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Empowering a-A Males - Wynn Notes

Empowering a-A Males - Wynn Notes

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Published by LL1885
Guilford County Schools
African American Males Symposium
North Carolina
Race To The Top
Guilford County Schools
African American Males Symposium
North Carolina
Race To The Top

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Published by: LL1885 on Aug 28, 2014
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Empowering African-American Males to Succeed

Teaching, Parenting, and Mentoring Successful Black Males: A Quick Guide
(Wynn, 2007) provides a research-responsive approach for expanding
elementary school-through-college outcomes for black male learners. The
Quick Guide is taken from the larger text, Empowering African-American
Males to Succeed: A Guide to Increasing Black Male Achievement (Wynn,
2005). These notes support the July 21 - 23, 2014 presentation for Guilford
County Schools.
Prepared by:
Mychal Wynn
Foundation for Ensuring Access and Equity
P.O. Box 70457
Marietta, GA 30007
P (678) 395-5825 | fax (770) 587-0862
© 2014, Mychal Wynn • www.accessandequity.org • page 1 of 20
[Slide 4]
[Overview: Why Focus on Black Males (p. 1)?]
Addressing the Black male crisis requires first, raising the question, “What
is the problem?” If there is in fact a problem, we must raise the question,
“What do we want to do about it?”
Creating a conversational community can provide a pathway to culturally
relevant teaching.
[Slide 5]
Current research can guide where our conversations should be focused.
[Slide 6]
Key findings from University of Pennsylvania’s professor Shaun Harper’s
research study, Black Student Success in Higher Education, outlines an “anti-
deficit” framework for refocusing our conversations from why so many black
males are not performing well, to focusing on the researched-based factors
that contribute to black male success.
Many successful black males note:
• College was a “non-negotiable” expectation of their parents;
• They had access to educational resources, i.e., tutoring, academic
support, college prep assistance;
• Their early schooling included at least one influential teacher who
affirmed their interest in pursuing college and provided guidance
through the college planning process;
• They had college planning support from local initiatives, faith- and
community-based programs, and enrichment programs.
[Slide 7]
Components of an effective “Conversational Community:”
• Engage in “authentic conversations” that are driven by data, research-
responsive, reflective of expectations, and focused on outcomes;
• Focused on what is working, who is successful (teachers, students,
and parents, coaches), and why;
• Conversations are used to guide assessments and reinforce a culture
where staff persons are “vested” in student outcomes.
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 2 of 20
The right conversations can provide a pathway to institutional
Clarifying Your Mission
Before forging ahead with assessing problems, conceptualizing solutions,
or developing implementation plans, we must engage in the painstaking
task of clarifying the mission, i.e., purpose.
[Chapter 1: Mission, p. 11]
[Slide 8]
“The mission of this school is to maximize student learning.”
Focus of the conversations:
• What is the level of student learning I am pursuing?
• What type of relationships do I desire to establish with students and
• What are the measurable student performance outcomes I hope to
• What knowledge, skills, and strategies are required to fulfill my
A commonly held misperception among educators is that Black males,
particularly if they live in lower income communities, have parents who do not
care about their achievement levels; however, research provides a very
different narrative, for example University of Pennsylvania professor Shaun
Harper’s research study, Succeeding in the City: A Report from the New York
City Black and Latino Male High School Achievement Study, (p. 16) notes:
Most common was parents’ dissatisfaction with grades they believed were
unreflective of their children’s full potential. In several interviews, young
men recalled how they felt good about earning 90% on tests, but their
parents’ reaction was “why didn’t you get a hundred?” Some had proven
their academic aptitude in elementary school, but their grades declined in
middle school. Their parents refused to excuse this change and instead
nagged the teens, found ways to get them tutoring and other forms of
academic support, and punished them by taking away privileges they had
come to enjoy.
When educators operate from a deficit focus, i.e., “These children come
from households where parents do not value education,” they are invariably
unprepared to engage parents who are dissatisfied with low quality, low
performance, and class-work that is not perceived as intellectually stimulating.
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 3 of 20
When confronted with this very different narrative, and parents who have
much higher academic expectations than teachers may be accustomed to,
teachers are challenged with developing strategies driven by the question,
“Am I meeting the needs of parents who are concerned about their son’s
education?” Conversations focused on developing strategies that meet the
needs of concerned parents will guide teachers through a critical self-
examination of instructional practices, parent-student engagement, and
teacher expectations.
[Slide 9]
Key findings (Harper, 2014):
• Few students came from families who did not care about education
• Families typically reaffirmed student potential and high expectations of
student success
• They [students and parents] viewed education as a way out of poverty
• Influential adults made a difference, e.g., parents, teachers, coaches,
counselors, social workers
[Slide 10]
Video: Marva Collins 60 Minutes Interview [https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=r4qqnBazyeA]: What is your vision of student outcomes as a result
of the classroom experience that you cultivate?
Tell your neighbor 3 “Big” things you want to achieve in the first 30 days:
Relevance: You want students to understand the “relevance” of your
You want to inspire effort and build trust.
Relationships: You want to develop successful teacher-student and
student-student relationships.
You want to create a community of shared success and effective home-
school communication.
Rigor: You want to maximize time spent on-task.
You want to teach “bell to bell.”
Black Male Success in Higher Education (p. 9):
The participants’ early schooling experiences almost always included at
least one influential teacher who helped solidify their interest in going to
college. Several told stories about how a few educators went beyond
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 4 of 20
typical teaching duties to ensure these young men had the information,
resources, and support necessary to succeed in school.
[Slide 11]
A student’s classroom experience has less to do with where he comes
from and more to do with the teacher created dynamics of the classroom.
[Slide 12]
Video: Remember the Titans [https://www.youtube.com/watch?
Student engagement must be well-planned: Plan the movie you will show,
book you will read, or story you will tell to frame your vision and expectations.
Example of what I would say to a parent:
“There are some things that you may do differently this year. Mr. Wynn
knows that you are brilliant and Mr. Wynn expects you to behave
‘brilliantly.’ Although we will probably have a lot of fun this year, ensuring
that you have fun is not my job. My job is to teach and your job is to learn.
We will need to deal with any obstacle that interferes with me doing my job
or interferes with you doing your job. Mr. Wynn’s classroom moves at a
fast pace, so when I say ‘Check’ you say ‘Up.’ This lets me know that you
are ready to move on to the next lesson.”
“Parents, my top goal is that your child ends this school year at, or
beyond, where he or she should be academically.
“Your child’s success this school year, will be a critical step toward
receiving a full college scholarship 8 years from now (4th grade to 12th
grade), like my former students Raigon Wilson and Jalani Wynn.”
[Slides 13-16]
Your success should be purposeful. Plan, Do, Assess, Debrief, Plan, Do,
Assess, Debrief—continually measure the effectiveness of your strategies.
• Parent Communication
• Student Engagement
• Homework Completion
• Test Performance
• Classroom Conflicts
• Classroom Participation
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 5 of 20
[Slide 17]
Parents look to teachers for guidance when teachers establish themselves
as “village elders.” Plan how you will earn the respect of parents:
• Share examples of what you are teaching and what students should be
• Share “examples” of how parents can support learning.
• Share stories of student success (look for stories to share).
• Have an open invitation to visit your classroom.
• Prepare students for visitors, “Amari, you are our Student Ambassador
for this week.”
• Display student work and photographs to “Show Off” what occurs in
your classroom.
[Slides 18-21]
Teachers earn the greatest level of respect when parents can see how
their children are being engaged.
[Slide 22]
• How big are your dreams?
• “The central goal of our school district is to prepare you for life after
high school.”
• “I want every student to write their college or career dream onto this
• “It is important for me to create a classroom experience that is
meaningful and relevant to preparing you to pursue your dreams.”
[Slide 23]
Example of what I would share at the first parent meeting, e.g., curriculum
night or back to school night. The essay provides an example of the level of
writing I am preparing students to be able to do in the future:
Prepare a PowerPoint presentation for your first parent meeting and begin
by sharing one of your success stories to inspire parent confidence. This
presentation should also serve to help students and parents to understand
why your class is meaningful and relevant to students’ lives.
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 6 of 20
Except from Raigon’s Essay:
“Like any other day, I stepped off the bus, hurried up the tall stack of
steps, pushed through the revolving doors, flashed my employee badge,
waved to Ms. Fields, and walked through the large lobby. I could only hear
my footsteps as they reverberated through the tall atrium. I paused a
moment, as I always do, to take in the white, airy expanse of the museum
and watch the sun slowly seep through the skylights. After my morning
ritual I strolled down one of several ramps that wind from one floor to the
next and entered the room where my coworkers and I meet...”
College Acceptances: Auburn University; Boston University; Cornell
University; Drexel University; Howard University; Kings College London; La
Salle University; Pomona College; Southern Illinois University; Temple
University; Texas Christian University; University of Illinois - Chicago;
University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
[Slides 24-25]
Jalani Wynn: 2012 Gates Millennium Scholar, attending Morehouse
[Slide 26]
There are key components of a classroom climate and culture that is
conducive to teaching and learning:
• Students must have a sense of self-identify and self-pride
• The teacher must have high expectations
• There must be individual, group, and classroom norms
• Students’ vocabulary must be expanded within a culturally relevant
context, e.g, resilience, perseverance, fortitude, persistence, graceful,
and compassionate, including the situational appropriateness of
Standard English and academic language
[Slide 27]
The text, The Eagles who Thought They were Chickens (Wynn, 1999) is
used to cultivate a culturally responsive and holistic classroom environment
where students can spread their wings and soar toward their dreams.
For black males to pursue their dreams, the teacher must create an
environment that inspires, affirms, and validates their gifts, talents, potential,
and historical past:
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 7 of 20
Use literature to affirm your beliefs and frame your expectations.
“I am expecting people to visit our classroom throughout the school year,
so each student will need to have a name card on their desk, e.g.,
Amazing Amanda, Incredible Iesha, Remarkable Ray-Ray.”
[Slide 28]
Tell parents what you are going to do to help their children to spread their
wings and what you need for them to do to support you.
“Some of the ways that I work with parents to ensure their child’s success
in my classroom are:”
• I send home a weekly folder on Friday with student work (graded and
unfinished), important notes, and parent tips (and post to teacher
• If I need to contact you, I will try to contact you via the best method that
you determine (i.e., phone, email, text message, note in bottle, etc.).
• My classroom is always open and you are always welcomed to come
and observe or to volunteer.
[Slide 29]
Rigor, relevance, and relationships—First “Relevance,” then
“Relationships,” and finally, “Rigor.”
Culturally relevant classroom management is built around a set of
expectations that are “relevant” and reflective of the desired student-teacher
relationship [Following are examples of teacher voice prompts in classrooms
where teachers have fostered strong teacher-student relationships and the
language has become reflective of a collaborate classroom culture of respect
and high teacher expectations]:
• “Class,” ‘Yes’; “Class, class” ‘Yes, yes‘.”
• “Excuse me...”
• “My I have your attention...”
• “One...Two...Three...Four...Five.”
• “Councilman Hester.”
[Slide 30]
Video: Work hard, Work Smart, Be Consistent [https://
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 8 of 20
Black males in the primary grades who aspire to become professional
athletes provide us with many opportunities to create cultural constructs to
frame our expectations:
• It’s not the “workout” it’s the “work ethic”
• Building your brain is as easy as building muscle
• Read, think, write, and speak represent push-ups and sit-ups for the
Read: “Where you come from does not determine where you are going,
only where you began.”
Think: What does it mean to you?
Write: Write down your thoughts.
Speak: Talk to your neighbor about what you wrote.
[Slide 31]
Video: The Pact [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vY6KNYMhaj0]
Culturally relevant and enabling texts provide a pathway to increasing student
We must expand student access to enabling texts:
More than 30% of the adolescents [surveyed] did not identify a single text
they found significant. A young man offered that ‘I need to read interesting
topics like teen drama, violence, something you can relate your life or
other people’s lives to.’There are several reasons adolescents refuse to
read. Primary among them are a lack of interest in the texts and a lack of
requisite skills and strategies for handling the text independently. It is
imperative to identify and engage students with texts that pay attention to
their multiple identities. (Tatum 2013)
An enabling text is one that moves beyond a sole cognitive focus—such
as skill and strategy development—to include an academic, cultural,
emotional, and social focus that moves students closer to examining
issues they find relevant to their lives. For example, texts can be used to
help high school students wrestling with the question, What am I going to
do with the rest of my life? This is a question most adolescents find
essential as they engage in shaping their identities.
[Tatum, Enabling Texts: Texts That Matter]
Create book clubs reflective of the genres and interests of students.
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 9 of 20
[Slide 32]
Video: Ghetto Cowboy [https://www.youtube.com/watch?
[Slides 33-37]
Book: Follow Your Dreams: Lessons That I Learned in School (Wynn,
We must expand student access to enabling texts:
• What stories relate to my dreams, reflect my obstacles, and are
culturally relevant to my life?
• What stories relate to my gifts and talents?
• What stories can help me set goals and guide me along my pathway to
• What stories will help me pursue my college or career aspirations?
• What stories have characters who are going through what I am going
• What stories will inspire me to engage in self-reflection and self-
[Slide 38]
How to make your dreams a reality:
• Keep your dreams with you at all times and share them with people
you meet.
• Communicate them to parents with your weekly folders.
• Dedicate a bulletin board recognizing the people who are making your
dreams a reality.
• Engage students in writing letters to share their appreciation of those
who are making their classroom dreams a reality.
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 10 of 20
[Slide 39]
Video: Frame the classroom experience you hope to inspire [https://
My goals for this classroom (verbal and visual):
• I want to teach “bell to bell.”
• I want for each student to become better, smarter, and more gifted
each day.
• I want a classroom where it is okay to fail so that each day we can
learn how to become more successful.
• I want all of my students to develop their “Academic SWAG!”
[Slide 40]
Video: Urban Prep [https://www.youtube.com/watch?
The goal of school communities and classroom teachers must be to create
a culture where black males believe that school-based personnel are “vested”
in their success.
School and classroom culture reflects the total environment:
• Language that is empowering (standard English is “academic
• Texts that are enabling
• Instruction that continuously reaffirms potential
• Teacher language that communicates high expectations
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 11 of 20
!r. Wynn Dreams of...

"rea#ng a book space $at wi% provide students wi$ a broad range of li&rary choices'(c#on,
)on(c#on, poe*y, classics, urban, horror, his+rical, and favori& reads.

"rea#ng a reading space where students may sit, relax, and enjoy $eir favori& book.

,os#ng au$or talks, where visi#ng au$ors bring $eir books + life.

,os#ng volun&er book reads, where parents, older siblings, communi- leaders, and local volun&er.
/hare $eir favori& books wi$ our students.
0ou can assist Mr. Wynn in achieving his dreams by dona#ng books, book shelves, an old rocking chair,
bean bags, a nice lamp, or any$ing $at would assist in crea#ng our book and reading space. Perhaps yo1
2ay wish + perform a reading, recommend a visi#ng au$or, or support our e3orts wi$ a (nancia4
5lease return $is form 6+ge$er wi$ your dona#on7 + Mr. Wynn, Room #.
8ank you for helping + make our dreams a reali-.
• Parent engagement that is reaffirming of shared ownership of student
• Practices and pedagogy that are aligned with beliefs and expectations
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 12 of 20
The primary grades: A reading list for black males
1 47 (Mosley)
A Band of Angels: A Story Inspired by the Jubilee Singers
A Middle School Plan for Students with College-Bound Dreams
(Wynn 2007)
An Invisible Thread: The True Story of an 11-year-old Panhandler,
a Busy Sales Executive, and an Unlikely Meeting (Schroff 2012)
5 Away West (McKissack 2006)
Backyard Animal Show, The (Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs #5)
(Draper 2006)
7 Bad News for Outlaws (Nelson)
8 Barack (Winter)
9 Barack Obama: Son of Promise, Child of Hope (Grimes)
10 Begging for Change (Flake 2004)
11 Between Madison and Palmetto (Book #3) (Woodson 2002)
12 Bird in a Box (Pinkney)
13 Black Jack: The Ballad of Jack Johnson (Smith)
14 Black Pioneers of Science and Invention (Haber 1992)
15 Bud, Not Buddy (Curtis 2004)
Buried Bones Mystery, The (Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs #1)
(Draper 2006)
Catching the Dream: The Story of a Young Girl's Baseball Dream
(Hubbard 2010)
18 Chess Rumble (Neri 2007)
19 Color Me Dark: The Diary of Nellie Lee Love (McKissack 2000)
20 Curtis Aikens and the American Dream (Rather)
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 13 of 20
21 Darnell Rock Reporting (Myers 1996)
22 Dave the Potter: Artist, Poet, Slave (Hill)
23 Don’t Quit - Inspirational Poetry (Wynn 1998)
24 Dreams of My Father by Barack Obama (Obama 2004)
25 Elijah of Buxton (Curtis, 2007)
Every Little Thing: Based on the song ‘Three Little Birds’ by Bob
Marley (Marley 2012)
Follow Your Dreams: Lessons That I Learned in School (Wynn
28 Forged by Fire (Draper, 1998)
29 Freedom on the Menu: The Greensboro Sit-Ins (Weatherford 2007)
30 Friendship for Today, A (McKissack 2007)
31 Ghetto Cowboy (Neri)
32 Gifted Hands, Kids Edition: The Ben Carson Story (Lewis 2009)
33 Glory Be (Scattergood)
34 Go for It! (Ervin “Magic” Johnson/Novak)
35 Goin’ Someplace Special (McKissack)
36 Grandfather and I (Buckley)
Hand in Hand: Ten Black Men Who Changed America (Pinkney
38 Handbook for Boys (Myers 2003)
39 He’s Got the Whole World in His Hands (Nelson 2005)
Henry’s Freedom Box: A True Story from the Underground Railroad
Hip Hop Speaks to Children: A Celebration of Poetry with a Beat
(Giovanni 2008)
42 Home-Run King (Scraps of Time) (McKissack 2009)
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 14 of 20
43 Hoops (Myers 1983)
44 Hot, Salty, Sweet, Sour (Smith 2003)
How to (Almost) Ruin Your School Play (Willimena Rules! Book #4)
(Wesley 2005)
How to Face Up to the Class Bully (Willimena Rules! Book #6)
(Wesley 2007)
47 Hush (Woodson 2002)
48 I Hadn't Meant to Tell You This (Woodson 2010)
49 I love The Skin I’m In (Flake 1998)
I Survived #7: I Survived the Battle of Gettysburg, 1863 (Tarshis
51 It’s Crunch Time! (Brewer 2011)
Jackson Jones and Mission Greentop (Book #1) (Quattlebaum
Jackson Jones and the Curse of the Outlaw Rose (Book #3)
(Quattlebaum 2008)
Jackson Jones and the Puddle of Thorns (Book #2) (Quattlebaum
55 John Henry (Lester)
56 Jones Family Express, The (Steptoe 2005)
57 Julian’s Glorious Summer (Cameron 1987)
58 Junebug in Trouble (Mead 2003)
59 Juneteenth: Freedom Day (Branch)
60 Keena Ford and the Field Trip Mix-Up (Thomson 2009)
61 Keena Ford and the Second-Grade Mix-Up (Thomson 2008)
62 Keeping the Night Watch (2008)
63 Laugh with the Moon (Burg)
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 15 of 20
64 Letters to Young Black Men (Whyte, III)
65 Lift Every Voice and Sing (Johnson)
66 Lincoln and Douglass: An American Friendship (Giovanni)
67 Locomotion (Woodson 2003)
68 Looking Like Me (Myers)
Lost in the Tunnel of Time (Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs #2)
(Draper 2006)
70 Love to Langston (Medina)
71 March: Book 1 (Rep. John Lewis & Andrew Aydin 2013)
72 Meet Danitra Brown (Grimes 1997)
73 Miami Sees it Through (Miami Jackson series) (McKissack 2001)
74 Minty: A Story of Young Harriet Tubman (Schroeder 2000)
75 Mister and Me (Holt 2000)
76 More Stories Julian Tells (Cameron 1989)
More Than Anything Else (The Story of Booker T. Washington)
(Bradby 1995)
My Brother Martin: A Sister Remembers Growing Up with the Rev.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (Christine King Farris)
79 My Life as a Rhombus (Johnson 2008)
80 My Man Blue (Grimes 2002)
81 Nelson Mandela (Kadir 2013)
Nobody Owns the Sky: The Story of “Brave Bessie” coleman
83 One Crazy Summer (Williams-Garcia 2011)
84 Only Passing Through: The Story of Sojourner Truth (Rockwell)
85 Out of My Mind (Draper 2010)
86 P.S. Be Eleven (Williams-Garcia 2013)
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 16 of 20
87 Peace, Locomotion (Woodson 2009)
88 Percy Julian: Forgotten Genius (Agard)
89 Pink and Say (Polacco 1994)
90 Remember: The Journey to School Integration (Morrison)
91 Richard Wright and the Library Card (Miller)
92 Rock of Ages: A Tribute to the Black Church (Bolden)
93 Romiette and Julio (Draper 2001)
94 Rosa (Giovanni)
Ruby Flips for Attention (Ruby and the Booker Boys) (Barnes
96 Ruth and the Green Book (Ramsey 2010)
Shadows of Caesar's Creek (Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs #3)
(Draper 2006)
98 Shimmershine Queens (Yarbrough 1996)
99 Show Way (Woodson 2005)
100 Sit-In: How Four Friends Stood Up by Sitting Down (Pinkney)
Slumber Party Payback (Ruby and the Booker Boys) (Barnes
102 Song for Harlem (McKissack 2006)
103 Sounder (Armstrong 2002)
Space Mission Adventure, The (Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs #4)
(Draper 2006)
105 Sparrow (Smith 2008)
106 Spellbound (McDonald 2001)
Stars and Sparks Onstage (Ziggy and the Black Dinosaurs #6)
(Draper 2007)
108 STAT: Standing Tall and Talented #1 (Stoudemire 2012)
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 17 of 20
109 Street Love (Myers 2007)
110 Sunrise Over Fallujah (Myers 2008)
111 Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt (Hopkinson 2003)
112 Sweet Hereafter (Heaven Trilogy #3) (Johnson 2010)
113 Sweet Music In Harlem (Taylor 2004)
114 Taking the Lead (Moore 2012)
Talkin' About Bessie: The Story of Aviator Elizabeth Coleman
(Grimes 2002)
116 Tears of Tiger (Draper 1994)
117 The Bat Boy and His Violin (Curtis 2001)
The Broken Bike Boy and the Queen of 33rd Street (Flake
119 The Colors of Us (Katz 2002)
120 The Eagles who Thought They were Chickens (Wynn 1999)
121 The Other Half of My Heart (Frazier)
122 The Pact (Jenkins, Hunt, Davis, 2002)
123 The poem, “Our Deepest Fear” (Williamson 1992)
124 The Story of Ruby Bridges (Coles)
125 The Toothpaste Millionaire (Merrill)
126 The Village That Vanished (Nelson 2004)
There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in
The Other America (Kotlowitz 1992)
Trivia Queen, 3rd Grade Supreme (Ruby and the Booker Boys)
(Barnes 2008)
129 Under the Quilt of Night (Hopkinson 2005)
Vision of Beauty: The Story of Sarah Breedlove Walker (Lasky
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 18 of 20
141 Watsons Go To Birmingham - 1963 (Curtis 2000)
142 Way a Door Closes, The (Smith 2003)
We Beat the Street: How a Friendship Pact Led to Success (Davis,
Jenkins, Hunt 2006)
144 We March (Evans)
What Color Is My World?: The Lost History of African-American
Inventors (Abdul-Jabbar 2012)
146 When Harriet Met Sojourner (Clinton 2007)
147 When Marian Sang (Ryan 2003)
Words with Wings: A Treasury of African-American Poetry and Art
149 You Can Do It! (Dungy 2008)
150 Yummy: The Last Days of a Southside Shorty (Neri 2010)
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 19 of 20
Brundin, J. (2014). Teachers undo personal biases to help students of color
engage. Colorado Public Radio.
Harper, S. (2012). Black Male Success in Higher Education. University of
Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education.
Harper, S.R., & Associates. (2014). Succeeding in the city: A report from the
New York City Black and Latino Male High School Achievement
Student. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the
Study of Race and Equity in Education.
Kafele, B. (2009). Teaching Black Male Students. Principal Leadership.
(March, 2010 pp. 76-78).
Landsman, J. (2004). Confronting the Racism of Low Expectations.
Educational Leadership (November 2004, pp. 28-32).
Oakes, J., Rogers, J., at. al. (2006). Removing the Roadblocks: Fair
College Opportunities for All California Students. Los Angeles:
University of California/All Campus Consortium for Research
Diversity. <http://idea.gseis.ucla.edu/publications/files/
Tatum, A. (2013). Enabling Texts: Texts That Matter. < http://
Tatum, A. (2006). Engaging African American Males in Reading.
Educational Leadership (February 2006).
Tatum, A. (2009). Reading for Their Life: (Re) Building the Textual Lineages
of African American Adolescent Males. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Wynn, M. (2005). Empowering African-American Males to Succeed: A
Guide to Increasing Black Male Achievement. Rising Sun Publishing:
Marietta, GA.
Wynn, M. (2007). Teaching, Parenting, and Mentoring Successful Black
Males: A Quick Guide. Rising Sun Publishing: Marietta, GA.
© 2014 Mychal Wynn • info@accessandequity.org • page 20 of 20

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