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Teaching Unit

For

AS91027

Apply Algebraic procedures
in Solving Problems

Externally Assessed
4 Credits

R K Sharma


Electronic technology is not permitted in the assessment of this achievement standard.





Level 1 AS91027 Unit
Achievement Standard

Subject Reference Mathematics and Statistics 1.2
Title Apply algebraic procedures in solving problems
Level 1 Credits 4 Assessment External
Subfield Mathematics
Domain Algebra
Status Registered Status date 9 December 2010
Planned review date 31 December
2014
Date version published 9 December 2010


This achievement standard involves applying algebraic procedures in solving problems.

Achievement Criteria

Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with
Excellence
Apply algebraic
procedures in solving
problems.
Apply algebraic
procedures, using
relational thinking, in
solving problems.
Apply algebraic
procedures, using
extended abstract
thinking, in solving
problems.

Explanatory Notes

1 This achievement standard is derived from Level 6 of The New Zealand Curriculum,
Learning Media, Ministry of Education, 2007, and is related to the material in the
Teaching and Learning Guide for Mathematics and Statistics, Ministry of Education,
2010 at http://seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz. The following achievement objectives
taken from the Equations and Expressions, and Patterns and Relationships threads
of the Mathematics and Statistics learning area are related to this standard:
generalise the properties of operations with fractional numbers and integers
generalise the properties of operations with rational numbers including the
properties of exponents
form and solve linear equations and inequations, quadratic and simple
exponential equations, and simultaneous equations with two unknowns.



Level 1 AS91027 Unit
2 Apply algebraic procedures involves:
selecting and using a range of procedures in solving problems
demonstrating knowledge of algebraic concepts and terms
communicating solutions using appropriate mathematical symbols.

Relational thinking involves one or more of:
selecting and carrying out a logical sequence of steps
connecting different concepts and representations
demonstrating understanding of concepts
forming and using a model;
and also relating findings to a context, or communicating thinking using
appropriate mathematical statements.

Extended abstract thinking involves one or more of:
devising a strategy to investigate or solve a problem
identifying relevant concepts in context
developing a chain of logical reasoning, or proof
forming a generalisation;
and also using correct mathematical statements, or communicating
mathematical insight.

3 Problems are situations that provide opportunities to apply knowledge or
understanding of mathematical concepts and procedures and methods. The
situation will be set in a real-life or mathematical context.

4 The phrase a range of procedures indicates that evidence of the application of
at least three different procedures is required.

5 Students need to be familiar with procedures related to:
factorising
expanding
simplifying algebraic expressions involving exponents, such as

(2x
4
)
3
or

12a
5
8a
7

substituting values into formulae
manipulating and simplifying expressions such as

3x
4

x 2
3
or

3x
2
12
x 2

rearranging formulae such as

E
1
2
mv
2
or

1
u

1
v

1
f

solving linear equations or inequations such as 5x + 12 = 3 - 2x or 3(x - 2) < 7
solving quadratic equations such as (8x + 3)(x - 6) = 0, x
2
+ 5x 6 = 0, 3x
2
=10x -8
(completing the square and the quadratic formula are not required)
solving simple equations involving exponents such as x
3
= 8, 5
x
=125
solving pairs of simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns.

6 Electronic technology is not permitted in the assessment of this achievement
standard.


Level 1 AS91027 Unit

7 Assessment Specifications for this achievement standard can be accessed
through the Mathematics and Statistics Resources page found at
http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-standards/qualifications/ncea/ncea-
subject-resources/.


Replacement Information
This achievement standard replaced unit standard 5239.


Quality Assurance

1 Providers and Industry Training Organisations must be accredited by NZQA before
they can register credits from assessment against achievement standards.

2 Accredited providers and Industry Training Organisations assessing against
achievement standards must engage with the moderation system that applies to
those achievement standards.

Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP) reference 0233

3 Accredited providers and Industry Training Organisations assessing against
achievement standards must engage with the moderation system that applies to
those achievement standards.

Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP) reference 0233




Level 1 AS91027 Unit
Curriculum Links
The following achievement objectives taken from the Equations and Expressions,
and Patterns and Relationships threads of the Mathematics and Statistics learning
area are related to this standard:
generalise the properties of operations with fractional numbers and integers
generalise the properties of operations with rational numbers including the
properties of exponents
form and solve linear equations and inequations, quadratic and simple
exponential equations, and simultaneous equations with two unknowns.
Expected Learning Outcomes
By the end of this Achievement Standard students need to be familiar with procedures
related to:
factorising
expanding
simplifying algebraic expressions involving exponents, such as

(2x
4
)
3
or

12a
5
8a
7

substituting values into formulae
manipulating and simplifying expressions such as

3x
4

x 2
3
or

3x
2
12
x 2

rearranging formulae such as

E
1
2
mv
2
or

1
u

1
v

1
f

solving linear equations or in-equations such as 5x + 12 = 3 - 2x or 3(x - 2) < 7
solving quadratic equations such as (8x + 3)(x - 6) = 0, x
2
+ 5x 6 = 0, 3x
2
=10x -8
(completing the square and the quadratic formula are not required)
solving simple equations involving exponents such as x
3
= 8, 5
x
=125
Solving pairs of simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns.
Assessment Conditions
Level 1 Mathematics Dates for Common Assessment Task 2011
(will be slightly different for 2012)
Level 1 Mathematics Achievement Standard 91027, 1.2 Apply algebraic procedures in
solving problems, 4 credits, will be assessed by a Common Assessment Task (CAT).
Schools will deliver the CAT for this standard during school time, in second half of
September on 2 days every year. Entries for AS91027 must be included in the 1 August
file submission so that materials can be supplied to schools early in September.
Candidates will have sixty minutes to complete the assessment.


Level 1 AS91027 Unit
Teachers will be required to mark their candidates work using the schedule provided,
submit provisional results online and send a sample of papers to NZQA for verification in
late October of every year. The assessment schedule for teachers to use for marking will
be published on the schools secure website in September after the assessment.
Verified papers will be returned to schools along with the results of verification by the
middle of November. Teachers will be required to enter final results online by the end of
November.
The Administrative Guidelines for the management of the CAT will be provided in Term 2
each year. Schools should administer the CAT as they would an internal assessment,
following internal procedures for moderating evidence between teachers and classes,
and ensuring that the assessment procedures comply with the NZQA Assessment and
Examination Rules and Procedures 2011 for external assessment.
The Administrative Guidelines will include the following information:
the background to the Common Assessment Task (CAT)
details about the assessment materials
recommendations for managing the delivery of the CAT during school time
information for selecting a sample of papers for verification and the processes for
sending this to NZQA
information on managing the security of the CAT and candidate work.
Homework Expectation
It is expected students will work independently on homework tasks either set individually
or by their teacher. The workload should not exceed the ratio of 30 minutes per contact
lesson. If these tasks are set by the teacher, it MUST be valid to the students learning of
this standard. Use Nulake CAT 1.2 to set relevant homework.
Overview of Suggested Learning Experiences
Simplify algebraic expressions
Students need to be familiar with words like variables, terms, expressions, coefficient,
powers or exponents, like and unlike terms, rules of indices, fractions, and algebraic
fractions. If students do not understand these then they will find algebra very difficult.
They must learn to differentiate between

and and realise that 2x is two times x or

is . Deal with additions of like terms especially when adding and


subtracting terms with powers at an early stage. It is also important that students learn
to read algebraic expressions like

and (

)
3
correctly. Spend some time
on this section so that students are familiar with basics of algebra and are able to follow
on in other sections.



Level 1 AS91027 Unit
Expand and factorise simple algebraic and quadratic expressions
The process of expanding is to remove brackets from the algebraic expression. Students
should be able to expand single ( ) (

)and double brackets(


)( ) , perfect squares, difference of 2 squares etc. and simplify. Very often it has
been observed students only multiply the first term inside the bracket with the variable
outside the bracket hence resulting with incorrect answers. Another common mistake is
with positive and negative signs when multiplying and simplifying. This needs a lot of
practice in class. Once students have expanded the bracket they must simplify the
outcome wherever possible.
Factorising is the reverse process of expanding. When factorising we rewrite the
expression as a product of factors. Factorising will include identifying a common factor
in simple algebraic expressions like

, factorising by grouping in
expressions like and quadratics of the form

where
a real number is. Quadratic expressions include perfect squares, difference of
2 squares and expressions where the co-efficient of

is 1 or more than 1. Students
must be familiar with multiplication table so that they can identify factors of both
positive and negative numbers. Expanding and factorising quadratic equations will
help students answer merit and excellence type of questions.

If you spend some time on this section others will be easier.

Form and Solve Linear Equations
Students will need a lot of practice at moving from words into mathematics, otherwise
known as mathematizing a problem. After students can do this well, move onto solving
the equations that have been formed. Spend time developing a method for solving
equations by looking at the process of undoing operations and working in the reverse
order of BEDMAS or by balancing the sides of the equation, or any other method that
works with your class. One of the methods that has worked very well in the past is flow
diagram method. For example solve

. Students start from , multiply it by 4 then


subtract 3 and then divide the result by 3 gives and answer of 7. Start from 7 and do
the opposite process. 7x 3 = 21, 21 +3 = 24, 24 4 =6 =

Students must learn to keep the unknown on one side and numbers on the other. This
will help them to solve equations with unknown on both sides. It may be useful to tell
students to carry the sign in front of the number when moving the number. Reverse the
sign in front of a number when crossing the equal sign. Explain why this is done (the
unwinding process to keep things in balance)

Solve Linear In-equations and Simultaneous Equations with Two Unknowns
Review the in-equality signs, and use the skills just learned in solving
equations to solve in-equations. Students must be reminded that there will be more
than one solution when solving an in-equality. The most important point to remember is
to mention what happens when multiplying or dividing by a negative number when solving an in-equality.



Level 1 AS91027 Unit
Simultaneous equations with two unknowns need to be covered. The 2 methods to be
used are elimination and substitution; cover both methods but more emphasis on
substitution method. This is assessed only at merit or excellence level. Coverage
depends on the ability of your class. It is best use substitution method. Students must be
able to form two equations and solve for both the unknowns. When teaching use whole
numbers and decimals as co-efficient of x and y.

Subject of a Formulae and Substitution

What is a formula? An equation which describes a relationship between variable
quantities is called a formula. For example , or . Show using examples
what the subject of a formula means. The variable (letter) written alone by itself on the
left hand side of a formula is called the subject. Explain what changing the subject
means. Explain rearrangement means and how it is done. I would be a good idea to
review the opposites of operations now. Remind students that whenever the = sign is
crossed do the opposite. I will illustrate here an example

. Make x the subject.


This means 2, -3, and 5m must be taken to the left. Start with denominators 5m (It is
down. It is a denominator. Its opposite is a numerator. So 5m goes up on the left, also
remember you are dividing with 5m so on the left you will multiply. Whatever is on the
left write that first in the next line. So you will write y x 5m = 2x -3. Now simplify on the left
and take away -3 to the left. So you have 5my + 3 = 2x. The last thing is to take away 2
to the left. You are multiplying with 2 so when it is taken to the left you will divide with 2.
So now you have

= x. Go slowly and explain at each step. Do not let students


change the order like writing things that they bring from the right in front of whatever is
on the left.

Show some examples of substitution into a formula. This is easy when illustrated on the
board. Remind students if they see for example 5ab it means 5 x a x b. If a = 3 and b= -4
then 5ab = 5 x 3 x -4 = -60 and not -534. Be careful with brackets and fractions

Algebra in Practical Context Quadratics and Simultaneous Equations

It must be noted when solving quadratic equations in a practical context, answers must
be meaningful. For example, physical quantities such as length and area cannot be
negative. It may be useful for students to draw simple diagrams to help them
understand the situation and write equations before solving the problem. Students must
be given a lot of practice on how to form equations and solve them. This depends on
the ability of your class.

The knowledge of graphs of parabolas, its properties and translations would be very
useful when solving the application of quadratics. It would be advantageous to look at
quadratic equations in the form

and ( )

and draw the


graphs using both formats. This will assist students to answer questions at excellence
level.




Level 1 AS91027 Unit
Exponential Equations

This may involve finding the power of an unknown exponent (index or power). The
following general rule can be used to solve exponential equations.
If

. For example, find the value of x if

then students
must realise that,

. Thus,

. This means (using the rule) and x = 2.


It would be useful to learn some powers like

where x is a
whole number. The powers must be easy enough to be calculated manually (without a
calculator).


Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
1
Introduction to
algebra
Simplifying
algebraic
expressions,
adding and
subtracting terms
Simplifying
algebraic
expressions,
multiplying and
dividing terms
Rules of indices,
exponents, x,
and add and
subtract
Solving exponent
equations
2
Algebraic
fractions add
and subtract
Algebraic
fractions, multiply
and divide
Expanding
brackets, single
Expanding
brackets double
Factorising using
distributive law
linear type
equations
3
Factorising
quadratics with
coefficient of x
=1
Factorising
quadratics with
coefficient of x
=1
Factorising
quadratics with
coefficients of x
greater than 1
Simplifying
algebraic
fractions by
factorising
Solving linear
equations,
simple
4
Solving linear
equations with
unknown on
both sides and
with fractions
Solving linear in-
equations
Forming and
solving linear
equations and
linear in-
equations
Formula
substitution &
Changing the
subject of the
formula
Simultaneous
equation
5
Simultaneous
equations
Simultaneous
equation
Solving
quadratic
equations
Solving
quadratic
equations
Solving problems
with quadratic
equations
6 Revision Revision Revision Revision Revision


The following pages will give lesson outlines to aid with your planning.

It is important to remember these are NOT your lesson plans, but suggestions
to help you think about what to cover and how to cover it.

This is an evolving document so will eventually contain a lot of potential issues
you may want to consider when planning your lessons.