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You are on page 1of 9

For

AS91027

Apply Algebraic procedures

in Solving Problems

Externally Assessed

4 Credits

R K Sharma

Electronic technology is not permitted in the assessment of this achievement standard.

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

Achievement Standard

Subject Reference Mathematics and Statistics 1.2

Title Apply algebraic procedures in solving problems

Level 1 Credits 4 Assessment External

Subfield Mathematics

Domain Algebra

Status Registered Status date 9 December 2010

Planned review date 31 December

2014

Date version published 9 December 2010

This achievement standard involves applying algebraic procedures in solving problems.

Achievement Criteria

Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with

Excellence

Apply algebraic

procedures in solving

problems.

Apply algebraic

procedures, using

relational thinking, in

solving problems.

Apply algebraic

procedures, using

extended abstract

thinking, in solving

problems.

Explanatory Notes

1 This achievement standard is derived from Level 6 of The New Zealand Curriculum,

Learning Media, Ministry of Education, 2007, and is related to the material in the

Teaching and Learning Guide for Mathematics and Statistics, Ministry of Education,

2010 at http://seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz. The following achievement objectives

taken from the Equations and Expressions, and Patterns and Relationships threads

of the Mathematics and Statistics learning area are related to this standard:

generalise the properties of operations with fractional numbers and integers

generalise the properties of operations with rational numbers including the

properties of exponents

form and solve linear equations and inequations, quadratic and simple

exponential equations, and simultaneous equations with two unknowns.

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

2 Apply algebraic procedures involves:

selecting and using a range of procedures in solving problems

demonstrating knowledge of algebraic concepts and terms

communicating solutions using appropriate mathematical symbols.

Relational thinking involves one or more of:

selecting and carrying out a logical sequence of steps

connecting different concepts and representations

demonstrating understanding of concepts

forming and using a model;

and also relating findings to a context, or communicating thinking using

appropriate mathematical statements.

Extended abstract thinking involves one or more of:

devising a strategy to investigate or solve a problem

identifying relevant concepts in context

developing a chain of logical reasoning, or proof

forming a generalisation;

and also using correct mathematical statements, or communicating

mathematical insight.

3 Problems are situations that provide opportunities to apply knowledge or

understanding of mathematical concepts and procedures and methods. The

situation will be set in a real-life or mathematical context.

4 The phrase a range of procedures indicates that evidence of the application of

at least three different procedures is required.

5 Students need to be familiar with procedures related to:

factorising

expanding

simplifying algebraic expressions involving exponents, such as

(2x

4

)

3

or

12a

5

8a

7

substituting values into formulae

manipulating and simplifying expressions such as

3x

4

x 2

3

or

3x

2

12

x 2

rearranging formulae such as

E

1

2

mv

2

or

1

u

1

v

1

f

solving linear equations or inequations such as 5x + 12 = 3 - 2x or 3(x - 2) < 7

solving quadratic equations such as (8x + 3)(x - 6) = 0, x

2

+ 5x 6 = 0, 3x

2

=10x -8

(completing the square and the quadratic formula are not required)

solving simple equations involving exponents such as x

3

= 8, 5

x

=125

solving pairs of simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns.

6 Electronic technology is not permitted in the assessment of this achievement

standard.

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

7 Assessment Specifications for this achievement standard can be accessed

through the Mathematics and Statistics Resources page found at

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-standards/qualifications/ncea/ncea-

subject-resources/.

Replacement Information

This achievement standard replaced unit standard 5239.

Quality Assurance

1 Providers and Industry Training Organisations must be accredited by NZQA before

they can register credits from assessment against achievement standards.

2 Accredited providers and Industry Training Organisations assessing against

achievement standards must engage with the moderation system that applies to

those achievement standards.

Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP) reference 0233

3 Accredited providers and Industry Training Organisations assessing against

achievement standards must engage with the moderation system that applies to

those achievement standards.

Accreditation and Moderation Action Plan (AMAP) reference 0233

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

Curriculum Links

The following achievement objectives taken from the Equations and Expressions,

and Patterns and Relationships threads of the Mathematics and Statistics learning

area are related to this standard:

generalise the properties of operations with fractional numbers and integers

generalise the properties of operations with rational numbers including the

properties of exponents

form and solve linear equations and inequations, quadratic and simple

exponential equations, and simultaneous equations with two unknowns.

Expected Learning Outcomes

By the end of this Achievement Standard students need to be familiar with procedures

related to:

factorising

expanding

simplifying algebraic expressions involving exponents, such as

(2x

4

)

3

or

12a

5

8a

7

substituting values into formulae

manipulating and simplifying expressions such as

3x

4

x 2

3

or

3x

2

12

x 2

rearranging formulae such as

E

1

2

mv

2

or

1

u

1

v

1

f

solving linear equations or in-equations such as 5x + 12 = 3 - 2x or 3(x - 2) < 7

solving quadratic equations such as (8x + 3)(x - 6) = 0, x

2

+ 5x 6 = 0, 3x

2

=10x -8

(completing the square and the quadratic formula are not required)

solving simple equations involving exponents such as x

3

= 8, 5

x

=125

Solving pairs of simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns.

Assessment Conditions

Level 1 Mathematics Dates for Common Assessment Task 2011

(will be slightly different for 2012)

Level 1 Mathematics Achievement Standard 91027, 1.2 Apply algebraic procedures in

solving problems, 4 credits, will be assessed by a Common Assessment Task (CAT).

Schools will deliver the CAT for this standard during school time, in second half of

September on 2 days every year. Entries for AS91027 must be included in the 1 August

file submission so that materials can be supplied to schools early in September.

Candidates will have sixty minutes to complete the assessment.

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

Teachers will be required to mark their candidates work using the schedule provided,

submit provisional results online and send a sample of papers to NZQA for verification in

late October of every year. The assessment schedule for teachers to use for marking will

be published on the schools secure website in September after the assessment.

Verified papers will be returned to schools along with the results of verification by the

middle of November. Teachers will be required to enter final results online by the end of

November.

The Administrative Guidelines for the management of the CAT will be provided in Term 2

each year. Schools should administer the CAT as they would an internal assessment,

following internal procedures for moderating evidence between teachers and classes,

and ensuring that the assessment procedures comply with the NZQA Assessment and

Examination Rules and Procedures 2011 for external assessment.

The Administrative Guidelines will include the following information:

the background to the Common Assessment Task (CAT)

details about the assessment materials

recommendations for managing the delivery of the CAT during school time

information for selecting a sample of papers for verification and the processes for

sending this to NZQA

information on managing the security of the CAT and candidate work.

Homework Expectation

It is expected students will work independently on homework tasks either set individually

or by their teacher. The workload should not exceed the ratio of 30 minutes per contact

lesson. If these tasks are set by the teacher, it MUST be valid to the students learning of

this standard. Use Nulake CAT 1.2 to set relevant homework.

Overview of Suggested Learning Experiences

Simplify algebraic expressions

Students need to be familiar with words like variables, terms, expressions, coefficient,

powers or exponents, like and unlike terms, rules of indices, fractions, and algebraic

fractions. If students do not understand these then they will find algebra very difficult.

They must learn to differentiate between

subtracting terms with powers at an early stage. It is also important that students learn

to read algebraic expressions like

and (

)

3

correctly. Spend some time

on this section so that students are familiar with basics of algebra and are able to follow

on in other sections.

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

Expand and factorise simple algebraic and quadratic expressions

The process of expanding is to remove brackets from the algebraic expression. Students

should be able to expand single ( ) (

)( ) , perfect squares, difference of 2 squares etc. and simplify. Very often it has

been observed students only multiply the first term inside the bracket with the variable

outside the bracket hence resulting with incorrect answers. Another common mistake is

with positive and negative signs when multiplying and simplifying. This needs a lot of

practice in class. Once students have expanded the bracket they must simplify the

outcome wherever possible.

Factorising is the reverse process of expanding. When factorising we rewrite the

expression as a product of factors. Factorising will include identifying a common factor

in simple algebraic expressions like

, factorising by grouping in

expressions like and quadratics of the form

where

a real number is. Quadratic expressions include perfect squares, difference of

2 squares and expressions where the co-efficient of

is 1 or more than 1. Students

must be familiar with multiplication table so that they can identify factors of both

positive and negative numbers. Expanding and factorising quadratic equations will

help students answer merit and excellence type of questions.

If you spend some time on this section others will be easier.

Form and Solve Linear Equations

Students will need a lot of practice at moving from words into mathematics, otherwise

known as mathematizing a problem. After students can do this well, move onto solving

the equations that have been formed. Spend time developing a method for solving

equations by looking at the process of undoing operations and working in the reverse

order of BEDMAS or by balancing the sides of the equation, or any other method that

works with your class. One of the methods that has worked very well in the past is flow

diagram method. For example solve

subtract 3 and then divide the result by 3 gives and answer of 7. Start from 7 and do

the opposite process. 7x 3 = 21, 21 +3 = 24, 24 4 =6 =

Students must learn to keep the unknown on one side and numbers on the other. This

will help them to solve equations with unknown on both sides. It may be useful to tell

students to carry the sign in front of the number when moving the number. Reverse the

sign in front of a number when crossing the equal sign. Explain why this is done (the

unwinding process to keep things in balance)

Solve Linear In-equations and Simultaneous Equations with Two Unknowns

Review the in-equality signs, and use the skills just learned in solving

equations to solve in-equations. Students must be reminded that there will be more

than one solution when solving an in-equality. The most important point to remember is

to mention what happens when multiplying or dividing by a negative number when solving an in-equality.

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

Simultaneous equations with two unknowns need to be covered. The 2 methods to be

used are elimination and substitution; cover both methods but more emphasis on

substitution method. This is assessed only at merit or excellence level. Coverage

depends on the ability of your class. It is best use substitution method. Students must be

able to form two equations and solve for both the unknowns. When teaching use whole

numbers and decimals as co-efficient of x and y.

Subject of a Formulae and Substitution

What is a formula? An equation which describes a relationship between variable

quantities is called a formula. For example , or . Show using examples

what the subject of a formula means. The variable (letter) written alone by itself on the

left hand side of a formula is called the subject. Explain what changing the subject

means. Explain rearrangement means and how it is done. I would be a good idea to

review the opposites of operations now. Remind students that whenever the = sign is

crossed do the opposite. I will illustrate here an example

This means 2, -3, and 5m must be taken to the left. Start with denominators 5m (It is

down. It is a denominator. Its opposite is a numerator. So 5m goes up on the left, also

remember you are dividing with 5m so on the left you will multiply. Whatever is on the

left write that first in the next line. So you will write y x 5m = 2x -3. Now simplify on the left

and take away -3 to the left. So you have 5my + 3 = 2x. The last thing is to take away 2

to the left. You are multiplying with 2 so when it is taken to the left you will divide with 2.

So now you have

change the order like writing things that they bring from the right in front of whatever is

on the left.

Show some examples of substitution into a formula. This is easy when illustrated on the

board. Remind students if they see for example 5ab it means 5 x a x b. If a = 3 and b= -4

then 5ab = 5 x 3 x -4 = -60 and not -534. Be careful with brackets and fractions

Algebra in Practical Context Quadratics and Simultaneous Equations

It must be noted when solving quadratic equations in a practical context, answers must

be meaningful. For example, physical quantities such as length and area cannot be

negative. It may be useful for students to draw simple diagrams to help them

understand the situation and write equations before solving the problem. Students must

be given a lot of practice on how to form equations and solve them. This depends on

the ability of your class.

The knowledge of graphs of parabolas, its properties and translations would be very

useful when solving the application of quadratics. It would be advantageous to look at

quadratic equations in the form

and ( )

graphs using both formats. This will assist students to answer questions at excellence

level.

Level 1 AS91027 Unit

Exponential Equations

This may involve finding the power of an unknown exponent (index or power). The

following general rule can be used to solve exponential equations.

If

then students

must realise that,

. Thus,

It would be useful to learn some powers like

where x is a

whole number. The powers must be easy enough to be calculated manually (without a

calculator).

Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

1

Introduction to

algebra

Simplifying

algebraic

expressions,

adding and

subtracting terms

Simplifying

algebraic

expressions,

multiplying and

dividing terms

Rules of indices,

exponents, x,

and add and

subtract

Solving exponent

equations

2

Algebraic

fractions add

and subtract

Algebraic

fractions, multiply

and divide

Expanding

brackets, single

Expanding

brackets double

Factorising using

distributive law

linear type

equations

3

Factorising

quadratics with

coefficient of x

=1

Factorising

quadratics with

coefficient of x

=1

Factorising

quadratics with

coefficients of x

greater than 1

Simplifying

algebraic

fractions by

factorising

Solving linear

equations,

simple

4

Solving linear

equations with

unknown on

both sides and

with fractions

Solving linear in-

equations

Forming and

solving linear

equations and

linear in-

equations

Formula

substitution &

Changing the

subject of the

formula

Simultaneous

equation

5

Simultaneous

equations

Simultaneous

equation

Solving

quadratic

equations

Solving

quadratic

equations

Solving problems

with quadratic

equations

6 Revision Revision Revision Revision Revision

The following pages will give lesson outlines to aid with your planning.

It is important to remember these are NOT your lesson plans, but suggestions

to help you think about what to cover and how to cover it.

This is an evolving document so will eventually contain a lot of potential issues

you may want to consider when planning your lessons.

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