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PHARMACEUTICAL AIDS AND NECESSITIES

Important topics about the


preparation, preservation, and storage
of pharmaceutical products
4 MAJOR SUBJECT AREAS
ACIDS and BASES- used in the
conversion of drugs to chemical form
BUFFERS- maintain pH of formulations
but with prescribed limits
ANTIOXIDANTS- prevents oxidative
decomposition of pharmaceutically
active components
WATER- primary solvent in most liquid
pharmaceutical preparation
GLASS- for storage and as dispensing
container for most drug product
OFFICIAL INORGANIC ACIDS
BORIC ACID NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Boracic Acid, Hydrogen
Borate or Orthoboric Acid, Agua Boricada
Free Boric- found in sea waters, plants, nearly
all fruits, and volcanic steam jets
Sassolite- Native Boric acid
Soluble in water and alcohol
Freely soluble in glycerin, boiling water
and boiling alcohol
HCl decreases its solubility in water
Weak acid
Is not absorbed by the skin unless
broken; highly toxic when orally
ingested



SOURCES OF BORIC ACID
Rasorite or Kernite- produce borax and
variety of soaps; Na
2
B
4
O
7
4H
2
O
Borax- white mineral in some alkaline
salt deposits, used in making glass and
ceramics, as a metallurgical flux, and as
an antiseptic. ; Na
2
B
4
O
7
10H
2
O
Borocalcite CaB
4
O
7
4H
2
O
Colemanite Ca
3
B
6
O
10
5H
2
O
Tincal - native borax ; H
3
BO
3
Na
2
B
4
O
7

2CaB
4
O
7
18H
2
0
THREE FORMS OF BORIC ACID
1. Colorless, odorless, pearly scales
2. Six-scaled triclinic crystals
3. White, odorless powder which is
unctuous to touch

Scale and Crystalline form are more
suitable for aqueous solutions.
USES OF BORIC ACID
n.l.t. 99.5% and n.m.t. 100.5% boric acid
according to the National Formulary
calculated as anhydrous form
Antiseptic
Weak bacteriostatic
Eye wash


HYDROCHLORIC ACID NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Muriatic Acid,
Spirit of Sea Salt, Marine Acid, and
Espiritu de Sal Marina

it is an aqueous solution of
Hydrogen chloride gas of n.l.t. 35% and n.m.t.
38% by weight of HCl

PROPERTIES OF HCl
Colorless fuming liquid
Has a pungent odor
MURIATIC ACID- yellow in color because
of impurities (chlorine, arsenous and
sufurous acids and iron)

USES OF HCL
Acidifying agent especially in the
laboratory
Converts normally water insoluble
organic bases into a water soluble form
for extraction or sepration
DILUTED HCl
Exists in the normal gastric juice
Aids conversion of pepsinogen into
pepsin and proteids into peptones
Gastric antiseptic
Cures gastric achlorhydria and
hypochlohydria
Highly diluted in water and supplied
through a glass tube or straw to avoid
solvent action on the enamel of teeth
Betaine Hydrochloride and Glutamic
Acid Hydrochloride
To avoid difficulty
Crystalline and may be in capsule form
Liberate HCl in the stomach


NITRIC ACID NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Spirit of Nitre, Aqua
Fortis & Agua Fuerte

Highly corrosive fuming liquid
Highly irritating odor
Boils at 120C w/a specific gravity of
1.41
An aqueous solution that produces a
yellow stain on animal tissues.
Xanthoprotheic test nitration of
aromatic amino acids, phenylamine,
tyrosine and tryptophan.

PROPERTIES OF NITRIC ACID
Strong monopratic acid
Enhanced by HNO
2

Oxidizes all common metals except Au
& Pt
Used extensively in organic chemistry.
Substituted w/NO
2
(nitro group) to
produce trinitrotoluene (TNT)
Similar acidic properties with HCl

USES OF NITRIC ACID
Acidifying agent for bases
Unique dimension of oxidizing &
nitrating properties
Used in the manufacture of sulfuric
acid,
o coal tar dyes, and explosives
Source of nitrate ion in the preparation
of Milk of Bismuth
Externally used to destroy chancres and
warts.


PHOSPHORIC ACID NF 26
ALSO KNOWN: Orthophosphoric Acid
and Acido Orthofosforico
Colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid having
a specific gravity of 1.71
Non-volatile and has no oxidizing
properties
Used as an acidifying agent
Treated with NaOH at particular conc.
to produce HPO
4
& H
2
PO
4

Solvent in the preparation of Anileridine
Injection

Diluted Phosphoric Acid (dil. H
3
PO
4
)
Used as a tonic and stimulant
Acts as synergistic to pepsin
Aids in the formulation of peptones
Used in making some pharmaceutical
preparations



SULFURIC ACID NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Oil of Vitriol, Vitriolic Acid,
and Aceite de Vitriolo

PROPERTIES
Colorless, odorless liquid of oily
consistency
Vaporized when strongly heated
Does not volatilize at lower levels of
heat
Strong diprotic acid
Useful as a dehydrating agent, oxidizing
agent and sulfonating or sulfating agent

PREPARATION
oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur
trioxide and adding enough water to
form sulfuric acid.

Lead Chamber Process
76% by weight of Sulfuric acid
mainly used in the manufacture of the
fertilizer, primary calcium phosphate,
known in the commerce as
superphosphate
Contact of Catalytic Process
Produces most of the commercial
sulfuric acid today
Catalysts- Vanadium or platinized silica
gels

USES OF SULFURIC ACID
Strong diprotic acid which can be
utilized to form salts of basic organic
drug molecules
dehydrating agent in the preparation of
Pyroxylin USP 26





OFFICIAL INORGANIC BASES
STRONG AMMONIA SOLUTION NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Ammonium Hydroxide,
Stronger Ammonia water
PROPERTIES
Upon exposure to air, it loses ammonia
rapidly
Clear, Colorless liquid, pungent,
characteristic odor.
Can serve as a liquid in forming soluble
complex ions with many metal cations.
Hydroxides or insoluble salts become
soluble in Ammonia solution.

USES OF STRONG AMMONIA
as a Bronsted base in many applications
tp form ammonium salts of acids.
Manufacture of Nitric Acid and Sodium
bicarbonate.
Preparation of Aromatic Ammonia Spirit
(NF XV)

Diluted Ammonia Solution
Contains n.l.t. 9 g and n.m.t. 10 g of NH
3
in each 100 mL.
Prepared by diluted Strong Ammonia
Solution with the appropriate quantity
of purified water.
Also known as Ammonia water or
Household Ammonia
USES OF DILUTED AMMONIA
Circulatory stimulant by inhalation of
the vapors.
Externally, it is used as a counter-
irritant


CALCIUM HYDROXIDE USP 32
ALSO KNOWN AS: Slaked lime, Calcium
Hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 ; molecular weight 74.09
PROPERTIES
White powder having an alkaline and
bitter taste
Slightly soluble in water, glycerin and in
syrup
Very soluble in boiling water
Insoluble in alcohol
Ability to absorb CO2 from the air and
forms calcium carbonate giving the
cloudy appearance of calcium
hydroxide solution

PREPARATION:
Manufactured from lime or CaO
through the addition of H2O in limited
amountsSlaking (hence the name,
slake lime)

Slaking is characterized by the avid
absorption of water by the oxide,
accompanied by the evolution of much
heat, swelling of CaO lumps and a final
disintegration into fine powder

Official solution- Calcium Hydroxide
Solution USP 26 (Lime water); clear,
colorless liquid having an alkaline taste
and is alkaline to litmus

USES OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE
Used medically as a fluid electrolyte and
as topical astringent

Used in pharmaceutical preparations
for its potentially high hydroxide ion
concentration to react with the free
fatty acids in various oils, and to form
calcium soaps which have emulsifying
properties.

Its carbon dioxide absorbing properties
are useful in gas traps

Combined with NaOH in a mixture
known as Soda lime and used for its
ability to absorb carbon dioxide from
expired air in metabolic function test.

Calcium Hydroxide is found in
Facial Cleanser
Depilatories
Hair Color and Bleaching
Conditioner
Facial Moisturizer


POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Caustic Potash, Potass
KOH; Molecular weight 56.11
PROPERTIES:
White or nearly white fused masses,
small pellets, flakes or sticks that have a
crystalline fracture
Very delinquent and rapidly absorbs
both moisture and carbon dioxide from
the air
Having a caustic or corrosive effect on
tissues due to being a very strong base
USES OF POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE
Used as a caustic principally in
veterinary practice.
Saponifying agent to hydrolize esters of
fatty acids into their constituent
alcohols & potassium salt
Widely used as aqueous and alcoholic
volumetric solutions for titrating acids.
It enjoys its widest use as a base or
alkaline reagent.

POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE IS FOUND IN
Hairspray
Household products such as oven and
grill cleaners
Manufacture of biodiesel and soft soaps


SODIUM HYDROXIDE NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Caustic Soda, Soda Lye
NaOH; Molecular weight 40
PROPERTIES:
Occurs in dry, hard, brittle, white stick,
in large fused, opaque, white stone-like
masses having a dense crystalline
fracture, in small pellets, in flakes and in
other forms.
Very delinquent and rapidly absorbs
moisture & carbon dioxide from the air.
Like KOH, highly ionized in solution
making it one of the strongest base
available
Very soluble in alcohol, ether, and
glycerin.
Reacts with the salts of all metals in
solution precipitationg almost all of
them except those of the alkali metals
and ammonium as the insoluble metal
hydroxides.
Very strong base capable of damaging
tissues
USES OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE
Same purpose as KOH
But less deliquescent, probably milder
and cheapertherefore is extensively
used in industrial purposes.
SODIUM HYDROXIDE can be found in
Biodiesel
Hair moisturizers
Drain Cleaner
Use of caustic soda for paint scraping

SODIUM CARBONATE NF 26
ALSO KNOWN AS: Monohydrated Sodium
Carbonate
PROPERTIES
colorless crystal/white crystalline
powder
odorless
has strong alkaline taste
insoluble in alcohol
exist in three well characterized
hydrates:
- Monohydrate - Na2CO3 . H2O
- Heptahydrate - Na2CO3 . 7H2O
- Decahydrate - Na2CO3 . 10H2O
PREPARATION:
made by the Solvay Process
saturating the cooled conc. solution of
sodium chloride first with ammonia and
then with carbon dioxide.
USES OF SODIUM CARBONATE
used for its basicity in pharmaceutical
preparations where it will form sodium
salts of acidic drugs.
SODA LIME NF 26
mixture of calcium hydroxide and
sodium or potassium hydroxide or both
intended for use in metabolism tests,
anesthesia and oxygen theraphy.
its function is to absorb the carbon
dioxide in a closed system
will react with the carbon dioxide in the
form of Na2CO3 to form calcium
carbonate, thereby regenerating the
sodium hydroxide