You are on page 1of 8
TEACHING TIPS EIGHTH EDITION A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher | | WILBERT ). McKEACHIE | ‘Universi: Mehian Dc HEATH AxD COMPANY secang 72 TEACHING TIPS A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher How Gan Lectures Be Improved? ‘Toe mesg of ths capers that one yo improving cues io think about how sens pce ee Wins sade a de darnga lure? sone els a sudensta kare nd teresa he ios imps hig oe sxe te psn esd feo ow cstons, Same eden ae hg dial esa sae thes we tempi ops hein xl posible by vedng oie marl, outing lure manera doodng and ‘sain a reve eerie mane Many sue te uigea ‘tention nef he cos deeming sens sce inorston proces ing teal o aed the eure. enon usealy fe leasing fone cogiens upon tose thngs whch are chang, soe ot mating, We know tht nisl ave site ape Seratendngtotevaned aero tei exrenment The day tel pact fr aceon may vary wth he depression ot ‘eta. Alay onetime paral the epcty weed he kt hand Gi his ease Istenig tothe ler), par mona aber ‘spc fhe hasroom ad part of te tenon apuiy my Ba 18k forte seri te words, snpy Sure aoc, are and Dave (1978) review notes haces oe tention fede uriglecures fo x, yp, atte eres fom the beioningof eee en mines the eae ad dere fe tha poi, They fond ta afer te ee students eae 10 Perot ofthe mae covred inthe Ben mines, and ony 20 set ofthe mtr covered thes en mites. (One of the characterisics of passive lecture situation in which lecturer using few devices to get students fo think actively sbout the ‘content ofthe lecture is tha atention tend to dni Probably all of ut hve had the experience of listening to speaker and finding with asta ‘hat we have 101 heard the speaker for some ume because Out atention has dried on to thoughs that are tangent to the lectrers theme, Blooms (1953) studies of students thinking during letutes and siscus son indicates that mere of students thoughts were televani to the com tent during lectures than during discussions, but cha there was est setve thinking n lectures thant discussions ‘What Can Be Done 10 Get Attention? In determining how toalloctestenton, students use various strategies ‘Any lecturer knows that one way of getting attention sto precede the semen by the phrase, “This will be on the test” In adition, student listen for particular words or phrases tht indicat to them that some: thing is wont: noung and remembering, Statemems that enumerate of lst are ikely tobe on tess and thus a likey n he send vo ‘Changes in he environment recrat attention, The aby of changes to capture atenion can work io the advantage a the lecturer. Variation in putch, tensity, and pace ofthe lecture, and visual cues such a gee tures, facial expression, movement co the Blackboard. the use of deme fonsiraions of audiowstual aids—all of these recrut and maintain Aaticntion 1 de eetre ‘Auditory attention i divected to some extent by visual tention. AS the eyes move, auditory attention tends to shileas well Distracting moves rents inthe classroom ate thus likely to cause students co fat recall, ‘what the lecturer has sid. On the postive side, there is some evider that studenis! comprehension is greater when the students can see che speakers face and lie Thus attempts of colleges and universes ‘conserve energy by reducing the lighting level may also reduce the stu ‘dentable fo msincan aitention and learn from the lecute indicated above that at mas times when students ate not highl motivated theres spate capacity of attention available. This spare capa iy is very likely tobe used for daydreaming or other sks which ma “become more engrossing than listening tothe lecture. Hence motivation “i important t1 holding student auention. Keeping lectures to student interes, giving examples that ate vivid and intriguing, building su crmng 4 pense towards resolution of confi thes areal chniques of in ing and holding auenion.Anxiey isa motive wth potential eguve lets. Tete 3 good del of evdence that studens who ate high nay about es are likely to alo pay aetion othe test while they se aking it because they are dsracted by thought of fle Wie 19TD). We seems likely tat such ane about achievement may alo Aisracta student listening oa lectre. In fc some ofthe very cues used by the lecture, such as this wl eon the test may also cue anxious thought about the likelihood of aling the ts, about he consequences o(aling in college and the resulting dssppoiniment of amily. Thus, hile heawy emphasis upen vss nd rads may cause some student 0 Increase the amount of anton devoted tothe lecture. may als nee atv alle oer othe degree that the thoughts tur tthe conse quences of successor falure Should Students Take Notes? Nowe thing sone of the activites by which students aemps wo heep lenive ut note aking oan sd 9 memory “Working memory fr shor term memory." ia tem ued to desert heft that ne an bold only a given amount of material in mind at ane tne. When the lecturer presen a sutcesson of new concep, siden aces bepi 0 Show signs of anguish and leusraion, some wre furiously inthe 9 books, while others stop wring in complete discouragement Note ak lng thas s dependent upon one's aby, derived from pas expenence (lng erm memory), ro understand wht being end and oho tin working memory long enough wo wnte down In mow cases, when ‘queried about the stening o ote aking hab, student repo ht they are primarily concerned about geting the git of electrode tobe prepared fran examination To doth they tr texas ‘ane estas rom the lecture 10 dtl some of meaning Harley and Dave (1978) reviewed the research on noe wing and student information procesing during lectures. They report that stu dens believe that there ate suo purpose or aking notes: One shat ‘he proces faking noes wiln zl ep ter eal he others hat the ote provide enteral storage of conctpt which may be reviewed when needed. The research resuks indice some suppor for both Beles” Several studies show that students who ake notes remember mate ral beer than a coniel group no aking notes ever though the ate secs tured th tes nets muna rue etre. Note taking ‘evolves caborsuon and wansiormaucs Ades, which increases meane tngfunes and retention Peper and Mayer, 1978, Welln and King bury, 1979). But nove king has costs as well as benef. Student strategies of note aking difler Some dents ake copious notes: thers take none. We know tht student information processing capac lied thats, people can tke in, understand, and stone only so much Information in any biel period of time Infomation wil be processed sore lfectvely if he students actively engaged in analysing and pro essing the inlormaton rather than pasiveysaking ‘Studen’ ably process information depends upon the dere 0 hich the information can be intersted or “chunked "No one has great ably at hindig large numbers of uncle tems mace meron) ‘Thus when sudens ae isan area in which thew ae mew concepts or ‘when the insiructar using onguage tht ace ently arf the sudens, tudes may be processing the lecture word by werd or phase bby phrase and lose the sense of 3 sentence or ala paragraph before the endof the chought is eached Ths mean tht leurs edt be wate “Tinsunces im stich new words Gr comepe ee emg troduced and to uli in grater redundancy aswel a pouses during winch students ‘an eich up and get approprate notes Sos and Person (1980) poited ou that brighter dens bene more from taking nots than less able sense We Slee that tis 6 because the let able sudent cannot, while they wese thew notes, keep what they eatin ther menos 50 tha het note aking exe Docks them fom processing par af he late But dh not spy A matier of incllgence thera students sity fo maintain mater 9 remory whe taking notes and evento process sad think shout rel toaships bweoneneides and oher ess depends upon the knowledge or cognivestuctres the staden hae sia fororgniing a ra ing the material. Thus he background othe tant im he aes prob ably more moran than the students level of entligence Some facly members hand out pepared nots oe encourage the preparauon of noes or students o purchase Haney’ research aswel 4 that of Annis (1981), suggests that a shee outline is hep 0 ‘ladents Put wth deta notes student el nto pasty. eis beter ‘imply to provide an overall amework which hey onlin by selecting, lempotin points and interpreting them = thew own words, Beene student copay for sfomation processing limited and because st denis cna snp and go over again «confusing pat oa ectre, You scnaring 76 ‘need to build more redundancy ino you lectures than int wring, and you need to buildin pauses where students can catch upand tink ater than simply sruggie vo keep vp. How Do Students Process the Content of a Lecture? tetas sue that dens at alloaigateton prop othe leu. Th alone, however ae oot ensue tha he content f the lee wil be understood, remembered, and apple appropay. en though student ate eying to met he demands ofthe ston, they ay fern the ways they go aba procesing the worst hey fore heard Manon and Sijo (97510) and oer rarer a he anes of Goteborg have sed Caan Loctarts (172 aiferenia fon of urtace ess Gep processing to deeb dflerences inthe wey aden go about ing totam edvaionlmateals Some Sade Proce th mateal te a posable empl tying to eee the ‘ord the instr sys and Gig lie beyond ths. Thi would be eserbed by Maron a sure poeing* Ole dens Uy fe iplenios ct wit he cer ying yt eat wha een eng sid to her information eer tne lecre or thee tapetence and reaig. They eubomte hy ste the nso words imo their own. They nay question Tas more though and tor actve kindof sting what Marton and Sa cero a