
H c QT R T c V T c
dt
d
+ = ) (
=Energy inflow rate - Energy outflow rate +Net heat exchange rate
The following assumption is used in the energy balance equation.
Assumption:
1. The inflow to and outflow from the cooling pond is steady
V
p
=volume
T
p
=temperature
A
p
=area
Induction Furnaces
Q, T
p
T
i
, R
Q

=

O
u
t
f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e

R

=

i
n
f
l
o
w

r
a
t
e

V, T
p
70
2. R =Q
3. V
p
=constant, =constant
4. No seepage into or from ground water
5. Heat exchange occurs near the surface of the pond only
6. Neglect heat conduction between the surrounding soils
The energy balance equation becomes

p
n
p i
p
p
V c
H
T T
V
Q
dt
dT

) (

+ = Equation 4.26
The net heat flux is expressed as:
p
n
n
A
H
=
where H is the rate of net heat transfer and A
p
is the unit area as a function of wind
speed, water surface temperature, air temperature and relative humidity.

c e br an sn n
+ =
Formulas for each term are available in section 4.2.2. To illustrate the
equilibrium condition in Figure 4.6, it is assumed there exist a simple linear
relationship between the net heat exchange rate and surface temperature of the water
in the cooling pond.

n
Heat loss
T
E T
s Surface temperature
Heat gain

n
Net heat flux from pond to atmosphere =0


Figure 4.6. Illustration for the Equilibrium Condition

Another net heat flux relation is
) (
E s n
T T K =
71
where T
E
is the equilibrium temperature at which there is no net heat exchange
between the atmosphere and the water. This has been discussed in section 4.2.2. Its
value varies with locality, solar radiation, wind speed, meteorological conditions and
K is heat transfer coefficient, which has the unit of Btu/(ft
2
day F).
If T
s
=T
p
is assumed for completely mixed pond, the energy balance equation
becomes as follows:

p
E p p
p i
p
p
V c
T T K A
T T
V
Q
dt
dT

) (
) (


= Equation 4.27
The water retention rate,
r
p
k
V
Q
= as constant and the thermal rate,
T
p
p
k
V c
K A
=


as constant are defined as in Equation 4.28. The energy balance equation takes a new
form.
) ( ) (
E p T p i r
p
T T k T T k
dt
dT
= Equation 4.28
At a steady-state energy system,

= = T T T
dt
dT
p p
p
at which : 0
Assuming that T
i
is constant, the final relationship is obtained as follows:

) ( )] ( ) [(
) ( ) (
E T E E i r
E T i r
T T k T T T T k
T T k T T k
=
=




r k k
k
T T
T T
T r
r
E i
E
+
=
+
=

1
1
Equation 4.29
where r = k
T
/k
r
, which is a characteristics of a cooling pond. k
r
and k
T
can be
estimated from temperature data of the site. In the above equations, the inlet and
outlet temperature of the pond, the water flow rate, the pond volume, the pond area,
and the operating time are related usually vice versa. The net solar heat flux has been
always changed throughout the day according to the meteorological parameters.
However, in general, the pond volume corresponded to the required operating time
should be considered for the cooling capacity by using the assumptions. The
correlation for which the temperature in the pond is significantly related to the
operating allowable time must be determined to know the performance which would
required for the cooling pond design. Based on the design model considerations, the
design calculation of cooling pond required for 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace
will be described in the next section.
72
4.4. Design Calculation
For design calculation, a schematic diagram of cooling pond has been
illustrated in Figure 4.7. The weather condition to compute the solar heat flux is based
on the location of Yangon in Myanmar. Yangon, the capital city of Myanmar, is
situated at the latitude of 16.45 N. In the collection of the meteorological parameters
from the weather station, the hottest month as March with respect to the location is
used conveniently for the calculation of solar radiation.



Figure 4.7. Heat Transfer Mechanism in Cooling Pond and the Symbolic Notations

The circulating water flow rate at design condition is applied to 0.69 m
3
/min
(24.37 ft
3
/min) which correspond to the sufficient amount of water to all components.
In this case, there is no forced withdrawal of circulating water and thus the only
make-up required is related to evaporated water, purge and other losses. Generally,
the circulating water which enters the pond is assumed to be 33C (91.4F) and leaves
at 28C (82.4F). To design the pond volume required in induction furnace, the
necessary data is collected from the climatic parameters based on 15
th
March, 2004
and summarized as follows:
Known Data:
Relative humidity, R
H
=62%
Ambient air or dry-bulb air temperature, T
a
=31C (88F)
Dew point temperature, T
d
=22C (72F)
Water inlet or hot water temperature into the pond, T
i
=33C (91.4F)
Sun
T
a

sc
T
d

a
c

br

e
Wind

s
W
2
ar
speed
Ground
Subsurface
conduction
Hot water
inlet
Cool water

sr
R, T
o
outlet
Q, T
i
T
s
T
E

an

sn
T
T
b
73
Water outlet or cool water temperature, T
o
=28C (82.4F)
Latitude of Yangon, =16.45 N
Wind speed, W
2
=4 mph
Water flow rate, Q =0.69 m
3
/min (24.37 ft
3
/min)

Assumption:
1. The water surface temperature on the pond, T
s
=29.25C (84.65F)
2. The pond temperature at the bottom, T
b
=28C (82.4F)
3. Steady-state (Completely mixed pond)
4. Inflow rate is equal to outflow rate (Q = R)
5. Volume, V
p
=constant
6. Density, =constant
7. T
s
= T
p
(Completely well-mixed system)
8. At time t =0, T
p
=28C (82.4F)
9. No seepage into or from groundwater
10. Neglect heat conduction between the sounding soils
11. Heat exchange occurs near the surface of the pond only

Firstly, it is classified the pond type from Figure 4.1.
25 . 0
4 . 82 4 . 91
4 . 82 65 . 84
=

o
v
T
T

From the correlation graph between IP versus
o
v T T / ,
IP =0.47
The type of pond is shallow. ) 3 . 0 ( IP
The average daily global radiation is estimated on a horizontal surface at
Yangon (16.45 N) during the month of March, if the average sunshine hours per day
are 9.5.
Using Equation 4.12,

51 . 10 ) 74 264 (
365
360
sin 45 . 23 =

+ =
From Equation 4.13,
rad
s
5159 . 1 85 . 86 )) 51 . 10 tan( ) 45 . 16 tan( ( cos
1
= = =

Day length from Equation 4.14,


74
hr 58 11 85 86
15
2
. . S
o
= =
Substituting the desired values into Equation 4.11,


day) kJ /(m 62 34233
85 86 51 10 45 16 51 10 45 16 52 1
75
365
360
033 0 1 5141
24
2
.
)) . sin( ) . cos( ) . cos( ) . sin( ) . sin( . (
cos .
o
sc
=
+

+ =


From Equation 4.10,
) ft Btu/(day 62 2034 day) kJ /(m 25 23106
9 11
5 9
62 0 18 0
62 34233
2 2
. .
.
.
. .
.
sc
sc
= =

+ =


Then the equilibrium temperature is calculated iteratively by using Equation 4.3 and
Equation 4.4. The results are tabulated in Table 4.1 as follows:
Table 4.1. Iterative Solutions of Equilibrium Temperature
Iterative Step T
E
(F)
*
1 Assume: 82 1.42216
2 63.50735 1.227568
3 62.63512 1.219258
4 62.59384 1.218867
5 62.59188 1.218848
6 62.59179 1.218847
7 62.59179 1.218847

F 59 62 5917 62

. . T
E
=
The possible sunshine hours convert to a fraction,
39 . 0 % 58 . 39 100 ) 24 / 5 . 9 ( = =
The possible sunshine hours, 9.5 hrs is determined for the clear sky solar radiation.
From Equation 4.8,
7479 . 0 ] 39 . 0 1 ( 2 . 1 [
2
1
3
2
= = C
Substituting the desired values into Equation 4.7,

2
2 2
W/m 159
) t Btu/(day.f 1217 74 0 65 0 1 2035 94 0
=
= = ] ) . ( . )[ ( .
sn


75
Using Equation 4.19,
Hg mm 38 20 6609 0
5 395 72
9 236 72 5 7
3026 2 . .
.
. ) ( .
. exp e
a
=

+
+

=
Then, the net atmospheric solar radiation is computed by using Equation 4.15.

2 2
2 4 8
W/m 442 ) ft Btu/(day 3386
7479 0 17 0 1 460 88 38 20 149 0 1 10 05 2
= =
+ + + =

] ) . ( . [ ) )( . . ( .
an


From Equation 4.16, the back radiation is

2 2 4 8
W/m 459 ) ft Btu/(day 3519 460 65 84 10 4 = = + =

) . (
br

Also from the Equation 4.20,
Hg mm 87 32
62 0
38 20
.
.
.
e
sat
= =
From Equation 4.18, wind speed function is
86 (4) 70
2
1
= + = ) W ( f
The evaporative heat flux from Equation 4.17 is

2 2
4
W/m 138 ) ft Btu/(day 1060
38 20 87 32 86 65 84 10 1 5 03 1
= =
=

) . . )( )( . . . (
e


The conductive heat flux from Equation 4.21 is

2 2
W/m 9 - ) ft Btu/(day 73
88 65 84 86 255 0
= =
= ] . )[ ( .
c


In the calculation of net solar and net atmospheric radiation, the value of
sn

and
an
have been determined on the heat gain of the clear sky without paying special
attention to the roof. Significantly, the greatest source of heat gain is received from
the roofs. Solar radiation coming through the roof can account for a third of the heat
build-up in a house or building.
For cooling pond, metal sheet is used as the roofing material. It is covered
above three feet from the water surface of the pond. In general, the light colored
roofing sheets can reflect 25-30% of the radiant heat of sun. Both the color and the
type of material affect amount of radiant heat reflected which is measured in
reflectance. The reflectance value of a number of roofing materials is described in
Table C.4 in the Appendix. Using this table, the reflectance value for metal sheet is
substantially recommended in designing cooling pond. The other factors such as
shading from existing trees, bushes, hill and insulation of the roof are assumed as 15%
reflectance. Hence the sum of reflectance is defined as 85% in preventing the large
76
amount of heat build-up for pond. Approximately, 15% of total heat flows into the
pond, even when the clear sky solar radiation is fully gained.

2 2
W/m 23 ) ft Btu/(day 182 15
100
1217
= = =
sn


2 2
W/m 66 ) ft Btu/(day 508 15
100
3386
= = =
an

Summing up the resulting terms, the net heat flux is given by Equation 4.6.
) ft Btu/(day 3816 73 1060 3519 508 182
2
= + + =
n

Neglecting the negative term,
2 2
W/m 498 ) ft Btu/(day 3816 = =
n

When the resulting value is substituted in Equation 4.5, the heat exchange
coefficient becomes as follows:

2 2
W/m 22 F) ft Btu/(day 173
59 62 65 84
3816
= =

=

) . . (
K
From Equation 4.23, the normalized intake temperature is
6876 . 0
59 . 62 4 . 91
59 . 62 4 . 82
=

i
T
For completely mixed pond, Equation 4.24 is used.

4543 . 0
1
1
6876 . 0
=
+
=
r
r

Using =62.4 lb/ft
3
and =1.003 Btu/ (lb F), Equation 4.25 becomes as follow: c

2 2
m 536 ft 5768
37 24 003 1 4 62
1440 173
4543 0
= =

=
p
A
) . . . (
A ) / (
.

Only the area availability for cooling pond is considered in all above cases. It
is noted that the pond volume is realized in construction. For the cooling pond used in
the cooling system of induction furnace, it is impossible without any depth in the
pond construction in terms of cost-effectiveness and sufficiency of water. To be
effective and to be built as small as possible, the aeration placed on the surface of the
cooling pond has been implemented to unit depth, which is critical for uniform mixing
and the prevention of short-circuiting especially in shaped cooling ponds. Thus the
volume of cooling pond is required as follows:

m 1.8 m 6 m 15 m 163
ft 6 ft 20 ft 49 ft 5768
3
3
=
=
p
V

77
In practice, the volume of cooling pond is used
for the cooling system of 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace.
ft 6 ft 20 ft 50 ft 6000
3

Now, the relationship between the raising temperature on the pond surface and
the time duration influenced on the operating limitation has been calculated by using
the pond volume, V
p
=6000 ft
3
and pond surface area . It is
assumed that the temperature, T
2
ft 1000 ft 20 ft 50 = =
p
A
p
in the cooling pond is 28C (82.4F) at the operating
time, t =0 (without running induction furnaces).
From Equation 4.26, the water retention rate and the thermal rate are

3
10 06 . 4
6000
37 . 24

= =
r
k

3
10 3199 . 0
1440 6000 003 . 1 4 . 62
173 1000

=


=
T
k
Substituting the k
r
and k
T
values into Equation 4.28,
3911 . 0 10 3799 . 4
3
+ =

p
p
T
dt
dT
Equation 4.30
Considering the rate of change of temperature, dT
p
/dt, Equation 4.30 is a linear
first-order ordinary differential equation that is solved at each step using the
exponential function as an integrating factor. The detailed solving is described as
follows:
Let 3911 0 10 3799 4
2
3
1
. x , . x = =


2 1
2 1
x T x T
x T x
dt
dT
p
p
p
+ =
+ =

Let y T y T
p
= = ,

2 1
2 1


x T x y
x y x y
p
= +
+ =
It is compared with ) ( ) ( x r y x f y = +

2 1
) ( , ) ( x x r x x f = =
For the solution, x x dx x dx x f x h
1 1
) ( ) ( = = =


The general solution is given as:
[ ]

+ =

C dx x r e e y
x h x h
) (
) ( ) (

where, C =arbitrary constant
78

[ ]
x x
x x x x
x x x x
Ce
x
x
C e
x
x
e
C dx x e e y
1
1 1
1 1
1
2
1
2
2


+ =

+ =
+ =


Similarly,
t x
p
Ce
x
x
T
1
1
2
+ = Equation 4.31
Defining the initial value, T
p
(0) =82.4F
t =0, T
p
=82.4F
Substituting in Equation 4.31,

1
2
4 82
x
x
. C =
Again, it is substituted in Equation 4.31.

) ( 0043 . 0
1
2
1
2
89 . 6 29 . 89
4 . 82
1
t
t x
p
e
Ce
x
x
x
x
T

+ =

Finally, the relationship between the temperature and operating time is
obtained as follows:

) ( 0043 . 0
89 . 6 29 . 89
t
p
e T

= Equation 4.32
The tabulated form of Equation 4.32 is given as in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2. Resulting Values of the Water Temperature and the Operating Time
Operating Time, t Water Temperature, T
p
hour F C
0 82.4 28
1 83.99429958 28.88572199
2 85.2200326 29.56668478
3 86.16240343 30.09022413
4 86.88691911 30.49273284
5 87.4439429 30.8021905
6 87.87219519 31.04010844
7 88.20144508 31.22302504

79
From the above tabulated form, when the temperatures with the retention time
have been limited approximately between 28C (82.4F) and 31.04C (87.87F), the
volume of pond 170 m
3
(6,000 ft
3
) would amount to six hours hold up to maintain
fairly constant discharge temperature throughout the operating condition. Thus the
trade-off between usage of the operating time and the temperature in the pond must be
evaluated and adjusted for a pond designer to be optimized the efficiency of cooling
pond required in 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace. Moreover, the effect of pond
configurations will be described in the results of studies.

80





CHAPTER 5
EVAPORATIVE COOLING TOWER SYSTEM

The cooling system of induction furnace, treated in the preceding chapter, is
considered with the evaporative cooling tower system. In this system, induced draft
counterflow cooling tower, one of the classifications of cooling tower, is designed
theoretically instead of cooling pond that requires the larger ground area. Cooling
tower fundamentals and the concepts needed for the design calculation are introduced
in this chapter. The removing heat amount, the required temperature range, wet bulb
temperature and other related parameters in tower design have been used as the same
data in the pond design. Tower coefficient is the primary factor that influences the
effectiveness of the cooling tower. Operation considerations for cooling tower are
covered in this chapter after designing.

5.1. Cooling Tower Fundamentals
Cooling towers have been widely used to dispose of waste heat from industrial
processes. It is cheaper or more convenient to reject heat to the atmosphere rather than
to water in a nearby river, lake, or ocean. It is also one of the heat exchangers which
are used in many commercial processes. The principle of cooling tower is very
simple, but the heat transfer process is quite complex.
When water changes its state from liquid to vapor or stream, an input of heat
energy must take place which is known as the latent heat of evaporation. This input
energy must either be supplied from fuel as in a boiler or be extracted from the
surroundings. Cooling towers take advantage of this change of state by creating
conditions in which hot water evaporates in the presence of moving air; by this means
heat is extracted from the water and transferred to the air and the process is known as
evaporative cooling. Any cooling towers consist of no more than a four-sided
structure in which the hot water is introduced as a spray at the top of the tower, and
mixed with the cooling air and drawn off from a sump at the bottoms. The water is
thus cooled for return to the machine or process. This procedure can be seen in the
81
preceding chapter two in which the operating function of electric induction furnace
with evaporative cooling tower was described in types of water cooling system. Other
interesting fundamentals of cooling tower will be studied in the next sections.

5.1.1. Principal Criteria
The principal criteria on which the design and manufacture of cooling tower
are based on the followings.
1. Achieving maximum contact between air and water in the tower by the
optimum design of tower packing and water distribution.
2. Assisting the flow of air by meant of fans.
3. Minimizing the loss caused by water spray escaping frown the tower; control
of spray loss is also of great importance in eliminating the risk of infectious
diseases being transmitted to people by warm moist air.
4. Relating the design of the tower to the volume flow rate of the water to be
cooled and to the three critical temperatures (ambient air wet bulb, warm
water input and cooled water output).
5. Ensuring that problems arising from the quality of water such as corrosion,
fouling and growth of bacteria are properly understood and controlled.
6. Taking due account of space limitations at the tower location and of the
possibility that noise from the tower may be a source of nuisance to those
living or working in the vicinity.

5.1.2. Classification of Cooling Towers
Cooling towers can be classified by the type of heat transfer; the type of draft
and location of the draft, relative to the heat transfer medium; the type of heat transfer
medium; the relative direction of air and water contact; and the type of water
distribution system. All employ stacked horizontal rows of fill to provide increased
contact surface between the air and water. Generally, the two main sub-divisions
utilized the two different configurations are expressed as follows:
1. Mechanical draft cooling tower
(a) Induced draft type
- Counterflow
- Crossflow
(b) Forced draft type
82
- Counterflow
- Crossflow
2. Natural circulation cooling tower
(a) Atmospheric tower
(b) Natural draft tower
- Counterflow
- Crossflow
The diagrams of the various tower types and configurations are shown in
Figure 5.1 and Figure 5.2.
Air outlet
Air outlet
Fan
Water
Water
inlet
inlet
Fan
Fill
Fill
Air
inlet
Air Air
inlet


Figure 5.1. Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers

In Figure 5.1, the two types of mechanical draft towers are the commonest in
use today, and of these the vast majority is now induced draft towers. Since there are
advantages to its use which exceed all others except under very special conditions, the
induced draft tower has been pronounced and used for the designer, manufacturer and
customer. In this system, the air discharges through the fan at a high velocity so that it
is driven up into the natural air currents which prevent it from settling at the air
intake. The induced draft counterflow cooling tower reduces the recirculation for the
performance capability of cooling tower. However, the pressure drop is on the intake
Water
inlet
Water
outlet
outlet
(b) Forced Draft Counterflow (a) Induced Draft Counterflow
Water
inlet
Fan
Fill Air outlet
Water
Water inlet
inlet
Fill
Air
outlet
Air
inlet
Air
inlet
Water Water outlet
outlet
(c) Induced Draft Crossflow (d) Forced Draft Crossflow
83
side of the fan, which increases the total fan-power requirements. On the other hand,
the air can enter along one or more entire lengths at wall, and as a result the height of
tower required for air entry is very small.
In the forced draft tower, the fan is mounted at the base, and air is forced in at

Figure 5.2. Natural Circulation Cooling Towers

he atmospheric tower, illustrated in Figure 5.2, avails itself of atmospheric
wind cu
the bottom and discharged at low velocity through the top. This arrangement has the
advantage of locating the fan and drive outside the tower, where it is convenient for
inspection, maintenance, and repairs. However, because of the low existing air
velocity; the forced draft tower is subjected to excessive recirculation of the humid
exhaust vapors back into the air intakes. A relatively large ineffective height and
volume is used for opening a circular fan and air inlet space.

Water inlet
Water outlet
Air inlet Air outlet
(a) Atmospheric Tower
Air outlet
Fill
Air
inlet
Air outlet
Fill
Air
inlet
Water
inlet
Canopy
Air
inlet
r
t
Air
inlet
unterflow Natural Draft Tower (c) Crossflow Natural Draft Tower
Fill
Wate
outle
(b) Co
T
rrents. Shifting with the time of year and other atmospheric conditions, the air
is blown through the louvered sides or fills in one direction at a time. Since the
atmospheric currents must penetrate the entire width of the tower, the towers are made
very narrow in comparison with other types and must be very long to afford equal
capacity. Drift losses occur over the entire side and are greater than for other types.
These towers make less efficient use of the available potential, since they operate in
84
crossflow. One great advantage of atmospheric tower is the elimination of fan power
cost.
The natural draft cooling towers are operated in the same way as a furnace
chimney. Air is heated in the tower by the hot water it contacts, so that its density is
lowered. It must be tall for sufficient buoyancy and must have large cross sections
because of the low rate at which the air circulates compared with mechanical draft.
Although the cost of fan power is eliminated in the natural draft tower, the pumping
power is more consumed than the others. However, it may be reliable in some
localities rather than atmospheric tower.
Depending on the relative flow directions of water and air, it is further
classified into counterflow and crossflow design as illustrated in Figure 5.1 and
Figure 5.2. Thermodynamically, the counterflow arrangement is more efficient, since
the coldest water contacts the coldest air, thus obtaining maximum enthalpy potential.
Kern [17], Perry [42], Hensley [43] and London et al. [44] proposed that induced draft
counterflow cooling tower, derive their primary cooling effect from the evaporation
that takes place when air and water are brought into the direct contact and it gives the
best efficiency. From the points above, the latter emphasis is based on the induced
draft counterflow cooling tower, resulting in increase heat transfer efficiency.

5.1.3. Main Components and Tower Operation
The schematic arrangement of a mechanical induced draft counterflow cooling
tower with the cutaway section is shown in Figure 5.3. The typical layout of the main
components which are defined below:
1. Casing or Shell: The structure enclosing the heat transfer process reinforced as
necessary to carry the other main items. Traditionally, corrugated asbestos-cement
board panels have been used for the large cooling tower casings, although their
uses are fading rapidly. Currently, wood or steel framed, field-erected towers are
similarly cased with free-retard and fiber-reinforced polyester corrugated panels,
over lapped and sealed to prevent leakage for factory-assembled tower, as
illustrated in Figure 5.3, the heavy gauge hot-dip galvanized steel is utilized for
long life and durability.
2. Fan and Fan deck: The correct selection of fan according to the tower duty is the
major importance. Volumetric air flow rate, fan pressure developed and noise
from motor, and fan impeller must also be considered according to the duty and
85
location of the tower. Fan deck also provides a platform for the support of the fan
cylinder, as well as an access way to the mechanical equipment and water
distribution system.

2
5
1. Casing
2. Fan
3. Fill
4. Basin
5. Drift eliminator
6. Water distribution system
7. Hot water inlet
8. Cool water outlet
6
1
7
3
4
8

Figure 5.3. Cutaway View of Induced Draft Counterflow Cooling Tower
Source: Hensley (1998)
3. Fill or Packing: It consists essentially of a system of baffles which slows the
progress of the warm water through the tower. The baffles are ensured the
maximum contact between water droplets and cooling air by maximizing surface
and minimizing water film thickness. There are many different types of packing
and these extensive representations are expressed in the latter section.
4. Cold Water Basin: It is also referred to as tank or sump. The cooled-water is
collected before return to the edge of process.
5. Drift Eliminator: This is positioned in the outlet air stream as to prevent water
droplets from being carried away from the tower by the air stream. The drift
eliminators are constructed of an inert polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic material
which effectively eliminates corrosion of these vital components. They are
assembled in sections to facilitate easy removal for inspection of the water
distribution system. An efficient drift eliminator is greatly illustrated in Figure 5.4.
6. Water Distribution System: Water entering the tower must be spread as evenly as
possible over the cross section of the tower. This system uses the spray nozzles or
diffusers, and made of PVC pipe and the plastic water diffusers for corrosion and
protection. The water distribution system, internally as shown in Figure 5.5, is
86
simplified with only one header which is easily removable for cleaning. They also
have an anti-sludge ring extending into the headers to prevent drift from building
up in the diffuser opening. In general, the piping and distribution system of water
within the envelope of the tower are responsibilities of the tower manufacturers.


Figure 5.4. Drift Eliminator used in Induced Draft Counterflow Cooling Tower


Figure 5.5. Water Distribution System

As shown in Figure 5.3, the operating principle of tower, the warm water from
the heat source is pumped to the water distribution system at the top of the tower. The
water is distributed over the wet deck fill by means of large orifice nozzles.
Simultaneously, air is drawn in through the air inlet louvers at the base of the tower
and travels upward through the wet deck fill opposite the water flow. A small portion
87
of the water is evaporated which removes the heat from the remaining water. The
warm moist air is drawn to the top of the cooling tower by the fan and discharged to
the atmosphere. The cool water drains to the basin at the bottom of the tower and
returns to the heat source.

5.1.4. Cooling Tower Fill
The fill within the cooling tower is the critical thermal component. In cooling
tower, it is the medium over which the hot water is distributed as it is being cooled. Its
primary function is to provide an environment for efficient heat transfer. The two
basic fill classifications are splash type and film type. With splash fill typically as
shown in Figure 5.6, the exchanger area for cooling is provided by water droplets, and
heat exchange occurs on the surface of these droplets. Due to surface tension, these
droplets are nearly perfect spheres, and therefore this type of fill does not provide
maximum possible surface area. Current splash fill is primary various shapes of
extruded PVC, and is still used for projects with major fouling concerns. Significant
improvements in evaporative heat transfer efficiency were realized with the invention
of film fills.

Figure 5.6. Illustration of Typical Splash Fill


Figure 5.7. Illustration of Typical Film Fill
88
Film fill of the form of Figure 5.7 consists of flat or formed sheets to provide a
surface upon which water and air come in contact for heat exchange. Cellular fill
stretches droplets of water into the thin films as the water proceeds vertically
downward through the cells, thereby maximizing the surface area and permitting the
available crossflow or counterflow air to cool the entire droplet more rapidly. Film fill
creates a very large surface area on which the hot water disperses itself as a thin film
that interacts with the air traveling through the tower, thus achieving the specified
cooling. It is more compact than splash fill and can thereby be more cost effective.
Film fill is used in both counterflow and crossflow cooling towers, from small
applications to the large towers serving power plant around the world.
Since film fills have defined the heart of the cooling tower, film fill
technology had evolved from the use of wood panels, galvanized steel plates, brick
and asbestos cement board to plastic film fills. Different shapes and configurations of
fill materials are made by the manufacturers and sold by the companies. Cooling
Technology Institute (CTI) recommended the standard for fill material according to
their durability, long service life, self-extinguishing characteristics, and the ability to
create a uniform water film (wetting). In the form of Rasching rings, Berl saddles, or
other objects given in Kern [17], the fill characteristics can be found with the fixed
liquid and gas loading. Many of the data for the fill or packing are available on
laboratory-scale apparatus or in fill designer.

Water flow Water flow Water flow
Air
Air Air Air
(c) Vertical Fill
(a) Cross-Corrugated Fill (b) Vertical-Offset Fill


Figure 5.8. Typical Film Fill Shape and Texture

Extensively, as shown in Figure 5.8, three broad categories: cross-corrugated,
vertical-offset and vertical in film fill are described by the fill designer. Each fill
category will have fill design with differing thermal performance. Cross-corrugated
fills can be used in both counterflow and crossflow towers. They work by separating
89
the water and air paths in opposing angles through the pack. Vertical-offset fills are
used only in counterflow cooling towers. Water enters the pack from the top and
flows vertically. These patterns of angular transition occur continuously through the
vertical pack depth. Vertical flow fill also are used only in counterflow towers. They
keep the water and air path oriented vertically, with no offsets, through the pack.
The benefits of high performance of film fill can occur in vertical flow fill
designs which can accommodate poor water quality water characteristics and with a
reduced potential for fouling. Nevertheless, the high performance film fills, especially
either vertical fill or vertical-offset fill should be selected for the induced draft
counterflow cooling tower, when good quality water makeup system are used with no
contamination process and/ or low airborne contamination. By considering the
thermal performance of fill products and matching it to the application, the cooling
tower design can ensure high efficiency and optimizing costs. Further fill
fundamentals can be studied in Henskey [43] and Kern [17].

5.2. Conceptual Study for Induced Draft Cooling Tower System
In the preceding section the fundamentals and ideas of cooling tower have
been considered as the important facts. Most cooling towers used in plants for
industrial applications are mechanical induced draft cooling towers. The large surface
area of water in this tower is provided by spraying the water through nozzle or
splashing the water down the tower from one baffle to another. These baffles or fill
materials or packing are essential in the designing of cooling tower. For design, the
conceptual study for induced draft cooling tower is expressed in the following section,
so that tower size and tower capacity can be calculated.

5.2.1. Cooling Tower Theory
The most generally accepted concept of cooling tower heat-transfer process is
that developed by Merkel [45]. This analysis is based upon enthalpy potential
differences as the driving force and also combines the sensible and latent heat transfer
into an overall process. Merkel demonstrated that the total heat transfer is directly
proportional to the difference between the enthalpy of saturated air at the water
temperature and the enthalpy of air at the point of contact with water.
Equation 5.1 -H) H S( K Q
x t
=
90
where, Q
t
=the total heat transfer rate, W
K
x
=the overall enthalpy transfer coefficient, kg/ (hr.m
2
)
S =heat transfer surface, m
2
H =enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at the bulk-water temperature,
J /kg dry air
H =enthalpy of air-water vapor mixture at the wet bulb temperature,
J /kg dry air
The heat transfer surface is equal to aV, in which a means the surface of
packing or fill per unit of tower volume, ft
2
/ft
3
and V is the effective tower volume,
ft
3
. The water temperature and air enthalpy are being changed along the fill and
Merkel relation can only be applied to a small element of heat transfer surface by dS.
From Equation 5.1,
-H)] H S( d[K dQ
x t
=
-H)dS H ( K dQ
x t
= Equation 5.2
The heat transfer from water side is as follow:
Equation 5.3 ) T L(T c Q
t 1 2
=
where, =the specific heat of water, J /kg C c
L =water flow rate or liquid loading, kg/ (hr.m
2
)
T
2
=leaving water (cold-water) temperature, C
T
1
=entering water (hot-water) temperature, C
The heat transfer rate, Q
t
from Equation 5.3 is substituted in Equation 5.2 and
it becomes as:
-H)dS H ( K )] T L(T c d[ dQ
x t
= =
1 2

-H)dS H ( K LdT c
x
= Equation 5.4
The heat transfer rate from air side is as follows:
-H) H G( Q
t
=
where, G =air mass flow rate or gas loading, kg/ (hr.m
2
)
Similarly, -H)] H d[G( dQ
t
=
-H)dS H ( K -H)] H d[G( dQ
x t
= =
-H)dS H ( K GdH
x
= Equation 5.5
By integrating to Equation 5.4 and 5.5,
91


= =
-H H
dT
L
aV K
L
S K
x x

and


= =
-H H
dH
G
aV K
G
S K
x x

By summarizing and rearranging, the Merkel equation for cooling tower theory
becomes as follows:


= =
1
2
T
T
x
d
-H H
dT
L
aV K
n Equation 5.6


= =
1
2
H
H
x
d
-H H
dH
G
aV K
n Equation 5.7
The above equations are the key equation for the calculation of the design and
the analysis of performance in cooling towers. The right-hand side of Equation 5.6 is
entirely in terms of air and water properties and is dependent on tower dimensions.
The left-side in it is defined as tower coefficient or the number of diffusion units, n
d
.
For the detailed derivation of Merkel theory, the extensive explanations can be found
in Kern [17], Wang [46], and Baker and Shryock [47].

5.2.2. Heat-Balanced Process
The heat balance process of counterflow cooling tower is illustrated
graphically in Figure 5.9.
H' (Hot water temperature)
A
Water operating line
E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y
,

B
t
u
/

l
b

d
r
y

a
i
r
H

-
H

H (Air out)
D
Air operating line
dH
dT
H' (Cold water temperature) B

Figure 5.9. Process Heat Balance Diagram of Counterflow Cooling Tower
C
L/G H (Air in) C'
Approach
Saturation
Range
curve
W
e
t

b
u
l
b

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

i
n

W
e
t

b
u
l
b

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

o
u
t

C
o
l
d

w
a
t
e
r

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

H
o
t

w
a
t
e
r

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

T
1 T
2
Temperature, F
92
In a counterflow induced draft tower, water and air relationships as the driving
potential exist at the place where air flows parallel but opposite in direction to water
flow. In Figure 5.9, the water operating line is shown by line AB and is fixed by the
inlet and outlet tower water temperature. Water entering the top of the tower at T
1
is
surrounded by an interfacial film that is assumed to be saturated with water vapor at
the bulk water temperature. This corresponds to point A on the saturation curve. As
the water is cooled to T
2
, the film enthalpy follows the saturation curve to point B. Air
entering the base of the tower at wet bulb temperature T
WB
has an enthalpy
corresponding to C on the saturation curve. The initial driving force at the base of the
tower is represented by the vertical distance BC which is the concept similar to
. Heat removed from the water is added to the air. So its enthalpy increases
along the straight line CD, having a slope equaling the L/G ratio and terminating at a
point vertically below point A. The area ABCD in the diagram is known as tower
characteristic, varying with L/G ratio. This is also very key in the design of cooling
towers. For fixed ambient and water conditions, the tower performance is predicted
from the tower characteristic. The tower characteristic, K

H - H
x
aV/L, as described in
Equation 5.6 or 5.7, can be determined by the various methods. Solving the tower
characteristic will be presented in the calculation of the next section.
From the heat balance diagram, the actual enthalpy can be determined at any
point in the counterflow tower. It relates the change in enthalpy in the air phase dH to
the accompanying change in the water temperature dT in contact with the air. This
change can be represented by graphically in Figure 5.9. Thus

dT
dH
G
L
= Equation 5.8
which is the equation of a straight line in Figure 5.9 whose slope is the ratio of the
liquid to air loading L/G. The value of H at any point on the operating line is given by
) T (T
G
L
H H
1 2 1 2
+ = Equation 5.9
Since the enthalpy of the inlet air H
1
is known or can be readily determined,
all above concepts are used in the design consideration of cooling tower.

5.2.3. Tower Coefficients
The dimensionless tower coefficients or tower characteristics, also known as
the number of diffusion units, measures the degree of difficulty of the cooling process
93
required. The larger this value is, the more difficult the cooling duty. From the Merkel
equation, K
x
a is one of tower coefficients and it is also defined as the height of a
diffusion unit (HDU) by Kern [17]. The HDU or K
x
a are the performance
characteristics of the given fill or packing. The performance of a variety of packing
and fills has been given by the fill manufacturers and fill designers according to their
liquid and air loading.
To meet the theoretical tower characteristic, the suitable fill design must be
used for the cooling duty. The Pritchard Corporation of California has developed
performance data on various tower-fill designs. These data are too extensive to
include here and those interested should consult this reference. In the calculation of
cooling tower design, a particular fill design owing to K
x
a 200 lb/ (hr ft
3
) (lb/lb),
corresponded on L/G ratio 0.18, will be used from the available data reported on
experiments of fill manufacturer. Many laboratory scale data have been reported with
values of K
x
a ranging from 200 to 5,000 lb/ (hr ft
3
) (lb/lb). Normally the air and liquid
loading of from 200 to 5,000 lb/ (hr ft
2
) have been used. Many of the data for
humidification characteristics such as Raschig rings and Berl saddles have been
obtained in Kern [17], but liquid and air loading is limited between 500 and 3,000.

The relation between the HDU and K
x
a is given by Kern [17] as follows:

L
V
a K
Z
HDU
t
x
= = Equation 5.11
where, HDU =the height of a diffusion unit, m
Z =the height of cooling tower, m
V
t
=tower volume, m
3

L =liquid loading, kg/ (hr m
2
) of ground area
When the value of K
x
a is multiplied by the ratio of V
t
/L, the number of
diffusion units in a given tower height can be obtained for the fulfillment of process
conditions, since V
t
= 1Z. It has been applied in the design calculation of cooling
tower.

5.2.4. Factors Affecting on Cooling Tower Performance
The factors which influence the performance of a cooling tower may be
summarized as follows:
1. The cooling range (Hot water - Cold water temperature)
94
2. The approach (Cold water - Wet bulb temperature)
3. The ambient air wet-bulb temperature
4. The flow of water to be cooled (or circulation rate)
5. The rate at which air is passed over the water
6. The tower or performance coefficients of the packing to be used
7. The volume of packing (height multiplied by horizontal cross-sectional area)
8. The tower sitting and orientation (It is the responsibility of the owner/
specifier)
Item 6 depends on the how effectively the pack is designed and it follows that
the volume of the pack in items 7 will directly affect tower performance.

5.3. Design Calculations
In the calculation of induced draft counterflow cooling tower, the heat transfer
rate, the inlet and outlet temperature, and other design parameters given in the cooling
pond design are used to meet the design equivalent. These parameters are as follows:
Total heat transfer rate, Q
t
=67.3469 kW (229,843 Btu/hr)
Wet bulb temperature, T
w
=25C (77F)
Hot water temperature, T
1
=33C (91.4F)
Cold water temperature, T
2
=28C (82.4F)

Obviously, water and air circulating rate are a key number in the original
design. To specify the water and air ratio, the model ICT 4.59 for the product of
EVPCO's ICT cooling tower, one of the original design models, is used and is also
corresponded to the required parameter such as wet bulb temperature and hot and cold
water temperature. This gives the fan capacity, 19,700 cfm and the total water flow
rate, 200 gal/min. The cooling tower has been constructed on the ground area
and there is no change in the entering air mass flow rate. ft 4 ft 8
The cooling range =T
1
T
2
=9F
The approach =T
2
T
w
=5.4F
Ground area = =32 ft ft 4 ft 8
2
Liquid loading, ) ft lb/(hr 125 , 3
area Ground
rate flow water Total
2
= = L
From air-water vapor-mixture table recommended in Kern [17],
The enthalpy at 77F, H
1
=41.1 Btu/lb dry air
95
Specific volume (air +water) =13.964 ft
3
/lb
The density of the dry air in a cubic foot of mixture =
13.964
1
=0.0716 lb/ft
3
Air loading, ) ft lb/(hr 645 , 2
576
60
0716 . 0 700 , 19
2
= = G
1813 1.
G
L
=
Using the Equation 5.9,
H
2
=51.73 Btu/lb dry air
By using the numerical integration method, cooling tower characteristics can
be expressed in tabulated form as in Table 5.1 that describes the calculations for the
process requirements.

Table 5.1. Enthalpy Difference by Using the Numerical Integration Method
T, F H H -H H
av
-H) H (
av
-H) H (
) dT (

= F 1

82.4 46.93 41.1 5.83


83.4 48.11 42.28 5.83 5.83 0.1715
84.4 49.29 43.46 5.83 5.83 0.1715
85.4 50.53 44.64 5.89 5.86 0.1706
86.4 51.87 45.82 6.05 5.97 0.1675
87.4 53.21 47.00 6.21 6.13 0.1631
88.4 54.55 48.18 6.37 6.29 0.1589
89.4 55.89 49.36 6.53 6.45 0.1550
90.4 57.30 50.55 6.75 6.64 0.1506
91.4 58.80 51.73 7.07 6.91 0.1447

= = 4534 1.
-H H
dT
L
aV K
n
x
d


From the above table, the cooling tower must be capable of performing 1.4534
diffusion units to fulfill process requirements. On coordinates of enthalpy versus
water temperature plotted the saturation line from air-water vapor-mixture table are
shown in Figure 5.10 as the graphical representation of tower characteristic.
96
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
8
0
.
4
8
1
.
4
8
2
.
4
8
3
.
4
8
4
.
4
8
5
.
4
8
6
.
4
8
7
.
4
8
8
.
4
8
9
.
4
9
0
.
4
9
1
.
4
9
2
.
4
9
3
.
4
Water temperature, F
E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y
,

B
t
u
/
l
b

d
r
y

a
i
r
Water operating line
Air operating line
H'
2
H'
1 H
2
=51.73
L/G
H
1
=41.1

Figure 5.10. Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram of Air and Water

Next requirement is the calculation of the required height of fill. To determine
that, a particular fill at L =3125 and G =2645, K
x
a is 200 lb/ (hr ft
3
) (lb/lb), is used
from the manufacturers of cooling tower which guarantee the tower to cool a
specified flow rate of water when the wet bulb temperature of air is 77F. A detailed
fill performance can be found in the products of EVPCO's ICT cooling tower.
On the loading is based on 1 ft
2
of ground area, the tower height is determined
by using Equation 5.11.

L
Z) a( K
L
aV K
n
x x
d
1
= =
Tower height, m 6.91 ft 7 . 22
200
3125 4534 . 1
= =

= =
a K
L n
Z
x
d

The height of a diffusion unit, m 4.75 ft 6 . 15
4534 . 1
7 . 22
= = = =
d
n
Z
HDU

3
ft 499 ft 15.6 ft 4 ft 8 volume Fill = = =14.12 m
3
Tower volume =20.55 m
3
ft 726 ft 22.7 ft 4 ft 8 = =
3
Finally, the tower height is given 22.7 ft that is approximately satisfy with the
values of Perry [42] in which a relatively low cooling tower (15 to 20 ft) will suffice
when a wide approach of 15 to 20F to the wet bulb temperature and 25 to 35F
cooling range required. The L/G value used in the calculation is also between the
ranging 0.75 and 1.5, and the value 1.1813 of K
x
aV/L is usually obtained. These
values are corresponded to the values of Perry [42]. Perry [42] proposed that
97
mechanical draft cooling towers normally are designed for L/G ratios ranging from
0.75 to 1.50; accordingly, the values of K
x
aV/L vary from 0.50 to 2.50. The tower
coefficient or characteristic K
x
aV/L can be calculated by using the various methods.
With the similar range and approach temperature, K
x
aV/L is solved by using the
Chebyshev method for numerically evaluating the integral as described in Perry [42],
where by

+ + +


=
1
2
4 3 2 1
2 1
1 1 1 1
4
T
T
x
H H H H
T T
H H
dT
L
aV K

where, H
1
=value of (H'-H) at T
2
+ 0.1 (T
1
- T
2
)
H
2
=value of (H'-H) at T
2
+0.4 (T
1
- T
2
)
H
3
=value of (H'-H) at T
1
- 0.4 (T
1
- T
2
)
H
4
=value of (H'-H) at T
1
- 0.1 (T
1
- T
2
)
In Table 5.2, the calculations for the process requirement are described as follows:
Table 5.2. Enthalpy Difference by Using the Chebyshev Method
T, F H' H H 1/ H
T
2
=82.4
T
2
+0.1 (1) =83.3
T
2
+0.4 (1) =86
T
2
+0.4 (1) =87.8
T
2
+0.1 (1) =90.5
T
1
=91.4
46.93
47.99
51.34
53.75
57.45
58.80
h
1
=41.1
h
1
+0.1 L/G(9) =42.16
h
1
+0.4 L/G(9) =45.35
h
2
- 0.4 L/G(9) =47.47
h
2
- 0.1 L/G(9) =50.66
h
2
=51.73

H
1
=5.83
H
2
=5.99
H
3
=6.28
H
4
=6.79

0.1715
0.1669
0.1592
0.1472
0.6448

1.4508 (0.6448)
4
82.4 91.4
=

=
L
aV K
x

Another method is nomograph approximation for a given cooling duty. It is
provided the approximate degree of accuracy varied with changes in cooling as well
as from tower to tower. The nomograph of cooling tower characteristics is shown in
Figure B.4 in the Appendix. According to the same temperature range and approach,
the straight line is drawn on the nomograph at the wet bulb temperature 77F. Because
the L/G ratio is calculated to 1.1813, K
x
aV/L may be established by a line drawn
through L/G =1.1813 and parallel to the original line. Thus the tower characteristic,
K
x
aV/L is established at 1.62.
98
Another method is software method produced form the Cooling Technology
Institute (CTI). Now CTI is given by the output of the calculation, K
x
aV/L with its
Toolkit Software, Version 3.0 underlying the computer. The resulting dialog box is
shown in Figure 5.11 as below:

Figure 5.11. Toolkit Software Dialog Box

From Toolkit Software, K
x
aV/L, which is a measure of the required duty
imposed on a cooling tower, is determined as 1.4922. Comparing the results among
the various methods, the comparative visualization of the tower characteristics is
shown in Figure 5.12.







1.4534 1.4508
1.62
1.4922
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.45
1.5
1.55
1.6
1.65
1.7
K
x
a
V
/
L

S
o
f
t
w
a
r
e
N
o
m
o
g
r
a
p
h
C
h
e
b
y
s
h
e
v
N
u
m
e
r
i
c
a
l
Figure 5.12. Output Results Comparison

All above solutions of the cooling tower design are based on the Mekel
relation and are used for the size of tower. The main determinant of the size of the
induced draft counterflow cooling tower is the cross-sectional area and the height of
the fill; relative overall height and floor space requirements will be modified with
different types of cooling towers. In the design calculation of induced draft tower, the
99
fill height 4.75 m (15.6 ft) and cooling tower height 7 m (22.7 ft) corresponding to the
L/G ratio are specified for the required temperature range. In practice the fill cross-
sectional area and pack height must be selected from standard pack module sizes.

5.4. Operation Considerations
The cooling towers for the induction furnace are installed outdoors location
and layout of the cooling tower should be carefully chosen so that recirculation,
interference, and air flow are minimized. Recirculation caused by insufficient exhaust
air velocity, or insufficient vertical distance between the intake and the exit degrades
the tower performance. When two or three cooling towers are used for the required
process condition, interference is mainly considered for the tower performance.
Interference can be minimized by considering the prevailing wind direction and by
properly planning the layout of the cooling towers.
Makeup water requirements are a special importance for the cooling tower
operation. The total makeup water comprises the water loss by evaporation, drift loss
and blowdown loss. It is given by Perry [42] as follows:
W
m
= W
e
+ W
d
+ W
b
Equation 5.12
where W
m
is the makeup water, m
3
/min, W
e
=evaporation loss, m
3
/min, W
d
=drift
loss, m
3
/min and W
b
=blowdown loss, m
3
/min.
Evaporation loss depends on the cooling capacity and atmospheric conditions.
In most cases, it can be estimated by the following equation.
W
e
= 0.00085W
c
(T
1
T
2
) Equation 5.13
where, W
c
=circulating water flow rate, gal/min
Drift loss mostly occurs due to the air discharge of the cooling tower and the
drift eliminator design, which typically varies between 0.1 and 0.2 percent of the
water supplied to the tower. Now development in eliminator design makes it possible
to reduce drift loss well below 0.1 percent.
In order to avoid a too high concentration of dissolved solids in the circulating
water, a part of the water circuit has to be drained continuously. The amount of
blowdown can be calculated according to the number of cycles of concentration
required to limited scale formation. Cycles of concentration, the ratio of dissolved
solids in the recirculating water to dissolved solids in the makeup water, are
determined from Perry [42]. They are normally accepted, ranging from three to five
cycles.
100

b
b e
W
) W (W +
= ion concentrat of Cycle

1) (Cycles
=
e
b
W
W Equation 5.14
For the calculation of cooling tower design, makeup water requirements are
calculated as follow. From Equation 5.13,
/min m 0.005 gal/min 1.53 82.4) 200(91.4 0.00085
3
= = =
e
W
Using the cycles of concentration (5), blowdown loss is as follows:
/min m 0.001 gal/min 0.3825
1) (5
1.53
3
= =

=
b
W
Drift loss at the air intake is 0.2 percent as follows:
/min m 0.001 gal/min 0.4
100
0.2
200
3
= = =
d
W
From Equation 5.12,
The total makeup water =W
e
+ W
d
+ W
b
=2.31 gal/min =0.008 m
3
/min
Therefore, the amount of makeup water required for the induced draft cooling
tower in the design is 0.008 m
3
/min (2.31 gal/min).
101





CHAPTER 6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

6.1. Flow Velocity Calculation Results
The first step in the induction furnace process was to calculate the flow
velocity passing through the induction coil which is a hollow section of heavy duty
and high conductivity copper tubing. In 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace, the
diameter of the coil that must be water-cooled due to the highest temperature of the
molten metal is 1.27 cm (0.5 in) for both furnace 1 and furnace 2. According to the
size and capacity of the molten metal inside the crucible, coil diameter is varied such
as 2.54 cm (1 in) for 1 ton furnace and the amount of tons melted is determined by the
energy requirements.
Schematic the flow branches in pipes were shown in Figure 3.8 for 0.16 ton
coreless induction furnace except for the arrangement of actual furnace, capacitor
bank and control panel. From the calculating results, the flow velocity passing
through the induction coil is obtained 2.45 m/sec (9 ft/sec) for the furnace 1 and
furnace 2 in chapter 3. The two velocities of induction furnaces are defined as the
same velocity for this case. Bailey [10] and the broad sheet from British Cast Iron
Research Association (BCIRA) recommended that all cooling-passages into the
induction coil should be designed so that the flow velocity is not less than 1 m/sec
(3.281 ft/sec), to prevent any suspended solids settling-out in the system. Therefore,
the flow velocities supplied and passed to the induction coils are sufficed for 0.16 ton
capacity furnace. Since the large amount of flow velocity passes through the coil,
debris, foreign matters and suspended solids cannot be clogged and the cooled-water
is continuously circulated at the required differential pressure and rated flow.
The flow velocity from the electrical parts such as control panel and capacitor
bank is not mainly considered in the calculation method. These flow rate and
velocities are specified by the manufacturers. Also the temperature difference
between inlet and outlet of these equipments is much lower than the leaving water
temperature of the furnace coil. But the operator must monitor to make sure that they
102
do not clog other suspended solids. If the flow velocity and the required amount of
water are insufficient or less than 1 m/sec, the temperature of induction coil is
immediately raised and the coil may be damaged during the metal melting situation.
Hence the great flow velocity and quantity of cooling water are very important to
operate the coreless induction furnace and to maximize system reliability and
component longevity.

6.2. Cooling Pond Performance
The ideal cooling pond performance is defined as one which will maximize
the operating time of the induction melting while minimizing the pond volume to
remove from the heat of water. A review of the tabulated form of Equation 4.32
shows that the temperature variations within the pond corresponding to the operating
time relatively increase; hence, the lumped parameter approach is appropriate. In
designing cooling pond, the hot water or inlet temperature into the pond and the cold
water or outlet temperature from the pond are used 91.4F (33C) and 82.4F (28C),
respectively. According to the specified temperature range and the total heat transfer
rate, the pond area and volume have been analytically obtained 1,000 ft
2
and 6,000 ft
3
,
respectively. By using the resulting data, the cooling pond performance curve is
drawn to know the pond capability. This curve is shown in Figure 6.1.

80
82
84
86
88
90
92
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Oper at ing t ime, hr
W
a
t
e
r

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

i
n

t
h
e

p
o
n
d
,

D
e
g
r
e
e

F
Designed Pond

Figure 6.1. Cooling Pond Performance Curve
103
From the above Figure, the water temperature in the pond is relatively
increased when the operating time using 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace has
increased, which is often an important consideration. Normally, the melting time for
0.16 ton coreless induction furnace is consumed 1 to 1.5 hours per 0.16 ton according
to the supplied power, related voltage and the frequency variation. The designed pond
curve on graph represents the alternative melting of two induction furnaces. To keep a
fairly discharge temperature from the pond, the time limitation must be suitably
chosen with regard to the particular metallurgical process in view.
On the other hand, since the water surface temperature varies with the distance
from the discharge point in the pond, the heat transfer rate from the pond surface is
not uniform. For a given surface area 1,000 ft
2
, the efficient cooling pond is a shallow
type enough to allow density currents to spread the warm water effluent efficiently
over the surface of the pond. The water inlet should be located at the coolest point of
the pond surface, and there should be minimal mixing of the hot water with the cooler
deeper water to ensure the warmest surface layer temperature possible for highest
surface cooling. The time required for water to pass through the pond depends on the
rate of pumping and the pond volume while the temperature drop from the induction
furnace discharge to the induction coil intake depends on the rate of pumping and the
pond surface area.
In this study the performance curve of cooling pond may be changed due to
the effect that is meteorological parameters such as ambient air temperature, wet bulb
temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. The performance
curve from Figure 6.1 is considered based on a horizontal surface location of Yangon
(16.45 N) during the month of March, one of the hottest months of Myanmar. For a
given cooling load, the total volume of cooling pond is 6,000 ft
3
with a depth of 6 ft.
This is a practical constraint on the factor of cooling pond and the results indicate an
increase in the performance curve due to the different temperature which corresponds
to the cooling capacity.
Another study on the performance curve is considered by using the various
pond configurations for the given cooling duty. The pond models are denoted as type
A, B, C, D, E and F according to their different area and depth. Firstly, Type A is
defined as the designed pond at one condition owing to the pond volume 6,000 ft
3
and
surface area 1,000 ft
2
. For the design of this type, it has been calculated from the
required temperature range and the climatic condition of the locating pond site. This
104
pond is built with the depth of 6 ft. Type B is referred to the pond surface 1,200 ft
2

and depth of 5 ft. Similarly, type C has pond surface area 800 ft
2
and depth of 7.5 ft.
With the depth of 10 ft, type D is made of surface area 600 ft
2
as the smallest model.
Type E is created with the large pond surface area 1,400 ft
2
and the depth of 4.285 ft.
All above types have the fixed pond volume 6,000 ft
3
. Type F is referred to as the
pond surface area 2,000 ft
2
and the depth of 3 ft. This type also has the pond volume
6,000 ft
3
and its area is larger than all above types.
After that, the relationship between the increasing temperature within the pond
and the operating time depending on the melting cycle is evaluated previously from
the pond designing parameters. The correlations of different configurations have been
replaced in the Equation 4.28 to determine the water temperature and the operating
time. Using the correlations of the various conditions, the effect of cooling pond
configurations is plotted on a graph as the operating time versus the water temperature
in the pond and it is illustrated in Figure 6.2.
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Oper at ing t ime, hr
W
a
t
e
r

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

i
n

t
h
e

p
o
n
d
,

D
e
g
r
e
e

F
Type A
Type B
Type C
Type D
Type E
Type F

Figure 6.2. Effect of Cooling Pond Configurations

From the above figure, the results comparing the configuration effects can be
determined not only at the design condition of pond but also at the other conditions.
The pond temperature is normally maintained about 82.4F before starting the
induction furnace for melting process. During the one hour operating time, the
temperature differences of all types are insignificant expect type F. At the six hours
105
operating time, the rising temperature 87.87 F, 87.59F, 88.15F, 88.43F, 87.32F
and 82.57F are occurred in type A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively.
From the effect of cooling pond configurations, the temperatures of type C and
type D are slightly higher than the other four types because they are used for a small
pond surface area with a relatively depth. The lesser surface area affects the
evaporative heat loss that is the primary heat transfer mechanism contributing to pond
cooling. The type B and Type E give the lower temperature rise because of the large
surface areas. Compared with the temperature to type B and type E, the designed pond
(type A) is slightly high but it is less than the type C and type D. Among them, type F
gives nearly constant temperature in the pond because of the larger surface area.
As a result, the varying pond surface area is an important factor and observed
from the investigation of pond cooling. This result is substantially true to the
recommendation of Cerco [32], in which the surface area extent of the pond affects
the performance of cooling pond and it can improve the heat transfer from the pond
surface. It can control the water temperature in the pond and maximize the
evaporative cooling effect of the pond surface. Although the large amount of area
should be used in the pond construction site, the land space condition and construction
cost become a problem. By compromising the above factors, cooling pond should be
constructed as economically efficient as possible. According to the layout of foundry,
the surface area 1,000 ft
2
and the depth of 6 ft are efficient for 0.16 ton coreless
induction furnace.
On the other hand, the amount of heat removed from the pond is relatively
depended upon the meteorological parameters such as relative humidity, wet bulb
temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and wind speed. Accordingly, the
total volume of cooling pond 6,000 ft
3
with a depth of 6 ft is applied for 0.16 ton
coreless induction furnace. This is a practical constraint imposed by the process. By
imposing constraints on the design factor of cooling pond, the cooling efficiency has
been optimized, and the required cooling temperature is a fairly constant discharged
to the induction coil and other equipment.
Consequently, there is a major factor of cooling pond area to maintain a fairly
constant discharge temperature throughout the operating time. By adjusting the
operating time, the desired volume and area corresponding to the pond cooling
capacity can be obtained. Note that there is a forced withdrawal of cooling water and
further make up flow rate, caused by incapacity of the pond to provide the cooling
106
requirements. Subsequently, the water must be clean, since debris will create clogging
in the small passages in the electrical parts. The poor water quality should not be used
in cooling system of induction furnace because it is caused by scaling formation,
product corrosion and fouling. All cooling paths always should be taken care and
monitored throughout the induction melting process.

6.3. Cooling Tower Performance
In the cooling system study for electric induction furnace, one design of
cooling tower takes into account of the tower performance with the surrounding air by
governing the ratio of the weights of air to water and the time of contact between
water and air. The cooling tower performance influences on the wet bulb temperature
which is the vital importance in design and it is based on relevant meteorological
information, but must be modified to take account of the consequences of the design
figure being exceeded under operating conditions.
As the review of previous section 5.3, the water to air ratio (1.1813) and the
tower characteristic K
x
aV/L (1.4534) have been determined based on the wet bulb
temperature 77F (25C), the water flow rate 200 gal/min and the range 9F (5C)
between the hot and cold water temperature. By varying the wet bulb temperature in
the ambient air, the result of cooled-water putting out from the tower may be changed.
For the designed cooling tower, the wet bulb temperature is plotted to yield a
performance curve with the help of CTI Toolkit v.30 Software.
A review of the wet bulb temperature plots in Figure 6.3 as cooling tower
performance shows that the designed cooling tower with induced draft counterflow
type falls to the temperature 9F (5C) range. From the performance curve, the cooling
water temperature 82.4F (28C) can be occurred in the wet bulb temperature 77F
(25C) as the design condition.
By using the performance curve, it is determined to know the cooled-water
temperature on the designed wet bulb temperature as well as the minimal allowable
temperature. Moreover, the other different temperature ranges 8F, 10F and 11F are
plotted similarly on the performance curve at the condition of constant water flow rate
200 gal/min, the water to air ratio and the tower characteristics. It is also illustrated in
Figure 6.3 that is the type of performance curve furnished by the design of induced
draft cooling tower.
107
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81
Wet bulb t emper at ur e, F
(at 200 gal/min)
C
o
l
d

w
a
t
e
r

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
,

F
8F Range
9F Range
10F Range
11F Range

Figure 6.3. Comparison of Different Temperature Range at Constant Water Quantity

From the Figure 6.3, the required temperature range of the designed tower is
compared favorably to the variations with changes in wet bulb and hot water
temperatures while the water quantity is maintained constant. Using the comparison
of cooling tower performance curves, the hot water and cold water temperature
corresponding to the wet bulb temperature can be also determined extensively for the
induced draft cooling tower designs.

6.4. Process Influence on Tower
To apply the counterflow cooling tower as well as the extracting of cooled-
water across the fill, the design model has been described in section 5.3. For the
continuous operating time and mass production in melting process, cooling tower is
used instead of cooling pond. Based on the parameters of cooling pond, the design
conditions of cooling tower have been known as a result which consists of tower
height 22.7 ft, fill height 15.6 ft, fill volume 499 ft
3
, water to air ratio 1.1813 and
approach temperature 5.4F.
As shown in Figure 5.10, the area between
1 2 2 1
H H H H is not only the tower
characteristic but also the key in the design of tower. By varying this area, the tower
design may be changed for the process requirements. The comparison of three
statements: calculated design, changing the L/G ratio, and close approach are shown
in Table 6.1. In this table, the wet bulb temperature is emphasized on 77F for all
conditions.
108
Table 6.1. Comparison of Process Variables in Tower Design
Parameters
Calculated Design
Condition
L/G ratio Changing
Condition
Close Approach
Condition
Wet bulb
temperature, F
77 77 77
Hot water
temperature, F
91.4 91.4 88.4
Cold water
temperature, F
82.4 82.4 79.4
Range, F 9 9 9
Approach, F 5.4 5.4 2.4
L/G ratio 1.1813 1.5 1.1813
KaV/L 1.4534 1.9027 3.7656
Tower height, ft 22.7 37.74 58.82
Fill height, ft 15.6 19.84 15.62
Fill volume, ft
3
499 634 450

If the ground area is too limited or the ground area is a problem in the foundry
shop, such as when a cooling tower is erected atop a building, the L/G ratio should be
changed to meet the design requirement. In Table 6.1, the L/G ratio changing
condition employs a relatively high liquid loading without increasing the air quantity.
This is increased the slope of air operating line H
1
H
2
to H
1
(H
2
) as illustrated in
Figure 6.4.
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
7
9
.
4
8
0
.
4
8
1
.
4
8
2
.
4
8
3
.
4
8
4
.
4
8
5
.
4
8
6
.
4
8
7
.
4
8
8
.
4
8
9
.
4
9
0
.
4
9
1
.
4
9
2
.
4
9
3
.
4
Water temper at ur e, F
E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y
,

B
t
u
/
l
b

d
r
y

a
i
r
Water operating line
Air operating line
(calculated design)
Air operating line
(L/G changing)

H
2
'
(H
2
)
H
2
H
1
'
(L/G)
1
L/G
H
1
Figure 6.4. Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram of Air and Water by changing L/G ratio
109
The slope H
1
H
2
from the calculated design is changed to H
1
(H
2
)
significantly. Since the area
1 2 2 1
H H ) (H H between the saturation and operating lines
is smaller than the calculated designed area
1 2 2 1
H H H H , the tower potential is
decreased. As a result, the cross sectional area of the tower decrease, but the height of
the tower is more required in design. The great amount of fill volume is also used in
tower construction.
Another condition is the close approach that uses the same L/G ratio (same
slopes) and equal ranges of 9F for the removal of the same process heat load. This
condition is shown in Figure 6.5. The air operating line is removed from H
1
H
2
to
(H
1
) (H
2
) with the same inlet air but between the temperatures of 88.4F and 79.4F
instead of 91.4F and 82.4F. It is occurred that the area between the saturation curve
and the operating line is greatly decrease by (H
1
) (H
2
). As a result, the tower
characteristic value increases as 3.7656 and also decreases the tower potential.
Therefore, the higher tower height is needed in the construction site but the
requirement of fill volume is quite near to the calculated design fill.
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
7
9
.
4
8
0
.
4
8
1
.
4
8
2
.
4
8
3
.
4
8
4
.
4
8
5
.
4
8
6
.
4
8
7
.
4
8
8
.
4
8
9
.
4
9
0
.
4
9
1
.
4
9
2
.
4
9
3
.
4
Water temper at ur e, F
E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y
,

B
t
u
/
l
b

d
r
y

a
i
r
Water operating line
Air operating line
(calculated design)
Air operating line
(Close approach)

(H
2
)'
(H
2
)
H
2
(H
1
)'
(H
1
) H
1
Figure 6.5. Enthalpy-Temperature Diagram of Air and Water at the Close
Approach Condition
110



CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND FURTHER SUGGESTIONS

7.1. Conclusion
Cooling ponds are one of the economically competitive alternatives for the
dissipation of waste heat from electric induction furnaces, power plant, natural gas
generating stations and other industries. Based on the conceptual studies, cooling
pond system has been designed and constructed for 0.16 ton coreless induction
furnace. As a result of the strong interaction among the several process variables
involved, the cooling pond system is very complex. Besides, environmental heat
transfer mechanisms that are simulated by the pond system include solar radiation
heat gain, heat transfer due to evaporation, convection heat transfer to the atmosphere,
long-wave radiation heat transfer and conductive to the surrounding soil.
The solution scheme involves the calculation of cooling pond area, volume
resulting from the overall energy balance, the internal flow rate passing through the
induction coil and pump selection methods. As a result, the cooling pond surface area
1,000 ft
2
and volume 6,000 ft
3
can be given satisfactorily for the 0.16 ton melting
capacity of two coreless induction furnaces during the six hours operating time
without overheating and rising the water temperature in the pond. According to the
consideration of flow velocity, the velocity about 2.8 m/sec of the maximum melting
temperature of molten metal is obtained. The corresponded pump for cooling pond
system is the centrifugal pump sized of 11 kW, pumping capacity 0.69 m
3
/min and
total head 46 m.
Performance curves can be used in the selection of required pond size and the
designation of operating time corresponding to the furnace capacity. Results and
calculations are based on different climatic conditions and time limitation. The most
important influence on the cooling pond performance is pond surface area itself, but
not its depth.
The cooling system study specially pointed out that cooling pond can be
accepted as the heat exchanger apparatus giving the maximizing evaporative cooling
effect for 0.16 ton coreless induction furnace because it is inexpensive in construction,
111
simple in design and it can be used satisfactorily during warm weather (ambient
temperatures higher than water temperatures). Although the algae growth and in-
water barriers may occur in the pond, they can easily protect with the helps of
bioaugmentation and biofiltration process or other chemical treatments. To achieve
water temperatures at or near the wet bulb ambient temperature during the peak
temperature month, cooling pond also offers the most satisfactory solution.
Nevertheless, cooling pond system is suitable for the specified operating time
in electric induction furnaces, but it is insufficient for fulfilling the continuous
running time and mass production in melting process. Instead of cooling pond,
cooling tower system presented in the design of induced draft counterflow type should
be used efficiently and beneficially for coreless induction furnace. The design
calculations have been presented to construct the cooling tower as well as the
supplementary consideration of the use of cooling pond. Through the study, it is
shown that tower characteristic is the primary important factor.
Nowadays, the industrial sector is rapidly growing in Myanmar. To produce
the high quality metal products, electric induction furnaces are great tools for the
melting metals and casting applications. In electric induction furnaces, the cooling
system is an essential part to prevent overheats and damage of the induction coil. So,
the extensive emphasis of cooling system should be tried and considered to be more
efficient and effective rather than the present pond system. Finally, the general trend
studied on the cooling system is that the induction coil of electric melting furnace in
foundry sectors is an important role for fulfilling the cooling cycle completely.

7.2. Recommendation
The cooling system reviewed and overall assessment conducted to prevent the
damaging of induction coil for the furnaces also yielded some work practice
recommendations, which would assist foundries melting with coreless induction
furnace. The following are some of these recommendations concerning the cooling
system of induction melting furnaces.

Cooling pond system can be used for producing small amount of molten metal
such as 0.16 ton or 0.5 ton because of the low capital cost, but it requires the
larger surface area to maximize the evaporative cooling effect of pond.
112
Cooling tower system should be used for the continuous operating time in
induction furnace and mass production melting size of more than one ton
capacity. The space requirement of cooling tower is less than the cooling pond
although it has the higher constructing cost.

7.3. Further Suggestions
Further research suggests in the following factors.
The baffles with the different shapes should be applied to enhance the cooling
rate and longer residence time. With the baffle in the pond, the efficiency of
cooling pond can also be improved by introducing the proper slope under the
bottom of the pond to reduce dilution and by replenishing the quality make-up
water directly.
One of the heat exchangers such as shell and tube type heat exchanger, spiral
heat exchanger and plate and fame heat exchanger should be used for the
reduction in foundry complexity and space saving. The use of alternative
exchanger technologies in the cooling system of induction furnace will give
not only the superior thermal performance but also compact design and
multiple capabilities.


113



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(J une).
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[3] American Cast Metals Association et al. 1990. Foundry Energy Conservation
Workbook.
[4] A.D. Little. 1992. Alternative Melting Technologies in Scrap-based Steel
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[5] Smith and Bullard. 1995. Best Melting Practices in Medium Frequency
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nd
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nd
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nd
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edt, McGraw Hill International Edition, Singapore.
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Inc., New York.
[22] Peerless Pump, Brochure B-4003. 1979. System Analysis for Pumping
Equipment Selection, U.S.A.
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th
edt. Surrey, England: Trade &
Technical Press, Ltd.
[24] Walker, R. 1972. Pump Selection. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Ann Arbor Science
Publishers.
[25] Stepanoff, A. J . 1965. Pumps and Blowers, Two-Phase Flow, J ohn Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York.
[26] Hicks, T. G., and Edwards, T. W. 1971. Pump Application Engineering,
McGraw Hill Company, Inc., New York.
[27] Daily, J . W. 1950. Hydraulic Machinery, in Rouse, H., ed., Engineering
Hydraulic, New York: Wiley.
[28] Fox, R. W. and McDonald, A. T. 1994. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 4
th

edt, SI version, J ohn Wiley and Sons. Inc., New York.
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th

edt, WCB/ McGraw Hill Company, Singapore.
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<http://www.pacificliquid.com/pumpintro.pdf >
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Experimental Investigation of Emergency Heat Releases from Floating
Nuclear Power Plants, R. M. Parsons Laboratory for Water Resources
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and Hydrodynamics Technical Report No. 206, Department of Civil
Engineering, M.I.T.
[32] Cerco, C. F. 1977. Experimental and Analytical Study of the Design of
Shallow Cooling Ponds, Department of Civil Engineering, M.I.T.
[33] J irka, G. H.; Abraham, G. and Harleman, D. R. F. 1975. An Assessment of
Technique for Hydrothermal Prediction, R. M. Parsons Laboratory for
Water Resources and Hydrodynamics Technical Report No. 203,
Department of Civil Engineering, M.I.T.
[34] Ryan, P. J . and Harleman, D. R. F. 1973. An Analytical and Experimental
Study of Transient Cooling Pond Behavior, R. M. Parsons Laboratory for
Water Resources and Hydrodynamics Technical Report No.161,
Department of Civil Engineering, M.I.T.
[35] Edinger, J . E.; Brady, D. K. and Geyer, J . C. 1974. Heat Exchange and
Transport in the Environment, Report No. 14, Research Project RP-49,
Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA.
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Water Surface and the Atmosphere. Water Resources Research
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Control Planning, Engineering Laboratory, Norris, TN. April.
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Processes, 2
nd
Edt, J ohn Wiley, New York.
[39] Rietveld, M. R. 1978. A New Method for Estimating the Regression
Coefficients in the Formula Relating Solar Radiation to Sunshine
Agricultural Meteorology, 19, 243-252.
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Hill Publishing Company Limited, Bombay.
[41] Brunt, D. 1932. Notes on Radiation in the Atmosphere. Quarterly J ournal of
the Royal Meteorological Society, 58, pp. 389 418.
[42] Perry, Green, Dom W et al. 1995. Chemical Engineering Handbook, 6
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McGraw Hill Company, New York.
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Technologies, Inc. Overland Park, Kansas U.S.A.
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[44] London, A. L.; Mason, W. E. and Boetter, L. M. K. 1940. Performance
Characteristics of a Mechanically Induced Draft Counterflow Packed
Cooling Tower, Trans. ASME, vol.63, p-41.
[45] Merkel, F. 1925. Verdunstungskuchlung, VDI Forschungsarbeiten, No 275,
Berlin.
[46] Wang, S. K. 1993. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration,
McGraw Hill Company, U.S.A.
[47] Baker, D. R. and Shryock, H. A. 1961. A Comprehensive Approach to the
Analysis of Cooling Tower Performance, Technical Bulletin, R-61-P-13,
Markey Company, U.S.A.
[48] Moody, L. F. 1944. Friction Factors for Pipe Flow, Transactions of the
ASME, 66, 8, November, pp, 671 684.
[49] Crane Company. 1969 Flow of Fluids through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe,
Technical paper No 410, Chicago.
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st
edt, McGraw Hill Company Inc.,
New York and London.
117


APPENDIX A
PROGRAM

The followings are the Matlab program to evaluate the volume flow rate for
each branch in pipes and friction losses calculation.

clc

%#####Volume Flow Rate Calculation of Branches of Pipe Line for 0.16 Ton
Coreless Induction Furnace #####

fprintf('#####Volume Flow Rate Calculation of Branches of Pipe Line for 0.16 Ton
Coreless Induction Furnace #####\n');
QT=input('\n Sum of two flow rate , m3/min , QT =');
L1=input('Pipe length of one branch , m , L1 =');
L2=input('Pipe length of another branch , m , L2 =');
D1=input('Pipe diameter of one branch , m , D1 =');
D2=input('Pipe diameter of another branch , m , D2 =');
fprintf('\n We must be assumed the first volume flow rate of Q1 snd Q2. \n');
Q1=input('Volume flow rate on one branch , m , Q1 =');
Q2=input('Volume flow rate on another branch , m , Q2 =');
Nu1=input('Kinematic viscosity of one branch at -degree Celcius , m2/min , Nu1 =');
Nu2=input('Kinematic viscosity of another branch at -degree Celcius , m2/min , Nu2
=');

Re1=(4*Q1)/(pi*Nu1*D1);
Re2=(4*Q2)/(pi*Nu2*D2);

fprintf('\n Reynold number of one branch Re1 =%g ',Re1);
fprintf('\n Reynold number of another branch Re2 =%g ',Re2);
fprintf('\n Now we take the pipe wall roughness of the branches as GI or PVC. \n');
118
E1=input('Pipe wall roughness of one branch , mm , E1 =');
E2=input('Pipe wall roughness of another branch , mm , E2 =');
fprintf('\n By using these data. The relative roughness of the branches are: \n');

z=E1/(D1*1000);
x=E2/(D2*1000);

fprintf('\n E1/D1 =%g ',z);
fprintf('\n E2/D2 =%g ',x);
fprintf('\n From Moody"s diagram, using Reynold number and Relative roughness, we
have: \n');
f1=input('Friction factor of one branch , f1 =');
f2=input('Friction factor of one branch , f2 =');

hm1=f1*L1/D1;
hm2=f2*L2/D2;

a=input('\n Equivalent length of elbow according to the number of unit in one branch
(Le/De)1 =');
b=input('\n Equivalent length of valve according to the number of unit in one branch
(Le/Dv)1 =');
c=input('\n Equivalent length of Tee according to the number of unit in one branch
(Le/Dt)1 =');
d=input('\n Equivalent length of sudden contraction according to the number of unit in
one branch (Le/Dsc)1 =');
e=input('\n Equivalent length of sudden enlargement according to the number of unit
in one branch (Le/Dse)1 =');
a2=input('\n Equivalent length of elbow according to the number of unit in one branch
(Le/De)2 =');
b2=input('\n Equivalent length of valve according to the number of unit in one branch
(Le/Dv)2 =');
c2=input('\n Equivalent length of Tee according to the number of unit in one branch
(Le/Dt)2 =');
119
d2=input('\n Equivalent length of sudden contraction according to the number of unit
in one branch (Le/Dsc)2 =');
e2=input('\n Equivalent length of sudden enlargement according to the number of unit
in one branch (Le/Dse)2 =');
hn1=f1*(a+b+c+d+e);
hn2=f2*(a2+b2+c2+d2+e2);
hT1=hm1+hn1;
hT2=hm2+hn2;

fprintf('\n Total losses on one branch , m =%g \n',hT1);
fprintf('\n Total losses on another branch , m =%g \n',hT2);

A1=pi*D1^2/4;
A2=pi*D2^2/4;
PA=1+hT1;
PB=1+hT2;
w=sqrt(PB/PA);
A=[A1 A2;1 -w];
B=[QT;0];
X=inv(A)*B;
V1=X(1);
V2=X(2);
QT1=V1*A1+V2*A2;
Q11=V1*A1
Q22=V2*A2

while Q1 ~=Q11 ;

f1=input('Friction factor of one branch , f1 =');
f2=input('Friction factor of one branch , f2 =');

Q1=Q11;

hm1=f1*L1/D1;
120
hm2=f2*L2/D2;
hn1=f1*(a+b+c+d+e);
hn2=f2*(a2+b2+c2+d2+e2);
hT1=hm1+hn1;
hT2=hm2+hn2;
A1=pi*D1^2/4;
A2=pi*D2^2/4;
PA=1+hT1;
PB=1+hT2;
w=sqrt(PB/PA);
A=[A1 A2;1 -w];
B=[QT;0];
X=inv(A)*B;
V1=X(1);
V2=X(2);
Q11=V1*A1
Q22=V2*A2
A=abs(Q11-Q1);


if A <0.00009;

V11=V1/60;
V22=V2/60;
fprintf('\n Flow velocity on one branch =%g m/min \n',V1);
fprintf('\n Flow velocity on another branch =%g m/min \n',V2);
fprintf('\n Flow velocity on one branch =%g m/sec \n',V11);
fprintf('\n Flow velocity on another branch =%g m/sec \n',V22);
fprintf('\n Volume flow rate on one branch =%g m3/min \n',Q1);
fprintf('\n Volume flow rate on another branch =%g m3/min \n',Q2);

break
end
end
121



APPENDIX B
GRAPHS



Figure B.1. Skin Effect in Isolated Rounded Copper Tubings
Source: Loew (1954)


122

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a
s
i
n
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c
l
a
s
s


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m
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a
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h
e
s
)

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e
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i
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e

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o
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)








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124




Figure B.4. Nomograph of Cooling Tower Characteristics
Source: Perry et al. (1995)





125



APPENDIX C
TABLES

Table C.1. Pipe Roughness Design Values
Material Roughness, (mm) Roughness, (ft)
Glass, plastic Smooth Smooth
Riveted steel 0.9 9 0.003 0.03
Concrete 0.3 3 0.001 0.01
Wood stave 0.18 0.9 0.0006 0.003
Cast iron 0.25 0.00085
Galvanized iron 0.15 0.0005
Asphalted cast iron 0.12 0.0004
Commercial steel of wrought iron 0.046 0.00015
Drawn tubing (Copper, brass, lead tubing) 0.0015 0.000005
Source: Streeter and Wylie (1998)

Table C.2. Resistance in Valves and Fitting expressed as Equivalent Length in Pipe
Diameters, Le/D
Type Equivalent length in pipe diameter, Le/D
Globe valve fully open 340
Angle valve fully open 145
Gate valve fully open 5
Check valve swing type 135
Check valve ball type 150
Foot valve with strainer hinged disk 75
Butterfly fully open 40
90 standard elbow 30
90 long radius elbow 20
90 street elbow 50
Ball valve 3
45 standard elbow 16
45 street elbow 26
Close return bend 50
Standard tee with flow through run
with flow through branch
20
60
Source: The Crane Co. Chicago, Ill (1969), Hunsaker and Rightmire (1947), and
Mott (1979)
126
Table C.3. Properties of Water at Various Temperatures
(Referred to water at 68F, weighting 62.32 lb/ft
3
)
Temperature,
F
Vapor
pressure,
psig
Vapor
pressure, ft
absolute
Specific
gravity
50 0.41 1.002
60 0.59 1.001
70 0.84 1
80 1.17 0.998
90 1.62 0.997
100 2.2 0.995
110 2.96 0.993
120 3.95 0.99
130 5.2 0.988
140 6.78 0.985
150 8.74 0.982
160 11.2 0.979
170 14.2 0.975
180 17.85 0.972
190 22.3 0.968
200 27.6 0.965
210 34 0.961
220 2.49 41.45 0.957
230 6.07 50.35 0.953
240 10.27 60.75 0.948
250 15.12 73 0.944
260 20.72 87.35 0.939
270 27.15 103.3 0.935
280 34.48 122 0.93
290 42.85 144 0.925
300 52.3 169 0.92
Source: http://www.pacificliquid.com/ pumpintro.pdf

Table C.4. Comparison of Different Roofing Materials, Showing White (Cooler Option)

Roofing
material
Reflectance
value
Reflectance for white
(cooler option)
Cost increase for
white (cooler option)
Asphalt shingle 5 15 % 31 35 % <1 %
Clay tile 25 35 % 70 80 % ~35 %
Concrete tile 10 30 % 70 80 % ~20 %
Cementitious
shingle
10 30 % 60 80 % None
Metal sheet or
shingle
70 % 70 80 % None

Source: Green Seat, Energy Star

Homes Project
127




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