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AR.

318B BUILDING UTILIES 2


INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
ELECTRICITY
IT IS A FORM OF ENERGY GENERATED BY FRICTION, INDUCTION OR
CHEMICAL AND RADIANT EFFECT.
ELECTRONS IN MOTION.
ONE OF THE MOST USEFUL DISCOVERY OF MAN.
BASIC PARTICLES OF AN ATOM: ELECTRON, PROTON, NEUTRON.
THEORY: ALL MATTERS ARE MADE UP OF MOLECULES. MOLECULES ARE
MADE UP OF ATOMS. ATOM CONTAINS NEUTRONS, ELECTRONS, PROTONS.




A BRIEF HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY
THE IDEA BEHIND THIS STORY OF ELECTRICITY IS TO MAP ITS DEVELOPMENT
FROM THALES EARLY OBSERVATIONS OF STATIC, TO TODAY. THIS AMAZING
STORY OF INGENUITY AND PROGRESS, FEATURING LEGENDS AND
UNKNOWNS ALIKE, HAS PROFOUNDLY ALTERED THE PATH OF OUR
DEVELOPMENT.

WHEN LOOKING AT THE HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY, IT IS CERTAINLY NOT
LINEAR.


GREAT BREAKTHROUGHS NEVER HAPPENED IN ISOLATION.

AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
THE WORK THAT LED TO FAMOUS INVENTIONS WAS CARRIED OUT OFTEN IN
PARALLEL WITH THE WORK OF OTHERS AND AS RESULT THERE IS A
COLLISION OF DIFFERENT IDEAS AT CRITICAL TIMES.
CONSIDERING THIS THE ONLY REALLY RELEVANT VISUAL FORMAT WITH
WHICH TO SIMPLIFY THESE DEVELOPMENTS.

THE PIONEERS OF ELECTRICITY
"GENIUS IS ONE PERCENT INSPIRATION, NINETY-NINE PERCENT
PERSPIRATION." THOMAS ALVA EDISON

NIKOLA TESLA BEST KNOWN FOR HIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DESIGN OF
THE MODERN ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)ELECTRICITY SUPPLY SYSTEM.

AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
DEFINITION OF TERMS
ION IS AN ATOM OR MOLECULE IN WHICH THE TOTAL NUMBER
OF ELECTRONS IS NOT EQUAL TO THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PROTONS, GIVING
THE ATOM A NET POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ELECTRICAL CHARGE.

VOLT IS DEFINED AS THE DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL BETWEEN
TWO POINTS OF A CONDUCTING WIRE WHEN AN ELECTRIC CURRENT OF
ONE AMPERE DISSIPATES ONE WATT OF POWER BETWEEN THOSE POINTS.


THE AMPERE IS A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF ELECTRIC CHARGE
PASSING A POINT IN AN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT PER UNIT TIME, WITH
6.24110
18
ELECTRONS PER SECOND CONSTITUTING ONE AMPERE.

WATT-THE UNIT IS DEFINED AS JOULE PER SECOND AND CAN BE USED TO
EXPRESS THE RATE OF ENERGY CONVERSION OR TRANSFER WITH RESPECT
TO TIME.

CIRCUIT REFERS TO THE WIRE INSTALLATIONS THAT SUPPLY CURRENT TO
LIGHT AND CONVENIENT OUTLETS.

RESISTANCE IS THE FRICTION OR OPPOSITION TO THE FLOW OF CURRENT BY
THE WIRES AND TRANSFORMERS.

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCES CONDUCTOR RESISTANCE
COMPOSITION OF THE CONDUCTOR- REFERS TO A CONDUCTOR HAVING
FREE ELECTRONS THAT HAS LOW RESISTANCE.

LENGTH OF WIRE

CROSS SECTIONAL AREA

TEMPERATURE


AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
ELECTRIC CURRENT
ELECTRIC CURRENT IS THE FLOW OR THE RATE OF FLOW OF ELECTRIC FORCE
IN A CONDUCTOR

A CURRENT WILL FLOW IF A CIRCUIT HAS: SOURCE OF VOLTAGE, A CLOSED
LOOPED OF WIRING, AN ELECTRIC LOAD, A MEANS OF OPENING OR
CLOSING THE CIRCUIT.

CLASSIFICATION:
DIRECT CURRENT. THE FLOW IS SAID TO BE FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE.

ALTERNATING CURRENT. IT IS UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED BECAUSE OF ITS
UNLIMITED APPLICATIONS.
ALTERNATING CURRENT OR VOLTAGE IS ACURRENT OR VOLTAGE THAT
CHANGES IN STREGHT ACCORDING TO A SINE CURVE.
FREQUENCY OF AC IS HERTZ NAMED AFTER H.R. HERTZ.
RESISTANCE
A MEASURE OF THE DEGREE TO WHICH CONDUCTOR OPPOSES AN
ELECTRIC CURRENT THROUGH IT.
THE HIGHER THE VOLTAGE, THE LARGER THE CURRENT.
THE HIGHER THE RESISTANCE THE LOWER THE CURRENT.
COMPARISON OF AC AND DC ELECTRICITY
PRINCIPLE OF DC ELECTRICITY: WATTS= VOLTS x AMPERES.
PRINCIPLE OF AC ELECTRICITY: VOLT AMPERES= VOLTS x AMPERES.
THE OHMS LAW
IT IS NAMED AFTER GEORGE SIMON OHM.
THE HIGHER THE VOLTAGE, THE LARGER THE CURRENT.
THE HIGHER THE RESISTANCE THE LOWER THE CURRENT.
AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
THREE EQUIVALENT EXPRESSIONS OF OHM'S LAW ARE USED
INTERCHANGEABLY:

OHM'S LAW TRIANGLE


SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS
A SERIES CIRCUIT STARTS WITH THE HOT WIRE FROM A POWER SOURCE THAT
FEEDS ONE SIDE OFA LIGHT BULB.
THE BEST EXAMPLE IS A STRING OF CHRISTMAS LIGHTS.

PARALLEL CIRCUIT-IF TWO OR MORE COMPONENTS ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL THEY HAVE THE SAME POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (VOLTAGE)
ACROSS THEIR ENDS.
A GREAT EXAMPLE IS A HALLWAY IN YOUR HOUSE WHERE TWO OR MORE
LIGHTS COME ON WITH THE SAME SWITCH.


AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE


VOLT TRANSFORMATION
TRANSFORMER IS A SIMPLE STATIC DEVICE CONSISTING OF MAGNETIC
CORE WHEREIN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDINGS ARE MADE.
THE VOLTAGE IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE NUMBER OF WINDINGS
OR TURNS.




POWER AND ENERGY
POWER IS THE RATE AT WHICH ENERGY IS USED OR ALTERNATIVELY, THE
RATE AT WHICH WORK IS DONE.
ENERGY IS EXPRESSED IN UNITS OF FOOTPOUND (JOULES) OR KILOWATT
HOUR.

POWER IN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
EXAMPLE:
A MERCURY LAMP HAVING A HOT RESISTANCE OF 50 OHMS, IS
CONNECTED TO A SOCKET WITH 240 V. CURRENT SUPPLY.
AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
a. HOW MUCH CURRENT FLOWS THROUGH THE LAMP ?
b. CALCULATE THE POWER DRAWN.
SOLUTION:
I=V/R ; I=240/50 ; I= 4.8 AMPERES.

WHERE POWER FACTOR IN A PUERLY RESISTIVE CIRCUIT, SUCH AS
THOSE WITH ONLY ELECTRIC HEATING ELEMENTS, RESISTANCE POWER
FACTOR IS EQUAL TO 1.0. THUS:

W=VI x PF
W=240x4.8x1.0
W=1,152 WATTS

ENERGY CALCULATIONS
EXAMPLE:
DETERMINE THE MONTHLY ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF THE
FOLLOWING APPLIANCES.





SOLUTION:
ELECTRIC IRON 1200 W= 1.2kw x 2hrs =2.4kwh
WATER HEATER 1000 W= 1.0kw x 3hrs =3.0kwh
TOASTER 1300 W =1.3kw x 0.5hrs = .65kwh
TOTAL : 6.05kwh

IF THE AVERAGE COST OF ENERGY IS 5 PESOS PER KWH, FOR 30 DAYS
CONSUMPTION, MULTIPLYING.
30x6.05=181.50kwh per month x 5
Total=907.50 pesos



AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
VOLTAGE AND VOLTAGE DROP
IN A SERIES CIRCUIT- CURRENT IS THE SAME THROUGHOUT BUT THE VOLTAGE
DIFFERS.
IN A SERIES CIRCUIT, THE VOLTAGE IS THE SAME, BUT THE CURRENT DIFFERS.
THE SUM OF VOLTAGE DROP AROUND A CIRCUIT IS EQUAL TO THE SUPPLY
VOLTAGE.
ADVANTAGES OF THE 240 VOLTS OVER THE 120 VOLT CURRENT SUPPLY
SMALLER WIRE IS REQUIRED WHICH MEANS, LOWER IN COST.
LESS POWER LOSS.
SMALLER PERCENTAGE OF VOLTAGE DROP.
WIRE SIZE AND AMPERE CAPACITY
WIRE SIZE NO. AWG AMPERES
14 15
12 20
10 30
8 40
6 55
4 70
2 95
0 125
00 145
000 165
LOAD LIMIT IN WATTS
CIRCUIT CAPACITY IN AMPERES LOAD LIMITS IN WATTS
15 18000
20 2400
30 3600


AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
GLOSSARY

AC- IS THE FORM IN WHICH ELECTRIC POWER IS DELIVERED TO BUSINESSES AND
RESIDENCES. THE USUAL WAVEFORM OF ANAC POWER CIRCUIT IS A SINE WAVE.
AMPERE- OFTEN SHORTENED TO AMP, IS THE SI UNIT OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT
AND IS ONE OF THE SEVEN SI BASE UNITS.
ATOM IS A BASIC UNIT OF MATTER THAT CONSISTS OF A DENSE
CENTRAL NUCLEUS SURROUNDED BY A CLOUD OF NEGATIVELY CHARGED
ELACTRONS.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM (ALSO KNOWN AS AN ELECTRICAL DIAGRAM, ELEMENTARY
DIAGRAM, OR ELECTRONIC SCHEMATIC) IS A SIMPLIFIED CONVENTIONAL
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF AN ELECTIRCAL CIRCUIT.
CONDUCTOR- IS AN OBJECT OR TYPE OF MATERIAL THAT PERMITS THE FLOW
OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT IN ONE OR MORE DIRECTIONS. FOR EXAMPLE, A WIRE IS
AN ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR THAT CAN CARRY ELECTRICITY ALONG ITS LENGTH.
CURRENT- IS A FLOW OF ELECTRIC CHARGE. IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS THIS CHARGE IS
OFTEN CARRIED BY MOVING ELECTRONS IN A WIRE. IT CAN ALSO BE CARRIED
BY IONS IN AN ELECTROLYTE, OR BY BOTH IONS AND ELECTRONS SUCH AS IN
PLASMA.
DIRECT CURRENT (DC), THE FLOW OF ELECTRIC CHARGE IS ONLY IN ONE
DIRECTION.
ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT- IS A NETWORK CONSISTING OF A CLOSED LOOP, GIVING A
RETURN PATH FOR THE CURRENT.
ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE- IS THE MEASURE OF THE OPPOSITION THAT
A CIRCUIT PRESENTS TO A CURRENT WHEN A VOLTAGE IS APPLIED.
ELECTRICITY- IT IS A FORM OF ENERGY GENERATED BY FRICTION, INDUCTION OR
CHEMICAL AND RADIANT EFFECT.
ELECTRON- IS A SUBATOMIC PARTICLE WITH A NEGATIVE ELEMENTARY ELECTRIC
CHARGE. ELECTRONS BELONG TO THE FIRST GENERATION OF THE LEPTON
AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
PARTICLE FAMILY AND ARE GENERALLY THOUGHT TO BE ELEMENTARY
PARTICLES BECAUSE THEY HAVE NO KNOWN COMPONENTS OR SUBSTRUCTURE.
ENERGY IS EXPRESSED IN UNITS OF FOOTPOUND (JOULES) OR KILOWATT HOUR.
ENGLISH UNITS- ARE THE HISTORICAL UNITS OF MEASUREMENTS USED
IN ENGLAND UP TO 1824, WHICH EVOLVED AS A COMBINATION OF THE ANGLO-
SAXON AND ROMAN SYSTEMS OF UNITS.
FRICTION- IS THE FORCE RESISTING THE RELATIVE MOTION OF SOLID SURFACES,
FLUID LAYERS, AND MATERIAL ELEMENTS SLIDING AGAINST EACH OTHER.
ION- IS AN ATOM OR MOLECULE IN WHICH THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ELECTRONS IS
NOT EQUAL TO THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PROTONS, GIVING THE ATOM A NET
POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE ELECTRICAL CHARGE.
LOAD- MAY ALSO REFER TO THE POWER CONSUMED BY A CIRCUIT; THAT TOPIC IS
NOT DISCUSSED HERE.
METRIC SYSTEM- IS AN INTERNATIONALLY AGREED DECIMALSYSTEM OF
MEASUREMENTS THAT WAS ORIGINALLY BASED ON THE METRE DES ARCHIVES AND
THE KILOGRAMME DES ARCHIVES INTRODUCED BY FRANCE IN 1799.
MOLECULE- IS AN ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL GROUP OF TWO OR
MORE ATOMS HELD TOGETHER BY CHEMICAL BONDS. MOLECULES ARE
DISTINGUISHED FROM IONS BY THEIR LACK OF ELECTRICAL CHARGE.
NEUTRON- IS A SUBATOMICHADRON PARTICLE THAT HAS THE SYMBOL N OR N0.
NEUTRONS HAVE NO NET ELECTRIC CHARGE AND A MASS LIGHTLY LARGER THAN
THAT OF A PROTON.
NIKOLA TESLA (10 JULY 1856 7 JANUARY 1943) WAS A SEBERIAN AMERICAN

INVENTOR, ELCTRICAL ENGINEER, MECHANICAL ENGINEER, AND FUTURIST BEST
KNOWN FOR HIS CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DESIGN OF THE MODERN ALTERNATING
CURRENT (AC)ELECTRICITY SUPPLY SYSTEM.
OHMS LAW- THE VOLTAGE ACROSS A RESISTOR IS EQUAL TO THE PRODUCT OF
THE RESISTANCE AND THE CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH IT.
PARALLEL CIRCUIT- IF TWO OR MORE COMPONENTS ARE CONNECTED IN
PARALLEL THEY HAVE THE SAME POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE (VOLTAGE) ACROSS THEIR
ENDS. THE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES ACROSS THE COMPONENTS ARE THE SAME IN
MAGNITUDE, AND THEY ALSO HAVE IDENTICAL POLARITIES.
AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
POWER- IS THE RATE AT WHICH ENERGY IS USED OR ALTERNATIVELY, THE RATE AT
WHICH WORK IS DONE.
PROTON- IS A SUBATOMIC PARTICLE WITH THE SYMBOL P OR P+ AND A
POSITIVE ELECTRIC CHARGE OF 1 ELEMENTARY CHARGE. ONE OR MORE
PROTONS ARE PRESENT IN THE NUCLEUS OF EACH ATOM.
RESISTANCE- A MEASURE OF THE DEGREE TO WHICH CONDUCTOR OPPOSES AN
ELECTRIC CURRENT THROUGH IT.
RESISTIVE CIRCUIT- IS A CIRCUIT CONTAINING ONLY RESISTORS AND IDEAL
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE SOURCES.
SERIES CIRCUITS ARE SOMETIMES CALLED CURRENT-COUPLED OR DAISY CHAIN-
COUPLED. THE CURRENT IN A SERIES CIRCUIT GOES THROUGH EVERY
COMPONENT IN THE CIRCUIT. THEREFORE, ALL OF THE COMPONENTS IN A SERIES
CONNECTION CARRY THE SAME CURRENT. THERE IS ONLY ONE PATH IN A SERIES
CIRCUIT IN WHICH THE CURRENT CAN FLOW.
SHORT CIRCUIT- (SOMETIMES ABBREVIATED TO SHORT OR S/C) IS AN ELECTIRCAL
CIRCUIT THAT ALLOWS A CURRENT TO TRAVEL ALONG AN UNINTENDED PATH,
OFTEN WHERE ESSENTIALLY NO (OR A VERY LOW) ELECTRICAL IMPENDANCE IS
ENCOUNTERED.
THOMAS ALVA EDISON (FEBRUARY 11, 1847 OCTOBER 18, 1931) WAS
AN AMERICAN INVENTOR AND BUSINESSMAN. HE DEVELOPED MANY DEVICES
THAT GREATLY INFLUENCED LIFE AROUND THE WORLD, INCLUDING
THE PHONOGRAPH, THE MOTION PICTURE CAMERA, AND A LONG-LASTING,
PRACTICAL ELECTRIC LIGHT BULB.
TRANSFORMER- IS A SIMPLE STATIC DEVICE CONSISTING OF MAGNETIC CORE
WHEREIN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDINGS ARE MADE.
VOLTAGE DROP DESCRIBES HOW THE SUPPLIED ENERGY OF A VOLTAGE SOURCE
IS REDUCED AS ELECTRIC CIRCUIT MOVES THROUGH THE PASSIVE ELEMENTS
(ELEMENTS THAT DO NOT SUPPLY VOLTAGE) OF AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT.
VOLTAGE- ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, ELECTRIC TENSION OR ELECTRIC
PRESSURE IS THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS, OR THE
DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A UNIT CHAGE TRANSPORTED
BETWEEN TWO POINTS.
AR. 318B BUILDING UTILIES 2
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICITY
JCTE
WATTS- THE UNIT IS DEFINED AS JOULE PER SECOND AND CAN BE USED TO
EXPRESS THE RATE OF ENERGY CONVERSION OR TRANSFER WITH RESPECT TO
TIME.

BILIOGRAPHY
ELECTRICAL LAYOUT AND ESTIMATE
BY MAX B. FAJARDO AND LEO R. FAJARDO
COLLEGE PHYSICS
BY FREDERICK J. BUECHE PH. D.
GOOGLE IMAGES.COM
WIKIPEDIA. COM