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The Riverine Ecosystem Synthesis_A Conceptual Model and Research Framework

The Riverine Ecosystem Synthesis_A Conceptual Model and Research Framework

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The Riverine Ecosystem Synthesis

:
A Conceptual Model and Research Framework
A Conceptual Model and Research Framework
Prof. James H. Thorp
Prof. James H. Thorp
Kansas Biological Survey and
Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS USA
Missouri River in
the eastern Great Plains
“Jayhawk”: indigenous
to tall grass prairies
Murray River,
Australia
Prof. Martin Thoms*
Univ. of Canberra, Australia
fluvial geomorphologist
*[alias: Tarmac Thoms“]
Prof. Michael Delong*
Winona State Univ., USA
community/ecosystem ecologist
*[alias: “Koala Mike”]
Vic Hughes*
Univ. of Canberra
ecogeomorphologist
*[alias “The Steak”]
Seminar based on:
Seminar based on:
•2003 seminar in Albury by Thorp
•2006 RRA public. by Thorp, Thoms & Delong
•late summer (?) 2007 book by TT&D
[blatant advertisement!]
www.utexas.edu/.../grg/adams/quebtour/fjord2.jpg
Sagenay River, Quebec
Snake River & Grand Tetons
Wyoming, USA
Ansel Adams, 1942
• •hydrogeomorphic hydrogeomorphic patch model patch model
• •research framework: HPD for rivers research framework: HPD for rivers
• •17 testable, model tenets 17 testable, model tenets
Riverine
Riverine
Ecosystem Synthesis
Ecosystem Synthesis (RES):
3 River Perspectives in
3 River Perspectives in
100+
100+
Years
Years
www.discoverlife.org
Longitudinally Ordered Zones
Longitudinally Ordered Zones
(1900
(1900
-
-
1980)
1980)
•Fixed, non-repeating zones in predictable locations
Clinal
Clinal
Perspective
Perspective
(1980
(1980
-
-
)
)
•Continuous gradient and predictable locations
•River Continuum Concept (RCC)
WWF photo
Hydrogeomorphic
Hydrogeomorphic
Patches
Patches
(~ this decade)
(~ this decade)
•Non-continuous and repeatable patches
•Location of patches only partially predictable
•Reach-to-valley scale hydrogeomorphic patches
termed “functional process zones” (FPZs)
•Riverine Ecosystem Synthesis (RES)
brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Illinois DNR
barbel (Barbus barbus)
www.europareservat.de
grayling (Thymallus thymallus)
www.europareservat.de
bream (Abramis brarna)
www.europareservat.de
•fixed, non-repeating zones in predictable locations
•biotically designated & secondarily linked to hydrogeomorphology
•linear perspective with somewhat abrupt transitions
Longitudinally Ordered Zones
Longitudinally Ordered Zones
Clinal
Clinal
Perspective
Perspective
Vannote et al. 1980. The river continuum concept.
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:130-137.
Continuous gradient of physical
conditions from headwaters to
a river’s mouth
(overall trends interrupted only
slightly and temporarily by
tribs and geological features )
Linear model
Continuous biotic adjustments
in community structure
(except where temporarily
reset, such as by tributaries)
•basis: hydrogeomorphic patches
•scale: between valley and reach
•features: vary in hydrological
patterns, geomorphic nature,
and dimensional complexity
•boundaries: defined statistically
using common techniques in
fluvial geomorphology
•frequency: FPZs are repeatable
•position predictability: decreases
with increasing spatial scale
(especially above ecoregion)
•ecological responses: a site’s
longitudinal position is less
important to ecosystem
structure and function than
the type of FPZ in that area
Functional Process Zones (
Functional Process Zones (
FPZs
FPZs
)
)
Functional Process Zones
example of an FPZ appearing repeatedly
but not necessarily predictably
constrained upland
middle mobile
meandering lowland
anabranch lowland
Temporal scales of hydrology
REGIME (>100 years)
HISTORY (1-100 years)
PULSE (<1 year)
400
0
800
1200
1600
1973 1975 1979 1977 1981 1983
F
l
o
w
Year
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
J F M A M J J A O S N D
F
l
o
w
Month
1900 1950 2000
0
400
800
1200
1600
2000
F
l
o
w
Year
Slide from Martin Thoms
on Murray-Darling system
Arkansas River: Research, Monitoring & Management
Current Monitoring Strategy
Current Monitoring Strategy
•stratified random whole river (rare)
•modified for reservoir presence
•stratified random w/in political lines
•clustered at boundary edges
Hydrogeomorphic
Hydrogeomorphic
Monitoring
Monitoring
•strata size unequal but same # of sites
•shown w/ physiographic provinces
•ideally based hydrogeomorphic patches
•using FPZs, more sites would be shown
Background map from MSN Encarta
•framework for studying the entire river network using HPD
•spatial and temporal components are important
•small to large scale patterns and processes
•includes all 4 river dimensions
•a true synthesis: based on publications from 1980-present
mixed with our original ideas
•conceptual model applicable to pristine and working rivers
(for the latter, see our book)
•synthesis is heuristic and model designed to be testable
•17 model tenets (more are possible) ….
Riverine
Riverine
Ecosystem Synthesis
Ecosystem Synthesis
(a summary)
(a summary)
•Tenet 1: Hydrogeomorphic Patches
•Tenet 2: Importance of FPZ Over Clinal Position
•Tenet 3: Ecological Nodes
•Tenet 4: Hydrologic Retention
•Tenet 5: Hierarchical Habitat Template
•Tenet 6: Deterministic vs Stochastic Factors
•Tenet 7: Quasi-Equilibrium
•Tenet 8: Trophic Complexity
•Tenet 9: Succession
•Tenet 10: Primary Productivity Within FPZs
•Tenet 11: Riverscape Food Web Pathways
•Tenet 12: Floodscape Food Web Pathways
•Tenet 13: Nutrient Spiraling
•Tenet 14: Dynamic Hydrology
•Tenet 15: Flood-Linked Evolution
•Tenet 16: Connectivity
•Tenet 17: Landscape Patterns of FPZs
Subject Categories of our 17 Model Tenets (from journal article Subject Categories of our 17 Model Tenets (from journal article and book) and book)
Distribution of Species (4) Distribution of Species (4)
Community Regulation (5) Community Regulation (5)
Ecosystem and Ecosystem and Riverine Riverine Landscape Processes (8) Landscape Processes (8)
*
*
*
Model Tenet 2:
Model Tenet 2:
Importance of FPZ Over
Importance of FPZ Over
Clinal
Clinal
Position
Position
Community diversity and the distributions of species and ecotypes
from headwaters to a river’s mouth primarily reflect the nature of
the functional process zone rather than a clinal position along the
longitudinal dimension of the river network.
Missouri River
Clinal (RCC)
Perspective
Problems with This View of
Functional Feeding Groups:
•based on insects (e.g, ignores fish)
•not supported by stable isotope data
•ignores organisms in slackwaters
RES Perspective:
•diversity of ecotypes tied to position
in and complexity of the FPZ
•ecotypes more similar to those in
similar FPZ than in adjacent
patches upstream or downstream
•lateral complexity brings in ecotypes
from other areas (stream orders)
•food sources differ from RCC & thus
ecotypes not always as predicted
www.d.umn.edu/~seawww/depth/rivers/02.html
Model Tenet 4:
Model Tenet 4:
Hydrologic Retention
Hydrologic Retention
Overall community complexity varies directly:
•with the diversity of hydrologic habitats in a
functional process zone, and
•with hydrologic retention until other abiotic
environmental conditions (e.g., oxygen,
temperature, substrate type, and nutrient
availability) become restrictive.
•Emphasizes lateral vs longitudinal dimension
Upper Mississippi River
Examples of
Examples of
Slackwaters
Slackwaters
(retention
(retention
zones) in Great Plains Rivers
zones) in Great Plains Rivers
slackwaters
temporary
sand bar island
agricultural field riparian zone
Kansas River Kansas River
Current Velocity (m/s)
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
R
o
t
i
f
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
#
/
L
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
Rotifer Density in the Kansas River (July only)
Linear Regression
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
C
r
u
s
t
a
c
e
a
n

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

(
#
/
L
)
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Crustacean Density in the Kansas River (July - Sept)
Linear Regression
B
A
y = -55.016x + 34.19
R
2
= 0.4725
y = -0.36x + 0.19
R
2
= 0.1778
Thorp, J.H. and S. Mantovani. (2005)
Zooplankton in turbid and hydrologically
dynamic, prairie rivers. Freshwater Biol.
Facts:
Facts:
1.
1.
Globally, most large rivers are heterotrophic (P/R < 1);
Globally, most large rivers are heterotrophic (P/R < 1);
2.
2.
Therefore, some amount of
Therefore, some amount of
allochthonous
allochthonous
C is needed.
C is needed.
Heterotrophy
Paradox
Question:
Question:


How can river autotrophic production be the
How can river autotrophic production be the
most important source of C to food webs ???
most important source of C to food webs ???


Clinal
Clinal
Perspective on
Perspective on
Food Resources
Food Resources
terrestrial CPOM
in forested headwaters
instreamproduction
(macrophytes & benthic algae)
in mid-order streams
In large rivers: FPOM from
upstream (original RCC)
or floodscape
(Junk et al. 1989 and
1989 revision of the RCC)
Model Tenet 11: Riverscape Food Web Pathways
Summary #11 (a): Majority of metazoan productivity
derived from instreamalgae, with some seasonal
and locational exceptions.
Summary #11 (b): Decomposer pathway based on both
allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter
in a microbial-viral loop primarily produces P/R < 1.
caddisfly caddisfly caddisflies caddisflies & native mussel & native mussel
caddisflies caddisflies
beetle, beetle, caddisfly caddisfly, mayfly, , mayfly,
midge & exotic mussel midge & exotic mussel
mayfly, amphipod, mayfly, amphipod,
isopod & snails isopod & snails
snail snail
Carbon Sources
Carbon Sources C:N Ratios
Terrestrial Carbon
Terrestrial Carbon
(in general)
(in general) > 12
Aquatic Carbon
Aquatic Carbon
(in general)
(in general) < 12
***C:N ratios indicate a primarily autochthonous
origin for living and detrital POM (summer study).
Fine Transported Organic Matter (Fine TOM)
Fine Transported Organic Matter (Fine TOM)
FTOM living (phytoplankton) 6.55
FTOM detritus (dead algae & terrestrial C) 9.76
Ultra
Ultra
-
-
fine Transported Organic Matter *
fine Transported Organic Matter *
UTOM living (phytoplankton) 6.56
UTOM detritus (probably mostly dead algae) 6.87
Delong and Thorp. 2006. Oecologia
Terrestrial Macrophytes TOMD TOMA
Cheumatopsyche
Potamyia
Hydrobiidae
Pleurocera
Asellus
Tricorythodes
Pycnosyche Dreissena
Stenelmis
Stenonema
Chironomidae
Oligochaeta
Unionoidea
Physella Gammarus
Benthic
Algae
Hydropsyche
<10%
10 – 25%
26 – 40% 41 – 60% >61%
cDOM
Allochthonous
Carbon
Carbon Loss:
Downstream
Export
Carbon Loss:
Respiration
[Recycling Within
Microbial Loop]
Aquatic Decomposer
Aquatic Decomposer
Food Pathway
Food Pathway
Heterotrophic
Bacteria & Fungi
Heterotrophic
Flagellates
Ciliates
Rotifers
“Microbial-Viral Loop”
Viruses
Supported by Supported by
current isotope current isotope
data worldwide data worldwide
Requires Requires
future studies future studies
*
*
Algal
Algal
-
-
Grazer
Grazer
Food Pathway
Food Pathway
Autotrophic
Autochthonous
Carbon
Herbivores
Invertebrate
Carnivores
Planktivorous
Fish
Piscivorous Fish &
Other Vertebrates
Invertivorous
Fish
Carbon Loss to:
- respiration,
- microbial loop
-invertebrate
decomposers
-downstream
transport
Metazoan Metazoan
detritivores detritivores
RCC & FPC RCC & FPC
emphasis emphasis
www.golfmontana.net
The ~ Pristine Flathead River of Montana
Pristine
Pristine
Lotic
Lotic
Ecosystems Are Becoming Increasingly Rare
Ecosystems Are Becoming Increasingly Rare
3 Gorges Dam, China
Hoover Dam, USA
Upper Mississippi lowhead dam
Ohio River lowhead dam
Examples of Effects of
Examples of Effects of
Channelization
Channelization
on Model Tenets of the RES
on Model Tenets of the RES
Examples of Effects of
Examples of Effects of
Channelization
Channelization
on Model Tenets of the RES
on Model Tenets of the RES
•destruction of basic nature of the FPZ
•loss of hydrologic retention areas
and homogenization of the river
•reduce potential importance of
deterministic factors and quasi-
equilibrium
•shift in type and importance of autotrophs
•disruption of succession processes
•loss of connection with floodscape
•increased nutrient spiraling length
•elimination of species requiring slackwaters
in the riverscape and floodscape…etc.
A Goal in
A Goal in
Lotic
Lotic
Ecology:
Ecology:


Conceptual Cohesiveness
Conceptual Cohesiveness


Riverine Ecosystem Synthesis
A challenging journey
into the future!
[of Lotic Ecology]
Photo from:
www.solstation.com/life.htm
One earth,
Many rivers,
One global river society….
International Society for River Science
International Society for River Science
For information on ISRS
contact me here in Canberra or Albury
or write me at thorp@ku.edu

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