Election Laws

NALDOZA vs. LAVILLES ( 254 SCRA 286 )
( 254 SCRA 286 )
“Election Offense, B. Jurisdiction Oer Election Offenses!
"#cts$ Co%&l#in#nt Al'erto (#ldo)#, #ccused in t*e #forest#ted c#ses r#n for re+
election in t*e ,#- 8 B#r#n.#- elections. /*e s&ouses 0eneroso "l#%e #nd 1uci#
"l#%e #nd t*e s&ouses ,#rlon 2ied#d #nd Rose%#rie 2ied#d t*ere#fter #ccused
co%&l#in#nt of ote+'u-in. in 3innin. t*e election. Accordin.l-, t*e C*ief of 2olice of
,i#.#o 3it* 3*o% t*e c*#r.e 3#s lod.ed, filed t3o se&#r#te co%&l#ints #.#inst
(#ldo)# for ote+'u-in.. Res&ondent e4#%ined t*e &ri#te co%&l#in#nts, #do&tin.
for t*e &ur&ose t*e tr#nscri&t of t*e 5uestion+#nd+#ns3er t-&e of e4#%in#tion
conducted '- t*e C*ief of 2olice #nd s3orn 'efore *i% '- t*e &#rties. Res&ondent
issued #n order findin. &ro'#'le c#use to 'eliee co%&l#in#nt (#ldo)# co%%itted
t*e cri%e c*#r.ed, #nd res&ondent t*ereu&on issued t*e 3#rr#nts for co%&l#in#nt6s
#rrest.
Su'se5uentl-, res&ondent issued #not*er order, reconsiderin. *is order, insof#r #s it
referred t*e c#ses to t*e Co%elec. /*e c#ses 3ere inste#d re%#nded to t*e C*ief of
2olice of ,i#.#o, 7loilo 3it* instructions to file t*e s#%e directl- 3it* t*e &roinci#l
&rosecutor. /*e 3#rr#nts of #rrest 3ere lifted #nd co%&l#in#nt6s rele#se 3#s
ordered.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*ere is i.nor#nce of t*e l#3 for f#ilure to co%&l- 3it* Section
4 of Co%elec resolution (o. 2695, #ut*ori)in. c*iefs of &olice to conduct t*e
&reli%in#r- inesti.#tion of c*#r.es for iol#tion of t*e O%ni'us Election Code.
:eld$ ;es, serice in t*e <udici#r- %e#ns # continuous stud- #nd rese#rc* on t*e l#3
fro% 'e.innin. to t*e end. A <ud.e o3es it to t*e &u'lic #nd to t*e le.#l &rofession to
=no3 t*e f#ctu#l '#sis of t*e co%&l#int #nd t*e er- l#3 *e is su&&osed to #&&l- to #
.ien controers-. A reduced fine is dee%ed &ro&er 3*ere t*ere is no %#lice or eil
intent in # <ud.e6s #ctu#tions in un3#rr#ntedl- conductin. # &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion
#nd in orderin. t*e issu#nce of 3#rr#nts of #rrest.

1
Election Laws
KILOSBAYAN vs. COMELEC ( G.R. No. 128054 O!". 16 1##$ )
“Election Offense, B. Jurisdiction Oer Election Offenses!
"#cts$ S&eci#l 2roision (o. > of t*e Countr-3ide ?eelo&%ent "und (C?") under
Re&u'lic Act (o. @>8A, #lloc#tes # s&ecific #%ount of .oern%ent funds for
infr#structure #nd ot*er &riorit- &ro<ects #nd #ctiities. 7n order to 'e #lid, t*e use
#nd rele#se of s#id #%ount s*ould *#e t*e follo3in. %#nd#tor- re5uire%ents$ (>)
A&&ro#l '- t*e 2resident of t*e 2*ili&&inesB (2) Rele#se of t*e #%ount directl- to t*e
#&&ro&ri#te i%&le%entin. #.enc-B #nd (C) 1ist of &ro<ects #nd #ctiities.
Res&ondent Ces#r S#rino, t*e t*en ?710 Secret#r-, re5uested for #ut*orit- to
ne.oti#te, enter into, si.n ,e%or#nd# of A.ree%ents 3it* #ccredited (on+
0oern%ent#l Or.#ni)#tions ((0Os) in order to utili)e t*e% to i%&le%ent t*e
&ro<ects of t*e C?" &roided for under R.A. (o. @>8A. Res&ondent "r#n=lin ?rilon,
t*e t*en E4ecutie Secret#r-, .r#nted t*e #'oe%entioned re5uest of Secret#r-
S#rino. Suc* #n #ut*orit- 3#s e4tended to #ll t*e Re.ion#l ?irectors of t*e ?710.
2ursu#nt to t*e #'oe+descri'ed #ut*orit- .r#nted *i%, res&ondent /i'urcio Relucio,
on A&ril 24, >992, entered into # ,e%or#ndu% of A.ree%ent 3it* #n #ccredited (0O
=no3n #s t*e “2*ili&&ine ;out* :e#lt* #nd S&orts ?eelo&%ent "ound#tion, 7nc.!
(2;:S?"7). CO,E1EC receied fro% &etitioner Dilos'#-#n # letter infor%in. t*e
for%er of “t3o serious iol#tions of election l#3s,! #%on. t*e% t*#t t*e #%ount of
2@A %illion 3#s rele#sed '- t*e Bud.et ?e&#rt%ent, s*ortl- 'efore t*e elections of
,#- >>, >992, in f#or of “2;:S?"7! # &ri#te entit-, 3*ic* *#d re&ortedl- en.#.ed
in dirt- election tric=s #nd &r#ctices in s#id elections #nd re5uestin. t*#t t*ese
offenses #nd %#l&r#ctices 'e inesti.#ted &ro%&tl-, t*orou.*l-, i%&#rti#ll-, 3it*out
fe#r of f#or.
7ssue$ B#sed on reco%%end#tions '- t*e Co%elec 1#3 ?e&#rt%ent, t*e
Co%%ission en '#nc dis%issed t*e letter+co%&l#int for l#c= of eidence.
:eld$ /*e constitution#l #nd st#tutor- %#nd#te for t*e Co%elec to inesti.#te #nd
&rosecute c#ses of iol#tion of election l#3s tr#nsl#tes, in effect, to t*e e4clusie
&o3er to conduct &reli%in#r- inesti.#tions in c#ses inolin. election offenses for
t*e t3in &ur&ose of filin. #n infor%#tion in court #nd *el&in. t*e Jud.e deter%ine, in
t*e course of &reli%in#r- in5uir-, 3*et*er or not # 3#rr#nt of #rrest s*ould 'e issued.
Alt*ou.* onl- # lo3 5u#ntu% #nd 5u#lit- of eidence is needed to su&&ort # findin.
of &ro'#'le c#use, t*e s#%e c#nnot 'e <ustified u&on *e#rs#- eidence t*#t is neer
.ien #n- eidenti#r- or &ro'#tie #lue in t*is <urisdiction.

2
Election Laws
COR2EF s. /A(O?BA;A( ( >49 SCRA 28> )
“Election Offense, B. Jurisdiction Oer Election Offenses!
"#cts$ 2etitioners 3ere %e%'ers of t*e Citi)ens Election Co%%ittee of C#'#, 1#
Enion in t*e J#nu#r- CA, >98A electionsB &etitioner E&if#nio C#stille<os 3#s ?irector
of t*e Bure#u of ?o%estic /r#de #nd &etitioner Ed.#r C#stille<os 3#s t*en #
c#ndid#te #nd l#ter elected %#-or in t*e s#%e election. 2ri#te res&ondent Este'#n
,#n.#ser, #n inde&endent c#ndid#te for ice+%#-or of t*e s#%e %unici&#lit- sent #
letter to 2resident ,#rcos c*#r.in. t*e &etitioners 3it* iol#tion of t*e >9@8 Election
Code, s&ecific#ll- for electioneerin. #nd G or c#%&#i.nin. inside t*e otin. centers
durin. t*e election. Re.ion#l Election ?irector of S#n "ern#ndo, 1# Enion,
conducted # for%#l inesti.#tion #nd on Se&te%'er 29, >98>, su'%itted its re&ort
reco%%endin. to t*e Co%elec t*e dis%iss#l of t*e co%&l#int. 2ri#te res&ondent
,#n.#ser for%#ll- 3it*dre3 *is c*#r.es filed 3it* t*e Co%elec st#tin. *is intention
to refile it 3it* t*e /#nod'#-#n. On (oe%'er 26, >98> t*e Co%elec dis%issed t*e
co%&l#int for insufficienc- of eidence.
Su'se5uentl- t*e #ssist#nt &roinci#l fisc#l st#rted # &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion of #
co%&l#int filed '- ,#n.#ser 3it* t*e /#nod'#-#n #.#inst t*e s#%e &#rties #nd on
t*e s#%e c*#r.es &reiousl- dis%issed '- t*e Co%elec. /*e /#nod'#-#n #sserted
e4clusie #ut*orit- to &rosecute t*e c#se, st#ted in # letter to t*e Co%elec C*#ir%#n
t*#t # l#3-er of t*e Co%elec if not &ro&erl- de&uti)ed #s # /#nod'#-#n &rosecutor
*#s not #ut*orit- to conduct &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion s #nd &rosecute offenses
co%%itted '- Co%elec offici#ls in rel#tion to t*eir office.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e /#nod'#-#n *#s e4clusie <urisdiction to inesti.#te #nd
&rosecute election offenses.
:eld$ Co%elec, not t*e /#nod'#-#n, or S#ndi.#n'#-#n, *#s e4clusie <urisdiction to
inesti.#te #nd &rosecute election offenses co%%itted '- # &ri#te indiidu#l or
&u'lic officer or e%&lo-ee. (#ture of t*e offense, not t*e &erson#lit- of t*e offender,
is i%&ort#nt.

3
Election Laws
COMELEC vs. NOYNAY ( 2#2 SCRA 254 )
“Election Offense, B. Jurisdiction Oer Election Offenses!
"#cts$ 7n #n Order issued on 25 Au.ust >99@, res&ondent Jud.e /o%#s B. (o-n#-,
#s &residin. <ud.e of Br#nc* 2C, %otu &ro&rio ordered t*e records of t*e c#ses to 'e
3it*dr#3n #nd directed t*e Co%elec 1#3 ?e&#rt%ent to file t*e c#ses 3it* t*e
#&&ro&ri#te ,unici&#l /ri#l Court on t*e .round t*#t &ursu#nt to Section C2 of B.2.
Bl.. >29 #s #%ended '- R.A. no. @69>, t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court *#s no <urisdiction
oer t*e c#ses since t*e %#4i%u% i%&os#'le &en#lt- in e#c* of t*e c#ses does not
e4ceed si4 -e#rs of i%&rison%ent.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not R.A. (o. @69> *#s diested Re.ion#l /ri#l Courts or <urisdiction
oer election offenses, 3*ic* #re &unis*#'le 3it* i%&rison%ent of not e4ceedin. si4
-e#rs.
:eld$ B- irtue of t*e e4ce&tion &roided for in o&enin. sentence of section C2 of B.2.
Bl.. >29, t*e e4clusie ori.in#l <urisdiction of ,etro&olit#n /ri#l Courts, ,unici&#l /ri#l
Courts #nd ,unici&#l Circuit Courts does not coer t*ose cri%in#l c#ses 3*ic* '-
s&ecific &roisions of l#3 f#ll 3it*in t*e e4clusie ori.in#l <urisdiction of Re.ion#l /ri#l
Courts #nd of t*e S#ndi.#n'#-#n, re.#rdless of t*e &en#lt- &rescri'ed t*erefor.
2ursu#nt to Section 268 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code, election offenses #lso f#ll
3it*in t*e e4ce&tion &roided for in t*e o&enin. sentence of Section C2 of B#t#s
2#%'#ns# >29.
Re&u'lic Act @69> c#n '- no %e#ns 'e considered #s # s&eci#l l#3 on <urisdiction H
it is %erel- #n #%end#tor- l#3 intended to #%end s&ecific sections of t*e Judici#r-
Reor.#ni)#tion Act of >98A #nd it does not *#e t*e effect of re&e#lin. l#3s estin.
u&on t*e Re.ion#l tri#l Courts or t*e S#ndi.#n'#-#n e4clusie ori.in#l <urisdiction to
*e#rt #nd decide t*e c#ses t*erein s&ecified.
Con.ress %#- t*us &roide '- l#3 t*#t # cert#in cl#ss of c#ses s*ould 'e e4clusiel-
*e#rd #nd deter%ined '- one court. Suc* l#3 3ould 'e # s&eci#l l#3 #nd %ust 'e
construed #s #n e4ce&tion to t*e .ener#l l#3 on <urisdiction of courts. :o3eer,
Con.ress neer intended t*#t R. A. no. @69> s*ould re&e#l suc* s&eci#l &roisions is
indu'it#'l- eident fro% t*e f#ct t*#t it did not touc* #t #ll t*e o&enin. sentence of
Section C2 of B.2. Bl.. >29 &roidin. for t*e e4ce&tion.

4
Election Laws
2EO21E s. RE;ES ( 24@ SCRA C28 )
“Election Offense, A. Election Offenses!
"#cts$ Res&ondent Buen#entur# C. ,#nie.o, Collector of Custo%s, Collection
?istrict 77, ,#nil# 7ntern#tion#l Cont#iner 2ort (,7C2) Custo%s 2ersonnel Order
#ssi.ned Joencio ?. E'io, Custo%s O&er#tion C*ief, ,7C2 to t*e Office of t*e
?e&ut- Collector of Custo%s for O&er#tions #s S&eci#l Assist#nt. E'io filed 3it* t*e
Co%elec # letter H co%&l#int &rotestin. *is tr#nsfer. E'io cl#i%ed t*#t *is ne3
#ssi.n%ent iol#ted Co%elec Resolution (o. 2CCC #nd Section 26> (*) of B.2. Bl..
88>, t*e O%ni'us Election Code, 3*ic* &ro*i'it t*e tr#nsfer of #n- e%&lo-ee in t*e
ciil serice >2A d#-s 'efore t*e ,#- >>, >992 s-nc*roni)ed n#tion#l #nd loc#l
elections. Before t*e #rr#i.n%ent, res&ondent ,#nie.o %oed to 5u#s* t*e
infor%#tion on t*e .round t*#t t*e f#cts #lle.ed do not constitute #n offense. :e
contended t*#t t*e tr#nsfer of E'io on J#nu#r- >4, >992 did not iol#te B.2. Bl.. 88>
'ec#use on t*#t d#te t*e #ct 3#s not -et &unis*#'le #s #n election offense. 7t
&ur&ortedl- 'ec#%e &unis*#'le onl- on J#nu#r- >5, >992, t*e d#te of effectiit- of
Co%elec Resolution (o. 2CCC i%&le%entin. Section 26> (*) of B.2. Bl.. 88>. /*e
tri#l court .r#nted &ri#te res&ondent6s %otion to 5u#s* #nd dis%issed t*e cri%in#l
c#se.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not tr#nsfer is iol#tie of section 26> (*) of B.2. Bl.. 88>.
:eld$ Section 26> (*) of B.2. Bl.. 88> does not &er se outl#3 t*e tr#nsfer of #
.oern%ent officer or e%&lo-ee durin. t*e election &eriod. 7f done to &ro%ote
efficienc- in t*e .oern%ent serice. :ence, Section 2 of Resolution (o. 2CCC
&roides t*#t t*e Co%elec *#s to &#ss u&on t*e re#son for t*e &ro&osed tr#nsfer or
det#il. 2rescindin. fro% t*is &redic#te, t3o ele%ents %ust 'e est#'lis*ed to &roe #
iol#tion of Section 26> (*) of B.2. Bl.. 88>, i)$
(>) /*e f#ct of tr#nsfer or det#il of # &u'lic officer or e%&lo-ee 3it*in
t*e election &eriod #s fi4ed '- t*e Co%elecB #nd
(2) /*e tr#nsfer or det#il 3#s effected 3it*out &rior #&&ro#l of t*e
Co%elec in #ccord#nce 3it* its i%&le%entin. rules #nd re.ul#tions.
An officer c#nnot 'e *eld li#'le for iol#tion of Section 26> (*) of B.2. Bl.. 88>, #
&en#l &roision, 'efore t*e effectiit- of Co%elec Resolution (o. 2CCC &ro%ul.#tin.
t*e necess#r- i%&le%entin. rules.

5
Election Laws
MA%%ALA vs. N&'EZ ( 240 SCRA 600 )
“Election Offense, A. Election Offenses!
"#cts$ /*is is #n #d%inistr#tie co%&l#int filed '- J#cinto ,#&&#l# #.#inst Jud.e
Cris&ulo A. (uIe), t*e &residin. <ud.e of t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court, Br#nc* 22,
C#'#n.#n, 7s#'el# for .ross inefficienc-, serious %isconduct #nd iol#tion of t*e
Code of Judici#l Et*ics. 7n *is decision, res&ondent found t*#t Ale<#ndro s*ot
co%&l#in#nt inside 2recinct (o. 2, loc#ted #t t*e ele%ent#r- sc*ool 'uildin. in Sto.
/o%#s, 7s#'el#, durin. t*e '#r#n.#- elections. Res&ondent #lso found t*#t
Ale<#ndro 3#s t*e one 3*o surrendered t*e .un. /o res&ondent, t*e surrender of t*e
3e#&on 3#s #n i%&lied #d%ission t*#t it 3#s t*e one used '- Ale<#ndro in s*ootin.
co%&l#in#nt. 7ns&ite of #ll t*ese findin.s, res&ondent #c5uitted Ale<#ndro of ille.#ll-
c#rr-in. # de#dl- 3e#&on inside # &recinct on t*e t*eor- t*#t t*e .un 3#s not sei)ed
fro% *i% 3*ile *e 3#s inside t*e &recinct.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not res&ondent Jud.e erred in rulin. t*#t Ale<#ndro 3#s not in
iol#tion of ille.#l &ossession of fire#r%s.
:eld$ /o su&&ort # coniction under Sec. 26> (&) of t*e O%ni'us Election Code, is
not necess#r- t*#t t*e de#dl- 3e#&on s*ould *#e 'een sei)ed fro% t*e #ccused
3*ile *e 3#s in t*e &recinct or 3it*in # r#dius of >AA %eters t*erefro%, #s it is
enou.* t*#t *e c#rried t*e de#dl- 3e#&on “in t*e &ollin. &l#ce or 3it*in >AA %eters
t*ereof! durin. #n- of t*e s&ecified d#-s #nd *ours.

6
Election Laws
(AVIER vs. COMELEC ( 144 SCRA 1#4 )
“Election Contests, 0. 7nter&ret#tion of Cert#in 8ords #nd 2*r#ses!
"#cts$ /*e &etitioner #nd t*e &ri#te res&ondent 3ere c#ndid#tes in Anti5ue for t*e
B#t#s#n. 2#%'#ns# in t*e ,#- >984 elections. /*e for%er #&&e#red to en<o- %ore
&o&ul#r su&&ort 'ut t*e l#tter *#d t*e #d#nt#.e of 'ein. t*e no%inee of t*e DB1
3it* #ll its &er5uisites of &o3er. On t*e ee of t*e elections, t*e 'itter contest
'et3een t*e t3o c#%e to # *e#d 3*en seer#l follo3ers of t*e &etitioner 3ere
#%'us*ed #nd =illed, #lle.edl- '- t*e l#tter6s %en. Seen sus&ects, includin.
res&ondent 2#cific#dor, #re no3 f#cin. tri#l for t*ese %urders. Concei#'l-, it
inti%id#ted oters #.#inst su&&ortin. t*e O&&osition c#ndid#te or into su&&ortin. t*e
c#ndid#te of t*e rulin. &#rt-. 7t 3#s in t*is #t%os&*ere t*#t t*e otin. 3#s *eld, #nd
t*e &ost+election deelo&%ents 3ere to run true to for%. O3in. to 3*#t *e cl#i%ed
3ere #tte%&ts to r#ilro#d t*e &ri#te res&ondent6s &rocl#%#tion, t*e &etitioner 3ent to
t*e Co%elec to 5uestion t*e c#n#ss of t*e election returns. :is co%&l#ints 3ere
dis%issed #nd t*e &ri#te res&ondent 3#s &rocl#i%ed 3inner '- t*e Second ?iision
of t*e s#id 'od-. /*e &etitioner t*ereu&on c#%e to t*is Court, #r.uin. t*#t t*e
&rocl#%#tion 3#s oid 'ec#use %#de onl- '- # diision #nd not '- t*e Co%elec en
'#nc #s re5uired '- t*e Constitution.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e Second ?iision of t*e Co%elec #ut*ori)ed to &ro%ul.#te
its decision of Jul- 2C, >984, &rocl#i%in. t*e &ri#te res&ondent t*e 3inner in t*e
election.
:eld$ Article J77+C, Section C, of t*e >9@C Constitution &roides t*#t$
“/*e CO,E1EC %#- sit en '#nc or in t*ree diisions. All election
c#ses %#- 'e *e#rd #nd decided '- diisions e4ce&t contests inolin.
%e%'ers of t*e B#t#s#n. 2#%'#ns#, 3*ic* s*#ll 'e *e#rd #nd
decided en '#nc.!

7
Election Laws
,A1A1EA( s. CO,E1EC ( 254 SCRA C9@ )
“Election Contests, ". A3#rd of ?#%#.es!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 1uis ,#l#lu#n #nd &ri#te res&ondent Jose E#n.elist# 3ere 'ot*
%#-or#lt- c#ndid#tes in t*e ,unici&#lit- of Did#&#3#n, (ort* Cot#'#to. 2ri#te
res&ondent 3#s &rocl#i%ed '- t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers #s t*e dul-
elected ,#-or 3it* # 3innin. %#r.in of @A6 otes. 2etitioner filed #n election &rotest
3it* t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court. /*e tri#l court decl#red &etitioner #s t*e dul- elected
%unici&#l %#-or 3it* # &lur#lit- of >54 otes. Actin. 3it*out &recedent, t*e court
found &ri#te res&ondent li#'le not onl- for ,#l#lu#n6s &rotest e4&enses 'ut #lso for
%or#l #nd e4e%&l#r- d#%#.es #nd #ttorne-6s fees. 2etitioner filed # %otion for
e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l 3*ic* 3#s .r#nted '- t*e court. Su'se5uentl- t*e "irst
?iision of t*e Co%elec ordered ,#l#lu#n to #c#te t*e office. /*e Co%elec en '#nc
#ffir%ed s#id decision. ,#l#lu#n filed t*is &etition for certior#ri #nd &ro*i'ition on
,#- C>, >995 #s # conse5uence. 7t is si.nific#nt to note t*#t t*e ter% of office of t*e
loc#l offici#ls elected in t*e ,#- >992 elections e4&ired on June CA, >995. /*is
&etition, t*us, *#s 'eco%e %oot #nd #c#de%ic insof#r #s it concerns &etitioner6s ri.*t
to t*e %#-or#lt- se#t 'ec#use e4&ir#tion of t*e ter% of office contested in t*e
election &rotest *#s t*e effect of renderin. t*e s#%e %oot #nd #c#de%ic.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e Co%elec .r#el- #'used its discretion in #3#rdin. t*e
#forecited d#%#.es in f#or of &ri#te res&ondent.
:eld$ /*e oerridin. re5uire%ent for # #lid #nd &ro&er #3#rd of d#%#.es is t*#t t*e
s#%e is in #ccord#nce 3it* l#3, s&ecific#ll-, t*e &roisions of t*e Ciil Code &ertinent
to d#%#.es. /*e O%ni'us Election Code &roides t*#t “#ctu#l or co%&ens#tor-
d#%#.es %#- 'e .r#nted in #ll election contests or in 5uo 3#rr#nto &roceedin.s in
#ccord#nce 3it* l#3.! Co%elec Rules of 2rocedure &roide t*#t “in #ll election
contests t*e Court %#- #d<udic#te d#%#.es #nd #ttorne-6s fees #s it %#- dee% <ust
#nd #s est#'lis*ed '- t*e eidence if t*e #..rieed &#rt- *#s included suc* cl#i%s in
*is &le#din.s.
(ot3it*st#ndin. *is su'se5uent ouster #s # result of #n election &rotest, #n electie
offici#l 3*o *#s 'een &rocl#i%ed '- t*e Co%elec #s 3inner in #n elector#l contest
#nd 3*o #ssu%ed office #nd entered into t*e &erfor%#nce of t*e duties of office is
entitled to t*e co%&ens#tion, e%olu%ents #nd #llo3#nces le.#ll- &roided for t*#t
&osition. /*e e%olu%ent %ust .o to t*e &erson 3*o rendered t*e serice unless t*e
contr#r- is &roided.

8
Election Laws
A)IENZA vs. COMELEC ( G.R. No. 1085** D+!. 20 1##4 )
“Election Contests, ". A3#rd of ?#%#.es!
"#cts$ 2ri#te res&ondent Antonio 0. Si# 3#s elected %#-or of t*e ,unici&#lit- of
,#drile<os, Ce'u in t*e >998 loc#l elections. "ollo3in. Si#6s &rocl#%#tion, &etitioner
filed #n election &rotest 3it* t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court 5uestionin. t*e results of t*e
elections in # nu%'er of &recincts in t*e %unici&#lit-. Conse5uentl-, in t*e reision
ordered '- t*e lo3er court, &etitioner o't#ined # &lur#lit- of >2 otes oer t*e &ri#te
res&ondent. /*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court rendered its decision decl#rin. &etitioner t*e
3inner of t*e %unici&#l elections #nd orderin. t*e &ri#te res&ondent to rei%'urse
&etitioner t*e #%ount of 2CAA,856.>9 re&resentin. &etitioner6s e4&enses in t*e
election &rotest. 2ri#te res&ondent #&&e#led.
,e#n3*ile, t*e Re.ion#l tri#l Court .r#nted &etitioner6s %otion for e4ecution &endin.
#&&e#l, 3*ic* 3#s o&&osed '- res&ondent. /*e Co%elec issued # &reli%in#r-
in<unction sto&&in. t*e enforce%ent of t*e order of e4ecution. /*e Co%elec, en
'#nc, on A&ril @, >992 issued #n Order settin. #side t*e &reli%in#r- in<unction #nd
t*ere'- #llo3in. &etitioner to #ssu%e #s %#-or of t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#drile<os
&endin. resolution of *is #&&e#l. :o3eer, follo3in. t*e s-nc*roni)ed elections of
,#- >>, >992, t*e 2residin. Co%%issioner of t*e Co%elec6s Second ?iision issued
#n Order d#ted Jul- >8, >992 dis%issin. &etitioner6s #&&e#l for 'ein. %oot #nd
#c#de%ic.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e Co%elec #cted 3it* .r#e #'use of discretion in reersin.
t*e lo3er court6s <ud.%ent.
:eld$ /*e dis%iss#l of #n #&&e#l in #n election &rotest c#se for *#in. 'eco%e %oot
#nd #c#de%ic due to t*e election of ne3 %unici&#l offici#ls referred onl- to t*#t &#rt
of t*e #&&e#led <ud.%ent 3*ic* 3#s #ffected '- t*e election #nd not to t*#t &ortion
rel#tin. to t*e #3#rd of d#%#.es. :o3eer, it 3ould #&&e#r irtu#ll- i%&ossi'le for #
&#rt- in #n election &rotest c#se to recoer #ctu#l or co%&ens#tor- d#%#.es in t*e
#'sence of # l#3 e4&ressl- &roidin. for situ#tions #llo3in. for t*e recoer- of t*e
s#%e. /*is, &etitioner *#s 'een un#'le to do. /*e intent of t*e le.isl#ture to do #3#-
3it* &roisions inde%nif-in. t*e ictorious &#rt- for e4&enses incurred in #n election
contest in t*e #'sence of # 3ron.ful #ct or o%ission cle#rl- #ttri'ut#'le to t*e losin.
&#rt- c#nnot 'e .#ins#id H in fine, Section 259 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code %erel-
&roides for t*e .r#ntin. of #ctu#l #nd co%&ens#tor- d#%#.es “in #ccord#nce 3it*
l#3.! /*e intent, %oreoer, to do #3#- 3it* suc* &roisions %erel- reco.ni)es t*e
%#4i%, settled in l#3 t*#t # 3ron. 3it*out d#%#.e or d#%#.e 3it*out 3ron. neit*er
constitutes # c#use of #ction nor cre#tes # ciil o'li.#tion.

9
Election Laws
ZACA)E vs. COMELEC ( G.R. No. 1446$8 M,-. 1 2001 )
“Election Contests, E. E4ecution 2endin. A&&e#l!
"#cts$ 2etitioner J#ier E. F#c#te #nd &ri#te res&ondent /*el%# C. B#ld#do 3ere
c#ndid#tes for t*e &osition of ,#-or in t*e ,unici&#lit- of Sul#t, E#stern S#%#r, in
t*e ,#-, >998 elections. /*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers, &rocl#i%ed &ri#te
res&ondent #s t*e dul- elected %#-or *#in. .#rnered 2,958 otes #s #.#inst t*e
2,@>9 otes of &etitioner, &ri#te res&ondent 3innin. '- 2C9 otes. 2etitioner filed #n
election &rotest 'efore t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court of Boron.#n, S#%#r. /*e tri#l court
decl#red &etitioner #s t*e dul- elected ,#-or 3it* onl- one ote #s *is 3innin.
%#r.in. On t*e s#%e d#te &ri#te res&ondent filed # notice of #&&e#l. /*e follo3in.
d#-, &etitioner filed # ,otion for 7%%edi#te E4ecution of Jud.%ent 2endin. A&&e#l
3*ic* &ri#te res&ondent o&&osed on t*e .round t*#t s*e *#d #lre#d- &erfected *er
#&&e#l. /*e tri#l court rendered # Su&&le%ent#l ?ecision, correctin. t*e 3innin.
%#r.in of &etitioner to 2 otes inste#d of > ote #nd #t t*e s#%e ti%e denied t*e
%otion for e4ecution of <ud.%ent &endin. #&&e#l filed '- &etitioner #nd ordered
furt*er t*e tr#ns%ission of t*e co%&lete records of t*e &rotest c#se to t*e Co%elec.
2etitioner t*en filed # ,otion for 2#rti#l Reconsider#tion to reerse deni#l of *is
%otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l. After *e#rin., t*e tri#l court issued #
Resolution reersin. its Su&&le%ent#l ?ecision. /*e Resolution ruled t*#t t*e tri#l
court still *#d <urisdiction oer t*e %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l, t*#t t*ere #re
.ood #nd #lid re#sons for .r#ntin. t*e s#%e.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e tri#l court *#s <urisdiction of t*e c#se #nd 3*et*er or not
discretion#r- e4ecution is &ro&er.
:eld$ ?iscretion#r- e4ecution is '#rred 3*en t*e tri#l court loses <urisdiction #nd t*is
occurs 3*en #ll t*e &#rties *#e filed t*eir res&ectie #&&e#ls or 3*en t*e &eriod to
#&&e#l *#s l#&sed for t*ose 3*o did not file t*eir #&&e#ls #nd 3*en t*e court is no
lon.er in &ossession of t*e records of t*e c#se. /*e &erfection of #n #&&e#l 3it*in
t*e st#tutor- or re.le%ent#r- &eriod is not onl- %#nd#tor- 'ut #lso <urisdiction#l #nd
f#ilure to so renders t*e 5uestioned decision fin#l #nd e4ecutor-, #nd de&ries t*e
#&&ell#te court or 'od- of <urisdiction to #lter t*e fin#l <ud.%ent %uc* less to
entert#in t*e #&&e#l. 8*ile &etitioner ti%el- filed %otion for e4ecution &endin.
#&&e#l, &etitioner 'el#tedl- filed t*e %otion for reconsider#tion of t*e deni#l of *is
%otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l renderin. s#id deni#l fin#l #nd e4ecutor-. 8*ile
t*e Su&&le%ent#l ?ecision 3ron.l- denied &etitioner6s %otion for e4ecution &endin.
#&&e#l, t*e re%ed- left for &etitioner t*en 3#s to ti%el- see= relief fro% t*e
erroneous rulin.. /*is &etitioner f#iled to do.
10
Election Laws
AS,A1A s. CO,E1EC ( 289 SCRA @46 )
“Election Contests, E. E4ecution 2endin. A&&e#l!
"#cts$ 7n t*e elections of ,#- 8, >995, ei.*t c#ndid#tes ied for t*e &osition of Kice
,#-or for t*e ,unici&#lit- of /u'ur#n, 2roince of B#sil#n.
/*e c#n#ss of otes '- t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of c#n#ssers, indic#ted t*#t :#d<i
:usni ,o*#%%#d .#rnered C,A65 otes, E%%#nuel “,#nn-! Al#no 2,9>2 otes, #nd
:#li% As%#l# .ot 2,542 otes. On t*e '#sis of t*e #fores#id results of c#n#ss of
otes, :#d<i :usni ,o*#%%#d 3#s &rocl#i%ed, #nd l#ter *e #ssu%ed office #s Kice
,#-or of /u'ur#n.
On ,#- 22, >995, :#li% As%#l# filed #n election &rotest 3it* t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court
of B#sil#n. /*e &rotest #lle.ed t*#t election fr#ud #nd ot*er irre.ul#rities t#inted t*e
election #nd c#n#ss of otes. ?urin. t*e *e#rin., t*e court # 5uo found t*#t seer#l
'#llots 3ere 3ritten '- <ust one *#nd 3*ile ot*er '#llots 3ere &re&#red '- onl- t3o
&ersons. Conse5uentl-, suc* '#llots 3ere in#lid#ted. /*e tri#l court rendered its
decision creditin. :#li% As%#l#, t*e *erein &etitioner, 3it* 2,>CA otes, E%%#nuel
Al#no 3it* >,92A otes #nd :#d<i :usni ,o*#%%#d 3it* >,@29 otes, #nd #d<ud.in.
&etitioner t*e dul- elected Kice ,#-or of /u'ur#n, 2roince of B#sil#n. After t*e
&ro%ul.#tion of t*e #fore%entioned decision, &ri#te res&ondent :#d<i :usni
,o*#%%ed filed *is (otice of A&&e#l 3it* t*e s#%e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court. On t*e
follo3in. d#-, t*e &etitioner &resented # ,otion for E4ecution 2endin. A&&e#l.
/*ereto, &ri#te res&ondent inter&osed *is o&&osition, t*eori)in. t*#t *is &erfected
#&&e#l diested t*e tri#l court of <urisdiction to resole t*e ,otion foe E4ecution
2endin. A&&e#l.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not filin. of notice of #&&e#l diests # tri#l court of its <urisdiction
oer # c#se.
:eld$ /*e %ere filin. of # notice of #&&e#l does not diest t*e tri#l court of its
<urisdiction oer # c#se #nd resole &endin. incidents. 8*ere t*e %otion for
e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l 3#s filed 3it*in t*e re.le%ent#r- &eriod for &erfectin. #n
#&&e#l, t*e filin. of # notice of #&&e#l '- t*e o&&osin. &#rt- is of no %o%ent #nd
does not diest t*e tri#l court of its <urisdiction to resole t*e %otion for i%%edi#te
e4ecution of t*e <ud.%ent &endin. #&&e#l 'ec#use t*e court %ust *e#r #nd resole it
for it 3ould 'eco%e &#rt of t*e records to 'e ele#ted on #&&e#l. "ilin. '- one &#rt-
of #n #&&e#l on t*e s#%e d#- t*e <ud.%ent 3#s rendered does not de&rie t*e ot*er
&#rt- of t*e ri.*t to ##il *i%self of t*e entire &eriod of fie d#-s 3it*in 3*ic* to
#&&e#l, if *e so desires includin. %otions for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l. An #&&e#l is
&erfected u&on t*e e4&ir#tion of t*e l#st d#- to #&&e#l '- #n- &#rt- H it is not
&erfected on t*e d#te t*e notice of #&&e#l 3#s filed.

11
Election Laws
ROBER/O ?. RA,AS s. CO,E1EC ( 286 SCRA >89 )
“Election Contests, E. E4ecution 2endin. A&&e#l!
"#cts$ 2etitioners #nd &ri#te res&ondents 3ere t*e offici#l c#ndid#tes of t*e (2C
1#=#s+(EC? for electie %unici&#l &ositions of 0ui&os, F#%'o#n.# del Sur. After
t*e c#n#ss of election returns, &etitioners 3ere &rocl#i%ed #s t*e dul- elected
%unici&#l offici#ls t*erein.
2ri#te res&ondents se#son#'l- filed #n election &rotest 3it* t*e R/C of 2#.#di#n
Cit- 3*ic* ruled in t*eir f#or. Res&ondents t*ere#fter filed # ,otion for 7%%edi#te
E4ecution of ?ecision &endin. A&&e#l, *o3eer, &etitioner filed #n O&&osition to t*is
,otion.
/*e tri#l court issued #n Order .r#ntin. t*e %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l.
CO,E1EC concurs 3it* t*e tri#l court6s decision, *ence, t*is &etition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not CO,E1EC co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion 3*en it
concurs 3it* t*e decision of t*e tri#l court.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*e it *#s e4&licitl- reco.ni)ed #nd .ien #&&ro#l to
e4ecution of <ud.%ents &endin. #&&e#l in election c#ses filed under e4istin. election
l#3s. All t*#t 3#s re5uired for # #lid e4ercise of t*e discretion to #llo3 e4ecution
&endin. #&&e#l 3#s t*#t t*e i%%edi#te e4ecution s*ould 'e '#sed “u&on .ood
re#sons to 'e st#ted in # s&eci#l order.!
/*e r#tion#le 3*- suc* e4ecutionis #llo3ed in election c#ses is “to .ie #s %uc*
reco.nition to t*e 3ort* of # tri#l <ud.e6s decision #s t*#t 3*ic* is initi#ll- #scri'ed '-
t*e l#3 to t*e &rocl#%#tion '- t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers.!
/o de&rie tri#l courts of t*eir discretion to .r#nt e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l 3ould
'rin. '#c= t*e .*ost of t*e “.r#'+t*e+&rocl#%#tion+&rolon. t*e &rotest tec*ni5ues so
often resorted to '- deious &olitici#ns in t*e &#st in t*eir efforts to &er&etu#te t*eir
*old to #n electie office.!
/*e follo3in. constitutes “.ood re#sons,! #nd # co%'in#tion of t3o or %ore of t*e%
3ill suffice to .r#nt t*e e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l$ (>) &u'lic interest inoled or t*e
3ill of t*e elector#teB (2) t*e s*ortness of t*e re%#inin. &ortion of t*e ter% of t*e
contested officeB (C) t*e len.t* of ti%e t*#t t*e election contest *#s 'een &endin.. 7n
t*is c#se, #ll ele%ents 3#s &resent, considerin. t*#t t*is *#s 'een &endin. for #
-e#r, t*e tri#l court did not co%%it .r#e #'use of discretion.

12
Election Laws
MAN&EL C. S&NGA vs. COMELEC ( 288 SCRA $6 )
“Election Contests, ?. ?istinction 'et3een Luo 8#rr#nto in Electie #nd A&&ointie
office!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 3#s one of t*e c#ndid#tes for t*e &osition of ,#-or in t*e
,unici&#lit- of 7.ui., C#.#-#n in t*e ,#- >995 Elections. 2ri#te res&ondent
/rinid#d 3#s t*en t*e incu%'ent ,#-or, 3#s # c#ndid#te for re+election in t*e s#%e
%unici&#lit-.
Sun.# filed # co%&l#int #ccusin. /rinid#d of iol#tion of t*e O%ni'us Election Code
for usin. t*re#ts, inti%id#tion, terroris% or ot*er for%s of coercion. :e#rin.s 3ere
*eld 3*erein Sun.# #dduced eidence 3*ile /rinid#d o&ted not to su'%it #n-
eidence.
/*e election results s*o3ed t*#t /rinid#d .#rnered t*e *i.*est nu%'er of otes 3*ile
Sun.# tr#iled second.
/*e co%&l#int filed '- Sun.# 3#s denied '- CO,E1EC rulin. t*#t t*e &etitions filed
s*#ll 'e dee%ed to 'e t*e #%ended &etition filed on ,#- >>,>995 3*ic* 3#s cle#rl-
filed #fter t*e election %#nd#tes t*e dis%iss#l of t*e dis5u#lific#tion c#se.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not CO,E1EC c#n *e#r #nd decide dis5u#lific#tion c#ses #.#inst
3innin. c#ndid#tes een #fter t*e election.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled t*#t CO,E1EC is left 3it* no discretion 'ut to
&roceed 3it* t*e dis5u#lific#tion c#se een #fter t*e election. /*e f#ct t*#t /rinid#d
3#s #lre#d- &rocl#i%ed #nd *#s #ssu%ed t*e &osition of %#-or did not diest t*e
CO,E1EC of #ut*orit- #nd <urisdiction to continue t*e *e#rin. #nd eentu#ll- decide
t*e dis5u#lific#tion c#se.
/*e f#ct t*#t t*e c#ndid#te 3*o o't#ined t*e *i.*est nu%'er of otes is l#ter
dis5u#lified for t*e office to 3*ic* *e 3#s elected does not entitle t*e c#ndid#te 3*o
o't#ined t*e second *i.*est nu%'er of otes to 'e decl#red t*e 3inner of t*e
electie office. :ence, Sun.# c#nnot cl#i% t*e ri.*t to t#=e t*e o#t* for t*e %#-or#l
office 'ec#use t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent Code cle#rl- &roides t*#t in c#se of
dis5u#lific#tion of t*e one &rocl#i%ed for t*e s#id office, t*e ice+%#-or s*#ll #ssu%e
office.

13
Election Laws
BEN(AMIN %. ABELLA vs. COMELEC ( 201 SCRA 25* )
“Election Contests, ?. ?istinction 'et3een Luo 8#rr#nto in Electie #nd A&&ointie
office!
"#cts$ 7niti#ll-, Silestre del# Cru) (Ben<#%in A'ell# 3#s #llo3ed to interene) filed #
&etition 3it* t*e CO,E1EC to dis5u#lif- &etitioner 1#rr#)#'#l fro% runnin. #s
.oernor of 1e-te on t*e .round t*#t s*e %isre&resented *er residence in *er
certific#te of c#ndid#c- #s D#n#n.#, 1e-te. 7t 3#s #lle.ed t*#t s*e 3#s in f#ct #
resident of Or%oc Cit- li=e *er *us'#nd 3*o 3#s e#rlier dis5u#lified fro% runnin. for
t*e s#%e office.
/*e CO,E1EC .r#nted t*e &etition. :o3eer, 3*en t*e Co%%ission .r#nted t*e
decision, 1#rr#)#'#l 3#s #lre#d- &rocl#i%ed t*e 0oernor, *ence, 3*en s*e 3#s
dis5u#lified, A'ell#, 3*o .#t*ered t*e second *i.*est otes in t*e s#id #re#, sou.*t
to t#=e *is o#t* #s .oernor of D#n#n.#, 1e-te.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e c#ndid#te 3*o .ot t*e second *i.*est ote %#- 'e
&rocl#i%ed #s .oernor 3*en t*e c#ndid#te for suc* &osition 3#s dis5u#lified.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t 3*ile it is true t*#t S2C (o. 88+546 3#s ori.in#ll-
# &etition to den- due course to t*e certific#te of c#ndid#c- of 1#rr#)#'#l #nd 3#s
filed 'efore 1#rr#)#'#l could 'e &rocl#i%ed, t*e f#ct re%#ins t*#t t*e loc#l elections
of "e'ru#r- >, >988 in t*e &roince of 1e-te &roceeded 3it* 1#rr#)#'#l considered
#s # 'on# fide c#ndid#te. /*e oters of t*e &roince oted for *er in t*e sincere 'elief
t*#t s*e 3#s # 5u#lified c#ndid#te for t*e &osition of .oernor. :er otes 3ere
counted #nd s*e o't#ined t*e *i.*est nu%'er of otes. /*e net effect is t*#t t*e
&etitioner lost in t*e election. :e 3#s re&udi#ted '- t*e elector#te.

14
Election Laws
BIENVENIDO MAR.&EZ vs. COMELEC ( 24* SCRA 5*8 )
“Election Contests, C. Luo 8#rr#nto!
"#cts$ 7t is #erred t*#t #t t*e ti%e res&ondent Rodri.ue) filed *is certific#te of
c#ndid#c-, # cri%in#l c*#r.e #.#inst *i% for ten counts of insur#nce fr#ud or .r#nd
t*eft of &erson#l &ro&ert- 3#s still &endin. 'efore t*e ,unici&#l Court of 1os
An.eles, ESA. A 3#rr#nt issued '- s#id court for *is #rrest, it is cl#i%ed, *#s -et to
'e sered on &ri#te res&ondent on #ccount of *is #lle.ed “fli.*t! fro% t*#t countr-.
Before t*e ,#- >992 elections, # &etition for c#ncell#tion of res&ondent6s certific#te
of c#ndid#c- on t*e .round of t*e c#ndid#te6s dis5u#lific#tion 3#s filed '- &etitioner,
'ut CO,E1EC dis%issed t*e &etition.
2ri#te res&ondent 3#s &rocl#i%ed 0oernor+elect of Lue)on. 2etitioner instituted
5uo 3#rr#nto &roceedin.s #.#inst &ri#te res&ondent 'efore t*e CO,E1EC 'ut t*e
l#tter dis%issed t*e &etition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er &ri#te res&ondent, 3*o #t t*e ti%e of t*e filin. of *is certific#te of
c#ndid#c- is s#id to 'e f#cin. # cri%in#l c*#r.e 'efore # forei.n court #nd e#din. #
3#rr#nt of #rrest co%es 3it*in t*e ter% “fu.itie fro% <ustice.!
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled t*#t Article @C of t*e Rules #nd Re.ul#tions
i%&le%entin. t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent Code of >99> &roides$
“Article @C. ?is5u#lific#tions H /*e follo3in. &ersons s*#ll 'e
dis5u#lified fro% runnin. for #n- electie loc#l &osition$
“(#) 4444
“(e) "u.ities fro% <ustice in cri%in#l or non+&olitic#l c#ses *ere or
#'ro#d. "u.itie fro% <ustice refers to # &erson 3*o *#s 'een conicted
'- fin#l <ud.%ent.!
7t is cle#r fro% t*is &roision t*#t fu.ities fro% <ustice refer onl- to &ersons 3*o *#s
'een conicted '- fin#l <ud.%ent.
:o3eer, CO,E1EC did not %#=e #n- definite findin. on 3*et*er or not &ri#te
res&ondent is # fu.itie fro% <ustice 3*en it outri.*tl- denied t*e &etition for 5uo
3#rr#nto. /*e Court o&ted to re%#nd t*e c#se to CO,E1EC to resole #nd &roceed
3it* t*e c#se.

15
Election Laws
MELANIO SAM%AYAN +" ,/. vs. RA&L DAZA +" ,/. ( 21* SCRA 80$ )
“Election Contests, C. Luo 8#rr#nto!
"#cts$ 2etitioners filed # &etition see=in. to dis5u#lif- ?#)#, t*en incu%'ent
con.ress%#n of t*eir con.ression#l district in ,#=#ti, fro% continuin. to e4ercise t*e
functions of *is office on t*e .round t*#t t*e l#tter is # .reenc#rd *older #nd # l#3ful
&er%#nent resident of t*e Enited St#tes. /*e- #lso #lle.ed t*#t ,r. ?#)# *#s not '-
#n- #ct or decl#r#tion renounced *is st#tus #s &er%#nent resident t*ere'- iol#tin.
t*e O%ni'us Election Code (Section 68) #nd t*e >98@ Constitution (section >8,
Article 777).
Res&ondent Con.ress%#n filed *is Co%%ent den-in. t*e f#ct t*#t *e is # &er%#nent
resident of t*e Enited St#tes #s eidenced '- # letter order of t*e ES 7%%i.r#tion
#nd (#tur#li)#tion Serice, 1os An.eles, E.S.A, *e *#d lon. 3#ied *is st#tus 3*en
*e returned to t*e 2*ili&&ines on Au.ust >2, >985.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not res&ondent ?#)# s*ould 'e dis5u#lified #s # %e%'er of t*e
:ouse of Re&resent#ties for iol#tion of Section 68 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ote to dis%iss t*e inst#nt c#se, first, t*e c#se is %oot #nd
#c#de%ic for it is eident fro% t*e %#nifest#tion filed '- &etitioners d#ted A&ril 6,
>992, t*#t t*e- see= to unse#t t*e res&ondent fro% *is &osition #s Con.ress%#n for
t*e dur#tion of *is ter% of office co%%encin. June CA, >98@ #nd endin. June CA,
>992. Secondl-, <urisdiction of t*is c#se ri.*tfull- &ert#ins to t*e :ouse Elector#l
/ri'un#l. Ender Section >@ of Article K7 of t*e >98@ Constitution, it is t*e :ouse
Elector#l /ri'un#l 3*ic* s*#ll 'e t*e sole <ud.e of #ll contests rel#tin. to t*e election
returns #nd 5u#lific#tion of its %e%'ers.
/*e &etitioner6s #&&ro&ri#te re%ed- s*ould *#e 'een to file # &etition to c#ncel
res&ondent ?#)#6s certific#te of c#ndid#c- 'efore t*e election for # 5uo 3#rr#nto
c#se 3it* t*e :ouse of Elector#l /ri'un#l 3it*in ten d#-s #fter ?#)#6s &rocl#%#tion.

16
Election Laws
(IMMY S. DE CAS)RO vs. COMELEC ( 26$ SCRA 806 )
“Election Contests, B. Election 2rotest!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ?e C#stro 3#s &rocl#i%ed ,#-or of 0lori#, Orient#l ,indoro durin.
t*e >995 Elections, so #s t*e &ri#te res&ondent #s Kice+,#-or of t*e s#%e
%unici&#lit-.
/*e l#te (icol#s J#%ill# filed #n election &rotest 'efore t*e R/C of 2in#%ul#-#n,
Orient#l ,indoro. ?urin. t*e &endenc- of t*e s#id contest, *e died. S*ortl-
t*ere#fter, t*e R/C dis%issed t*e election &rotest rulin. t*#t “ #s t*is c#se is
&erson#l, t*e de#t* of t*e &rotest#nt e4tin.uis*es t*e c#se itself.!
8*en &ri#te res&ondent le#rned #'out t*e dis%iss#l, *e filed # %otion for
interention #ndGor su'stitution in t*e s#%e c#se 3*ic* t*e &etitioner o&&osed. /*e
%otion of &ri#te res&ondent 3#s denied. :e t*en filed # &etition for certior#ri #nd
%#nd#%us 3it* t*e CO,E1EC #ss#ilin. t*#t t*e tri#l court6s orders 3ere issued 3it*
r#e #'use of discretion. CO,E1EC .r#nts t*e &etition rulin. t*#t #n election contest
suries t*e de#t* of t*e &rotest#nt or t*e &rotestee.
7ssue$ 7s #n Election Contest # &erson#l #ction e4tin.uis*ed u&on t*e de#t* of t*e
re#l &#rt- in interestM
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled in t*e ne.#tie.
/*e Court *eld t*#t 3*ile t*e ri.*t to &u'lic office is &erson#l #nd e4clusie to t*e
&u'lic officer, #nd election &rotest is not &urel- &erson#l #nd e4clusie to t*e
&rotest#nt or to t*e &rotestee suc* t*#t t*e de#t* of eit*er 3ould oust t*e court of #ll
#ut*orit- to continue t*e &rotest &roceedin.s.
/*e #ssertion of &etitioner t*#t &ri#te res&ondent is not t*e re#l &#rt- in interest
entitled to 'e su'stituted in t*e election &rotest in &l#ce of t*e l#te J#%ill# is Etterl-
3it*out le.#l '#sis.

17
Election Laws
ALAN M. LOYOLA vs. CO&R) O0 A%%EALS ( 245 SCRA 4$$ )
“Election Contests, B. Election 2rotest!
"#cts$ 7n t*e '#r#n.#- election of ,#- >994, &etitioner 3#s &rocl#i%ed '- t*e
B#r#n.#- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers #s t*e dul- elected 2unon. B#r#n.#- of 2o'l#cion,
/#n.#l#n, A=l#n on ,#- >A, >994.
2ri#te res&ondent "ern#nde) filed #n election &rotest #.#inst t*e &etitioner on ,#-
>8, >994. :o3eer, t*e &etition 3#s not #cco%&#nied '- # certific#tion of non+ foru%
s*o&&in. re5uired under Ad%inistr#tie Circul#r (o. A4+94 of t*e Su&re%e Court.
/*e follo3in. d#-, ,#- >994, t*e &ri#te res&ondent su'%itted to t*e ,C/C *is
certific#tion of non+foru% s*o&&in..
On ,#- 25, >994, &etitioner filed # %otion to dis%iss t*e &rotest due to &ri#te
res&ondents f#ilure to strictl- co%&l- 3it* t*e Circul#r. /*e ,C/C issued #n order
den-in. t*e %otion to dis%iss. /*e R/C of A=l#n denied t*e &etition for certior#ri filed
'- &etitioner for l#c= of %erit.
7ssue$ 8*et*er Ad%inistr#tie Circul#r (o. A4+94 is %#nd#tor- #nd <urisdiction#l, #nd
3*et*er it is #&&lic#'le in election c#ses.
:eld$ /*e filin. of t*e certific#tion 3#s 3it*in t*e &eriod for filin. #n election &rotest.
8*en &etitioner 3#s &rocl#i%ed #s t*e 2unon. B#r#n.#- on ,#- >A, >994,
res&ondent *#s ten d#-s fro% suc* &rocl#%#tion 3it*in 3*ic* to file t*e election
&rotest. 7n t*is c#se, 3*en res&ondent filed *is certific#te of non+foru% s*o&&in. on
,- >9, >994, it 3#s 3it*in t*e re.le%ent#r- &eriod &roided for in t*e O%ni'us
Election Code, t*us, *e still *#s until ,#- 2A, >994 to co%&lete t*e re5uire%ents of
*is &etition.
Also, t*e f#ct t*#t t*e Circul#r re5uires t*#t it s*ould 'e strictl- co%&lied 3it* %erel-
underseres its %#nd#tor- n#ture in t*#t it c#nnot dis&ensed 3it* or its re5uire%ents
#lto.et*er disre.#rded, 'ut it does not t*ere'- interdict su'st#nti#l co%&li#nce 3it*
its &roisions under <ustifi#'le circu%st#nces.
/*ere is not*in. in t*e Circul#r t*#t indic#tes t*#t it does not #&&l- to election c#ses.
On t*e contr#r-, it e4&ressl- &roides t*#t t*e re5uire%ents t*erein “s*#ll 'e strictl-
co%&lied 3it* in t*e filin. of co%&l#ints, &etitions, #&&lic#tions or ot*er initi#tor-
&le#din.s in #ll courts #nd #.encies ot*er t*#n t*e Su&re%e Court #nd t*e Court of
A&&e#ls.

18
Election Laws
DANILO GA)C1ALIAN vs. CO&R) O0 A%%EALS ( 245 SCRA 208 )
“Election Contests, B. Election 2rotest!
"#cts$ 0#tc*#li#n #nd Aruelo 3ere ri#ls for t*e office of t*e Kice+,#-or of B#l#.t#s,
Bul#c#n in t*e ,#- >>, >992 Elections. 0#tc*#li#n 3#s &rocl#i%ed Kice+,#-or '- #
%#r.in of four otes on ,#- >C, >992.
On ,#- 22, >992, Aruelo filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC # &etition see=in. to #nnul t*e
&rocl#%#tion of 0#tc*#li#n. :e #lso filed on June 2, >992 3it* t*e R/C of ,#lolos,
Bul#c#n #n election &rotest.
8*en 0#tc*#li#n receied t*e su%%ons, inste#d of filin. #n #ns3er, *e filed #
%otion to dis%iss3 on t*e follo3in. .rounds$ (#) t*e &etition 3#s filed out of ti%eB (')
t*ere 3#s # &endin. &re+&rocl#%#tion c#se 'efore t*e CO,E1EC, *ence t*e &rotest
3#s &re%#tureB #nd (c) Aruelo f#iled to &#- t*e &rescri'ed fees.
/*e &re+&rocl#%#tion c#se 3#s denied '- CO,E1EC, 'ut t*e ,otion to ?is%iss 3#s
denied '- t*e tri#l court, *ence t*is &etition.
7ssue$ S*ould t*e &rocl#%#tion contest 'e deniedM Also, s*ould t*e election contest
'e dis%issed for f#ilure to &#- t*e filin. feesM
:eld$ On t*e first issue, t*e Court *eld t*#t Aruelo filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC &re+
&rocl#%#tion c#se #.#inst 0#tc*#li#n nine d#-s #fter ,#- >C, >992, t*e l#tter6s
&rocl#%#tion d#te. /*e filinf of t*e &re+&rocl#%#tion c#se sus&ended t*e runnin. of
t*e &eriod 3it*in 3*ic* to file t*e election &rotest 3*ic* 3#s one d#- #fter June 22,
>992. :e filed t*e election &rotest on June 2, >992 3it* t*e tri#l court e4 #'ud#nte
c#utel#.
On second t*e issue, t*e Court *eld t*#t, indeed, res&ondent f#iled to &#- t*e
re5uired filin. fee of 2CAA,AA for t*e election &rotest &rescri'ed '- t*e CO,E1EC
Rules of 2rocedure. :ence, t*e &etition s*ould 'e dis%issed for it is t*e &#-%ent of
t*e filin. fee t*#t ests <urisdiction of t*e court oer t*e election &rotest.

19
Election Laws
MIRIAM DE0ENSOR2SAN)IAGO vs. 0IDEL RAMOS ( 25* SCRA 55# )
“Election Contests, B. Election 2rotest!
"#cts$ /*e &rotest#nt lost in t*e ,#- >992 Election. 7n *er ,otion of >6 Au.ust >995,
reiter#ted in *er Co%%ent of 29 Au.ust >995, 2rotest#nt ?efensor+S#nti#.o &r#-ed
t*#t t*e reision in t*e re%#inin. &recincts of t*e &ilot #re#s 'e dis&ensed 3it* #nd
t*e reision &rocess in t*e &ilot #re#s 'e dee%ed co%&uted.
/*e Court deferred #ction on t*e %otion #nd re5uired, inste#d, t*e &rotest#nt #nd
&rotestee to su'%it t*eir res&ectie %e%or#nd#. :ence, t*is &etition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e election &rotest filed '- S#nti#.o is %oot #nd #c#de%ic '-
*er election #s # Sen#tor in t*e ,#- >995 election #nd *er #ssu%&tion of office #s
suc* on June CA, >995.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled in t*e Affir%#tie. /*e Court *eld t*#t t*e election
&rotest filed '- S#nti#.o *#s 'een #'#ndoned or considered 3it*dr#3n #s #
conse5uence of *er election #nd #ssu%&tion of office #s Sen#tor #nd *er disc*#r.e
of t*e duties #nd functions t*ereof.
/*e &rotest#nt #'#ndoned *er “deter%in#tion to &rotest #nd &ursue t*e &u'lic
interest inoled in t*e %#tter of 3*o is t*e re#l c*oice of t*e elector#te.
,oreoer, t*e dis%iss#l of t*is &rotest 3ould sere &u'lic interest #s it 3ould
dissi&#te t*e #ur# of uncert#int- #s to t*e results of t*e >992 &residenti#l elections,
t*ere'- en*#ncin. t*e #ll H too cruci#l &olitic#l st#'ilit- of t*e n#tion durin. t*is
&eriod of n#tion#l recoer-.
20
Election Laws
BEN(AMIN 0. ARAO vs. COMELEC ( 210 SCRA 2#0 )
“Election Contests, B. Election 2rotest!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Ar#o #nd &ri#te res&ondent 2ul%ones 3ere c#ndid#tes for t*e
office of Cit- ,#-or of 2#.#di#n Cit- in t*e J#nu#r- >8, >988 loc#l elections. After
c#n#ssin. t*e otes, &etitioner .#rnered >2,44@ otes, 3*ile 2ul%ones .ot onl-
>2,ACA otes. Conse5uentl- on J#nu#r- 2>, >988, &etitioner 3#s &rocl#i%ed Cit-
,#-or+elect of 2#.#di#n Cit-.
2ri#te res&ondent filed *is 2rotest 3it* CO,E1EC &#rticul#rl- #lle.in. t*#t fr#ud
#nd #no%#lies 3ere r#%&#nt in &r#ctic#ll- #ll t*e otin. centers in 2#.#di#n Cit- on
J#nu#r- 28, >988. :e #lso filed #n #%ended &rotest on "e'ru#r- >5, >988 or #fter
t*e ten d#- &eriod to file #n election &rotest. /*e "irst ?iision of CO,E1EC denied
t*e s#id #%ended &rotest. /*ere#fter, t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc .r#nted t*e #%ended
&rotest #nd decl#red 2ul%ones #s t*e dul- elected %#-or of 2#.#di#n Cit- #nd
ordered &etitioner to #c#te *is office #nd surrender t*e s#%e to &ri#te res&ondent.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not CO,E1EC co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion in decl#rin.
2ul%ones #s t*e dul- elected ,#-or of 2#.#di#n Cit-.
:eld$ /*e e4tr#ordin#r- &o3er of t*e Su&re%e Court to &#ss u&on #n order or
decision of CO,E1EC s*ould 'e e4ercised restrictiel-, 3it* c#re #nd c#ution, 3*ile
.iin. it t*e *i.*est re.#rd #nd res&ect due # constitution#l 'od-. "or, not eer-
#'use of discretion <ustifies t*e ori.in#l #ction of certior#ri, it %ust 'e .r#e. (or #n-
deni#l of ?ue 2rocess 3it*in its #%'it, it %ust 'e &#tent #nd it %ust 'e su'st#nti#l.
/*e test t*erefore is 3*et*er &etitioner *#s de%onstr#ted conincin.l- t*#t
CO,E1EC *#s co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion or e4ceeded its <urisdiction
#%ountin. to &#tent #nd su'st#nti#l deni#l of due &rocess in issuin. t*e c*#llen.ed
decision. :ere, &etitioner *#s utterl- f#iled.
/*e co%&l#int of &etitioner #.#inst t*e #lle.ed o%ission of CO,E1EC to st#te t*e
re#sons for its conclusion t*#t cert#in '#llots 3ere 3it* identic#l *#nd3ritin.s, so%e
%#r=ed #nd ot*ers str#-, does not in #n- %#.nitude di%inis* t*e str#i.*t for3#rd
st#te%ent of t*e &u'lic res&ondent t*#t “it &#inst#=in.l- e4#%ined #nd #&&reci#ted
indiidu#ll- t*e contested '#llots for 'ot* &rotest#nt #nd &rotestee in #ccord#nce 3it*
e4istin. nor%s.!
Conse5uentl- &etitioner %#- 'e dee%ed to *#e 3#ied *is ri.*t to 5uestion t*e
Resolution 3*en *e f#iled to #ct #ccordin.l- des&ite t*e o&&ortunit- to do so. :e
s*ould not 'e &er%itted, in ot*er 3ords to re%#in %ute #nd un#ffected in t*e f#ce of
# &erceied <urisdiction#l defect #nd, 3orse, &rofit fro% *is #c5uiescence onl- to
.ru%'le in t*e end 3*en it turns out to 'e &re<udici#l to *is interest.
21
Election Laws

GALIDO vs. COMELEC ( 1#* SCRA $8 )
“Election Contests, A. Jurisdiction oer Election Contests!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 0#lido #nd &ri#te res&ondent 0#leon 3ere c#ndid#tes durin. t*e
J#nu#r- >988 loc#l elections for %#-or of 0#rci#+:ern#nde), Bo*ol. 2etitioner 3#s
&rocl#i%ed t*e dul-+elected ,#-or. 2ri#te res&ondent filed #n election &rotest
'efore t*e R/C. After *e#rin., t*e s#id court u&*eld t*e &rocl#%#tion of &etitioner.
2ri#te res&ondent #&&e#led t*e R/C decision to t*e CO,E1EC. 7ts "irst ?iision
reersed t*e R/C decision #nd decl#red &ri#te res&ondent t*e dul-+elected %#-or.
After t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc denied t*e &etitioner6s %otion for reconsider#tion #nd
#ffir%ed t*e decision of its "irst ?iision. /*e CO,E1EC *eld t*#t t*e fifteen (>5)
'#llots in t*e s#%e &recinct cont#inin. t*e initi#l “C! #fter t*e n#%e “0#lido! 3ere
%#r=ed '#llots #nd, t*erefore, in#lid.
End#unted '- *is &reious f#iled #ctions t*e &etitioner filed t*e &resent &etition for
certior#ri #nd in<unction 'efore t*e Su&re%e Court #nd succeeded in .ettin. #
te%&or#r- restr#inin. order. 7n *is co%%ent to t*e &etition, &ri#te res&ondent %oed
for dis%iss#l, citin. Article 7J (C), Section 2(2), &#r#.r#&* 2 of t*e >98@ Constitution,
t*#t “"in#l decisions, orders or rulin.s of t*e CO,E1EC in election contests inolin.
electie %unici&#l offices #re fin#l #nd e4ecutor-, #nd not #&&e#l#'le.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not # CO,E1EC decision %#-, if it sets #side t*e tri#l court6s
decision inolin. %#r=ed '#llots, 'e 'rou.*t to t*e Su&re%e Court '- # &etition for
certior#ri '- t*e #..rieed &#rt-M
:eld$ /*e f#ct t*#t decisions, fin#l orders or rulin.s of t*e CO,E1EC in contests
inolin. electie %unici&#l #nd '#r#n.#- offices #re fin#l, e4ecutor- #nd not
#&&e#l#'le, does not &reclude # recourse to t*is Court '- 3#- of # s&eci#l ciil #ction
of certior#ri. Ender Article 7J (A), Section @ of t*e Constitution, 3*ic* &etitioner cites,
it is st#ted, “Enless ot*er3ise &roided '- t*is Constitution or '- l#3, #n- decision,
order, or rulin. of e#c* (Constitution#l) Co%%ission %#- 'e 'rou.*t to t*e Su&re%e
Court on certior#ri '- t*e #..rieed &#rt- 3it*in t*irt- d#-s fro% recei&t t*ereof.! 8e
resole t*is issue in f#or of t*e &etitioner.
“8e do not, *o3eer, 'eliee t*#t t*e res&ondent CO,E1EC co%%itted .r#e #'use
of discretion #%ountin. to l#c= or e4cess of <urisdiction in renderin. t*e 5uestioned
decision. /*e CO,E1EC *#s t*e in*erent &o3er to decide #n election contest on
&*-sic#l eidence, e5uit-, l#3 #nd <ustice, #nd #&&l- est#'lis*ed <uris&rudence, in
su&&ort of its findin.s #nd conclusionsB #nd t*#t t*e e4tent to 3*ic* suc* &recedents
#&&l- rests on its discretion, t*e e4ercise of 3*ic* s*ould not 'e controlled unless
suc* discretion *#s 'een #'used to t*e &re<udice of eit*er &#rt-. ACCOR?7(01;, t*e
&etition is ?7,7SSSE?.
22
Election Laws

23
Election Laws
0LORES vs. COMELEC ( 184 SCRA 484 )
“Election Contests, A. Jurisdiction oer Election Contests!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Ro5ue "lores 3#s decl#red '- t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers #s *#in.
t*e *i.*est nu%'er of otes for =#.#3#d on t*e ,#rc* >989 elections, in B#r#n.#-
2o'l#cion, /#-u%, A'r#, #nd t*us &rocl#i%ed &unon. '#r#n.#- in #ccord#nce 3it*
Section 5 of R.A. 66@9. :o3eer, *is election 3#s &rotested '- &ri#te res&ondent
R#&isor#, 3*o &l#ced second in t*e election 3it* one ote less t*#n t*e &etitioner.
/*e ,unici&#l Circuit /ri#l Court of /#-u% sust#ined R#&isor# #nd inst#lled *i% #s
&unon. '#r#n.#- in &l#ce of t*e &etitioner #fter deductin. t3o otes #s str#- fro%
t*e l#tter6s tot#l. "lores #&&e#led to t*e R/C, 3*ic* #ffir%ed t*e c*#llen.ed decision
in toto. /*e <ud.e #.reed t*#t t*e four otes c#st for “"lores! onl-, 3it*out #n-
distin.uis*in. first n#%e or initi#l, s*ould #ll *#e 'een considered in#lid inste#d of
'ein. diided e5u#ll- 'et3een t*e &etitioner #nd An#st#cio "lores, #not*er c#ndid#te
for =#.#3#d. /*e tot#l credited to t*e &etitioner 3#s correctl- reduced '- 2, de%otin.
*i% to second &l#ce.
/*e &etitioner 3ent to t*e CO,E1EC, 3*ic* dis%issed *is #&&e#l on t*e .round t*#t
it *#d no &o3er to reie3 t*e decision of t*e R/C, '#sed on Section 9 of R.A. 66@9,
t*#t decisions of t*e R/C in # &rotest #&&e#led to it fro% t*e %unici&#l tri#l court in
'#r#n.#- elections “on 5uestions of f#ct s*#ll 'e fin#l #nd non+#&&e#l#'le!. 7n *is
&etition for certior#ri, t*e CO,E1EC is f#ulted for not t#=in. co.ni)#nce of t*e
&etitioners #&&e#l.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e decisions of ,unici&#l or ,etro&olit#n Courts in '#r#n.#-
election contests #re su'<ect to t*e e4clusie #&&ell#te <urisdiction of t*e CO,E1EC
considerin. Section 9 of R.A. (o. 66@9M
:eld$ /*e dis%iss#l of t*e #&&e#l is <ustified, 'ut on #n entirel- different #nd %ore
si.nific#nt .round, to 3it, Article 7J+C, Section 2(2) of t*e Constitution, &roidin. t*#t
t*e CO,E1EC s*#ll “E4ercise e4clusie ori.in#l <urisdiction oer #ll contests rel#tin.
to t*e elections, returns #nd 5u#lific#tions of #ll electie re.ion#l, &roinci#l, #nd cit-
offici#ls, #nd #&&ell#te <urisdiction oer #ll contests inolin. electie %unici&#l
offici#ls decided '- tri#l courts of .ener#l <urisdiction, or inolin. electie '#r#n.#-
offici#ls decided '- tri#l courts of li%ited <urisdiction!.
,unici&#l or ,etro&olit#n Courts 'ein. courts of li%ited <urisdiction, t*eir decisions in
'#r#n.#- election contests #re su'<ect to t*e e4clusie #&&ell#te <urisdiction of t*e
CO,E1EC under t*e #fore+5uoted section. :ence, t*e decision rendered '- t*e
,unici&#l Circuit /ri#l Court, s*ould *#e 'een #&&e#led directl- to t*e CO,E1EC
#nd not to t*e R/C. Accordin.l-, Section 9 of Re&. Act (o. 66@9, insof#r #s it
&roides t*#t t*e decision of t*e %unici&#l or %etro&olit#n court in # '#r#n.#-
election c#se s*ould 'e #&&e#led to t*e R/C, %ust 'e decl#red unconstitution#l.
24
Election Laws
RE1A,2A0OS s. CE,BA ( 24C SCRA 5A2 )
“Election Contests, A. Jurisdiction oer Election Contests!
"#cts$ 7n t*e elections of >> ,#- >992, t*e &etitioner Rel#%&#.os #nd &ri#te
res&ondent Cu%'# 3ere c#ndid#tes for ,#-or of ,#.#ll#nes, A.us#n del (orte. /*e
l#tter 3#s &rocl#i%ed t*e 3innin. c#ndid#te, 3it* # %#r.in of t3ent-+t3o otes oer
t*e for%er. En3illin. to #cce&t defe#t, t*e &etitioner filed #n election &rotest 3it* t*e
R/C 3*ic* found t*e &etitioner to *#e 3on 3it* # %#r.in of si4 otes oer t*e
&ri#te res&ondent #nd rendered <ud.%ent in f#or of t*e &etitioner. On 4 Jul- >994,
t*e &ri#te res&ondent #&&e#led t*e decision to t*e CO,E1EC. /*e &etitioner, on >2
Jul- >994, filed 3it* t*e tri#l court # %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l, 3*ic* t*e
tri#l court .r#nted On C Au.ust >994. /*e &ri#te res&ondent filed # %otion for
reconsider#tion of t*e order of e4ecution 3*ic* 3#s denied on 5 Au.ust >994.
/*e &ri#te res&ondent t*en filed 3it* t*e res&ondent CO,E1EC # &etition for
certior#ri to #nnul t*e #fores#id order of t*e tri#l court .r#ntin. t*e %otion for
e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l #nd t*e 3rit of e4ecution. On 9 "e'ru#r- >995, t*e
CO,E1EC &ro%ul.#ted its resolution .r#ntin. t*e &etition. Accordin.l-, &etitioner
3#s ordered restored to *er &osition #s ,unici&#l ,#-or, &endin. resolution of t*e
#&&e#l 'efore t*e Co%%ission. A..rieed '- t*e resolution, t*e &etitioner filed t*is
s&eci#l ciil #ction.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC *#s <urisdiction oer &etitions for certior#ri,
&ro*i'ition, #nd %#nd#%us in election c#ses 3*ere it *#s e4clusie #&&ell#te
<urisdictionM
:eld$ /*e Court in concludin. t*#t t*e #fores#id l#st &#r#.r#&* of Section 5A of B.2.
69@ *#s not 'een re&e#led '- t*e O%ni'us Election Code, *eld t*#t t*e CO,E1EC
*#s t*e #ut*orit- to issue t*e e4tr#ordin#r- 3rits for certior#ri, &ro*i'ition #nd
%#nd#%us onl- in #id of its #&&ell#te <urisdiction.
:ence, t*e tri#l court #cted 3it* &#l&#'le #nd 3*i%sic#l #'use of discretion in
.r#ntin. t*e &etitioner6s %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l #nd in issuin. t*e 3rit
of e4ecution. An- %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l %ust 'e filed 'efore t*e
&eriod for t*e &erfection of t*e #&&e#l. Since t*e %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l
3#s filed onl- on >2 Jul- >994, or #fter t*e &erfection of t*e #&&e#l, t*e tri#l court
could no lon.er #lidl- #ct t*ereon.
CO,E1EC *#s <urisdiction, *ence, it correctl- set #side t*e c*#llen.ed order
.r#ntin. t*e %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l #nd 3rit of e4ecution issued '- t*e
tri#l court.

25
Election Laws
MALAL&AN vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)IONS ( 254 SCRA *#$ )
“Election Contests, A. Jurisdiction oer Election Contests!
"#cts$ 2ri#te res&ondent Jose&* E#n.elist# 3#s &rocl#i%ed '- t*e ,unici&#l
Bo#rd of C#n#ssers #s t*e dul- elected ,#-or of Did#&#3#n, (ort* Cot#'#to #s
#.#inst &etitioner 1uis ,#l#lu#n. /*e l#tter filed #n election &rotest 3it* t*e R/C,
3*ic* decl#red &etitioner #s t*e dul- elected %#-or. Actin. 3it*out &recedent, t*e
court found &ri#te res&ondent li#'le not onl- for ,#l#lu#n6s &rotest e4&enses 'ut
#lso for %or#l #nd e4e%&l#r- d#%#.es #nd #ttorne-6s fees. 2ri#te res&ondent
#&&e#led t*e decision to t*e CO,E1EC. 2etitioner, for *is &#rt, filed # %otion for
e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l 3*ic* 3#s .r#nted '- t*e tri#l court. 2etitioner t*en
#ssu%ed #nd e4ercised t*e &o3ers #nd functions of s#id office. /*is did not l#st,
'ec#use t*e "irst ?iision of t*e CO,E1EC ordered ,#l#lu#n to #c#te t*e office,
*#in. found &ri#te res&ondent to 'e t*e ri.*tful 3inner #nd #3#rded d#%#.es,
consistin. of #ttorne-6s fees, #ctu#l e4&enses for )ero4 co&ies, une#rned s#l#r- #nd
ot*er e%olu%ents for t*e &eriod, en %#sse deno%in#ted #s #ctu#l d#%#.es,
not3it*st#ndin. t*e f#ct t*#t t*e elector#l controers- *#d 'eco%e %oot #nd
#c#de%ic on #ccount of t*e e4&ir#tion of t*e ter% of office. /*e CO,E1EC en '#nc
#ffir%ed s#id decision. :ence, ,#l#lu#n filed t*is &etition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC .r#el- #'used its discretion in #3#rdin. t*e
#forecited d#%#.es in f#or of &ri#te res&ondentM
:eld$ /*e decision of # <udici#l 'od- is # '#sis for # 3innin. c#ndid#te6s ri.*t to
#ssu%e office. 8e dee% &etitioner, t*erefore, to 'e # de f#cto officer #nd is t*us
“le.#ll- entitled to t*e e%olu%ents of t*e office.! Section 259 of t*e O%ni'us Election
Code onl- &roides for t*e .r#ntin. in election c#ses of #ctu#l #nd co%&ens#tor-
d#%#.es in #ccord#nce 3it* l#3. /*e ictorious &#rt- in #n election c#se c#nnot 'e
inde%nified for e4&enses 3*ic* *e *#s incurred in #n elector#l contest in t*e
#'sence of # 3ron.ful #ct or o%ission or 're#c* of o'li.#tion cle#rl- #ttri'ut#'le to
t*e losin. &#rt-. 7f #n- d#%#.e *#d 'een suffered '- &ri#te res&ondent due to t*e
e4ecution of <ud.%ent &endin. #&&e#l, t*#t d#%#.e %#- 'e s#id to 'e e5ui#lent to
d#%nu% #'s5ue in<uri#, 3*ic* is, d#%#.e 3it*out in<ur-, or d#%#.e or in<ur- inflicted
3it*out in<ustice, or loss or d#%#.e 3it*out iol#tion of # le.#l ri.*t, or # 3ron. done
to # %#n for 3*ic* t*e l#3 &roides no re%ed-.
/*#t &ortion of t*e decision #3#rdin. #ctu#l d#%#.es to &ri#te res&ondent Jose&*
E#n.elist# is *ere'- decl#red null #nd oid for *#in. 'een issued in .r#e #'use
of discretion #nd in e4cess of <urisdiction.

26
Election Laws
ALVAREZ vs. COMELEC (GR No. 14252$ M,-!3 01 2001 )
“Election Contests, A. Jurisdiction oer Election Contests!
"#cts$ On ,#- >2, >99@, &etitioner Arsenio Al#re), 3it* 59A otes, 3#s &rocl#i%ed
2unon. B#r#n.#- of ?oI# Auror#, Lue)on Cit-, *is o&&onent, &ri#te res&ondent
A'#d+S#r%iento, o't#ined 585 otes. 2ri#te res&ondent filed #n election &rotest in
t*e ,etro&olit#n /ri#l Court cl#i%in. irre.ul#rities in t*e re#din. #nd #&&reci#tion of
'#llots '- t*e Bo#rd of Election 7ns&ectors. After # recount of t*e '#llots in t*e
contested &recincts, t*e /ri#l Court ruled t*#t t*e &ri#te res&ondent 3on t*e
election, .#rnerin. 596 otes 3*ile &etitioner .ot 55A otes. On #&&e#l, t*e
CO,E1EC6s Second ?iision ruled t*#t &ri#te res&ondent 3on oer &etitioner.
2etitioner filed # ,otion for Reconsider#tion. ,e#n3*ile, &ri#te res&ondent filed #
,otion for E4ecution &endin. #&&e#l 3*ic* &etitioner o&&osed. /*e CO,E1EC En
B#nc denied t*e ,otion for Reconsider#tion #nd #ffir%ed t*e decision of t*e Second
?iision. 7t .r#nted t*e ,otion for E4ecution &endin. #&&e#l. 2etitioner 'rou.*t
'efore t*e Su&re%e Court t*is &etition for Certior#ri #ss#ilin. t*e Resolution of t*e
CO,E1EC En B#nc, den-in. t*e ,otion for Reconsider#tion of *erein &etitioner #nd
#ffir%in. t*e Resolution of its Second ?iision #lle.in. t*#t t*e CO,E1EC En B#nc
.r#nted t*e res&ondents ,otion for E4ecution &endin. #&&e#l 3*en t*e #&&e#l 3#s
no lon.er &endin., t*us t*e %otion *#d 'eco%e o'solete #nd unenforce#'le.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC #cted 3it* .r#e #'use of discretion 3*en it
&re%#turel- #cted on t*e ,otion for E4ecution &endin. #&&e#lM
:eld$ 8e note t*#t 3*en t*e %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l 3#s filed,
&etitioner *#d # %otion for reconsider#tion 'efore t*e Second ?iision. /*is &endin.
%otion for reconsider#tion sus&ended t*e e4ecution of t*e resolution of t*e Second
?iision. A&&ro&ri#tel- t*en, t*e diision %ust #ct on t*e %otion for reconsider#tion.
/*us, 3*en t*e Second ?iision resoled 'ot* &etitioner6s %otion for reconsider#tion
#nd &ri#te res&ondent6s %otion for e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l, it did so in t*e
e4ercise of its e4clusie #&&ell#te <urisdiction. Corres&ondin.l-, 3e do not find t*#t
t*e CO,E1EC #'used its discretion 3*en it #llo3ed t*e e4ecution &endin. #&&e#l.
2etition is ?7S,7SSE?, #nd t*e En B#nc Resolution of t*e CO,E1EC is A""7R,E?.

27
Election Laws
CAS)ROMAYOR vs. COMELEC (250 SCRA2#8)
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, ?. 2rocedure!
"#cts$ 2etitioner C#stro%#-or 3#s # c#ndid#te for # se#t in t*e ei.*t+%e%'er
S#n..uni#n. B#-#n of t*e %unici&#lit- of C#lino., 7loilo in t*e elections *eld in ,#-
>995. /*e 3inners 3ere &rocl#i%ed on t*e '#sis of t*e c#n#ss 3*ic* s*o3ed t*#t
&etitioner receied otes for t*e ei.*t* &l#ce. 8*en Alice 0#rin, C*#ir%#n of t*e
,BC, rec*ec=ed t*e tot#ls in t*e St#te%ent of Kotes t*e follo3in. d#-, s*e
discoered t*#t t*e nu%'er of otes c#st for (ild# ?e%orito, #s %e%'er of t*e
S#n.uni#n. B#-#n, 3#s 62 %ore t*#n t*#t credited to *er. As 0#rin l#ter e4&l#ined
to t*e 2roinci#l Election Su&erisor, t*e returns fro% one &recinct *#d 'een
oerloo=ed in t*e co%&ut#tion of t*e tot#ls, t*erefore, t*e tot#l nu%'er of otes c#st
for ?e%orito 3#s 5> otes %ore t*#n t*e otes c#st for &etitioner. 0#rin re&orted t*e
%#tter to t*e Re.ion#l Election ?irector, 3*o #dised *er to re5uest #ut*orit- fro%
t*e CO,E1EC to reconene for t*e &ur&ose of correctin. t*e error. A f#4 letter 3#s
sent to t*e 1#3 ?e&#rt%ent of t*e CO,E1EC in ,#nil# e4&l#inin. t*e &ro'le% #nd
#s=in. for t*e #ut*orit- to reconene #nd correct t*e error, to #nnul t*e &rocl#%#tion
of &etitioner #nd &rocl#i% ?e%orito #s t*e ei.*t* %e%'er of t*e S#n..uni#n.
B#-#n. A for%#l letter 3#s l#ter sent to t*e CO,E1EC #nd t*e s#%e issued #
resolution #nnullin. t*e &rocl#%#tion of C#stro%#-or #nd &rocl#i%ed ?e%orito #s
t*e dul- elected ei.*t* %e%'er. 2etitioner &rotested t*e &ro&osed #ction #nd
5uestioned t*e le.#lit- of t*e #ctu#tions of 0#rin.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC #cted 3it* .r#e #'use of discretion 3*en *e
3#s not #fforded 3it* ri.*t to refute t*e resolution of t*e CO,E1ECM
:eld$ (o. ,BC &rocl#%#tions %#- 'e r#ised directl- to t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc in t*e
e4ercise of its constitution#l function to decide 5uestions #ffectin. elections. 8*#t
*#s <ust 'een s#id #lso dis&oses of &etitioner6s ot*er contention t*#t 'ec#use *is
&rocl#%#tion *#s #lre#d- 'een %#de, #n- re%ed- of t*e losin. &#rt- is #n election
&rotest. 8*ere # &rocl#%#tion is null #nd oid, t*e &rocl#%#tion is no &rocl#%#tion #t
#ll #nd t*e &rocl#i%ed c#ndid#te6s #ssu%&tion of office c#nnot de&rie t*e
CO,E1EC of t*e &o3er to decl#re suc* nullit- #nd #nnul t*e &rocl#%#tion.
/*e ,BC6s #ction to reconene for &ur&oses of correction of errors is #lid under
Rule 2@ Sec. @ of t*e CO,E1EC Rules of 2rocedure. /*ou.* it &ert#ins to &re+
&rocl#%#tion &roceedin.s #nd *ere &rocl#%#tion of &etitioner *#s 'een %#de, t*ere
is not*in. to su..est t*e it c#nnot 'e #&&lied to t*e c#se #t '#r, in 3*ic* t*e #lidit-
of t*e &rocl#%#tion is &recisel- in 5uestion.

28
Election Laws
D&REMDES vs. COMELEC ( 1$8 SCRA $46 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, ?. 2rocedure!
"#cts$ 2etitioner R#%on ?. ?ure%des, &ri#te res&ondent Ci&ri#no B. 2en#florid#,
#nd Rufino 2#l#'ric# r#n for t*e office of Kice+0oernor of t*e 2roince of 7loilo.
?urin. t*e c#n#ss of otes '- t*e 2roinci#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers of 7loilo,
2en#florid# o'<ected er'#ll- to so%e >>A election returns fro% #rious &recincts,
3*ic* *e follo3ed u& 3it* 3ritten o'<ections. /*e Bo#rd oerruled t*e s#%e in
se&#r#te Orders eit*er 'ec#use t*e- 3ere not ti%el- filed or t*#t t*e for%#l defects
did not #ffect t*e .enuineness of t*e returns, or t*#t in c#se of #lle.#tions of
t#%&erin., no eidence 3#s &resented to su&&ort t*e c*#r.e. CO,E1EC #n “A&&e#l
'- 8#- of # 2etition for Reie3,! fro% t*e #fores#id rulin.s of t*e Bo#rd &le#din.,
#%on. ot*ers, for t*e e4clusion of t*e 5uestioned election returns #nd for 2en#florid#
Ns &rocl#%#tion #s t*e elected Kice+0oernor of 7loilo. 2en#florid# filed, #lso 3it* t*e
CO,E1EC, # 2etition see=in. t*e #nnul%ent of election returns #nd t*e sus&ension
of t*e &rocl#%#tion of #n- c#ndid#te. /*e Bo#rd &rocl#i%ed ?ure%des #s t*e dul-
elected Kice+0oernor. ?ure%des too= *is o#t* #nd #ssu%ed office. CO,E1EC #fter
*e#rin., issued # 2er Curi#% Resolution, sust#inin. t*e rulin.s of t*e Bo#rd of
C#n#ssers on 2en#florid#6s o'<ections, #s 3ell #s ?ure%des6 &rocl#%#tion.
?ure%des f#ults t*e CO,E1EC 3it* .r#e #'use of discretion for *#in.
disre.#rded t*e 3ell+settled doctrines (>) t*#t %#tters of &rotest, o'<ections or issues
not ori.in#ll- r#ised 'efore t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers u&on t*e o&enin. of t*e returns,
c#nnot 'e r#ised for t*e first ti%e 'efore t*e CO,E1ECB #nd (2) t*#t #fter #
&rocl#%#tion *#s 'een %#de, # &re&rocl#%#tion controers- is no lon.er i#'le, t*e
&ro&er recourse 'ein. #n election &rotest.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC *#s <urisdiction oer &re+&rocl#%#tion
controersies not r#ised 'efore t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers leelM
:eld$ ;es. /*e CO,E1EC *#s t*e &o3er to decide #ll 5uestions #ffectin. elections
(Article 7JOCP Section 2OCP, >98@ Constitution), # 5uestion &ert#inin. to t*e
&roceedin.s of s#id Bo#rd %#- 'e r#ised directl- 3it* t*e CO,E1EC #s # &re+
&rocl#%#tion controers-. 8*en so ele#ted, t*e CO,E1EC #cts in t*e e4ercise of
its ori.in#l <urisdiction for 3*ic* re#son it is not indis&ens#'le t*#t t*e issue 'e r#ised
'efore t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers durin. t*e c#n#ssin.. /*e CO,E1EC is not
disc*#r.in. its #&&ell#te <urisdiction under Section 245 of t*e O%ni'us Election
Code, 3*ic* *#s to do 3it* contests re.#rdin. t*e inclusion or e4clusion in t*e
c#n#ss of #n- election returns, 3it* # &rescri'ed #&&ell#te &rocedure to follo3.
,#tters of correction of t*e st#te%ent of otes %#- 'e t*e su'<ect of # &re
&rocl#%#tion c#se 3*ic* %#- 'e filed directl- 3it* t*e Co%%ission.

29
Election Laws
VILLAROYA vs. COMELEC ( 155 SCRA 6** )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, ?. 2rocedure!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Kill#ro-# #nd &ri#te res&ondent Ro# 3ere #%on. t*e
con.ression#l c#ndid#tes in C#.#-#n de Oro Cit-. Kill#ro-# .#rnered C8,222 otes,
3*ile res&ondent Ro# .ot # tot#l of C8,>96 otes, 3it* # &lur#lit- of 6 otes, in f#or
of &etitioner Kill#ro-#. ?ue to t*e &rotest of t*e l#3-ers of Ro#, Kill#ro-# 3#s not
&rocl#i%ed '- t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers. Ro# filed # &etition in t*e CO,E1EC
contestin. t*e election cl#i%in. fr#ud, duress, f#lsific#tion #nd ot*er .rounds. E&on #
for%#l re5uest %#de '- Ro#, t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers furnis*ed *er # co&- of t*e
St#te%ent of Kotes. Ro# filed 3it* t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers # &rotest for t*e error or
%ist#=e in t*e t#'ul#tion of t*e election returns '#sed on suc* co&-. CO,E1EC
directed t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers to reconene to erif- t*e election.
After t*e erific#tion of t*e election returns Ro# 3#s &rocl#i%ed. 2etitioner filed in
t*is Court # &etition for certior#ri, &ro*i'ition #nd %#nd#%us 3it* &r#-er for t*e
issu#nce of # te%&or#r- restr#inin. order or 3rit of &reli%in#r- in<unction #lle.in. t*#t
Ro# not *#in. filed #n o'<ection 3it* t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers durin. t*e
c#n#ssin., de&ried t*e CO,E1EC of #&&ell#te <urisdiction to entert#in Ro#6s
&etition for t*e erific#tion of t*e election return in 5uestion #nd t*#t t*e 5uestion 3#s
not &ro&er for # &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- 'ut in #n election contest t*#t s*ould
'e 'rou.*t 'efore t*e *ouse elector#l tri'un#l. Kill#ro-# furt*er #lle.ed t*#t t*e direct
filin. of t*e &rotest 3it* t*e CO,E1EC did not %#=e it # &re+&rocl#%#tion
controers-B t*#t t*e decision of t*e CO,E1EC #ut*ori)in. suc* erific#tion '- t*e
Bo#rd of C#n#ssers 3#s ille.#l, #r'itr#r- #nd 3#s issued 3it*out <urisdiction or 3it*
.r#e #'use of discretion.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC co%%itted # .r#e #'use of discretion in
orderin. t*e Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers to erif- t*e election returns #nd t*#t t*e
su'<ect &rotest %ust 'e filed 3it* t*e elector#l tri'un#l.
:eld$ (o. 7t %ust 'e o'sered furt*er, t*#t t*ere is no &l#usi'le re#son to &ro*i'it #n
#..rieed c#ndid#te fro% filin. #n o'<ection re.#rdin. t*e election returns directl-
'efore t*e Co%elec itself if t*e election irre.ul#rities t*#t iti#te t*e inte.rit- of t*e
election returns #re not #&&#rent u&on t*eir f#ces. 8*#t is t*erefore inoled is t*e
ori.in#l <urisdiction of t*e Co%elec r#t*er t*#n its #&&ell#te <urisdiction for &recisel-
t*e o'<ection is filed not 'efore t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers 'ec#use t*e irre.ul#rities
#re not #&&#rent u&on t*e f#ce of t*e election returns. /*e Co%%ission en '#nc
rules, t*erefore, t*#t t*e &rotest or o'<ection filed '- 2etitioner Bern#rdit# Ro# #fter
discoer- of t*e discre&#nc- in t*e St#te%ent of Kotes 3#s filed se#son#'l-.

30
Election Laws
AL0ONSO vs. COMELEC ( GR 10$84$ (45+ 2 1##$ )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, ?. 2rocedure!
"#cts$ 7n t*e ,#- >>, >992 elections, 2edro Alfonso r#n for councilor in t*e "irst
?istrict of ,#nil#, 3*ic* is entitled to elect si4 councilors. On t*e ee of t*e elections,
2edro Alfonso died. :is d#u.*ter 7r%# Alfonso, &etitioner *erein, filed *er certific#te
of c#ndid#c- in su'stitution for *er dece#sed f#t*er. After t*e c#n#ssin. of t*e
election returns '- res&ondent Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers, t*e results of t*e elections
for councilors for t*e "irst ?istrict of ,#nil# 3ere #nnounced #s follo3s$ >st + Ernesto
(ie#+6A>A>, 2nd + 0on)#lo 0on)#les+44@44, Crd + :onorio 1o&e)+C58AC, 4t* +
2edro Alfonso+C4648, 5t* + Aelino C#ili#n+C2462, 6t* + Ro'erto Oc#%&o+C>264, @t*
+ Al'erto ?o%in.o+28@>5.
A&&#rentl-, t*e Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers #dded t*e otes of 2edro Alfonso to t*ose
of &etitioner6s t*ere'- &l#cin. *er in t*e fourt* slot. Conse5uentl-, &ri#te res&ondent
5uestioned suc* #ction. :e &r#-ed t*#t t*e otes c#st for 2edro Alfonso 'e decl#red
#s str#- otes #nd t*#t, *e 'e &rocl#i%ed #s t*e si4t* 3inner for councilor. /*e
CO,E1EC resoled &ri#te res&ondent6s &etition decl#rin. otes c#st in f#or of
2edro Alfonso #s str#- otes #nd to CRE?7/ in f#or of res&ondent 7r%# Alfonso onl-
t*ose otes c#st 3it* t*e n#%e “A1"O(SO! or 7R,A A1"O(SO. 2etitioner t*ere'-
5uestioned s#id resolution 'efore t*is Court, 3*ic* dis%issed t*e #fores#id &etition in
# %inute resolution, #fter findin. no .r#e #'use of discretion on t*e &#rt of t*e
CO,E1EC.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC #cted 3it* .r#e #'use of discretion in den-in.
t*e &etitioner6s %otion for recountM
:eld$ (o. At t*e outset, &etitioner6s &r#-er for # reo&enin. of t*e '#llots is not #
&ro&er issue for # &re+&rocl#%#tion controers-. /*e issues r#ised '- &etitioner
s*ould 'e t*res*ed out in election &rotest. Errors in t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots '- t*e
'o#rd of ins&ectors #re &ro&er su'<ect for election &rotest #nd not for recount or re+
#&&reci#tion of '#llots. /*e #&&reci#tion of t*e '#llots c#st in t*e &recincts is not #
N&roceedin. of t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers6 for &ur&oses of &re+&rocl#%#tion
&roceedin.s under Section 24>, O%ni'us Election Code, 'ut of t*e 'o#rds of
election ins&ectors 3*o #re c#lled u&on to count #nd #&&reci#te t*e otes in
#ccord#nce 3it* t*e rules of #&&reci#tion &roided in Section 2>>, O%ni'us Election
Code. Ot*er3ise st#ted, t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots is not &#rt of t*e &roceedin.s of
t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers. /*e co%&lete election returns 3*ose #ut*enticit- is not in
5uestion, %ust 'e &ri%# f#cie considered #lid for t*e &ur&ose of c#n#ssin. t*e
s#%e #nd &rocl#%#tion of t*e 3innin. c#ndid#tes.
31
Election Laws
MA)ALAM vs. COMELEC ( 2$1 SCRA $** )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, ?. 2rocedure!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ,#t#l#rn #nd 2ri#te Res&ondent C#nd#o 3ere 'ot* c#ndid#tes for
0oernor of t*e 2roince of ,#.uind#n#o in t*e ,#- >995 elections. ?urin. t*e c#n#ss of
t*e election returns in t*e %unici&#lities of ?#tu 2i#n. #nd ,#.#no-, 2etitioner c*#llen.ed
'efore t*e res&ectie ,unici&#l Bo#rds of C#n#ssers t*e #ut*enticit- of t*e election returns
in s#id to3ns. /*e 2roinci#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers re<ected t*e &le#s of t*e &etitioner, t*us #
&etition for e4clusion of t*e results of t*e s#id %unici&#lities 3ere filed 'efore t*e CO,E1EC.
?urin. t*e &endenc- of t*e #ction, res&ondent 3#s &rocl#i%ed dul- elected .oernor. /*e
s#%e &rocl#%#tion 3#s nullified '- t*e second diision of t*e CO,E1EC #nd t*ere#fter
reinst#ted t*e &rocl#%#tion.
A %otion for reconsider#tion 3#s filed '- &etitioner #nd for tec*nic#l e4#%in#tion of
si.n#tures #nd t*u%'%#r=s of re.istered oters. /*e s#%e 3#s denied, *ence # &etition for
certior#ri. 2etitioner furt*er cl#i%s t*#t t*e returns in one %unici&#lit- 3ere f#lsified #nd
s&urious #s t*ere 3#s #ctu#ll- no election conducted in t*#t &l#ce #nd in so%e &recints, t*e
nu%'er of otes e4ceeded t*e nu%'er of oters.
7ssues$
>. 8*et*er or not t*e 5uestioned election returns 'e t*e &ro&er su'<ects of # &re+
&rocl#%#tion controers-M
2. 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC %#- .o 'e-ond t*e f#ce of election returns in # &re+
&rocl#%#tion c#seM
:eld$
>. (o. /*e O%ni'us Election Code defines # &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- #s “#n-
5uestion &ert#inin. to or #ffectin. t*e &roceedin.s of t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers 3*ic* %#- 'e
r#ised '- #n- c#ndid#te or '- #n- re.istered &olitic#l &#rt- or co#lition of &olitic#l &#rties
'efore t*e 'o#rd or directl- 3it* t*e Co%%ission, or #n- %#tter r#ised under Sections2CC,
2C4, 2C5 #nd 2C6 in rel#tion to t*e &re&#r#tion, tr#ns%ission, recei&t, custod- #nd
#&&reci#tion of t*e election returns.! /*e issues r#ised '- t*e &etitioner #re not #%on. t*ose
enu%er#ted under Sec. 24C of t*e O%ni'us Election Code. /*e enu%er#tion t*erein is
restrictie #nd e4clusie. 2etitioner did not cl#i% #nd f#iled to c*#r#cteri)e t*e returns #s
inco%&lete, cont#in %#teri#l defects, #&&e#r to 'e t#%&ered 3it* f#lsified, or cont#in
discre&#ncies.
2. (o. /*e CO,E1EC is not re5uired to .o 'e-ond election returns 3*ic* #re on t*eir
f#ce re.ul#r #nd #ut*entic. /*e &ro&er re%ed- ##il#'le to t*e &etitioner in t*is c#se is
election &rotest. 2re+&rocl#%#tion controersies #re to 'e resoled in # su%%#r-
&roceedin.s #nd s*ould not su'<ect t*e returns to %eticulous tec*nic#l
e4#%in#tions./ec*nic#l e4#%in#tion is not &ro&er in # &re+&rocl#%#tion controers-.
32
Election Laws
,E(/A(0 s. CO,E1EC ( 0.R. (o. >>AC@, "e'. 4, >994 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, ?. 2rocedure!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ,ent#n. 3#s certified #nd &rocl#i%ed '- t*e 2roinci#l Bo#rd of
C#n#sser #s t*e t*ird #nd l#st 3innin. c#ndid#te for Re.ion#l Asse%'l-%#n in t*e
Second ?istrict of ,#.uind#n#o oer &ri#te res&ondent Ali Bern#n for .#rnerin.
2,AAA %ore otes t*#n t*e l#tter. :e too= *is o#t* of office #s # dul- elected %e%'er
of t*e Re.ion#l 1e.isl#tie Asse%'l-.
2ri#te res&ondent le#rned of t*e &rocl#%#tion on # Sund#-. On t*e fift* d#-
follo3in. t*e &rocl#%#tion, *e filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC # “2etition to Correct ,#nifest
Error #nd Annul t*e 2rocl#%#tion of &etitioner ,ent#n.! #nd #s=ed t*#t *e 'e
&rocl#i%ed inste#d #s t*e t*ird 3innin. c#ndid#te for Asse%'l-%#n in t*e Second
?istrict of ,#.uind#n#o. 2etitioner 5uestioned CO,E1EC6s <urisdiction to *e#r #nd
decide &ri#te res&ondent6s &etition on t*e .round t*#t 'ein. # &re+&rocl#%#tion
controers- 3*ic* rel#tes to t*e correction of %#nifest errors in t*e certific#te of
c#n#ss, t*e s#%e s*ould *#e 'een filed 3it*in t*e re.le%ent#r- &eriod of 5 d#-s
counted fro% &etitioner6s &rocl#%#tion. /*e &etition 3#s, *o3eer, filed 8 d#-s #fter
&etitioner6s &rocl#%#tion.
/*e CO,E1EC en '#nc *eld t*#t t*e &etition 3#s filed '- Ali Bern#n on ti%e #nd
sust#ined its <urisdiction oer t*e &etition in t*e e4ercise of its 'ro#d #d%inistr#tie
&o3ers oer t*e conduct of elections. 7t #lso directed t*e ret#'ul#tion of t*e otes for
&etitioner ,ent#n. #nd &ri#te res&ondent Ali Bern#n.
2etitioner ,ent#n. &etitioned t*e Su&re%e Court to set #side t*e decision of
CO,E1EC.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion in
*oldin. t*#t it *#s <urisdiction to decide &ri#te res&ondent Ali Bern#n6s
&etitionM
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court sust#ined CO,E1EC6s <urisdiction #nd dis%issed
,ent#n.6s &etition. /*e &etition filed, #lt*ou.* desi.n#tes &etition to correct %#nifest
error #nd #nnul t*e &rocl#%#tion of ,ent#n., is in re#lit- # &etition for #nnul%ent or
decl#r#tion of nullit- of &rocl#%#tion, 3*ic* need not 'e filed 3it*in 5 d#-
re.l#%ent#r- &eriod 'ut onl- 3it*in # re#son#'le ti%e. Ali Bern#n6s &etition 3*ic*
3#s filed 8 d#-s #fter ,ent#n.6s &rocl#%#tion 3#s filed 3it*in t*e >A+d#- &eriod for
filin. #n election &rotest or 5uo 3#rr#nto &etition.

33
Election Laws
(AMIL vs. COMELEC ( G.R. No. 12*648 D+!+67+- 15 1##$ )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, ?. 2rocedure!
"#cts$ 2etitioner J#%il #nd 2ri#te res&ondent B#lindon. 3ere #%on. t*e %#-or#lt-
c#ndid#tes in t*e ,unici&#lit- of Sult#n 0u%#nder, 1#n#o del Sur durin. t*e ,#-
>998 elections. ?urin. t*e c#n#ssin. of t*e election returns '- t*e ,BC *e#ded '-
S#ns#ron#, &ri#te res&ondent o'<ected to t*e inclusion of 4 election returns fro% 4
&recincts on t*e .rounds of duress, for 'ein. s&urious returns #nd for not 'ein. #n
#ut*entic co&-. /*e S#ns#ron# ,BC issued its rulin. on t*e C o'<ection settin. #side
t*e election returns fro% # &recinct for furt*er inesti.#tion or to .o dee&er into t*e
contr#dictin. testi%onies of t*e C*#ir%#n #nd t*e 3#tc*ers or to su%%on t*e 2 B"7s
3*o f#iled to #ffi4 t*eir si.n#ture #nd e4&l#in t*e #lle.ed incre#se of otes of #
c#ndid#te. /*e ,BC co%&osition 3#s c*#n.ed 3it* ,#c#d#to #s its *e#d. 7t denied
t*e e4clusion of return fro% &recinct.
2ri#te res&ondent B#lindon. #&&e#led to t*e CO,E1EC t*e rulin. of t*e ,#c#d#to
,BC. 2etitioner #lso #&&e#led to t*e CO,E1EC c*#llen.in. t*e S#ns#ron# ,BC
rulin.s. 8*ile t*ese 2 c#ses 3ere still &endin. in t*e CO,E1EC, t*e ,#c#d#to ,BC
&rocl#i%ed &etitioner J#%il #nd ot*er 3innin. c#ndid#tes. /*e CO,E1EC Second
?iision issued #n Order directin. t*e ,BC to reconene #nd &rocl#i% t*e 3innin.
c#ndid#te for ,#-or of Sult#n 0u%#nder, 1#n#o del Sur. /*e ,#c#d#to ,BC
&rocl#i%ed &etitioner J#%il #s dul- elected ,#-or. 2ri#te res&ondent filed 3it* t*e
CO,E1EC #n ur.ent %otion to #nnul &etitioner6s &rocl#%#tion on t*e .round t*#t t*e
&rocl#%#tion 3#s 3it*out #ut*orit- of t*e CO,E1EC, #nd to constitute # ne3 Bo#rd
of C#n#sser. /*e CO,E1EC Second diision #nnulled &etitioner J#%il6s
&rocl#%#tion #nd directed t*e constitution of # ne3 ,BC. /*e ne3l- constituted
,BC *e#ded '- C#ri.# &rocl#i%ed &ri#te res&ondent B#lindon. #s t*e ne3l-
elected ,#-or.
/*e CO,E1EC en '#nc #ffir%ed t*e decision of t*e Second ?iision. 2etitioner
J#%il #s=ed t*e Su&re%e Court to reise #nd reerse t*e decision of t*e CO,E1EC
en '#nc
7ssue$ 8*ic* of t*e 2 &rocl#%#tions is #lid.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t 'ot* &rocl#%#tions #re not #lid. /*e ,#c#d#to
#nd C#ri.# ,BC did not %#=e definite rulin.s or &ronounce%ent on t*e inclusion or
e4clusion of returns so t*#t t*ere 3#s no co%&lete #nd #lid c#n#ss 3*ic* is &re+
re5uisite to # #lid &rocl#%#tion. 2etitioner J#%il6s &rocl#%#tion '- t*e ,BC *#d no
#ut*orit- fro% CO,E1EC. /*e O%ni'us Election Code &ro*i'its t*e &rocl#%#tion '-
t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers of # c#ndid#te #s 3inner 3*ere returns #re contested,
unless #ut*ori)ed '- t*e CO,E1EC.

34
Election Laws
D&MAYAS vs. COMELEC ( G.R. Nos. 141#5225* A8-9/ 202001 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, C. 7ssues 8*ic* ,#- Be R#ised!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ?u%#-#s #nd res&ondent Bern#l 3ere ri#l c#ndid#tes for t*e
&osition in ,#-or of C#rles, 7loilo in t*e ,#- >998 s-nc*roni)ed elections. ?urin. t*e
c#n#ssin. '- t*e ,BC, &etitioner sou.*t t*e e4clusion of election returns for C
&recincts of B#r#n.#- 2#nt#l#n o3in. to #lle.ed #cts of terroris%, inti%id#tion #nd
coercion co%%itted in s#id &recincts durin. t*e c#stin. #nd countin. of otes. /*e
,BC denied &etitioner6s o'<ections #nd &roceeded 3it* t*e c#n#ss 3*ic* s*o3ed
res&ondent Bern#l .#rnerin. %ore otes t*#n t*e &etitioner.
2etitioner #&&e#led to t*e CO,E1EC Second ?iision 3*ic* e4cluded election
returns fro% C &recincts #nd directed t*e ,BC to reconene #nd finis* t*e c#n#ss
of t*e re%#inin. or uncontested returns #nd t*en, to &rocl#i% t*e 3innin. %#-or#lt-
c#ndid#te. 2ri#te res&ondent Bern#l %oed for reconsider#tion of t*e decision of
t*e Second ?iision 3it* t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc.
/*e ,BC &rocl#i% &etitioner 3inner of t*e election. 2ri#te res&ondent Bern#l filed
#n ur.ent %otion to decl#re oid &etitioner6s &rocl#%#tion. /*e dul- &rocl#i%ed Kice+
,#-or Betit#, #nd &ri#te res&ondent Bern#l filed n #ction for 5uo 3#rr#nto #.#inst
&etitioner 'efore t*e R/C of 7loilo. 2etitioner filed 3it* CO,E1EC en '#nc # %otion
to c#ncel Bern#l6s %otion for reconsider#tion #nd %otion decl#re oid &etitioner6s
&rocl#%#tion on t*e .round t*#t res&ondent Bern#l s*ould 'e dee%ed to *#e
#'#ndoned s#id %otion 3*en *e filed 5uo 3#rr#nto #ction.
/*e CO,E1EC en '#nc reersed t*e decision of t*e Second ?iision, #nnulled t*e
&etitioner ?u%#-#s6 &rocl#%#tionB #nd constituted # ne3 ,BC. Res&ondent Bern#l
3#s &rocl#i%ed '- t*e ne3l-+constituted ,BC #s t*e dul-+elected ,#-or of t*e
,unici&#lit-.
2etitioner ?u%#-#s #s=ed t*e Su&re%e Court to set #side t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc
resolution.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e CO,E1EC 3#s correct in includin. in t*e c#n#ss t*e election
returns of t*e contested &recinctsM
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld in t*e #ffir%#tie. /*e onl- eidence &resented '-
t*e &etitioner to &roe t*e #lle.ed irre.ul#rities 3ere t*e self+serin. contr#cts of *is
3#tc*ers #nd ins&ectors. Returns c#nnot 'e e4cluded on %ere #lle.#tions t*#t t*e
returns #re %#nuf#ctured or fictitious 3*en t*e returns on t*eir f#ce #&&e#r to 'e
re.ul#r #nd 3it*out #n- &*-sic#l si.ns of t#%&erin.. /*e election irre.ul#rities cited
'- t*e &etitioner 3ould re5uire t*e &resent#tion of eidence 3*ic* c#nnot 'e done in
# &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- 3*ic* is su%%#r- in n#ture.

35
Election Laws
%A)ORAY vs. COMELEC ( 24# SCRA 440 1##5 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, C. 7ssues 8*ic* ,#- Be R#ised!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 2#tor#- #nd &ri#te res&ondent ?iso%i%'# 3ere t*e %#-or#lt-
c#ndid#tes of /#%&or#n, 1#n#o del Sur durin. t*e ,#- 8, >995 elections. ?urin. t*e
c#n#ssin. of t*e otes '- t*e ,BC, &ri#te res&ondent o'<ected to t*e inclusion of
election returns fro% 4 &recincts “for 'ein. su'stituted, fr#udulent #nd o'iousl-
%#nuf#cture “ 'ut t*e s#%e 3#s denied '- t*e ,BC. On #&&e#l, t*e CO,E1EC
Second ?iision ordered t*e e4clusion fro% t*e count of election returns fro% 2
&recincts o3in. to discre&#nc- 'et3een t*e “t#r#s! #nd t*e 3ritten fi.ures #nd t*e
inco%&lete d#t# #s to &roinci#l #nd con.ression#l c#ndid#tes. /*e CO,E1EC en
'#nc denied &etitioner6s %otion for reconsider#tion #nd ordered t*e constitution of #
ne3 ,BC to i%&le%ent t*e second ?iision6s resolution.
2etitioner 2#tor#- filed # &etition for certior#ri see=in. to #nnul t*e decision of t*e
CO,E1EC.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e e4clusion of t*e 2 election returns 3#s t*e &ro&er re%ed-
to #ns3er t*e discre&#nc- 'et3een t*e t#r#s #nd t*e 3ritten fi.ures #nd t*e
inco%&leteness of t*e d#t# #s to &roinci#l #nd con.ression#l c#ndid#tesM
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t t*e discre&#nc- 'et3een t*e t#r#s #nd t*e
3ritten fi.ure #nd t*e inco%&lete d#t# #s to t*e &roinci#l #nd con.ression#l
c#ndid#tes found in t*e e4cluded election returns constituted %#teri#ls defects in t*e
election return. 8*ile t*e CO,E1EC 3#s correct in e4cludin. t*e 2 election
returns, in #ddition it s*ould *#e #lso ordered # recount of t*e otes c#st in t*e 2
&recincts. 7ts f#ilure to do t*is resulted in t*e disenfr#nc*ise%ent of t*e oters in
t*ese &recincts. /*e recountin. of t*e otes is consistent 3it* t*e su%%#r- n#ture of
&roceedin.s inolin. &re+&rocl#%#tion controersies.

36
Election Laws
LA&DENIO vs. COMELEC ( 2$6 SCRA $051##$ )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, C. 7ssues 8*ic* ,#- Be R#ised!
"#cts$ Res&ondent 1on.co& 3#s &rocl#i%ed 3inner '- t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of
C#n#sser (,BC) for t*e &osition of ,#-or of ,#&#n#s, (ort*ern S#%#r durin. t*e
,#- 8, >995 elections oer #not*er c#ndid#te, &etitioner 1#udenio. "ie d#-s #fter,
1#udenio filed 3it* res&ondent CO,E1EC # &etition to #nnul 1on.co&6s &rocl#%#tion
#nd to decl#re t*e constitution of t*e ,BC #nd its &roceedin.s ille.#l. :e #lle.ed
t*#t t*e ,BC re&e#tedl- #d<ourned t*e c#n#ssin. of otes #nd secretl- reconened
3it* # ne3 C*#ir%#n 3*o 3#s #&&ointed '- t*e 2roinci#l Election Su&erisior, not
'- t*e CO,E1EC.
2etitioner 1#udenio filed #n election &rotest 'efore t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court.
/*e CO,E1EC dis%issed 1#udenio6s &etition for l#c= of %erit, st#tin. t*#t *e 3#s
dee%ed to *#e consented to t*e ne3 co%&osition of t*e ,BC 3*en *e #ctiel-
&#rtici&#ted in t*e &roceedin.s ot*er3ise, *e s*ould *#e #&&e#led t*e issue on
#&&e#l to t*e CO,E1EC #nd t*e &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- 3#s no lon.er
&ossi'le since 1on.co& *#d #lre#d- 'een &rocl#i%ed #nd #ssu%ed office. 1#udenio
filed # %otion for reconsider#tion 3*ic* 3#s denied '- t*e CO,E1EC.
1#udenio &etitioned t*e Su&re%e Court for reie3 of t*e CO,E1EC6s decision.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- filed '- 1#udenio 3it* t*e
CO,E1EC 3#s &ro&erM
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled in t*e ne.#tie. Ender t*e CO,E1EC Rules of
2rocedure, # &re+election controers- 3*ic* rel#tes to t*e ille.#l co%&osition of t*e
Bo#rd %ust 'e filed i%%edi#tel- 3*en t*e Bo#rd 'e.ins to #ct #s suc* or #t t*e ti%e
of t*e #&&oint%ent of t*e %e%'er 3*ose c#&#cit- to sit #s suc* is o'<ected to if it
co%es #fter t*e c#n#ssin. of t*e Bo#rd or i%%edi#tel- #t t*e &oint 3*ere t*e
&roceedin.s 'e.in to 'e ille.#l.
7n t*e c#se of 1#udenio, *e filed *is &etition 5 d#-s #fter 1on.co& *#d 'een
&rocl#i%ed. A &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- 'efore t*e CO,E1EC is no lon.er
&ossi'le #nd %ust 'e dis%issed #fter # &rocl#%#tion *#s 'een %#de. Besides, *e
c#n no lon.er 5uestion t*e Bo#rd6s co%&osition #fter *#in. #ctiel- &#rtici&#ted in
t*e &roceedin.s.

37
Election Laws
LAG&MBAY vs. COMELEC ( 16 SCRA 1$5 1#66 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, C. 7ssues 8*ic* ,#- Be R#ised!
"#cts$ /*is is # &etition for reision of t*e order of t*e CO,E1EC refusin. to re<ect
returns of cert#in &recincts of so%e %unici&#lities in ,ind#n#o 3*ic* 3ere “o'iousl-
%#nuf#ctured!.
7t #&&e#red t*#t #ll t*e 8 c#ndid#tes of t*e 1i'er#l &#rt- .#rnered #ll t*e otes, 3it*
e#c* of t*e% receiin. e4#ctl- t*e s#%e nu%'er of otes 3*ile #ll t*e 8 c#ndid#tes
of t*e (#cion#list# &#rt- .ettin. )ero.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e CO,E1EC 3#s correct in not re<ectin. “o'iousl-
%#nuf#ctured! election returns of cert#in 5uestioned &recincts.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled in t*e ne.#tie. /*ere is no suc* t*in. #s
'loc=otin. no3+#+d#-s. /*e election returns s*o3in. #ll 8 c#ndid#tes of t*e 1i'er#l
&#rt- .ettin. #ll t*e otes, 3it* e#c* one of t*e% .ettin. t*e s#%e nu%'er of otes
3*ile t*e 8 n#cion#list# c#ndid#tes .ot )ero #re eidentl- f#lse or f#'ric#ted 'ec#use
of t*e in*erent i%&ro'#'ilit- of suc* # result. 7t is #.#inst st#tistic#l i%&ro'#'ilities
es&eci#ll- 'ec#use #l le#st > ote s*ould *#e 'een receied '- t*e (#cion#list#
c#ndid#tes, i.e. t*e (#cion#list# ins&ector. 8*ile it is &ossi'le t*#t t*e ins&ector did
not li=e *is &#rt-6s sen#tori#l lie+u&, it is not, *o3eer, &ossi'le t*#t *e disli=ed #ll of
suc* c#ndid#tes #nd it is #lso not li=el- t*#t *e f#ored #ll t*e 8 c#ndid#tes of t*e
1i'er#l &#rt-. :ence, %ost &ro'#'l-, *e 3#s %#de to si.n #n o'iousl- f#lse return
'- force or duress. 7f *e si.ned olunt#ril-, t*en *e 'etr#-ed *is &#rt- #nd #n- otin.
or countin. of '#llots 3#s # fr#ud #nd # %oc=er- of t*e &o&ul#r 3ill. Re<ectin. suc*
returns on t*e .round t*#t t*e- #re %#nifestl- f#'ric#ted or f#lsified 3ould constitute
# &r#ctic#l #&&ro#c* to t*e CO,E1EC6s %ission to insure # free #nd *onest
elections.

38
Election Laws
OL0A)O vs. COMELEC ( 10* SCRA $41 1#81 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, B. CO,E1EC Jurisdiction!
"#cts$ ?urin. t*e J#nu#r- CA, >98A loc#l elections, &etitioner Olf#to #nd t*e ot*er
&etitioners 3ere t*e offici#l (#tion#list# 2#rt- ((2) c#ndid#tes for ,#-or #nd
S#n..uni#n B#-#n, res&ectiel-, of /#n#u#n, B#t#n.#s. On t*e ot*er *#nd, 1irio
3#s t*e offici#l c#ndid#te of t*e Dilus#n. B#.on. 1i&un#n (DB1) fo ,#-or of s#id
to3n. /*ree (C) d#-s #fter t*e elections, &ri#te res&ondent 1irio, to.et*er 3it* t*e
c#ndid#tes in *is tic=et, filed 3it* CO,E1EC # &etition for sus&ension of t*e c#n#ss
#nd &rocl#%#tion of 3innin. c#ndid#tes for t*e electie &ositions of /#n#u#n, #lle.in.
disenfr#nc*ise%ent of oters, terroris%, f#=e 7?6s of oters #nd fl-in. oters. B#sed
on t*e result of c#n#ss of otes, Olf#to #nd t*e rest of t*e &etitioners 3ere
&rocl#i%ed #s t*e dul- elected ,#-or #nd S#n..uni#n %e%'ers.
1irio filed # su&&le%ent#l &etition &r#-in. for t*e #nnul%ent of &etitioner Olf#to6s
&rocl#%#tion citin. f#=e oters #nd %#ssie disenfr#nc*ise%ent 3*ic* #ffects t*e
er- inte.rit- of t*e election returns. :e #lso filed #n election &rotest #.#inst Olf#to
in t*e C"7 of B#t#n.#s citin. f#=e oters, f#=e oter6s identific#tion c#rds, fl-in.
oters, su'stitute oters #nd %#ssie disenfr#nc*ise%ent. Olf#to #ssu%ed t*e office
of ,#-or. /*e CO,E1EC issued # Resolution dis%issin. 1irio6s &etition #nd
reinst#tin. t*e &rocl#%#tion %#de '- t*e ,BC of res&ondent Olf#to #nd t*e entire
tic=et, 3it*out &re<udice to ot*er le.#l re%edies under t*e Election Code.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e CO,E1EC *#s <urisdiction oer t*e &re+&rocl#%#tion
Controers- filed '- 1irioM
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court riled in t*e #ffir%#tie citin. &reious rulin.s of t*e Court.
/*e CO,E1EC *#s t*e &o3er #nd #ut*orit- to in5uire into t*e #lle.#tion of f#=e
oters, 3it* f#=e 7?6s in # &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- in order to deter%ine t*e
#ut*enticit- or inte.rit- of election returns or 3*et*er suc* election returns f#it*full-
record t*#t onl- re.istered or .enuine oters 3ere #llo3ed to ote. Ender t*e
election Code, t*e CO,E1C is t*e sole <ud.e of #ll &rocl#%#tion controersies. /*e
CO,E1EC *#s #st &o3ers under t*e Election Code in conson#nce 3it* its
&ri%ordi#l t#s= of insurin. free, orderl- #nd *onest elections.
/*e Court dis%issed t*e &etition for reie3 filed '- 1irio #nd directed t*e CO,E1EC
to &roceed 3it* dis&#tc* on t*e &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- (&etition for sus&ension
of c#n#ss #nd &rocl#%#tion of 3innin. c#ndid#tes). /*e court noted t*#t t*e
CO,E1EC Resolution considered t*e &rocl#%#tion %#de in f#or of Olf#to #nd *is
tic=et #s te%&or#r- in n#ture #s it 3#s %#de su'<ect to t*e fin#l outco%e of t*e &re+
&rocl#%#tion c#se.

39
Election Laws
DI%A)&AN vs. COMELEC ( 185 SCRA 86 1##0 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, A. ?efined!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ?i&#tu#n #nd &ri#te res&ondent A%#noddin 3ere %#-or#lt-
c#ndid#tes of B#colod, 0r#nde durin. t*e >988 s&eci#l loc#l elections in 1#n#o del
Sur. /*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers c*#ired '- # cert#in ,#n.r#- &rocl#i%ed &etitioner
?i&#tu#n #s ,#-or. "ie d#-s t*ere#fter, # se&#r#te Bo#rd *e#ded '- ,in#l#n.
&rocl#i%ed &ri#te res&ondent A%#noddin #s t*e dul- elected %#-or. Bot*
&rocl#%#tions 3ere set #side '- t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc 3*ic* conened # S&eci#l
Bo#rd of C#n#ssers in ,#nil# to rec#n#ss t*e election returns fro% B#colod
0r#nde.
?urin. t*e rec#n#ss, &etitioner ?i&#tu#n sou.*t t*e e4clusion of t*e election returns
fro% 2 &recincts for 'ein. “s&urious #nd o'iousl- %#nuf#ctured! citin. t*e
#l&*#'etic#l #nd c*ronolo.ic#l se5uence in t*e otin., 3*ic* *e considered #s # &re+
&rocl#%#tion controers-. /*e S&eci#l Bo#rd denied &etitioner ?i&#tu#n6s o'<ection,
3*ic* 3#s #ffir%ed on #&&e#l '- t*e CO,E1EC Second ?iision #nd CO,E1EC en
'#nc.
2etitioner ?i&#tu#n #s=ed t*e Su&re%e Court to set #side t*e decision of t*e
CO,E1EC ('ot* t*e Second ?iision #nd CO,E1EC en '#nc).
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e issue on 5uestioned election returns fro% t*e 2
&recincts r#ised '- &etitioner ?i&#tu#n &resented # &re+&rocl#%#tion
controers-M
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled in t*e ne.#tie. /*e 5uestioned election returns
3ere not o'iousl- %#nuf#ctured or not #ut*entic, 3*ic* is # re5uire%ent under
Section 24C of t*e O%ni'us Election Code to 5u#lif- #s # &re+&rocl#%#tion
controers-. ,ere #l&*#'etic#l #nd c*ronolo.ic#l otin. does not constitute fr#ud
3*ic* 3ill <ustif- t*e e4clusion of election returns. 2etitioner ?i&#tu#n does not cl#i%
t*#t t*e election returns t*e%seles 3ere not #ut*entic. 8*#t *e #r.ued is t*#t
3*ere election returns, t*ou.* .enuine or #ut*entic in c*#r#cter, #re reflectie of
fr#udulent #cts done 'efore or c#rried out '- t*e Bo#rd of Election 7ns&ectors, t*e
return s*ould 'e dee%ed #s “o'iousl- %#nuf#ctured!. On t*e ot*er *#nd, &ri#te
res&ondent A%#noddin 3#s #'le to s#tisf#ctoril- e4&l#in 3*- t*e Bo#rd of Election
7ns&ectors #do&ted otin. '- #l&*#'etic#l order.

40
Election Laws
RAMIREZ vs. COMELEC ( 2$0 SCRA 5#0 1##$ )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, A. ?efined!
"#cts$ /*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers (,BC) of 0i&olos, E#stern S#%#r
&rocl#i%ed &etitioner R#%ire) 3inner in t*e ice+%#-or#lt- r#ce oer #not*er
c#ndid#te, &ri#te res&ondent 0o '#sed on t*e results s*o3in. t*#t R#%ire)
o't#ined %ore otes t*#n 0o.
0o &etitioned CO,E1EC for correction of %#nifest error cl#i%in. t*#t o3in. to error
in #ddition, *e 3#s credited 3it* lesser otes. /*e CO,E1EC en '#nc issued #
Resolution directin. t*e ,BC to reconene #nd reco%&ute t*e otes in t*e
St#te%ent of Kotes #nd &rocl#i% t*e 3innin. c#ndid#te. Actin. on se&#r#te %otions
filed '- R#%ire) #nd 0o, t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc #ffir%ed its e#rlier resolution.
R#%ire) &etitioned t*e Su&re%e Court to #nnul t*e 2 CO,E1EC en '#nc resolutions
#nd to reinst#te *is &rocl#%#tion #s t*e dul- elected ice+%#-or. :e #lle.ed t*#t t*e
CO,E1EC en '#nc *#d no <urisdiction oer t*e controers- since it 3#s not -et
#cted u&on '- # diision of t*e CO,E1EC.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc *#s <urisdiction to #ct directl- on t*e
&etition for correction of %#nifest error filed '- &ri#te res&ondent 0oM
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court ruled in t*e #ffir%#tie, citin. Rule 2@, Section 5 of t*e
>99C CO,E1EC Rules 3*ic* &roides correction of %#nifest errors in t*e t#'ul#tion
or t#ll-in. of results durin. t*e c#n#ssin. #s one of t*e &re+&rocl#%#tion
controersies 3*ic* %#-'e filed directl- 3it* t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc.
/*e Su&re%e Court #nnulled t*e CO,E1EC resolutions 'ut directed CO,E1EC to
reconene t*e ,BC or if t*is is not fe#si'le, to constitute # ne3 ,BC in 0i&olos,
E#stern S#%#r #nd to order it to &ro%&tl- reise t*e St#te%ent of Kotes '#sed on t*e
election returns fro% #ll t*e &recincts of t*e ,unici&#lit- #nd t*ere#fter, &rocl#i% t*e
3innin. c#ndid#te.

41
Election Laws
A))Y. ROSA&RO I. )ORRES vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)IONS ( 2$0 SCRA
*15 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, A. ?efined!
"#cts$ On 9 ,#- >995 t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers of /#n)#, C#ite, issued #
Certific#te of C#n#ss of Kotes #nd 2rocl#%#tion of t*e 8innin. C#ndid#tes for
,unici&#l Offices. /3o (2) d#-s #fter or on >> ,#- >995 t*e s#%e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of
C#n#ssers re5uested t*e CO,E1EC for correction of t*e nu%'er of otes .#rnered
'- &etitioner 3*o 3#s e#rlier &rocl#i%ed #s t*e fift* 3innin. c#ndid#te for councilor.
E&on &rior #ut*ori)#tion, t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers issued # corrected
Certific#te of C#n#ss of Kotes #nd 2rocl#%#tion of t*e 8innin. C#ndid#tes 3*ic*
included &ri#te res&ondent Kicente R#f#el A. de 2er#lt# #s t*e ei.*t* 3innin.
councilor #nd e4cluded &etitioner fro% t*e ne3 list of 3innin. c#ndid#tes.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC *#s t*e &o3er to .r#nt suc* #ut*orit-.
:eld$ 7n ?ure%des . CO,E1EC, t*is Court sust#ined t*e &o3er of t*e CO,E1EC
En B#nc to order # correction of t*e St#te%ent of Kotes to %#=e it confor% to t*e
election returns in #ccord#nce 3it* # &rocedure si%il#r to t*e &rocedure no3
e%'odied in Sec. @, Rule 2@, of t*e CO,E1EC Rules of 2rocedure. Since t*e
St#te%ent of Kotes for%s t*e '#sis of t*e Certific#te of C#n#ss #nd of t*e
&rocl#%#tion, #n- error in t*e st#te%ent ulti%#tel- #ffects t*e #lidit- of t*e
&rocl#%#tion.
/*e St#te%ent of Kotes is %erel- # t#'ul#tion &er &recinct of t*e otes o't#ined '-
t*e c#ndid#tes #s reflected in t*e election returns. 8*#t is inoled in t*e inst#nt
c#se is si%&le #rit*%etic. 7n %#=in. t*e correction in t*e co%&ut#tion t*e ,unici&#l
Bo#rd of C#n#ssers #cted in #n #d%inistr#tie c#&#cit- under t*e control #nd
su&erision of t*e CO,E1EC. 2ursu#nt to its constitution#l function to decide
5uestions #ffectin. elections, t*e CO,E1EC En B#nc *#s #ut*orit- to resole #n-
5uestion &ert#inin. to t*e &roceedin.s of t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers.

42
Election Laws
0RANCISCO I. C1AVEZ vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)IONS ( 211 SCRA *15 )
“2re+2rocl#%#tion Controers-, A. ?efined!
"#cts$ On ,#- 5, >992, t*is Court issued # Resolution in 0R (o. >A4@A4,
dis5u#lif-in. ,elc*or C*#e), &ri#te res&ondent t*erein, fro% runnin. for t*e Office
of Sen#tor in t*e ,#- >>, >992 elections. 2etitioner filed #n ur.ent %otion 3it* t*e
Co%elec &r#-in. t*#t it (>) disse%in#te t*rou.* t*e f#stest ##il#'le %e#ns t*is
Court6s Resolution d#ted ,#- 5, >992 to #ll re.ion#l election directors, &roinci#l
election su&erisors, cit- #nd %unici&#l election re.istr#rs, 'o#rds of election
ins&ectors, t*e si4 (6) #ccredited &olitic#l &#rties #nd t*e .ener#l &u'licB #nd (2) order
s#id election offici#ls to delete t*e n#%e of ,elc*or C*#e) #s &rinted in t*e certified
list of c#ndid#tes t#ll- s*eets, election returns #nd to count #ll otes c#st for t*e
dis5u#lified ,elc*or, C*#e) in f#or of "r#ncisco 7. C*#e). On ,#- 8, >992, t*e
Co%elec issued Res. (o. 92+>C22 3*ic* resoled to delete t*e n#%e of ,elc*or
C*#e) fro% t*e list of 5u#lified c#ndid#tes. :o3eer, it f#iled to order t*e creditin.
of #ll “C*#e)! otes in f#or of &etitioner #s 3ell #s t*e c#ncell#tion of ,elc*or
C*#e)6 n#%e in t*e list of 5u#lified c#ndid#tes.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e l#3 #llo3s &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- inolin. t*e
election of t*e %e%'ers of t*e Sen#te.
:eld$ A si%&le re#din. of t*e &etition 3ould re#dil- s*o3 t*#t &etitioner *#s no c#use
of #ction, t*e controers- &resented 'ein. one in t*e n#ture of # &re+&rocl#%#tion.
8*ile t*e Co%%ission *#s e4clusie <urisdiction oer &re+&rocl#%#tion controersies
inolin. loc#l electie offici#ls (Sec. 242, O%ni'us Election Code), neert*eless,
&re+&rocl#%#tion c#ses #re not #llo3ed in elections for 2resident, Kice+2resident,
Sen#tor #nd ,e%'er of t*e :ouse of Re&resent#ties. Sec. >5 of Re&u'lic Act @>66
&roides$ “"or &ur&oses of t*e elections for 2resident, Kice+2resident, Sen#tor #nd
,e%'er of t*e :ouse of Re&resent#ties, no &re+&rocl#%#tion c#ses s*#ll 'e
#llo3ed on %#tters rel#tin. to t*e &re&#r#tion, tr#ns%ission, recei&t, custod- #nd
#&&reci#tion of t*e election returns or t*e certific#te of c#n#ss, #s t*e c#se %#- 'e.
:o3eer, t*is does not &reclude t*e #ut*orit- of t*e #&&ro&ri#te c#n#ssin. 'od-
%otu &ro&io or u&on 3ritten co%&l#int of #n interested &erson to correct %#nifest
errors in t*e certific#te of c#n#ss or election returns 'efore it.

43
Election Laws
GIL GALLARDO vs. 0RANCO RIMANDO ( 18$ SCRA 464 )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, ?. 2rocl#%#tion!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 0il C. 0#ll#rdo #nd &ri#te res&ondent "r#nco ". Ri%#ndo 3ere
ri#l c#ndid#tes for t*e Office of ,unici&#l ,#-or of (#.uili#n, 1# Enion, in t*e loc#l
election of J#nu#r- >8, >988. On J#nu#r- >9, >988, Ri%#ndo 3#s &rocl#i%ed t*e
3inner oer 0#ll#rdo '- # %#r.in of >2 otes.
On J#nu#r- 22, >988, 0#ll#rdo filed in t*e CO,E1EC # &etition to #nnul t*e
&rocl#%#tion of Ri%#ndo. On ?ece%'er 8, >988, t*e CO,E1EC dis%issed t*e
&etition. On June CA, >989, 0#ll#rdo filed #n election &rotest. Ri%#ndo filed # %otion
to dis%iss t*e &rotest on t*e .round t*#t it 3#s not filed 3it*in ten (>A) d#-s #fter t*e
&rocl#%#tion of t*e results of t*e election fi4ed in Sec. 5> of t*e O%ni'us Election
Code.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e &etitioner6s election &rotest 3#s filed on ti%e.
:eld$ Ri%#ndo 3#s &rocl#i%ed '- t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers #s t*e dul-
elected %unici&#l %#-or of (#.uili#n on J#nu#r- >9, >988. /3o (2) d#-s l#ter, or on
J#nu#r- 2>, >988, 0#ll#rdo filed in t*e CO,E1EC # &re+&rocl#%#tion &etition to
#nnul t*e &rocl#%#tion. :ence, onl- ei.*t (8) d#-s of t*e re.le%ent#r- &eriod for
filin. #n election &rotest re%#ined. /*is &eriod 3#s sus&ended durin. t*e &endenc-
of t*e &re+&rocl#%#tion c#se, i.e., 3*ile it 3#s &endin. in t*e CO,E1EC #nd in t*e
Su&re%e Court, until 0#ll#rdo receied on June 2C, >989 t*e Su&re%e Court6s fin#l
resolution dis%issin. *is &etition for reie3 of t*e CO,E1EC6s decision in s#id c#se.
After June 2C, >989, t*e ei.*t+d#- re%#inder of t*e re.le%ent#r- &eriod to file #n
election &rotest resu%ed runnin.. /*e de#dline 3#s Jul- >, >989. 0#ll#rdo
se#son#'l- filed *is election &rotest on t*e @t* d#- Q June CA, >989.

44
Election Laws
LOONG vs. COMELEC (216 SCRA $60 1##2)
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, ?. 2rocl#%#tion!
"#cts$ 7n t*e ,#- 8, >995 elections *eld in t*e 2roince of Sulu, &etitioner /u&#- /.
1oon. #nd &ri#te res&ondent A'dus#=ur /#n r#n for t*e &osition of 0oernor, 3*ile
&etitioner Di%#r /ul#3ie #nd &ri#te res&ondent ,uni' Estino 3ere c#ndid#tes for
t*e &osition of Kice+0oernor. After t*e c#n#ss of t*e election returns of si4teen (>6)
of t*e ei.*teen (>8) %unici&#lities of Sulu, res&ondent 2roinci#l Bo#rd of
C#n#ssers (2BC) reco%%ended to t*e CO,E1EC # rec#n#ss of t*e election
returns of 2#r#n. #nd /#li&#o. CO,E1EC, #ccordin.l-, relieed #ll t*e re.ul#r
%e%'ers of t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers (,BC) #nd ordered suc* rec#n#ss
'- senior l#3-ers fro% t*e CO,E1EC office in ,#nil#. ?urin. t*e re+c#n#ss, &ri#te
res&ondents o'<ected to t*e inclusion in t*e c#n#ss of t*e election returns of
2#r#n.. Res&ondent 2BC, *o3eer, denied #fores#id o'<ections of &ri#te
res&ondents, on t*e .round t*#t onl- t*e certific#te of c#n#ss 3#s for3#rded to it
#nd t*#t &ri#te res&ondents #lle.edl- f#iled to o'<ect to t*e c#n#ss of s#id
certific#te.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not CO,E1EC co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion.
:eld$ 8*ile, *o3eer, t*e CO,E1EC #cted 3it*in its <urisdiction in t#=in. co.ni)#nce
of t*e &ri#te res&ondents6 &etition to #nnul t*e election results of or to decl#re f#ilure
of elections in 2#r#n., Sulu, it co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion 3*en confronted
3it* essenti#ll- t*e s#%e situ#tion in &etitioners6 o3n &etition to #nnul t*e elections of
or to decl#re f#ilure of elections in t*e %unici&#lities of /#&ul, 2#n.li%# Estino, 2#t#,
Si#si #nd D#lin..#l#n. C#lu#n.. /*e CO,E1EC #r'itr#ril- #nd 3it*out #lid .round
dis%issed t*e s#id &etition res&ectin. t*e #fore%entioned fie %unici&#lities. /*e
unti%eliness of t*e &etition is #n unten#'le #r.u%ent for suc* dis%iss#l, 'ec#use #s
Co%%issioner Re.#l#do ,##%'on. &ointed out in *is o3n dissentin. o&inion, no
l#3 &roides for # re.le%ent#r- &eriod 3it*in 3*ic* to file #nnul%ent of elections
3*en t*ere is #s -et no &rocl#%#tion.

45
Election Laws
0LOREZIL AG&(E)AS vs. CO&R) O0 A%%EALS ( 261 SCRA 1$ )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, ?. 2rocl#%#tion!
"#cts$ 7n t*e f#teful eenin. of J#nu#r- 2>, >988, t*e 2roinci#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers
for t*e 2roince of ?##o Orient#l, &rocl#i%ed t*e 3inners for t*e 0oernor, Kice+
0oernor, #nd 2roinci#l Bo#rd ,e%'ers for ?##o Orient#l in t*e J#nu#r- >8, >988
election. /*e ei.*t* 'o#rd %e%'er &rocl#i%ed, 2edro 2en#, .#rnered CA,6@9 otes
3*en #not*er c#ndid#te for t*e Bo#rd, Erlind# 7ri.o, .ot C>,>29 or 45A %ore otes
t*#n 2en#. Before t*e &rocl#%#tion 3#s %#de, 3*en t*e certific#te of c#n#ss #nd
&rocl#%#tion st#te%ents of 3innin. c#ndid#tes 3ere finis*ed, # er'#l &rotest 3#s
lod.ed '- ,rs. ,#ri'et* 7ri.o B#tit#n., d#u.*ter of c#ndid#te 7ri.o durin. t*e
c#n#ssin. &roceedin.s, #ddressed to t*e /#'ul#tion Co%%ittee. /*e follo3in. d#-,
J#nu#r- 2C, >988, Bo#rd ,e%'er C#ndid#te Erlind# K. 7ri.o filed *er 3ritten &rotest
3it* t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers.
A co%&l#int #.#inst t*e t*ree 'o#rd %e%'ers for iol#tion of B2 88> (O%ni'us
Election Code) #nd RA 6646 (/*e Elector#l Refor% 1#3 of >98@) 3#s filed. /*e tri#l
court found t*e% .uilt-. On #&&e#l &etitioners #lle.ed t*#t, it is t*e f#ilure to %#=e #
&rocl#%#tion on t*e '#sis of Certific#te of C#n#ss, #nd not %ere erroneous
&rocl#%#tions, 3*ic* is &unis*#'le under Sec. 262 in rel#tion to Sec. 2C>(2) of t*e
O%ni'us Election Code.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not &etitioners #re correct in t*eir contentions.
:eld$ /o .o '- t*e e4&l#n#tion #s &ro&osed '- t*e &etitioner 3ould 'e t#nt#%ount to
toler#tin. #nd licensin. 'o#rds of c#n#ssers to “%#=e #n erroneous &rocl#%#tion!
#nd still 'e e4cul&#ted '- <ust &uttin. u& t*e ine4cus#'le defense t*#t t*e “foul+u&
resulted fro% t*e erroneous #rr#n.e%ent of t*e n#%es of c#ndid#tes! in one
%unici&#lit- or t*#t “t*e '#sis of t*eir &rocl#%#tion 3#s t*e erroneous r#n=in. %#de
'- t*e t#'ul#tion co%%ittee!. /*#t 3ould 'e # ne#t #&olo.- for #llo3in. t*e 'o#rd to
'e c#reless in t*eir i%&ort#nt t#s= '- si%&l- cl#i%in. t*#t t*e- c#nnot 'e *eld li#'le
'ec#use t*e- did t*eir “dut-! of &rocl#i%in. t*e 3innin. c#ndid#tes on t*e '#sis of
t*e certific#te of c#n#ss Q een “erroneous! certific#tes Q 3*ic* t*e- %#de.

46
Election Laws
SALACNIB 0. BA)ERINA +" ,/. vs. COMELEC +" ,/. ( 205 SCRA 1 )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, ?. 2rocl#%#tion!
"#cts$ 2etitioner S#l#cni' ". B#terin# 3#s # c#ndid#te for 0oernor of 7locos Sur in
t*e s&eci#l loc#l elections *eld on 25 J#nu#r- >988. /*e ot*er &etitioners 3ere
c#ndid#tes for Kice 0oernor #nd 2roinci#l Bo#rd ,e%'ers, in t*e s#%e loc#l
elections. 7n t*e course of t*e c#n#ss &roceedin.s, er'#l o'<ections 3ere r#ised '-
&etitioners to cert#in election returns '#sed on t*e .rounds %entioned in Sections
2CC, 2C4, 2C5 #nd 2C6, in rel#tion to t*e &re&#r#tion, tr#ns%ission, recei&t #nd
custod- of t*e election returns. /*e o'<ections 3ere #i%ed #t e4cludin. t*e election
returns fro% t*e c#n#ss. 2etitioners su'%itted to t*e BOAR? t*eir o'<ections in
3ritten for% 3it*in t3ent- four (24) *ours fro% t*e ti%e t*e er'#l o'<ections 3ere
%#de #s re5uired in Section 245 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code. On Se&te%'er 6,
>99A, t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc issued # Resolution #ffir%in. t*e Resolutions d#ted 2C
,#rc* >988 #nd 5 June >989, cont#inin. rulin.s #dersel- #.#inst &etitioners.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC c#n 'e f#ulted 3it* .r#e #'use of discretion in
issuin. its en '#nc Resolution d#ted Se&te%'er 6, >99A.
:eld$ /*e Court t*in=s not. /*e d#te “2> J#nu#r- >988! #&&e#rin. in t*e Resolution
of t*e CO,E1EC "irst ?iision is &l#inl- # t-&o.r#&*ic#l error. /*e correct d#te is C>
J#nu#r- >988. /*is f#ct does it i&so f#cto #nnul # &rocl#%#tion 3*ic* %#- *#e 'een
#lre#d- %#de. 7n t*is re.#rd, &etitioners6 reli#nce on Section 245 to su&&ort t*eir
cl#i% of nullit- of t*e &rocl#%#tion %#de '- t*e BOAR? for l#c= of #ut*ori)#tion fro%
t*e CO,E1EC is %is&l#ced. 7n 3*ic* c#se, no &rocl#%#tion c#n 'e %#de '- t*e
Bo#rd of C#n#ssers 3it*out #ut*ori)#tion of t*e CO,E1EC until #fter t*e l#tter *#s
ruled on t*e o'<ections 'rou.*t to it on #&&e#l '- t*e losin. &#rt-.
7n t*e c#se #t '#r, 3*en t*e &rocl#%#tion 3#s %#de '- t*e BOAR? on C> J#nu#r-
>988, t*ere 3#s no &endin. #&&e#l filed '- &etitioners 'efore t*e CO,E1EC fro%
t*e rulin.s %#de '- t*e BOAR? on t*eir o'<ections to election returns rendered on
29, CA #nd C>, >988. 8*#t 3#s filed '- &etitioners on CA J#nu#r- >988, 'efore t*e
&rocl#%#tion, 3#s # &etition see=in. %erel- to restr#in t*e c#n#ss #nd &rocl#%#tion
or sus&end t*e effects of #n- &rocl#%#tion. /*is &etition, *o3eer, is cle#rl- not t*e
#&&e#l referred to in Section 245 t*#t 3ill o&er#te to '#r t*e BOAR? fro% %#=in.
#n- &rocl#%#tion of t*e 3innin. c#ndid#tes 3it*out #ut*orit- fro% t*e CO,E1EC
#fter t*e l#tter *#s ruled on t*e o'<ections ele#ted to it on #&&e#l. Conse5uentl-,
t*ere 3#s no le.#l i%&edi%ent to t*e &rocl#%#tion of &ri#te res&ondents '- t*e
BOAR? on C> J#nu#r- >988.

47
Election Laws
MIC1AEL O. MAS)&RA vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)IONS ( 285 SCRA 4#* )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, C. (#ture of 2roceedin.s!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ,ic*#el O. ,#stur# #nd &ri#te res&ondent ?id#.en 2. ?il#n.#len
3ere con.ression#l c#ndid#tes for t*e first district of ,#.uind#n#o durin. t*e 8 ,#-
>995 elections. 7n t*e c#n#ssin. of otes, ?il#n.#len o'<ected to t*e inclusion of t*e
Certific#te of C#n#ss of t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#t#no. on t*e .round t*#t t*e s#%e
3#s #lle.edl- t#%&ered. E&on e4#%in#tion #nd co%&#rison of t*e co&ies of t*e
election returns of t*e ,/C Jud.e #nd t*e CO,E1EC, t*e l#tter found t*#t, indeed,
t*e Certific#te of C#n#ss of t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#t#no. *#d 'een t#%&ered 3it*.
Conse5uentl-, t*e CO,E1EC Second ?iision issued t*e *erein #ss#iled Order of
29 "e'ru#r- >996 #nnullin. t*e Certific#te of C#n#ss of ,#t#no., #nd 3*ic* #lso
cre#ted # ne3 ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers for t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#t#no..
,#stur# o'<ected to t*e inclusion of fift- (5A) out of t*e fift-+seen (5@) election
returns on t*e .round t*#t t*e CO,E1EC co&- of t*e election returns 3#s not
reflectie of t*e true results unless co%&#red 3it* t*e co&- of t*e ori.in#l ,unici&#l
Bo#rd of C#n#ssers. But t*e ne3 ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers 'elieed
ot*er3iseB *ence, it included in t*e c#n#ss t*e fift- (5A) election returns o'<ected to
'- ,#stur#. As # result, &ri#te res&ondent ?il#n.#len 3#s &rocl#i%ed t*e dul-
elected %e%'er of t*e :ouse of Re&resent#ties, "irst ?istrict of ,#.uind#n#o.
,#stur# no3 co%es to us i%&utin. to &u'lic res&ondent CO,E1EC Second ?iision
.r#e #'use of discretion #%ountin. to l#c= of <urisdiction in issuin. its Orders of 29
"e'ru#r- >996, 5 ,#rc* >996, >4 ,#rc* >996, #nd 2A ,#rc* >996.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not CO,E1EC co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion in issuin. t*e
"e'ru#r- 29, 2996 Order #nd in usin. t*e CO,E1EC Co&- of t*e returns inste#d of
t*e co&- of t*e ori.in#l ,BC.
:eld$ 8e find no .r#e #'use of discretion on t*e &#rt of res&ondent CO,E1EC. 7t is
settled <uris&rudence t*#t CO,E1EC c#n sus&end t*e c#n#ss of otes &endin. its
in5uir- 3*et*er t*ere e4ists # discre&#nc- 'et3een t*e #rious co&ies of election
returns fro% t*e dis&uted otin. centers. Coroll#ril-, once t*e election returns 3ere
found to 'e f#lsified or t#%&ered 3it*, t*e CO,E1EC c#n #nnul t*e ille.#l c#n#ss
#nd order t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers to reconene #nd &rocl#i% t*e 3inners on t*e
'#sis of t*e .enuine returns or, if it s*ould refuse, re&l#ce t*e %e%'ers of t*e 'o#rd
or &rocl#i% t*e 3inners itself.
7t s*ould #lso 'e noted t*#t #ll t*e seen co&ies of t*e election returns #re #ll ori.in#l
co&ies, #lt*ou.* t*e co&- for t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers is desi.n#ted #s t*e
first co&-.

48
Election Laws
GRAND ALLIANCE 0OR DEMOCRACY vs. COMELEC ( 150 SCRA 665 )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, C. (#ture of 2roceedin.s!
"#cts$ 7n t*is s&eci#l ciil #ction for certior#ri, t*e &etitioners see=s to restr#in
res&ondent CO,E1EC fro% c#n#ssin. t*e sen#tori#l elections <ust concluded #nd
to decl#re # f#ilure of suc* elections on t*e .round of #lle.ed irre.ul#rities in t*e
conduct t*ereof. /*e s#id election 'od- is cl#i%ed to *#e cons&ired 3it* t*e &ri#te
res&ondents, offici#l c#ndid#tes of t*e 1#=#s n. B#ns#, to frustr#te #nd f#lsif- t*e 3ill
of t*e elector#te.
/*is &etition could *#e 'een dis%issed outri.*t #s deficient in for% #nd su'st#nce,
'ein. couc*ed in .ener#l ter%s onl-, 3it*out &recise indic#tion of t*e ti%e, &l#ce #nd
%#nner of t*e co%%ission of t*e #lle.ed irre.ul#rities #s # '#sis for #nnullin. t*e
elections t*rou.*out t*e countr-, let #lone t*e <urisdiction#l infir%it-.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e Restr#inin. Order #.#inst t*e CO,E1EC s*ould 'e
issued.
:eld$ /*e &etition l#c=s %erit #nd #t 'est is &re%#ture until #fter t*e CO,E1EC *#s
*e#rd #nd resoled &etitioner6s co%&l#ined. /*e #lle.ed irre.ul#rities suc* #s t*e
o%issions of t*e CO,E1EC in t*e distri'ution #nd &rotection of t*e election for%s
#nd &#r#&*ern#li#, inoled t*e disc*#r.e of its #d%inistr#tie duties #nd so do not
co%e under t*e <urisdiction of t*is Court, 3*ic* c#n reie3 t*e decisions, orders #nd
rulin.s of t*e 'od- onl- in c#ses of .r#e #'use of discretion co%%itted '- it in t*e
disc*#r.e of its 5u#si+<udici#l &o3ers. ,oreoer, t*e #d%inistr#tie s*ortco%in.s
co%&l#ined of s*ould not #nd c#nnot o&er#te to diest t*e &eo&le of t*eir ri.*t of
suffr#.e.
/*e CO,E1EC is t*e 'od- entrusted '- t*e Constitution to enforce #ll l#3s rel#tie
to t*e conduct of elections. 7t s*ould 'e &er%itted to disc*#r.e its constitution#l role
3it*out o'struction or %olest#tion, su'<ect onl- to reie3 '- t*is Court 3*en #nd #s
t*e occ#sion %#- 3#rr#nt in #ccord#nce 3it* our o3n constitution#l dut-. /*#t
occ#sion is not no3. :ence, 3e *old t*#t, #s t*e c#n#ss of t*e sen#tori#l elections
is still in &ro.ress #nd t*ere 'ein. no s*o3in. of #n- #lid <ustific#tion to restr#in it in
its #scert#in%ent of t*e elector#te6s 3ill.

49
Election Laws
NICOLAS C. CAS)ROMAYOR vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)IONS (250 SCRA
2#8 )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, B. ?ut- of t*e BOC!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 3#s # c#ndid#te for # se#t in t*e ei.*t+%e%'er S#n..uni#n.
B#-#n of t*e %unici&#lit- of C#lino., 7loilo in t*e elections *eld on ,#- 8, >995. On
,#- >A, >995, t*e 3inners 3ere &rocl#i%ed on t*e '#sis of t*e results of t*e c#n#ss
3*ic* s*o3ed t*#t &etitioner receied 5,4>9 otes #nd too= ei.*t* &l#ce in t*e
election for %e%'ers of t*e S#n..uni#n. B#-#n. :o3eer, 3*en Alice ,. 0#rin,
C*#ir%#n of t*e ,BC, rec*ec=ed t*e tot#ls in t*e St#te%ent of Kotes t*e follo3in.
d#-, s*e discoered t*#t t*e nu%'er of otes c#st for (ild# C. ?e%orito, #s %e%'er
of t*e S#n..uni#n. B#-#n, 3#s 62 %ore t*#n t*#t credited to *er. /*e returns fro%
one &recinct *#d 'een oerloo=ed in t*e co%&ut#tion of t*e tot#ls. As %#tters stood,
t*erefore, t*e tot#l nu%'er of otes c#st for ?e%orito 3#s 5,4@A, or 5> %ore t*#n t*e
5,4>9 otes c#st for &etitioner. Att-. Rodolfo S#rro)#, t*e Re.ion#l Election ?irector
#dised 0#rin to re5uest #ut*orit- fro% t*e CO,E1EC to reconene for t*e &ur&ose
of correctin. t*e error. A for%#l letter 3#s l#ter sent to t*e CO,E1EC on ,#- >@,
>995. On ,#- 2C, >995, t*e CO,E1EC issued Resolution (o. 95+24>4, directin. t*e
,unici&#l 'o#rd of C#n#ssers of s#id %unici&#lit- to reconene to #nnul t*e
&rocl#%#tion of (icol#s C. C#stro%#-or for t*e nu%'er 8 &l#ce for councilorB #nd to
&rocl#i% t*e 3innin. nu%'er ei.*t (8) councilor, #nd to su'%it co%&li#nce *ereof
3it*in fie (5)d#-s fro% recei&t of notice. 2etitioner &rotested t*e &ro&osed #ction in
# letter d#ted June 5, >995 to CO,E1EC E4ecutie ?irector Resurreccion A. Borr#,
5uestionin. t*e le.#lit- of t*e #ctu#tions of 0#rin. :ence, t*is &etition to #nnul
CO,E1EC Resolution (o. 95+24>4.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e ,BC *#s t*e &o3er to reconene to #nnul # &rocl#%#tion
u&on &rior #ut*ori)#tion fro% t*e CO,E1EC.
:eld$ ;es. 7t s*ould 'e &ointed out, in t*is connection, t*#t 3*#t is inoled *ere is #
si%&le &ro'le% of #rit*%etic. /*e St#te%ent of Kotes is %erel- # t#'ul#tion &er
&recinct of t*e otes o't#ined '- t*e c#ndid#tes #s reflected in t*e election returns.
7n %#=in. t*e correction in co%&ut#tion, t*e ,BC 3ill 'e #ctin. in #n #d%inistr#tie
c#&#cit-, under t*e control #nd su&erision of t*e CO,E1EC. :ence #n- 5uestion
&ert#inin. to t*e &roceedin.s of t*e ,BC %#- 'e r#ised directl- to t*e CO,E1EC en
'#nc in t*e e4ercise of its constitution#l function to decide 5uestions #ffectin.
elections.

50
Election Laws
G&IAO vs. COMELEC ( 1*$ SCRA *66 1#85 )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, B. ?ut- of t*e BOC!
"#cts$ After t*e c#n#ss of t*e returns for #sse%'l-%#n in 2#%&#n.#, &etitioner Ben
0ui#o, 3*o lost, su'%itted *is 3ritten o'<ections to t*e inclusion of seer#l returns in
t*e c#n#ss. :e #s=ed t*#t # su'&oen# 'e issued to t*e %e%'ers of t*e citi)ens
election co%%ittee. /*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers denied t*e re5uest for t*e su'&oen#
#nd dis%issed t*e o'<ections for f#ilure of &etitioner to su'st#nti#te t*e% #nd
&rocl#i%ed t*e 3inners. 2etitioner 5uestioned t*e &rocl#%#tion of t*e &ri#te
res&ondent 'ut did not 5uestion t*e &rocl#%#tion of ot*er 3inners 3*o 'elon.ed to
*is &olitic#l &#rt-.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e BOC s*ould issue # su'&oen#.
:eld$ 2etitioner c#nnot c*#llen.e t*e &rocl#%#tion of #n- one of t*e c#ndid#tes. /*e
&rocl#%#tion c#nnot 'e oid #s to one #nd #lid 3it* res&ect to t*e ot*ers. /*e
3ritten o'<ection of t*e &etitioner 3ere not ti%el- &resented. /*e ti%e to o'<ect in
3ritin. in #n- election return is 3*en it is 'ein. e4#%ined '- t*e 'o#rd of
c#n#ssers. /*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers 3#s correct in refusin. to su'&oen# t*e
%e%'ers of t*e citi)en election co%%ittee. /*e function of t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers is
&urel- %inisteri#l. /o *#e #cceded to t*e re5uest of t*e &etitioner 3ould *#e %#de
t*e 'o#rd # *e#rin. 'od- to #scert#in t*e issue of duress #nd ot*er irre.ul#rities
#lle.ed '- &etitioner.

51
Election Laws
CASIMIRO vs. COMELEC ( 1$1 SCRA 468 1#8# )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, A. C#n#ssin. '- 2roinci#l, Cit-, ?istrict #nd ,unici&#l
Bo#rd!
"#cts$ 7n J#nu#r- >988 loc#l elections, 0#'riel 2. C#si%iro # E(7?O c#ndid#te for
,#-or of 1#s 2in#s, %etro ,#nil# 3it* ot*er E(7?O &#rt- %e%'er filed #rious
&etitions 'efore t*e CO,E1EC 3*ic* #%on. ot*ers 3#s t*e &etition to en<oin 'o#rd
of c#n#ssers fro% c#n#ssin. of otes or t#'ul#tin. unoffici#l election returns. /*e
CO,E1EC in resolin. t*e #fores#id c#ses rendered # consolid#ted decision
dis%issin. t*e &etition decl#rin. t*#t t*e- #c5uired no <urisdiction oer t*e &etitions.
8it* t*e liftin. of t*e restr#inin. order &reiousl- issued, res&ondent Ri.uer# #nd
ot*er 3innin. c#ndid#tes 3ere &rocl#i%ed.
CO,E1EC en '#nc ddenied # %otion for reconsider#tion of t*e #fores#id decision.
On Au.ust of >988, &etitioner C#si%iro #nd E(7?O &#rt- files #n inst#nt &etition for
certior#ri #nd %#nd#%us #.#inst t*e CO,E1EC #nd Ros#lino Ri.uer# #s &rinci&#l
res&ondent #lle.in. t*#t t*e c#n#ss &roceedin.s in t*e CO,E1EC centr#l office
3ere ille.#l for *#in. 'een %#de 3it*out &rior notice to t*e% #s to t*e d#te #nd ti%e
of c#n#ssin. for 3*ic* re#son t*e- t*e left t*e &roceedin.s #nd t*#t %#n- election
returns 3ere c#n#ssed %ore t*#n once, t#%&ered 3it*, &#dded #nd 3ere s&urious
rel-in. on t*e #ffid#it of t*eir o3n *e#d 3#tc*erGre&resent#tie.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*ere is ille.#lit- in t*e c#n#ss.
:eld$ /*e court ruled t*#t no .r#e #'use of discretion could 'e #ttri'uted to t*e
CO,E1EC in u&*oldin. t*e #lidit- of t*e c#n#ssin. #t its %#in office. /*e letter
*#in. cle#rl- referred #lso to tr#nsfer of t*e enue of t*e c#n#ss, &etitioner c#nnot
<ustifi#'l- cl#i% t*e notice 3#s l#c=in. or t*e s#id notice 3#s %e#nt onl- for t*e
tr#nsfer of election returns. 7f &etitioner 3ere #'sent durin. t*e c#n#ssin. it 3#s
'ec#use t*e- *#e o&ted to le#e t*e &roceedin.s for re#sons of t*eir o3n.
"urt*er%ore, t*e eidence relied u&on %#inl- '- &etitioners to su&&ort t*eir c*#r.es
of fr#ud #nd irre.ul#rities in t*e election returns #nd in t*e c#n#ssin. consisted of
#ffid#its &re&#red '- t*eir o3n re&resent#ties. As t*is court *#s &ronounced
reli#nce s*ould not 'e &l#ced on %ere #ffid#its.
8*erefore, &etitions #re *ere'- dis%issed.

52
Election Laws
A.&INO vs. COMELEC ( 22 SCRA 288 1#68 )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, A. C#n#ssin. '- 2roinci#l, Cit-, ?istrict #nd ,unici&#l
Bo#rd!
"#cts$ "or t*e &ur&ose of fillin. t3ele #c#ncies in t*e Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers in
(o. >96@ loc#l election in Butu#n Cit-, t*e CO,E1EC issued # resolution
constitutin. t*e %e%'ers of t*e s#id Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers.
/*e &etitioners Jose A5uino et.#l. 5uestion in t*eir &etition t*e le.#lit- of t*e
#&&oint%ent '- t*e CO,E1EC of t*e c*ief of &olice, council secret#r-, c*ief of fire
de&#rt%ent #nd ot*ers #s su'stitute %e%'ers of t*e Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers to
t#=e t*e &l#ce of seen cit- councilors, u&on t*e .round t*#t t*ose seen su'stitutes
#re not &ersons 3*o #re referred to in Section >59 of t*e Reised Election Code, in
t*e eent of t*e #'sence or inc#&#cit- of #n- %e%'er of # cit- 'o#rd of c#n#ssers.
/*e- contended t*#t t*e seen su'stitute s*ould 'e &ersons to 'e #&&ointed '- t*e
2resident of t*e 2*il. (ot '- CO,E1EC, &ursu#nt to t*e &roisions of section 28 of
t*e s#id code, *ence t*e- #re not le.#ll- #&&ointed #nd &rocl#%#tion of 3*oeer
3ould 'e ille.#l #nd in#lid.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e #&&oint%ent of t*e %e%'ers of t*e 'o#rd is #lid.
:eld$ /*e courts find t*e &etition not %eritorious.
7t 3#s *eld t*#t t*e Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers is #n entit- t*#t is entirel- different #nd
distinct fro% t*e cit- 'o#rd or cit- council. 8*ile %e%'ers of t*e cit- 'o#rd or #
&roinci#l 'o#rd or of # %unici&#l council, #re %e%'ers #lso of # cit- 'o#rd of
c#n#ssers or # &roinci#l or # %unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers, #s t*e c#se %#- 'e,
t*e- do not #ct in t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers in t*e c#&#cit- of cit- council%en, or in t*e
c#&#cit- of # %e%'er of t*e &roinci#l or %unici&#l 'o#rd 'ut #s #n election offici#ls
to &erfor% functions s&ecific#ll- &roided '- l#3.
,oreoer, t*e CO,E1EC %ust #&&oint #s su'stitute s t*e offici#ls s&ecific#ll-
%entioned in t*e Code, #nd if %ore su'stitutes #re needed #fter t*ose offici#ls *#e
'een #&&ointed, t*e CO,E1EC %#- #&&oint ot*er offici#ls of t*e &roince or cit-
until &roinci#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers or t*e cit-, #s t*e c#se %#- 'e, *#d full-
constituted.

53
Election Laws
SABINIANO vs. COMELEC ( 101 SCRA 28# 1#80 )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, A. C#n#ssin. '- 2roinci#l, Cit-, ?istrict #nd ,unici&#l
Bo#rd!
"#cts$ 2etitioners 3ere (#cion#list# 2#rt- c#ndid#te for ,#-or, Kice+,#-or #nd
S#n.uni#n. 2#nlunsod %e%'ers of t*e Cit- of ?#.u&#n, 3*ile &ri#te res&ondents
3ere DB1 offici#l c#ndid#tes in >98A loc#l elections.
Res&ondent Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers &rocl#i%ed &ri#te res&ondents #s dul-
elected c#ndid#tes to #rious #fores#id &ositions #'oe+%entioned.
2etitioners filed # &etition 3it* t*e res&ondent CO,E1EC &r#-in. for #nnul%ent of
t*e election, e4+&#rte c#n#ssin. #nd t*e &rocl#%#tion of t*e &ri#te res&ondents on
t*e .round of l#c= of notice #nd undue *#ste in t*e c#n#ss #nd &rocl#%#tion,
t#%&erin. 3it*, #lter#tion #nd f#lsific#tion of election returns #s 3ell #s ot*er
irre.ul#rities durin. #nd #fter t*e elections.
CO,E1EC resoled to sus&end t*e effects of t*e &rocl#%#tion of t*e &ri#te
res&ondents.
2etitioners filed # su&&le%ent#r- &etition.
2ri#te res&ondents, *o3eer filed # %otion for reconsider#tion contendin. t*#t
CO,E1EC is 3it*out <urisdiction in issuin. t*e 5uestioned resolution.
2etitioner S#'ini#no *erself filed #n ur.ent %otion for reconsider#tion #nd issu#nce
of #n order to sus&end t*e effects of t*e &rocl#%#tion until #fter *e#rin. is
conducted .
At t*e end of #ll t*ese &etitions, t*e CO,E1EC decl#re t*e res&ondent ,#n#ois #s
dul- elected ,#-or.
:ence t*is recourse.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e &rocl#%#tion is #lid.
:eld$ 2etition *#s no %erit.
7t is cle#r t*erefore t*#t t*e c*#r.e of &etitioners of #rious irre.ul#rities of t*e
election returns #nc*ored %#inl- on t*e #lle.ed e4cess otes is 3it*out '#sis. :#d
t*e &etitioner t#=en t*e &#in of #ddin. correctl- t*e otes o't#ined '- t*e% &er
t#'ul#tion, s*e 3ould *#e discoered it e#sil-. /*e difference 'et3een t*e tot#l
nu%'er of otes of #ll t*e ,#-or#lt- c#ndid#tes #nd t*e nu%'er of otes 3*o
#ctu#ll- oted 3#s 'ut result of t*e innocent %ist#=e in t*e #ddition of nu%'er of
otes c#st for ,#n#ois #nd S#'ini#no in t*e CA otin. centers.
54
Election Laws
LE71A1A s. CO,E1EC ( >88 SCRA 5A2, >99A )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, A. C#n#ssin. '- 2roinci#l, Cit-, ?istrict #nd ,unici&#l
Bo#rd!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Cirilo ,. Luil#l# 3#s DB1 c#ndid#te for ,#-or in t*e ,unici&#lit- of
Curri%#o, 7locos (orte 3*ile &ri#te res&ondent 8il'ur 0o 3#s t*e offici#l
#d%inistr#tion c#ndid#te for t*e s#%e &osition in J#n. >8, >988 elections.
/*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers co%&leted its c#n#ss in t*e #fternoon of J#n.
>9, #nd i%%edi#tel- t*ere#fter &rocl#i%ed t*e 3innin. c#ndid#te in t*e &erson of
8il'ur C. 0o.
On J#n. 2>, >988, &etitioner filed # &etition 3it* t*e CO,E1EC &rinci&#ll- #nc*ored
on #lle.#tion t*#t &etitioner 3#s not re&resented in t*e c#n#ssin. of election
returns.
Res&ondent CO,E1EC issued its decision dis%issin. t*e &etition #nd confir%in. t*e
#lidit- of t*e &roceedin. of t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers.
2etitioner filed # c#se for #nnul%ent of t*e &rocl#%#tion on t*e .round t*#t *e 3#s
not re&resented 3*en t*e c#n#ss of t*e election returns 3#s resu%ed, #s *e 3#s
not notified of t*e ti%e #nd &l#ce of t*e resettin. of t*e c#n#ssin..
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e c#n#ss is #lid.
:eld$ 2etitioner %#- not cl#i% i.nor#nce of t*e #fores#id &roisions #s t*ese #re
%#tters directl- #ffectin. *is &olitic#l fortune. Conse5uentl-, 3it* or 3it*out notice, it
3#s t*e dut- of t*e &etitioner #nd #ll c#ndid#tes for t*#t %#tter to #ssi.n t*eir
3#tc*ers or re&resent#ties in t*e countin. of otes #nd c#n#ssin. of election
returns in order to insure t*e s#nctit- #nd &urit- of t*e '#llots.

55
Election Laws
ES%INO vs. ZALDIVAR ( 21 SCRA 1204 1#6$ )
“C#n#ss #nd 2rocl#%#tion, A. C#n#ssin. '- 2roinci#l, Cit-, ?istrict #nd ,unici&#l
Bo#rd!
"#cts$ 2ri#te res&ondent ?u%l#o lod.ed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC # &etition &r#-in. t*#t
CO,E1EC direct t*e 2roinci#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers of (ue# Kisc#-# to use
CO,E1EC6s co&ies of t*e election returns fro% si4 &recincts.
CO,E1EC issued #n order fro% en<oinin. t*e 'o#rd fro% c#n#ssin. t*e election
returns 3it*out CO,E1EC6s &rior order. /*e Bo#rd nonet*eless &roceeded to
c#n#ss t*e returns fro% entire &roince.
CO,E1EC issued # resolution directin. t*e 'o#rd to c#n#ss t*e otes usin. t*e
,unici&#l /re#surer6s co&ies, inste#d of t*ose of t*e 2roinci#l /re#surer, in t*e si4
&recincts of A.li&#- #nd t*ere#fter &rocl#i% c#ndid#tes elected. /*is is 'ec#use of
t*e #lle.ed findin. of irre.ul#rities in t*e 2roinci#l /re#surer6s co&ies of returns.
/*e &etition *erein st#tes t*#t on t*e er- s#%e d#-, t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers si.ned
t*e certific#te of c#n#ss #nd &rocl#%#tion #nd &rocl#i%ed Cor#)on Es&ino oer
?u%l#o.
/*e return of ?u%l#o contr#ri3ise #ers t*#t no %eetin. of t*e 'o#rd too= &l#ce on
t*e d#te s&ecified, t*#t t*e %e%'ers si.ned t*e #lle.ed certific#te of c#n#ss #nd
&rocl#%#tion did so in different &l#ces #nd on different d#tes.
As # result ne3 'o#rd *#s 'een constituted #nd t#llied t*e otes usin. t*e fi.ures
#&&e#rin. in t*e ,unici&#l /re#surer6s co&ies #s # result ?u%l#o 3#s &rocl#i%ed
0oernor+elect. /*e Office of t*e 2resident t*ru Assist#nt E4ecutie Secret#r-
F#ldi#r reco.ni)e ?u%l#o #s ne3l- elected .oernor.
:ence t*is &etition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e Certific#te of C#n#ss #nd ?u%l#o6s &rocl#%#tion is #lid.
:eld$ /*e court ruled t*#t t*e Co%%ission is, cert#inl-, 3it* &o3er to direct #
c#n#ss 3it* t*e use of .enuine docu%ents. "or t*#t, t*e &rocl#%#tion of t*e ori.in#l
'o#rd is null #nd oid. And , for t*e &ur&ose of # c#n#ss, su'stitutes for errin.
%e%'ers of t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers %#- 'e #&&ointed.
Considerin. t*#t t*ere #re seen %e%'ers of t*e &roinci#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers,
four constitute # 5uoru%. Een if one is eli%in#ted, still t*ere is # 5uoru%. /*e result
is t*#t t*e certific#te of c#n#ss #nd &rocl#%#tion of ?u%l#o is #lid.

56
Election Laws
GARAY vs. COMELEC ( 261 SCRA 222 1##6 )
“Countin. of Kotes, B. BE7 to 7ssue Certific#te of Kotes to 8#tc*ers!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 0err- B. 0#r#- #nd res&ondent J#i%e 0#t# Jr. 3ere o&&osin.
c#ndid#tes for Kice+,#-or in t*e ,#-,>995 elections in t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#tno.,
2roince of Sorso.on. After t*e results of t*e elections 3ere c#n#ssed in @C
&recincts, &etitioner 0#r#- 3#s le#din. '- t3ent- otes. /*e c#n#ssin. e4cluded
t*e results fro% one re%#inin. &recinct 'ec#use #r%ed %en sei)ed t*e '#llot 'o4,
t*e election returns #nd ot*er election &#&ers in t*#t &recinct. Res&ondent su'%itted
# certific#te of otes si.ned '- t*e Bo#rd of Election 7ns&ectors s*o3in. t*#t *e 3on
in t*#t &recinct '- fort- Hei.*t otes, 'ut t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers refused
to #cce&t it #s &roof of t*e results. Res&ondent #&&e#led to t*e Co%%ission on
Election #nd su'%itted # co&- of t*e t#ll- s*o3in. t*#t *e 3on in t*e re%#inin.
&recinct '- t3ent-+ei.*t otes.
,e#n3*ile, t*e Co%%ission on Elections *eld # s&eci#l election in t*e re%#inin.
&recinct 'ec#use of t*e loss of t*e election docu%ents. 2etitioner 3on. 1#ter on, t*e
CO,E1EC ordered t*e &rocl#%#tion of res&ondent on t*e .round t*#t t*e results of
t*e election in t*#t &recinct could 'e #scert#ined on t*e '#sis of t*e t#ll- 'o#rd,
3*ic* 3#s #ut*entic.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not # Certific#te of Kotes c#n 'e # #lid '#sis for c#n#ss.
:eld$ A certific#te of ote c#n neer 'e # #lid '#sis for c#n#ss. 7t c#n onl- 'e
eidence to &roe t#%&erin. or #n- ot*er #no%#l- co%%itted in t*e election returns.
7n li=e %#nner, t*e t#ll- 'o#rd is not sufficient eidence of t*e results of t*e election.
Onl- election returns #re eidence of results of t*e election. /*e &#rtici&#tion of t*e
res&ondent in t*e s&eci#l election esto&&ed *i% fro% rel-in. on t*e certific#tes of
otes #nd t*e t#ll- 'o#rd. /*e decision to *old s&eci#l election *#d lon. 'eco%e
fin#l. /*e CO,E1EC *#d lost its <urisdiction to set #side t*e decision.

57
Election Laws
BALINDONG vs. COMELEC ( 2$ SCRA 56$ 1#6# )
“Countin. of Kotes, B. BE7 to 7ssue Certific#te of Kotes to 8#tc*ers!
"#cts$ ?urin. t*e >96@ .ener#l elections, t*e follo3in. , 3it* t*eir res&ectie &#rt-
#ffili#tions, 3ere #%on.st t*e %#-or#lt- c#ndid#tes for 0#n#ssi$ Eso ?#n A.u#%+
offici#l c#ndid#te for 1i'er#l 2#rt-B Ali% B#lin.on.+ 7nde&endent 1i'er#l 2#rt- #nd #
cert#in ?#ud ,#ro*o%'s#r for (#cion#list# 2#rt-.
Eso ?#n A.u#% 3#s &rocl#i%ed ,#-or+elect of 0#n#ssi '- t*e %unici&#l 'o#rd of
c#n#ssers. Ali% B#lindon. un#3#re of t*e &rocl#%#tion of t*e for%er, filed suit in
t*e court for #nnul%ent of elections in #rious &recincts to restr#in t*e c#n#ss #nd
&rocl#%#tion of t*e offici#l %unici&#l+ elect.
Court decl#red no <urisdiction oer t*e c#se.
Eso ?#n A.u#% too= *is o#t* of office #nd st#rted to #ct #s %#-or.
7t 3#s onl- t*ere#fter t*#t B#lindon. 3ent to CO,E1EC for t*e #nnul%ent of t*e
&reious c#n#ss #nd &rocl#%#tion decl#rin. A.u#% 3inner #nd for t*e o&enin. of
t*e '#llot 'o4 in &recinct. 7t 3#s #ss#iled t*#t t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers 3#s ille.#ll-
constituted since it 3#s t*e %unici&#l tre#surer u&on instruction of t*e CO,E1EC
3*o #&&ointed %e%'ers of t*e s#id 'o#rd 3*ic* 3#s #d%ittedl- co%&osed of
reco%%endees of t*e loc#l c*#&ter of t*e 1i'er#l 2#rt- #nd #lle.ed irre.ul#rities
#ttendin. t*e s#id c#n#ss of t*e 'o#rd.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*ere is irre.ul#rit- in t*e #&&oint%ent #nd in t*e c#n#ss.
:eld$ /*e c#n#ssin. 'o#rd of 0#n#ssi 3#s ille.#ll- constituted. /*ree su'stitute
%e%'ers t*ereof 3ere reco%%ended '- t*e loc#l c*#&ter of t*e (#cion#list# 2#rt-
to 3*ic* t*e su'stituted %e%'ers 'elon.ed #t t*e ti%e of t*eir dis5u#lific#tion. /*is
iol#tes t*e section >6@ of t*e Reised Election Code #s cl#rified in cert#in 7'un#
c#se 3*ic* e4&l#ins t*#t t*e s#id section >6@ re5uires t*e su'stitute %e%'ers of t*e
%unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers to 'e reco%%endees of t*e &olitic#l &#rt- to 3*ic* t*e
su'stituted %e%'ers 'elon.ed #t t*e ti%e of t*eir dis5u#lific#tion. :ence, 3*ere #
%e%'er of t*e 'o#rd of c#n#ssers desi.n#ted '- l#3 is e4cluded fro% t*e c#n#ss
'- re#son of 3*ic* *e did not t#=e &#rt t*erein, t*e c#n#ss #nd t*e resultin.
&rocl#%#tion #re 'ot* null #nd oid.

58
Election Laws
SILVERIO vs. CAS)RO ( 1# SCRA 222 1#6$ )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 2ri#te res&ondent C#stro 3#s &rocl#i%ed elected #nd t*ere#fter #ssu%ed
t*e office. 2etitioner Silerio on t*e ot*er *#nd, filed # &rotest 'efore t*e court.
Su'se5uentl- #nd 'efore *e#rin. of t*e s#id election c#se, C#stro died , *ence, Kice+
,#-or Cl#%or succeeded to t*e office of ,#-or. After *e#rin., t*e tri#l court decl#red
Silerio 3inner.
A&&e#l 3#s t#=en t*erefro%, C#stro *#in. died, re5uired Kice+,#-or Cl#%or to
interene.
A&&ell#nts &resents for reie3 >>9 '#llots. Accordin.l-, t*ese '#llots #re #lle.edl-
&re&#red '- one &erson, cont#inin. er#sures, found to 'e %#r=ed #nd s*ould t*us
*#e 'een re<ected.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e '#llots s*ould 'e re<ected.
:eld$ 7t 3#s *eld t*#t t*e issue r#ised inoles rules of #&&reci#tion of '#llots in #n
election c#se. And t*e &ur&ose of election l#3s is to ,.ie effect r#t*er t*#n frustr#te
t*e 3ill of t*e oter. /*us e4tre%e c#ution s*ould 'e o'sered 'efore #n- '#llot is
in#lid#ted #nd in t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots, dou'ts #re to 'e resoled in f#or of
t*eir #lidit-. ,oreoer #&&l-in. t*e rule of li'er#lit- in t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots, it
s*ould noted t*e .ener#l rese%'l#nce or &ictori#l effect is not enou.* to 3#rr#nt t*e
conclusion t*#t cert#in '#llots 3ere &re&#red '- one &erson. 8it* res&ect to
er#sures 3*ic* #re &l#inl- corrections of errors, not eidencin. #n- &ur&ose of
%#r=in., did not in#lid#te t*e '#llots.
Jud.%ent #&&e#led fro% is *ere'- reersed.

59
Election Laws
)RA(ANO vs. INCISO ( 1# SCRA *40 1#6$ )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 7n t*e election for ,#-or of 1#3#+#n, S#%#r on (o.>2, >96C, ,#teo 7nciso
3#s &rocl#i%ed ,#-or+elect '- t*e Bo#rd of c#n#ssers. /r#<#no filed on (o. 2@,
>96C #n election &rotest 3it* t*e court. After tri#l #nd #&&reci#tion of contested
'#llots, t*e court rendered decision findin. &rotestee 7nciso 3inner.
/r#<#no #&&e#led st#tin. in *is notice of #&&e#l r#isin. onl- 5uestions of l#3. :e &uts
#n issue 56 '#llots #lle.in. errors in t*eir #&&reci#tion. :e #lle.ed t*#t C> '#llots
s*ould #ll 'e re<ected #s %#r=ed '#llots #s t*e- consists of '#llots filled '- t3o
&ersons 'efore le#in., de&osited in t*e '#llot 'o4 #nd t*us null #nd oid under Rule
2C of Section >49 of t*e Reised Election Code.
Seen '#llots consists of '#llots &ur&ortedl- 3it* otes for /r#<#no #s ,#-or,
*o3eer, 3ere not counted '- t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers in *is f#or.
1#stl-, # .rou& of >8 '#llots, #ll of 3*ic* 3ere counted for &rotestee 7nciso 3*ic*
contended #lso '- /r#<#no #s %#r=ed #nd t*us s*ould *#e 'een re<ected.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e '#llots s*ould 'e re<ected.
:eld$ /*e court *eld res&ectin. t*e first .rou& of '#llots, t*#t t*e #llo3#nce or
re<ection of # '#llot filled in '- %ore t*#n one &erson de&ends on its condition 'efore
it 3#s c#st in t*e '#llot 'o4. 7f #t t*e ti%e it 3#s c#st it 3#s filled '- onl- one &erson,
'ut t*ere#fter it 3#s t#%&ered #nd entries 3ere %#de t*ereon '- t*e ot*er &ersons,
t*e '#llot is #lid. 7f, on t*e ot*er *#nd, it #lre#d- 'ore t*e fillin.s of t3o or %ore
&ersons 3*en c#st, s#id '#llot is dee%ed %#r=ed #nd is t*us oid.
60
Election Laws
GEROMO vs. COMELEC ( 1#82 )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 7n t*e loc#l election *eld on CA J#nu#r- >98A, &etitioner Jose 0ero%o, #
%#-or#lt- c#ndid#te under t*e '#nner of t*e Concerned Citi)ens A..ru&#tion (CCA
for 'reit-), .#rnered 4,99C otes #s #.#inst 4,886 otes o't#ined '- *is o&&onent,
&ri#te res&ondent 2#ci#no 0uillen, t*e c#ndid#te of t*e Dilus#n n. B#.on. 1i&un#n
(DB1) for t*e s#%e &osition. On C> J#nu#r- >98A, &etitioner 3#s &rocl#i%ed dul-
elected ,#-or of ,ol#e, 3it* # &lur#lit- of >A@ otes oer &ri#te res&ondent #nd
*#s #ssu%ed office. On 5 "e'ru#r- >98A, &ri#te res&ondent filed #n election &rotest
#.#inst &etitioner 3it* t*e Court of "irst 7nst#nce of F#%'o#n.# del Sur. On >8
?ece%'er >98A, t*e /ri#l Court rendered # ?ecision findin. t*#t &ri#te res&ondent
0uillen o't#ined # tot#l of 5,2>9 otes #s #.#inst 4,952 otes for &etitioner 0ero%o,
or # %#r.in of 26@ otes. 0ero%o no3 5uestions t*e #ction of &u'lic res&ondent in
its #&&reci#tion of t*e '#llots.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not Co%elec co%%itted #n error in t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots.
:eld$ Res&ondent Court #nd t*e CO,E1EC did not in#lid#te t*e '#llots on 3*ic*
t*e s&#ces for S#n..uni#n. 2#nl#l#3i.#n #nd S#n..uni#n. B#-#n 3ere filled 3it*
n#%es of non+c#ndid#tes #nd, inste#d, considered t*e otes for t*ose offices #s
str#-. 2etitioner contends, *o3eer, t*#t t*e '#llots s*ould *#e 'een decl#red
%#r=ed #nd disre.#rded. 2u'lic res&ondents6 findin.s #re in confor%it- 3it* t*e rule
for t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots. 7t *#s 'een *eld t*#t in t*e #'sence of eidence
#liunde t*#t n#%es of non+c#ndid#tes 3ere intended for &ur&oses of identific#tion,
t*e s#%e s*#ll 'e considered #s str#- otes suc* s*#ll not in#lid#te t*e 3*ole
'#llot. "urt*er, it is # 3ell+settled rule in election contests t*#t t*e %#r=s 3*ic* s*#ll
'e considered sufficient to in#lid#te t*e '#llots #re t*ose 3*ic* t*e oter *i%self
deli'er#tel- &l#ced on *is '#llot for t*e &ur&ose of identif-in. it t*ere#fter.
(eit*er c#n &u'lic res&ondents 'e #ss#iled for considerin. t*e '#llots on 3*ic*
“DB1! 3#s 3ritten on t*e 3ron. s&#ces, 3it*out ot*er 3ritin.s, #s #lid 'loc= otes
for t*e entire DB1 tic=et. Alt*ou.* 3ritten in t*e 3ron. s&#ces, t*e intention of t*e
oters to ote for t*e entire tic=et is cle#r. (o eidence #liunde *#d 'een &resented
'elo3 to &roe t*#t t*e oters intended to identif- t*eir '#llots or t*e%seles, or
ot*er3ise iol#te t*e secrec- of t*e '#llot.

61
Election Laws
DOMINGO vs. RAMOS ( 1$ SCRA $4# 1#66 )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 7n t*e %#-or#lt- elections of Ros#les, 2#n.#sin#n *eld on (oe%'er >2,
>96C, "ern#ndo R#%os 3#s &rocl#i%ed 3inner oer Silestre ?o%in.o, *is closest
ri#l, '- # %#<orit- of eleen otes. ?o%in.o filed # &rotest #nd t*e C"7 of
2#n.#sin#n rendered <ud.%ent decl#rin. *i% elected '- # &lur#lit- of fifteen otes.
/*ere 3ere C> 5uestioned '#llots for ?o%in.o #nd 5C for R#%os. /*e Court of
A&&e#ls re<ected 4 #nd counted 26 for ?o%in.o out of *is 5uestioned C> '#llots,
3*ile out of t*e 5A 5uestioned '#llots for R#%os, 6 3ere re<ected #nd 44 3ere
counted in *is f#or. R#%os t*us o't#ined # tot#l of 2,6>8 otes. /*e Court of
A&&e#ls reersed t*e decision of t*e C"7 #nd decl#red R#%os #s t*e 3inner.
?o%in.o filed #n #&&e#l '- certior#ri to t*e Su&re%e Court. :e cl#i%s t*#t >4 otes
t*#t 3ere counted for R#%os s*ould 'e considered str#- since “A. R#%os! 3#s
3ritten in t*e s&#ce for %#-or.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e otes #re considered str#-.
:eld$ /*e otes c#st for “A.R#%os! for %#-or #re str#-. Since t*e 3ritten n#%e 3#s
#cco%&#nied '- #n initi#l, &#r#.r#&* >, section >49 of t*e Reised Election Code
does not #&&l-. /*is &roision refers to # c#se 3*en onl- t*e C*risti#n n#%e or one
3ord, 3*ic* is t*e C*risti#n n#%e of # c#ndid#te #nd t*e surn#%e of *is o&&onent,
*#s 'een 3ritten '- t*e oter. (eit*er does &#r#.r#&* 6 of s#%e section #&&l-,
'ec#use t*e initi#l #nd t*e surn#%e 3ritten #re t*ose of #not*er c#ndid#te, #lt*ou.*
for #not*er office, in 3*ic* c#se t*e l#tter %ust 'e dee%ed to 'e t*e &erson oted
for.
/*e cl#i% t*#t t*e letter “A! in “A.R#%os! st#nds for “Ando!, t*e co%%on contr#ction
of t*e n#%e “"ern#ndo!, c#nnot 'e sust#ined. /*e Reised Election Code s&e#=s of
initi#l of # n#%e or surn#%e, not of # nic=n#%e. As # %#tter of f#ct, certific#tes of
c#ndid#c- c#nnot cont#in nic=n#%es of c#ndid#tes.

62
Election Laws
GADON vs. GADON ( # SCRA 652 1#6* )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 2rotest#nt Sul&icio 0#don #nd &rotestee 2edro 0#don 3ere t*e res&ectie
c#ndid#tes of t*e (#cion#list# #nd 1i'er#l 2#rties for t*e &osition of ,#-or of
?es&u<ols, Ro%'lon. /*e %unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers &rocl#i%ed 2edro ,#-or+
elect 3it* # &lur#lit- of C otes. /*e Sul&icio filed # &rotest, #lle.in. fr#ud #nd
irre.ul#rities in t*e countin. of otes in t3o &recints, 3*ile t*e 2edro filed # counter+
&rotest contestin. t*e '#llotin. #ndGor countin. of otes in si4 &recints. After
considerin. t*e '#llots c#st #nd uncontested, #s 3ell #s t*ose cl#i%ed '- eit*er &#rt-
#nd &rotested '- t*e ot*er, t*e tri#l court #d<ud.ed Sul&icio 3inner '- eleen otes.
Bot* c#ndid#tes #&&e#led t*e decision, #nd cl#i%ed t*#t cert#in '#llots s*ould *#e
'een re<ected or counted in t*eir f#or.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e lo3er court %#de # correct #&&reci#tion of t*e '#llots.
:eld$ /*e follo3in. circu%st#nces 3ere considered in decl#rin. t*e '#llots #ffected
#s %#r=ed #nd in#lid$ t*e une4&l#ined &resence of t*e letters “O.2.! #fter t*e n#%e
of t*ose oted for councilors, 5uite &ro%inent letters 3ritten 3it* # re%#r=#'l- .ood
*#ndB t*e 3ord “?#ldo! 3ritten on t*e 'l#n= s&#ce o&&osite t*e 3ord “councilors!,
3it* no re#son#'le e4&l#n#tion for its &resenceB #n i%&ertinent unnecess#r- #nd
identif-in. e4&ression 'elo3 t*e l#st line for councilors, n#%el-$ “,- ote is *e#rtil-
dedic#ted!B #nd, 3ritin. # 'i. fi.ure “O!, not t*e initi#l of t*e c#ndid#te.
/*e follo3in. circu%st#nces 3ere considered innocent %ist#=es #nd not sufficient to
render t*e '#llots %#r=ed$ 3ritin. t*e n#%e “2#<o!, # c#ndid#te for Sen#tor, #t #
3ron. &l#ceB 3ritin. “Eco B#r#nd#! t*e n#%e of t3o c#ndid#tes, one for Sen#tor #nd
t*e ot*er of 2roinci#l Bo#rd ,e%'er, on one lineB desistin. fro% fillin. #ll t*e s&#ces
on t*e '#llotB 3ritin. &refi4es to t*e n#%e of t*e c#ndid#te li=e “,#non.!, “(on.!,
“2in.!, “?on!, “/io!, 3*ere t*ere is no discerni'le &#ttern to t*e use of suc* &refi4es
3*ic* 3ould ree#l #n intention to %#r= t*e '#llotsB 3ritin. t*e &refi4es “%#no-!,
“%#ndo-!, #nd “&#re eno-! 'efore t*e n#%es oted for #rious &ositions, 3*ere t*e
&refi4es #re e4&l#ined to 'e collo5ui#l e4&ressions in Kis#-#n 3*ic* connote res&ect,
e5ui#lent to t*e /#.#lo. “=#! or t*e En.lis* “,r.!, #ndB 3ritin. t*e &refi4 “?r.! 'efore
t*e n#%e of c#ndid#tes 3*o #re eit*er # ?octor of ,edicine or # ?octor of 2*#r%#c-.

63
Election Laws
%ANGON)AO vs. AL&NAN ( 6 SCRA 85* 1#62 )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 7n t*e elections *eld on (oe%'er >A, >959, res&ondent "lores Alun#n #nd
&etitioner An#st#cio 2#n.ont#o 3ere #%on. t*e c#ndid#tes for %#-or of /#l#=#.,
Bu=idnon. /*e %unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers &rocl#i%ed 2#n.ont#o #s %#-or+elect
3it* # &lur#lit- of C@ otes oer Alun#n. /*e l#tter filed #n election &rotest in t*e C"7
of Bu=idnon. S#id court re+#ffir%ed t*e election of 2#n.ont#o 'ut *is 3innin. %#r.in
3#s reduced. /*e Court of A&&e#ls reersed t*e lo3er court6s rulin. #nd decl#red
Alun#n #s t*e 3inner. 2etitioner cl#i%ed t*#t t*e follo3in. s*ould 'e considered #s
%#r=ed '#llots$ #) one 3*ere t*e 3ord “(u'i#! 3#s 3ritten on t*e first line for
councilorsB ') one 3*ere t*e 3ord “'ul#.! 3#s 3ritten 'eside t*e n#%e “Diliron! on
t*e s&#ce for councilorsB c) t*ose 3*ere nu%'ers 3ere 3ritten #t t*e reerse side of
t*e '#llotB #nd d) t*ose '#llots 3*ere Alun#n 3#s #lso oted for sen#tor.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e '#llots s*ould 'e considered #s str#-.
:eld$ 8*ere t*e 3ord “(u'i#!, 3*ic* 3#s t*e nic=n#%e of # &erson 3#s 3ritten in
t*e first line for councilors, t*e ote c#st is # str#- ote, 'ut t*e '#llot re%#ined #lid.
/*e 3ord “'ul#.! 3ritten #fter t*e n#%e “Diliron! on t*e first s&#ce for councilors, 3#s
%erel- descri&tio &erson#e #nd does not in#lid#te t*e '#llot.
8*ere # nu%'er 3ritten on t*e reerse side of # '#llot does not #&&e#r to *#e 'een
3ritten '- t*e oter *i%self, t*e '#llot is #lid.
/*e circu%st#nce t*#t t*e n#%e of # c#ndid#te for %#-or #&&e#rs not onl- on t*e
s&#ce for %#-or 'ut #lso on t*e s&#ce for sen#tor, does not in#lid#te t*e '#llot. /*e
ote c#st for sen#tor s*ould 'e considered #s # str#- ote.

64
Election Laws
)A(ANLANGI) vs. CAZE'AS ( 5 SCRA 56$ 1#62 )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 2etitioner /#<#nl#n.it #nd res&ondent C#)eI#s 3ere #%on. t*e c#ndid#tes for
t*e &osition of %#-or of ?#o,Anti5ue, in t*e elections *eld on (oe%'er >A, >959.
/*e %unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers decl#red t*#t /#<#nl#n.it 3on oer C#)eI#s '-
t*ree otes. C#)eI#s filed #n election &rotest 'efore t*e C"7 of Anti5ue contestin.
t*e result of t*e elections. /#<#nl#n.it #lso filed # counter+&rotest. /*e lo3er court
ruled in f#or of C#)eI#s, 'ut *is 3innin. %#r.in 3#s reduced to t3o otes. /*e
Court of A&&e#ls #ffir%ed t*e decision, 'ut reduced res&ondents le#d '- <ust one
ote. /#<#nl#n.it filed t*is #&&e#l to contest t*e rulin. %#de '- t*e #&&ell#te court
3it* re.#rds to si4teen '#llots.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e #&&ell#te court erred in its #&&reci#tion of t*e '#llots.
:eld$ /*e use of t3o =inds of 3ritin. #&&e#rin. in t*e '#llot is # .ood e4#%&le of t*e
e4e%&tion &roided in &#r#.r#&* >8, section >49 of t*e Election Code, 3*ic*
&roides t*#t unless it s*ould cle#rl- #&&e#r t*#t it *#s 'een deli'er#tel- &ut '- t*e
oter to sere #s identific#tion %#r=, t*e use of t3o or %ore =inds of 3ritin. s*#ll 'e
considered innocent #nd s*#ll not in#lid#te t*e '#llot.
7n t*e #'sence of eidence #liunde t*#t n#%es of non+c#ndid#tes 3ere intended for
&ur&oses of identific#tion, t*e s#%e s*#ll 'e considered #s str#- otes 3*ic* s*#ll
not in#lid#te t*e 3*ole '#llot.
7t is # 3ell+settled rule in election contest t*#t t*e %#r=s 3*ic* s*#ll 'e considered
sufficient to in#lid#te t*e '#llot #re t*ose 3*ic* t*e otes *i%self deli'er#tel- &l#ced
in *is '#llot for t*e &ur&ose of identif-in. it t*ere#fter.

65
Election Laws
GALIDO vs. COMELEC ( 1#* SCRA $8 1##1 )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 0#lido #nd res&ondent 0#leon 3ere c#ndid#tes durin. t*e J#nu#r-
>8, >988 loc#l elections for t*e &osition of %#-or in 0#rci#+:ern#nde), Bo*ol.
2etitioner 3#s &rocl#i%ed #s 3inner '- t*e %unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers. 0#leon
filed #n election &rotest 'efore t*e R/C of Bo*ol. /*e lo3er court u&*eld t*e
&etitioner6s &rocl#%#tion '- # %#<orit- of eleen otes. 0#leon #&&e#led #nd t*e
"irst ?iision of Co%elec reersed t*e decision. 2etitioner6s %otion for
reconsider#tion 3#s denied '- t*e Co%elec en '#nc. /*e Co%%ission ruled t*#t
fifteen '#llots cont#inin. t*e letter “C! #fter t*e n#%e “0#lido! 3ere %#r=ed.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e '#llots 3ere %#r=ed.
:eld$ 7n seer#l c#ses decided '- t*e Su&re%e Court, it 3#s *eld t*#t in t*e
#&&reci#tion of '#llots 3*ere t*ere is no eidence #liunde of # &ur&ose to identif- t*e
'#llots, t*e s#%e s*ould not 'e in#lid#ted #s %#r=ed '#llots. /*e Co%elec
co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion 3*en it disre.#rded t*e cited decisions of t*e
Su&re%e Court #nd decl#red t*#t t*e suffi4 “C! #fter t*e n#%e of 0#lido 3#s in re#lit-
# countersi.n #nd not # %ere erroneous initi#l.

66
Election Laws
BA&)IS)A vs. COMELEC ( 2#6 SCRA 480 1##8 )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Ci&ri#no “Efren! B#utist# 3#s # dul- re.istered c#ndid#te for t*e
&osition of ,#-or of (#ot#s, ,etro ,#nil# in t*e ,#- >>, >998 elections. A cert#in
Ed3in “Efren! B#utist# #lso filed # certific#te of c#ndid#c- for t*e s#%e &osition.
2etitioner filed # &etitioner &r#-in. t*#t Ed3in B#utist# 'e decl#red nuis#nce
c#ndid#te. Co%elec, in # resolution d#ted A&ril CA, >998, decl#red Ed3in B#utist# #s
# nuis#nce c#ndid#te #nd #ccordin.l-, *is n#%e 3#s not included in t*e list of
c#ndid#tes for %#-or. Ed3in B#utist# filed # %otion for reconsider#tion, 3*ic* 3#s
still &endin. #t t*e d#te of election. ?urin. t*e countin. of otes, se&#r#te t#llies of
'#llots on 3*ic* 3ere 3ritten “Efren B#utist#!, “Efren!, “E. B#utist#!, #nd “B#utist#!
3ere %#de '- t*e Bo#rd of Election 7ns&ectors. /*e %unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers
refused to c#n#ss #s &#rt of t*e #lid otes of &etitioner t*eses se&#r#te t#llies.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*ese otes s*ould *#e 'een included to t*ose c#st for
&etitioner.
:eld$ 7t %ust 'e e%&*#si)ed t*#t t*e inst#nt c#se inoles # .round for
dis5u#lific#tion 3*ic* cle#rl- #ffects t*e oters6 3ill #nd c#uses confusion t*#t
frustr#tes t*e s#%e. /*is is &recisel- 3*#t election l#3s #re tr-in. to &rotect. /*e-
.ie effect to, r#t*er t*#n frustr#te, t*e 3ill of t*e oter. /*us, e4tre%e c#ution s*ould
'e o'sered 'efore #n- '#llot is in#lid#ted. "urt*er, in t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots,
dou'ts #re resoled in f#or of t*eir #lidit-.
A str#- ote is in#lid#ted 'ec#use t*ere is no 3#- of deter%inin. t*e re#l intention of
t*e oter. /*is is, *o3eer, not t*e situ#tion in t*e c#se #t '#r. Si.nific#ntl-, it *#s
#lso 'een est#'lis*ed t*#t '- irtue of ne3s&#&er rele#ses #nd ot*er for%s of
notific#tions, t*e oters 3ere infor%ed of t*e Co%elec6s decision to decl#re Ed3in
B#utist# #s # nuis#nce c#ndid#te.
7t is i%&ro&er #nd str#ined to li%it &etitioner6s otes to t*e '#llots 3*ic* onl- indic#te
t*e n#%e “Ci&ri#no! 3*en it is of &u'lic =no3led.e t*#t &etitioner is #lso =no3n '-
t*e #&&ell#tion #nd nic=n#%e “Efren! 3*ic* *e in f#ct re.istered #s *is nic=n#%e.

67
Election Laws
BA&)IS)A vs. CAS)RO ( 206 SCRA *051##2 )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ Bot* &etitioner B#utist# #nd res&ondent ,i.uel 3ere c#ndid#tes for t*e
&osition of B#r#n.#- C#&t#in of Br.-. /e#c*ers Kill#.e E#st, Lue)on Cit- in t*e
'#r#n.#- elections *eld on ,#- >@, >982. After c#n#ss, B#utist# 3#s &rocl#i%ed
#s t*e 3inner 3it* # &lur#lit- of t3o otes. ,i.uel filed #n election &rotest. /*e Cit-
Court of Lue)on Cit- ruled t*#t 'ot* c#ndid#tes receied t*e s#%e nu%'er of otes.
E&on #&&e#l, t*e C"7 of Ri)#l decl#red ,i.uel #s t*e 3inner #nd set #side B#utist#6s
&rocl#%#tion. /*e l#tter filed # &etition to t*e Su&re%e Court #lle.in. t*#t
res&ondent <ud.e co%%itted %ist#=es in *is #&&reci#tion of t*e contested '#llots.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*ere 3#s error in t*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots.
:eld$ /*e &resence of #n #rro3 in t*e contested '#llots 3it* t*e 3ords “#nd &#rt-!
3#s %e#nt to identif- t*e oter, #nd suc* 3ritin.s 3ere not #ccident#l. As # rule, #
oter %ust 3rite on t*e '#llot onl- t*e n#%es of c#ndid#tes oted for t*e offices
#&&e#rin. t*ereon. Cert#in e4ce&tions 3ere &roided for in t*e Reised Election
Code, suc* #s t*e &refi4es “Sr.,! “,r.,! #nd t*e li=e #nd t*e suffi4es suc* #s “*i<o,!
“Jr.,! etc. 3ill not in#lid#te t*e '#llot. 7niti#ls, nic=n#%es or #&&ell#tion of #ffection
#nd friends*i& 3ill not in#lid#te t*e '#llot, if #cco%&#nied '- t*e n#%e or surn#%e
of t*e c#ndid#te, #nd #'oe #ll, if t*e- 3ere not used #s # %e#ns to identif- t*e
oter.
Res&ondent court correctl- in#lid#ted t*e '#llot 3*erein t*e n#%e of t*e c#ndid#te
3#s 3ritten seen ti%es. /*e 3ritin. of # n#%e %ore t*#n t3ice on t*e '#llot is
considered to 'e intention#l #nd seres no ot*er &ur&ose t*#n to identif- t*e '#llot.

68
Election Laws
SANC1EZ vs. COMELEC ( 15* SCRA 6$ 1#8$ )
“Countin. of Kotes, A. Rules for A&&reci#tion of B#llots!
"#cts$ Au.usto S#nc*e) filed *is &etition &r#-in. t*#t res&ondent Co%elec 'e
directed to conduct # recount of t*e otes c#st in t*e ,#- >>, >98@ sen#tori#l
elections to deter%ine t*e true nu%'er of otes to 'e credited to *i% on t*e .round
t*#t t*e otes intended for *i% 3ere decl#red #s str#- otes 'ec#use of t*e
s#%eness of *is surn#%e 3it* t*#t of dis5u#lified c#ndid#te 0il S#nc*e), 3*ose
n#%e *#d not 'een crossed out fro% t*e election returns.
7ssue$ 8*et*er *is &etition for recount #ndGor re+#&&reci#tion of '#llots filed 3it* t*e
Co%elec %#- 'e considered # su%%#r- &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- f#llin. 3it*in
t*e Co%elec6s e4clusie <urisdiction.
:eld$ 2etitioner contends t*#t t*e c#n#ssed returns disc#rdin. “S#nc*e)! otes #s
str#- 3ere “inco%&lete! #nd t*erefore 3#rr#nt # recount or re+#&&reci#tion of t*e
'#llots under Section 2C4. A si%&le re#din. of t*e '#sic &roisions of t*e cited
section s*o3s re#dil- its in#&&lic#'ilit-. B- le.#l definition #nd '- t*e er-
instructions of t*e Co%elec, #n election return is inco%&lete if t*ere is “o%ission in
t*e election returns of t*e n#%e of #n- c#ndid#te #ndGor *is corres&ondin. otes! or
“in c#se t*e nu%'er of otes for # c#ndid#te *#s 'een o%itted.! :ere, t*e election
returns #re co%&lete #nd indic#te t*e n#%e of S#nc*e) #s 3ell #s t*e tot#l nu%'er
of otes t*#t 3ere counted #nd #&&reci#ted #s otes in *is f#or '- t*e 'o#rds of
ins&ectors. /*e f#ct t*#t t*e so%e otes 3ritten solel- #s “S#nc*e)! 3ere decl#red
str#- otes 'ec#use of t*e ins&ectors6 erroneous 'elief t*#t 0il S#nc*e) *#d not
'een dis5u#lified #s # c#ndid#te, inoles #n erroneous #&&reci#tion of t*e '#llots. 7t
is est#'lis*ed '- l#3 #s 3ell #s '- <uris&rudence t*#t errors in t*e #&&reci#tion of
'#llots '- t*e 'o#rd of ins&ectors #re &ro&er su'<ects for election &rotest #nd not for
recount or re+#&&reci#tion of '#llots.
/*e #&&reci#tion of '#llots c#st in t*e &recincts is not # “&roceedin. of t*e 'o#rd of
c#n#ssers! for &ur&oses of &re+&rocl#%#tion &roceedin.s, 'ut of t*e 'o#rd of
election ins&ectors 3*o #re c#lled u&on to count #nd #&&reci#te t*e otes in
#ccord#nce 3it* t*e rules of #&&reci#tion &roided in section 2>> of t*e O%ni'us
Election Code.

69
Election Laws
ALBER)O A. VILLAVER) vs. )OBIAS 0ORNIER ( G.R. No. L2*050. O!"o7+- 1$
1#4# )
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ /*is is #n election contest inolin. t*e office of &roinci#l .oernor of
Anti5ue, t*e contendin. &#rties 'ein. t*e re.istered c#ndid#tes for s#id office in t*e
election *eld on (oe%'er >>, >94@. /*e &roinci#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers decl#red
Al'erto A. Kill#ert elected 3it* # %#<orit- of 6A otes. /o'i#s "ornier &rotested, #nd
t*e tri#l court found t*#t *e *#d o't#ined # %#<orit- of C6 otes oer Kill#ert #nd
conse5uentl- decl#red *i% elected. Kill#ert #&&e#led to t*e Court of A&&e#ls #nd
t*e l#tter #lso found t*#t /o'i#s "ornier *#d 3on t*e election 3it* # %#<orit- of 28
otes.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e 4A '#llots 3ere &ro&erl- re<ected '- t*e Court of A&&e#ls
on t*e .round t*#t Kill#ert6s n#%e 3#s 3ritten not on t*e dotted line follo3in. t*e
3ords “2roinci#l 0oernor! 'ut on t*e dou'le line i%%edi#tel- #'oe s#id 3ords
#nd 'elo3 t*e instructions to t*e oter.
:eld$ /*e 4A '#llots 3ere #lid. /*e &roision of section >C5 of t*e Reised Election
Code t*#t t*e oter s*#ll fill *is '#llot '- 3ritin. in t*e &ro&er s&#ce for e#c* office
t*e n#%e of t*e &erson for 3*o% *e desires to ote, does not necess#ril- in#lid#te
otes c#st for # c#ndid#te for &roinci#l .oernor 3*ose n#%e is 3ritten not on t*e
dotted line follo3in. t*e 3ords “2roinci#l 0oernor! 'ut on t*e dou'le line
i%%edi#tel- #'oe s#id 3ords #nd 'elo3 t*e instructions to t*e oter. /*e &ur&ose of
s#id &roision is to identif- t*e office for 3*ic* e#c* c#ndid#te is oted. 7t c#nnot 'e
dou'ted t*#t t*e intention of t*e oter in 3ritin. t*e n#%e of s#id c#ndid#te 3#s to
ote *i% for one of t*e offices s&ecified on t*e '#llot. (eit*er c#n t*ere 'e #n-
re#son#'le dou't t*#t t*e office for 3*ic* t*e oter intended to ote s#id c#ndid#te
3#s t*#t of &roinci#l .oernor (>) 'ec#use t*#t 3#s t*e office for 3*ic* *e 3#s #
re.istered c#ndid#te, (2) 'ec#use t*e s&#ce on 3*ic* *is n#%e 3#s 3ritten 3#s
suc* t*#t t*e ote could not *#e 'een intended for # %e%'er of t*e &roinci#l 'o#rd
or for #n- ot*er office s&ecified f#rt*er do3n in t*e '#llot, #nd (C) 'ec#use no ot*er
n#%e 3#s 3ritten on t*e dotted line i%%edi#tel- follo3in. t*e 3ords “2roinci#l
0oernor.! 7f t*e intention of t*e oter c#n 'e #scert#ined in #n indu'it#'le %#nner,
#s in t*is c#se, it s*ould 'e .ien effect not frustr#ted.

70
Election Laws
CAN&)O 0. %IMEN)EL vs. %EDRO 0ES)E(O ( G.R. No. L22*2$. (,54,-: 11
1#4#)
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ 2edro "este<o 3#s &rocl#i%ed elected #s %#-or of S#nt# 1uci#, 7locos Sur, in
t*e elections of (oe%'er >>, >94@, 3it* >,>A8 otes #.#inst >,>A> otes in f#or of
C#nuto ". 2i%entel. /*e l#tter &rotested. /*e tri#l court found t*#t "este<o receied
>,>A@ otes #nd 2i%entel >,>A> otes #nd, conse5uentl-, dis%issed t*e &rotest.
A&&ell#nt #&&e#led, contendin. t*#t t*e lo3er court erred in not creditin. to *i% t*e
fift-+nine '#llots %entioned in *is first t*ree #ssi.n%ents of error #s otes in *is f#or,
3it* 3*ic* *e 3ould #&&e#r to *#e receied # tot#l of >,>6A otes #nd, t*erefore,
enou.* %#<orit- to 3in t*e election. As st#ted in #&&ell#nt6s 'rief, *is n#%e in t*e
t*irt-+seen '#llots %entioned in *is first #ssi.n%ent of error “3#s 3ritten on t*e line
corres&ondin. to ice+%#-or,! in t*e ei.*t '#llots %entioned in *is second
#ssi.n%ent of error “3#s 3ritten on t*e line corres&ondin. to t*e second s&#ce for
%e%'er of t*e &roinci#l 'o#rd,! #nd in t*e fourteen '#llots %entioned in *is t*ird
#ssi.n%ent of error “3#s 3ritten in t*e s&#ce for councilor.! Eit*er n#%es of ot*er
&ersons, not c#ndid#tes for %#-or, #re 3ritten in t*e s&#ce for %#-or in s#id '#llots,
or s#id s&#ce #&&e#rs to 'e in 'l#n=.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not #&&ell#nt c#n cl#i% #s otes in *is f#or '#llots 3it* *is n#%e
3*ic* does not #&&e#r 3ritten in t*e s&#ce resered for %#-or.
:eld$ "or #n- '#llot to 'e counted for # c#ndid#te for %#-or, it is indis&ens#'le t*#t
*is n#%e is 3ritten '- t*e oter in t*e &ro&er s&#ce for %#-or, 3*ic* 3ord is cle#rl-
&rinted in t*e '#llot #nd c#nnot 'e %ist#=en '- # &erson 3*o, #s &roided '- t*e
Constitution, is #'le to re#d. A n#%e c#n 'e counted for #n- office onl- 3*en it is
3ritten 3it*in t*e s&#ce indic#ted u&on t*e '#llot for t*e ote for suc* office (1ucero
s. ?e 0u)%#n, 45 2*il., 852). 7t is i%&ossi'le to count # '#llot #s ote for #
c#ndid#te for %#-or, 3*en *is n#%e is cle#rl- 3ritten in t*e s&#ce resered for
#not*er office.

71
Election Laws
RA0AEL I. AM&RAO vs. INDALECIO CALANGI E) AL. ( G.R. No. L2126*1.
A4;4s" 22 1#58 )
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ 7n t*e .ener#l elections of (oe%'er 8, >955, R#f#el 7. A%ur#o #nd 7nd#lecio
C#l#n.i 3ere c#ndid#tes for t*e office of %#-or of ,#'ini, B#t#n.#s. After # c#n#ss
of t*e otes, t*e %unici&#l 'o#rd of c#n#ssers found t*#t C#l#n.i *#d o't#ined
2,A>5 otes #nd A%ur#o 2,A>A otes, #nd &rocl#i%ed C#l#n.i %#-or+elect '- #
%#<orit- of fie (5) otes.
A%ur#o filed # &rotest in t*e C"7 of B#t#n.#s i%&u.nin. t*e returns fro% nine
&recincts of ,#'ini on t*e .rounds of fr#ud, error #nd irre.ul#rities. After tri#l, t*e
lo3er court rendered # decision decl#rin. A%ur#o %#-or+elect of ,#'ini 3it* #
%#<orit- of si4 (6) otes, *#in. receied 2,>A> otes #s #.#inst 2,A95 #d<udic#ted to
C#l#n.i. /*e Court of A&&e#ls to 3*ic* t*e decision 3#s #&&e#led '- C#l#n.i
reersed t*is decision #nd decl#red C#l#n.i t*e dul- elected %#-or of ,#'ini 3it* #
tot#l of 2,>4A otes, or # &lur#lit- of @4 otes oer A%ur#o, 3*o o't#ined 2,A66
otes.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e otes c#st in cert#in '#llots 3*ic* 3ere #&&reci#ted '- t*e
Court of A&&e#ls #re in#lid for not *#in. 'een 3ritten on t*e &ro&er s&#ce for
%#-or.
:eld$ /*e otes c#st 3ere in#lid. /*e oter s*ould 3rite t*e n#%e of t*e &erson *e
intends to ote for in t*e &ro&er s&#ce indic#ted in t*e '#llot for t*e office for 3*ic*
*e is # c#ndid#te in order to #oid #n- dou't or confusion #s to t*e c#ndid#te *e
intends to ote for. /*e &roision of t*e l#3 on t*is &oint s*ould 'e strictl- follo3ed so
t*#t # dei#tion t*erefro% 3ould render t*e ote in#lid #nd of no effect. 7ndeed,
section >C5 of t*e Reised Election Code &roides t*#t t*e oter, on receiin. *is
'#llot, s*#ll fill t*e s#%e “'- 3ritin. in t*e &ro&er s&#ce for e#c* office t*e n#%e of
t*e &erson for 3*o% or t*e n#%e of t*e &#rt- for 3*ic* *e desires to ote!R /*e
&*iloso&*- 'e*ind t*e rulin.s #'oe #derted to is to %#=e of t*ese le.#l &roisions
%#nd#tor- in order to #oid #n- confusion in t*e %inds of t*e offici#ls in c*#r.e of
election #s to t*e c#ndid#tes #ctu#ll- oted for #nd st#e off #n- sc*e%in. desi.n to
identif- t*e ote of t*e elector t*ere'- defe#tin. t*e secrec- of t*e '#llot 3*ic* is t*e
c#rdin#l fe#ture of our Election 1#3.

72
Election Laws
"E17J K. DA/72E(A( s. JE17O A. A(/72OR?A
( 0.R. (o. 4CA4C. ?ece%'er >9, >9C5 )
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ /*e Court of "irst 7nst#nce in t*is c#se decl#red Anti&ord# %unici&#l
&resident+elect of Bin#I.on#n, Ri)#l, 3it* # %#<orit- of >A otes oer t*e &rotest#nt
D#ti&un#n. /*e Su&re%e Court, u&on #&&e#l, #ffir%ed s#id decision, *#in. found,
#fter considerin. t*e .rounds of t*e #&&e#l, t*#t t*e &rotestee still *#d # %#<orit- of
four otes oer t*e &rotest#nt. A &etition for reconsider#tion of t*e decision of SC 3#s
filed #nd it 3#s .r#nted. Conse5uentl-, t*e SC decision rendered on Jul- CA, >9C5,
3#s set #side #nd t*e c#se 3#s set for re*e#rin..
/*e &etitioner #nd #&&ell#nt #ssi.ns #s t*e court6s first error its f#ilure to count in *is
f#or @C of t*e 89 '#llots c#st in &recinct (o. C #fter 6 o6cloc= in t*e #fternoon of t*e
election d#- '- oters 3*o 3ere un#'le to ote #t t*#t ti%e 'ut 3ere 3it*in # r#dius
of 5A %eters fro% t*e &recinct.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not 89 '#llots c#st in &recinct (o. C #fter 6 o6cloc= in t*e #fternoon
of t*e Election ?#- '- oters 3*o 3ere un#'le to ote #t t*#t ti%e 'ut 3ere 3it*in #
r#dius of 5A %eters fro% t*e &recinct 3ere #lid.
:eld$ /*e 89 '#llots 3ere #lid. Eidence 3#s &resented '- t*e #&&ell#nt to t*e
effect t*#t 89 oters, 3*ose n#%es #&&e#r in t*e list E4*i'it C, 3ere 3it*in t*e r#dius
of 5A %eters #t t*e closin. of t*e &recinct. 7t is, t*erefore, undis&uted t*#t t*ere 3ere
oters 3it*in t*e r#dius of 5A %eters #t t*e closin. of t*e otin.. /*e l#3 &roides
t*#t in suc* c#se t*ese oters s*ould 'e #llo3ed to ote, een #fter 6 o6cloc= in t*e
#fternoon.

73
Election Laws
%IO VALENZ&ELA vs. (&AN B CARLOS ( G.R. No. 1$565. D+!+67+- $ 1#21 )
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ At t*e .ener#l election *eld in t*e 2roince of Bul#c#n on June C, >9>9, t*ree
&ersons &resented t*e%seles #s c#ndid#tes for t*e office of &roinci#l .oernor, to
3it, Ju#n B. C#rlos, 2io K#len)uel#, #nd Silino 1o&e). 8*en t*e election 3#s oer, it
3#s found t*#t, Ju#n B. C#rlos *#d 'een elected &roinci#l .oernor. ?iss#tisfied
3it* t*e result, 2io K#len)uel#, in due ti%e filed # %otion to contest t*e election.
E&on su'%ission of t*e c#se for decision, C"7 of Bul#c#n, decided t*#t C#rlos *#d
'een elected #nd #ccordin.l- dis%issed t*e contest. "ro% t*is decision t*e
contest#nt #&&e#led. One of t*e #ssi.ned errors 3#s t*#t t*e #ction of t*e <ud.e in
re&#irin. to t*e %unici&#lit- of Bustos 3#s un#ut*ori)ed #nd t*#t t*e <udici#l #cts
t*ere done #re deoid of le.#l effect. /*e %#tter 3#s re.#rds t*e t#=in. of
testi%onies fro% t*e nu%erous oters fro% t*e first &recinct of Bustos &resented in
t*e C"7.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e court erred in #d%ittin. #s eidence t*e testi%onies of
oters.
:eld$ /*e lo3er court 3#s correct in #d%ittin. t*e testi%onies of oters #s eidence.
8*ere t*e returns fro% # cert#in &recinct #re i%&u.ned #s fr#udulent, #nd it is found
u&on o&enin. t*e 'o4es t*#t t*e- *#e 'een iol#ted, t*e c#ndid#te in 3*ose
interest t*e #ct of iol#tion is #lle.ed to *#e 'een co%%itted %#- introduce #s
3itnesses oters 3*o, 3#iin. t*eir &riile.e of secrec-, 3ill s3e#r t*#t t*e- oted for
*i%. Suc* eidence is #d%issi'le for t*e &ur&ose of re*#'ilit#tin. t*e returns.

74
Election Laws
(OSE LINO L&NA vs. E&LOGIO RODRIG&EZ ( G.R. No. 1*$44. Nov+67+- 2#
1#18 )
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ An election for t*e office of .oernor of t*e 2roince of Ri)#l 3#s *eld on t*e
6t* d#- of June, >9>6. At s#id election Jose 1ino 1un#, Eulo.io Rodri.ue) #nd
Ser#ndo de los An.eles 3ere c#ndid#tes for s#id office. /*e election 3#s closed,
t*e otes c#st 3ere counted, #nd # return 3#s %#de '- t*e ins&ectors of s#id
%unici&#lities to t*e &roinci#l 'o#rd of C#n#ssers, 3*o, #fter # c#n#ss,
&rocl#i%ed Eulo.io Rodri.ue), *#in. receied # &lur#lit- of s#id otes, #s dul-
elected .oernor of s#id &roince. Jose 1ino 1un# &resented # &rotest in t*e C"7 #nd
# ne3 tri#l 3#s ordered. Addition#l eidence 3#s #dduced. Jud.e ,c,#*on found
t*#t t*e ins&ectors in Bin#n.on#n did not close t*e &olls #t 6 o6cloc= &.%., #nd t*#t #
l#r.e nu%'er of &ersons oted #fter t*#t ti%e. /*e <ud.e t*en directed t*#t t*e tot#l
ote of Rodri.ue) 'e reduced, 3it*out #scert#inin. *o3 %#n- *#d 'een c#st for
Rodri.ue) #nd *o3 %#n- for 1un#.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e '#llots c#st #fter t*e *our fi4ed for closin. 3ere #lid.
:eld$ /*e '#llots 3ere #lid. /*e l#3 &roides t*#t “#t #ll elections, t*e &olls s*#ll 'e
o&en fro% seen o6cloc= in t*e %ornin. until si4 o6cloc= in t*e #fternoon.! /*e &olls
s*ould 'e o&en #nd closed in strict #ccord 3it* s#id &roisions. Koters 3*o do not
#&&e#r #nd offer to ote 3it*in t*e *ours desi.n#ted '- t*e l#3 s*ould not 'e
&er%itted to ote if t*e ti%e for closin. t*e &olls *#s #rried. E&on t*e ot*er *#nd, if
t*e oter is &reented, durin. t*e otin. *ours, fro% otin., #nd is not &er%itted to
ote '- re#son of t*e f#ilure of t*e ins&ectors to do t*eir dut-, t*en, cert#inl-, in t*e
#'sence of so%e fr#ud, neit*er suc* otes nor t*e entire ote of t*e &recinct s*ould
'e #nnulled si%&l- 'ec#use so%e otes 3ere c#st #fter t*e re.ul#r *ours. /*e '#llot
of t*e innocent oter s*ould not 'e #nnulled #nd *e s*ould not 'e de&ried of *is
&#rtici&#tion in t*e #ff#irs of *is .oern%ent 3*en *e 3#s .uilt- of no ille.#l #ct or
fr#ud. /*e election ins&ectors s*ould 'e *eld to co%&l- strictl- 3it* t*e l#3. 7f t*e-
iol#te t*e l#3, t*e- s*ould 'e &unis*ed #nd not t*e innocent oter.

75
Election Laws
ERNES)O M. %&NZALAN vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)IONS ( G.R. No. 12666#.
A8-9/ 2$ 1##8 )
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ ?#nilo ,#n#l#st#s, "erdin#nd ,eneses #nd Ernesto 2un)#l#n 3ere #%on.
t*e four (4) c#ndid#tes for %#-or of t*e %unici&#lit- of ,e4ico, 2#%&#n.# durin. t*e
,#- 8, >995 elections. On ,#- 24, >995, t*e ,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers (,BC)
&rocl#i%ed "erdin#nd ,eneses #s t*e dul- elected %#-or. ?#nilo ,#n#l#st#s #nd
Ernesto 2un)#l#n filed #n election &rotest 'efore t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court of S#n
"ern#ndo, 2#%&#n.#. After *e#rin. t*e election &rotests, t*e tri#l court rendered
<ud.%ent on Se&te%'er 2C, >996 decl#rin. 2un)#l#n #s t*e dul- elected %#-or.
/*ere#fter, ,eneses filed # notice of #&&e#l fro% t*e #fores#id decision On
?ece%'er 8, >99@, t*e CO,E1EC &ro%ul.#ted # resolution settin. #side t*e tri#l
court6s decision #nd #ffir%in. t*e &rocl#%#tion of ,eneses '- t*e ,BC #s t*e dul-
elected %#-or of ,e4ico, 2#%&#n.#. 2un)#l#n filed # %otion for reconsider#tion of
t*e #fores#id resolution. 2un)#l#n %#int#ins t*#t t*e CO,E1EC #cted 3it* .r#e
#'use of discretion in decl#rin. #s #lid t*e '#llots credited to ,eneses 3*ic* did not
'e#r t*e si.n#ture of t*e BE7 c*#ir%#n #t t*e '#c= t*ereof, ino=in. t*e rulin. of t*e
Su&re%e Court in B#utist# . C#stro 3*erein it 3#s *eld t*#t t*e #'sence of t*e
si.n#ture of t*e BE7 c*#ir%#n in t*e '#llot .ien to # oter #s re5uired '- l#3 #nd t*e
rules #s &roof of t*e #ut*enticit- of s#id '#llot is f#t#l.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e '#llots 3it*out t*e BE7 C*#ir%#n6s si.n#ture #re #lid.
:eld$ A '#llot 3it*out BE7 c*#ir%#n6s si.n#ture #t t*e '#c= is #lid. 8*ile Section 24
>> of Re&u'lic Act (o. @>66, ot*er3ise =no3n #s “An Act 2roidin. "or S-nc*roni)ed
(#tion#l #nd 1oc#l Elections #nd "or Elector#l Refor%s,! re5uires t*e BE7 c*#ir%#n
to #ffi4 *is si.n#ture #t t*e '#c= of t*e '#llot, t*e %ere f#ilure to do so does not
in#lid#te t*e s#%e #lt*ou.* it %#- constitute #n election offense i%&ut#'le to s#id
BE7 c*#ir%#n. (o3*ere in s#id &roision does it st#te t*#t t*e otes cont#ined
t*erein s*#ll 'e nullified. 7t is # 3ell+settled rule t*#t t*e f#ilure of t*e BE7 c*#ir%#n or
#n- of t*e %e%'ers of t*e 'o#rd to co%&l- 3it* t*eir %#nd#ted #d%inistr#tie
res&onsi'ilit-, i.e., si.nin., #ut*entic#tin. #nd t*u%'%#r=in. of '#llots, s*ould not
&en#li)e t*e oter 3it* disenfr#nc*ise%ent, t*ere'- frustr#tin. t*e 3ill of t*e &eo&le.

76
Election Laws
MARCELINO C. LIBANAN vs. 1RE) ( G.R. No. 12#$8*. D+!+67+- 22 1##$ )
“C#stin. of Kotes!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ,#rcelino 1i'#n#n #nd &ri#te res&ondent Jose R#%ire) 3ere
#%on. t*e c#ndid#tes for t*e lone con.ression#l se#t of E#stern S#%#r in t*e ,#-
>995 elections. After t*e c#n#ss of t*e returns 3#s %#de on >C ,#- >995, t*e
2roinci#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers of E#stern S#%#r &rocl#i%ed res&ondent R#%ire) to
*#e 'een dul- elected Re&resent#tie of t*e ?istrict.
2etitioner 1i'#n#n filed #n election &rotest 'efore t*e :RE/ cl#i%in., #%on. ot*er
t*in.s, t*#t t*e #'sence of t*e BE7 C*#ir%#n6s si.n#ture #t t*e '#c= of t*e '#llots
could not 'ut indic#te t*#t t*e '#llots 3ere not t*ose issued to t*e oters durin. t*e
elections t*us, indic#tin. t*#t t*e- 3ere s&urious #nd in#lid. :e #erred t*#t t*e l#3
3ould re5uire t*e C*#ir%#n of t*e BE7 to #ut*entic#te or si.n t*e '#llot 'efore
issuin. it to t*e oter.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e '#llots 3it*out t*e BE7 C*#ir%#n6s si.n#ture #re #lid.
:eld$ A '#llot 3it*out BE7 c*#ir%#n6s si.n#ture #t t*e '#c= is #lid #nd not s&urious,
&roided t*#t it 'e#rs #n- one of t*ese ot*er #ut*entic#tin. %#r=s, to 3it$ (#) t*e
CO,E1EC 3#ter%#r=B #nd (') in t*ose c#ses 3*ere t*e CO,E1EC 3#ter%#r=s #re
'lurred or not re#dil- #&&#rent, t*e &resence of red #nd 'lue fi'ers in t*e '#llots.
8*#t s*ould, inste#d, 'e .ien 3ei.*t is t*e consistent rule l#id do3n '- t*e :RE/
t*#t # '#llot is considered #lid #nd .enuine for #s lon. #s it 'e#rs #n- one of t*ese
#ut*entic#tin. %#r=s, to 3it$ (#) t*e CO,E1EC 3#ter%#r=, or (') t*e si.n#ture or
initi#ls, or t*u%'&rint of t*e C*#ir%#n of t*e BE7B #nd (c) in t*ose c#ses 3*ere t*e
CO,E1EC 3#ter%#r=s #re 'lurred or not re#dil- #&&#rent to t*e n#=ed e-e, t*e
&resence of red or 'lue fi'ers in t*e '#llots. 7t is onl- 3*en none of t*ese %#r=s
#&&e#rs e4t#nt t*#t t*e '#llot c#n 'e considered s&urious #nd su'<ect to re<ection.

77
Election Laws
(&AN S&M&LONG vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)ION ( G.R. No. 4$#0*. Nov+67+-
2# 1#40 )
“Bo#rd of Election 7ns&ectors, A. Co%&osition!
"#cts$ 7n # &etition #ddressed to t*e Co%%ission on Elections, Ju#n Su%ulon., #s
&resident of “2#.=#=#is# n. B#-#n! (2o&ul#r "ront 2#rt-), cl#i%s %inorit-
re&resent#tion on t*e 'o#rds of election ins&ectors in t*e i%&endin. .ener#l election
for &roinci#l #nd %unici&#l offici#ls #nd not 2edro A'#d S#ntos, t*us re5uestin. t*#t
t*e Co%%ission reco.ni)e *i% #s suc*. /*e Co%%ission dis%issed t*e &etition
contendin. t*#t it *#s no <urisdiction to decide 3*et*er t*e &etitioner or 2edro A'#d
S#ntos is t*e re#l *e#d of 2#.=#=#is# n. B#-#n.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not res&ondent Co%%ission is e%&o3ered to deter%ine on t*e
issue of 3*o #%on. t*e &#rties *#s t*e ri.*t to %inorit- re&resent#tion on t*e 'o#rd
of election ins&ectors.
:eld$ /*e Co%%ission on Election is e%&o3ered to decide on 3*o s*#ll *#e t*e
ri.*t to %inorit- re&resent#tion on t*e 'o#rd of election ins&ectors. S&ecific#ll- #nd
c#te.oric#ll- st#ted, t*e ri.*t to %inorit- re&resent#tion on t*e 'o#rd of election
ins&ectors is tested '- t*e follo3in. rules #nd is su'<ect to t*e follo3in. conditions$
(>) /*e &olitic#l or.#ni)#tion in 3*ose 'e*#lf t*e cl#i% is %#de %ust 'e # &olitic#l
&#rt- in t*e sense t*#t it is “#n or.#ni)ed .rou& of &ersons &ursuin. t*e s#%e
&olitic#l ide#ls in # .oern%ent! (sec. @6, Co%%. Act (o. C5@). /*is is # 5uestion of
f#ct, or # %i4ed 5uestion of f#ct #nd l#3. (2) /*e &olitic#l &#rt- %ust *#e t#=en &#rt
#t t*e i%%edi#tel- &recedin. election #nd o't#ined t*e ne4t l#r.est nu%'er of otes
#t s#id election (sec. @A, i'id.) 7n concurrence 3it* # “&olitic#l .rou&! in t*e loc#lit-,
t*e &olitic#l &#rt- is entitled to &referenti#l reco.nition, if it *#d t#=en &#rt in t*e
i%%edi#tel- &recedin. election #nd *#d receied otes #nd t*e cl#i% of t*e &#rt- to
re&resent#tion is %#de in .ood f#it*. (C) /*e ins&ectors of election %ust 'e &ro&osed
'- t*e #ut*ori)ed re&resent#ties of t*e n#tion#l director#tes of t*e &#rties (sec. @C,
i'id.). 8*o constitute t*e &#rt- director#te #nd 3*o #re its #ut*ori)ed re&resent#ties
for t*is &ur&ose inole #n #scert#in%ent of f#ct 3*ic* %ust 'e %#de '- t*e
#&&ointin. &o3er, su'<ect to t*e su&erisor- #nd reie3in. #ut*orit- of t*e
Co%%ission on Elections (sec. 2 of Co%%. Act (o. 6A@.).

78
Election Laws
(&ANI)O C. %ILAR vs. COMMISSION ON ELEC)ION ( G.R. No. 115245. (4/: 11
1##5. 245 SCRA $5# )
“C#%&#i.n, ?. St#te%ent of Contri'utions #nd E4&enses!
"#cts$ On ,#rc* 22, >992, &etitioner Ju#nito C. 2il#r filed *is certific#te of c#ndid#c-
for t*e &osition of %e%'er of t*e S#n..uni#n. 2#nl#l#3i.#n of t*e 2roince of
7s#'el#. On ,#rc* 25, >992, &etitioner 3it*dre3 *is certific#te of c#ndid#c-. 7n ,.R.
(os. 9C+2654 #nd 94+AA65 d#ted (oe%'er C, >99C #nd "e'ru#r- >C, >994
res&ectiel-, t*e CO,E1EC i%&osed u&on &etitioner t*e fine of /en /*ous#nd 2esos
for f#ilure to file *is st#te%ent of contri'utions #nd e4&enditures. 2etitioner filed #
%otion for reconsider#tion 'ut t*e s#%e 3#s denied '- t*e CO,E1EC.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not &etitioner is li#'le for f#ilure to file # st#te%ent of contri'utions
#nd e4&enditures not3it*st#ndin. *is *#in. 3it*dr#3n *is certific#te of c#ndid#c-
t*ree d#-s #fter *is filin..
:eld$ /*e &etitioner is li#'le. Section >4 of R.A. (o. @>66 st#tes t*#t “eer-
c#ndid#te! *#s t*e o'li.#tion to file *is st#te%ent of contri'utions #nd e4&enditures.
8ell+reco.ni)ed is t*e rule t*#t 3*ere t*e l#3 does not distin.uis*, courts s*ould not
distin.uis*. E'i le4 non distin.uit nec nos distin.uere de'e%os. (o distinction is to
'e %#de in t*e #&&lic#tion of # l#3 3*ere none is indic#ted. 7n t*e c#se #t 'enc*, #s
t*e l#3 %#=es no distinction or 5u#lific#tion #s to 3*et*er t*e c#ndid#te &ursued *is
c#ndid#c- or 3it*dre3 t*e s#%e, t*e ter% “eer- c#ndid#te! %ust 'e dee%ed to refer
not onl- to # c#ndid#te 3*o &ursued *is c#%&#i.n, 'ut #lso to one 3*o 3it*dre3 *is
c#ndid#c-.

79
Election Laws
COLLADO vs. ALONZO (15 SCRA 562)
“C#%&#i.n, C. 1#3ful E4&enditures!
"#cts$ Ju#n A. Alon)o #nd ,#rcelino 0. Coll#do 'ot* r#n #s c#ndid#tes for %#-or of
B#llesteros, C#.#-#n for t*e >2 (oe%'er >96C elections. Alon)o 3on. Coll#do
co%%enced #n #ction to dis5u#lif- Alon)o on t*e .round, #%on. ot*ers, t*#t t*e
l#tter *#d incurred or %#de e4cessie e4&enditures, contr#r- to t*e Election 1#3,
3*en *e &ro%ised to don#te *is s#l#r- #s %#-or of t*e to3n for t*e educ#tion of
indi.ent 'ut deserin. students durin. *is c#%&#i.n s&eec*es.
7ssue$ 8*et*er Alon)o co%%itted e4cessie or unl#3ful e4&enditures.
:eld$ Alon)o did not s&end, in *is election c#%&#i.n, %ore t*#n t*e tot#l
e%olu%ents #tt#c*ed to t*e office for one -e#r. /*e &ro%ise (or don#tion) 3#s not #n
e4&enditure durin. t*e c#%&#i.n. /*ou.* it *#s 'een *eld &reiousl- t*#t “?irect
&ro%ises, or st#te%ents %#de '- c#ndid#tes for election, t*#t t*e- 3ill, if elected,
sere for less t*#n t*e re.ul#rl- est#'lis*ed s#l#r- or fees of t*e office fre5uentl-
*#e 'een *eld to 'e 3it*in t*e denunci#tion of not onl- &roisions of corru&t
&r#ctices, 'ut #lso constitution#l, st#tutor-, or co%%on+l#3 in*i'itions #.#inst
'ri'er-!B t*e current situ#tion is differenti#ted. Alon)o did not &ro%ise to 3#ie
collection of *is s#l#r- 'ut intended to collect it. :e %erel- undertoo= to s&end it in
suc* # 3#- #s to *el& 'ri.*t #nd deserin. students Q not necess#ril- oters Q
3*ose identit- could not 'e =no3n #t t*e ti%e of t*e elections. 7t %#- not 'e s#id t*#t
t*is or t*#t oter *#d 'een influenced '- t*e sc*ol#rs*i& offer, for Alon)o to iol#te
Section 49 of t*e Election 1#3 (Enl#3ful e4&enditures).

80
Election Laws
1ALILI vs. CA (8* SCRA 6**)
“C#%&#i.n, B. 2ro*i'ited Contri'ution!
"#cts$ "ederico Sunt#- 3#s # .u'ern#tori#l c#ndid#te in Bul#c#n in t*e >95>
elections. "ortun#to ". :#lili, 3#s t*e incu%'ent .oernor, t*e 1i'er#l 2#rt- *e#d,
Sunt#-6s c#%&#i.n %#n#.er, #nd 3#s #lso # &u'lic utilit- o&er#tor. Sunt#- needed
funds to fin#nce *is c#%&#i.n. :#lili #.reed to %#=e c#s* #d#nces to Sunt#-. /*e
&#rties encountered cert#in o'st#cles 'rou.*t #'out '- Articles 4@, 48, >8C, >84 #nd
>85 of t*e Reised Election Code. Section 4@ (Enl#3ful contri'utions) &roides t*#t
“it s*#ll 'e unl#3ful for #n- cor&or#tion or entit- o&er#tin. # &u'lic utilit- or 3*ic* is in
&ossession of or is e4&loitin. #n- n#tur#l resources of t*e n#tion to contri'ute or
%#=e #n- e4&enditure in connection 3it* #n- election c#%&#i.n.! On t*e ot*er *#nd,
Section 48 (1i%it#tion u&on e4&enses of c#ndid#tes) &roides t*#t “(o c#ndid#te
s*#ll s&end for *is election c#%&#i.n %ore t*#n t*e tot#l #%ount of t*e e%olu%ents
for one -e#r #tt#c*ed to t*e office for 3*ic* *e is # c#ndid#te.! /o .o #round t*e l#3,
# sc*e%e 3#s *#tc*ed for t*e conce#l%ent or for t*e l#underin. of t*e lo#ns #nd
#d#nces of :#lili for Sunt#-6s c#%&#i.nB #nd to i%&le%ent, t*e #d#nces or lo#ns
3ere %#de in t*e n#%es of :#lili6s trusted e%&lo-ees #s du%%ies. Sunt#- “le#sed!
*is fis*&ond to :#lili6s e%&lo-ees for # four+-e#r &eriod, 3it* sti&ul#ted rent#l of
28,AAA &er -e#r. Cert#in &ro%issor- notes 3ere %#de durin. t*e tr#ns#ctions. After
t*e e4&ir#tion of t*e “le#se contr#ct,! Sunt#- filed # c#se #.#inst :#lili #nd ot*ers,
&r#-in. t*#t t*e notes 'e decl#red oid &ursu#nt to Article >4A9 of t*e Ciil Code for
l#c= of consider#tion #nd for 'ein. contr#r- to Section 4@ #nd 48 of t*e Election 1#3.
7ssue$ 8*et*er Section 4@ #&&lies to # n#tur#l &erson #nd 3*et*er Section 48
#&&lies to # non+c#ndid#te.
:eld$ 7f # cor&or#tion o&er#tin. # &u'lic utilit- is &ro*i'ited fro% %#=in. # &olitic#l
contri'ution or e4&enditure, t*ere is no #lid re#son for not #&&l-in. t*e &ro*i'ition
(Section 4@) to # n#tur#l &erson o&er#tin. # &u'lic serice 'usiness. "urt*er%ore,
Section 48 #&&lies to # non+c#ndid#te li=e :#lili 'ec#use Section >84 of t*e Reised
Election Code (2ersons cri%in#ll- res&onsi'le for election offenses) s&e#=s of
&rinci&#ls #nd #cco%&lices. :#lili 3#s no ordin#r- lender #nd lessee #s =ne3 t*#t t*e
rent#l #nd t*e lo#ns 3ould 'e s&ent for Sunt#-6s c#ndid#c-. :e 3#s not onl-
Sunt#-6s fin#nci#l '#c=er 'ut, #s c#%&#i.n %#n#.er, *e *#d # *#nd in t*e
e4&enditure of t*e funds su&&lied '- *i% to Sunt#-. :e 3#s Sunt#-6s co+&rinci&#l.

81
Election Laws
NA)IONAL %RESS CL&B vs. COMELEC (20$ SCRA 1)
“C#%&#i.n, A. 1#3ful G 2ro*i'ited Election 2ro&#.#nd#!
"#cts$ Re&resent#ties of t*e %#ss %edi# 3*ic* 3ere &reented fro% sellin. or
don#tin. s&#ce #nd ti%e for &olitic#l #dertise%ents, so%e c#ndid#tes for office in
t*e ,#- >992 elections, #nd t#4&#-ers #nd oters 3*o cl#i% t*#t t*eir ri.*t to 'e
infor%ed of election issues #nd of credenti#ls 3#s 'ein. curt#iled, filed &etitions
r#isin. t*e issue of t*e constitution#lit- of Section >> (') of RA 6646. Section >> (')
&roides t*#t “7n #ddition to t*e for%s of election &ro&#.#nd# &ro*i'ited under
Section 85 of B2 88>, it s*#ll 'e unl#3ful 444 for #n- ne3s&#&ers, r#dio 'ro#dc#stin.
or teleision st#tion, ot*er %#ss %edi#, or #n- &erson %#=in. use of t*e %#ss %edi#
to sell or to .ie free of c*#r.e &rint s&#ce or #ir ti%e for c#%&#i.n or ot*er &olitic#l
&ur&oses e4ce&t to t*e Co%%ission #s &roided under Sections 9A #nd 92 of B2
88>. An- %#ss %edi# colu%nist, co%%ent#tor, #nnouncer or &erson#lit- 3*o is #
c#ndid#te for #n- electie &u'lic office s*#ll t#=e # le#e of #'sence fro% *is 3or= #s
suc* durin. t*e c#%&#i.n &eriod.!
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e &ro*i'ition *#s .one 'e-ond &er%issi'le su&erision or re.ul#tion
of %edi# o&er#tions so #s to constitute unconstitution#l re&ression of freedo% of
s&eec* #nd freedo% of t*e &ress.
:eld$ Section >> (') is li%ited in t*e dur#tion of its #&&lic#'ilit- #nd enforce#'ilit-, i.e.
3it*in election &eriod. 7t does not cut off t*e flo3 of %edi# re&ortin., o&inion or
co%%ent#r- #'out c#ndid#tes, t*eir 5u#lific#tions #nd &l#tfor%s #nd &ro%ises.
(e3s&#&er, r#dio 'ro#dc#stin. #nd teleision st#tions re%#in 5uite free to c#rr- out
t*eir re.ul#r #nd nor%#l infor%#tion #nd co%%unic#tion o&er#tions. 7t does not
#ut*ori)e #n- interention #nd %uc* less control on t*e &#rt of Co%elec in res&ect of
t*e content of t*e nor%#l o&er#tions of %edi#, nor in res&ect of t*e content of
&olitic#l #dertise%ents 3*ic* t*e indiidu#l c#ndid#tes #re 5uite free to &resent
3it*in t*eir res&ectie #lloc#ted Co%elec ti%e #nd Co%elec s&#ce. /*ere is no
“officious function#r- of # re&ressie .oern%ent! dict#tin. 3*#t eents or ide#s
re&orters, 'ro#dc#sters, editors or co%%ent#tors %#- t#l= or 3rite #'out or dis&l#-
on /K screens. /*ere is *ere no censors*i&, 3*et*er dis.uised or ot*er3ise. /*e
&roision %erel- li%it &#id &#rtis#n &olitic#l #dertise%ents to for# ot*er t*#n
%odern %#ss %edi#, #nd to “Co%elec ti%e! #nd “Co%elec s&#ce! in suc* %#ss
%edi#B in #n #tte%&t to e5u#li)e t*e situ#tions of ric* #nd &oor c#ndid#tes '-
&reentin. t*e for%er fro% en<o-in. t*e undue #d#nt#.e offered '- *u.e c#%&#i.n
“3#r c*ests.!

82
Election Laws
SANIDAD vs. COMELEC (181 SCRA 52#)
“C#%&#i.n, A. 1#3ful G 2ro*i'ited Election 2ro&#.#nd#!
"#cts$ On 2C Octo'er >989, RA 6@66 (Act &roidin. for #n or.#nic #ct for t*e
Cordiller# Autono%ous Re.ion) 3#s en#cted into l#3. /*e &le'iscite 3#s sc*eduled
CA J#nu#r- >99A. /*e Co%elec, '- irtue of t*e &o3er ested '- t*e >98@
Constitution, t*e O%ni'us Election Code (B2 88>), RA 6@66 #nd ot*er &ertinent
election l#3s, &ro%ul.#ted Resolution 2>6@, to .oern t*e conduct of t*e &le'iscite
on t*e s#id Or.#nic Act for t*e Cordiller# Autono%ous Re.ion. 2#'lito K. S#nid#d, #
ne3s&#&er colu%nist of “Oerie3! for t*e “B#.uio ,idl#nd Courier! #ss#iled t*e
constitution#lit- of Section >9 (2ro*i'ition on colu%nists, co%%ent#tors or
#nnouncers) of t*e s#id resolution, 3*ic* &roides “?urin. t*e &le'iscite c#%&#i.n
&eriod, on t*e d#- 'efore #nd on &le'iscite d#-, no %#ss %edi# colu%nist,
co%%ent#tor, #nnouncer or &erson#lit- s*#ll use *is colu%n or r#dio or teleision
ti%e to c#%&#i.n for or #.#inst t*e &le'iscite issues.!
7ssue$ 8*et*er colu%nists #re &ro*i'ited fro% e4&ressin. t*eir o&inions, or s*ould
'e under Co%elec re.ul#tion, durin. &le'iscite &eriods.
:eld$ Article 7J+C of t*e >98@ Constitution t*#t 3*#t 3#s .r#nted to t*e Co%elec 3#s
t*e &o3er to su&erise #nd re.ul#te t*e use #nd en<o-%ent of fr#nc*ises, &er%its or
ot*er .r#nts issued for t*e o&er#tion of tr#ns&ort#tion or ot*er &u'lic utilities, %edi#
of co%%unic#tion or infor%#tion to t*e end t*#t e5u#l o&&ortunit-, ti%e #nd s&#ce,
#nd t*e ri.*t to re&l-, includin. re#son#'le, e5u#l r#tes t*erefor, for &u'lic infor%#tion
c#%&#i.ns #nd foru%s #%on. c#ndid#tes #re ensured. (eit*er Article 7J+C of t*e
Constitution nor Section >>+', 2nd &#r#.r#&* of RA 6646 (“# colu%nist, co%%ent#tor,
#nnouncer or &erson#lit-, 3*o is # c#ndid#te for #n- electie office is re5uired to t#=e
# le#e of #'sence fro% *is 3or= durin. t*e c#%&#i.n &eriod!) c#n 'e construed to
%e#n t*#t t*e Co%elec *#s #lso 'een .r#nted t*e ri.*t to su&erise #nd re.ul#te t*e
e4ercise '- %edi# &r#ctitioners t*e%seles of t*eir ri.*t to e4&ression durin.
&le'iscite &eriods. ,edi# &r#ctitioners e4ercisin. t*eir freedo% of e4&ression durin.
&le'iscite &eriods #re neit*er t*e fr#nc*ise *olders nor t*e c#ndid#tes. 7n f#ct, t*ere
#re no c#ndid#tes inoled in # &le'iscite. /*erefore, Section >9 of Co%elec
Resolution 2>6@ *#s no st#tutor- '#sis.

83
Election Laws
BADOY vs. COMELEC (*5 SCRA 285)
“C#%&#i.n, A. 1#3ful G 2ro*i'ited Election 2ro&#.#nd#!
"#cts$ An#cleto ?. B#do-, Jr. #ers t*#t *e is # c#ndid#te for dele.#te to t*e
Constitution#l Conention for t*e lone district of (ort* Cot#'#to. :e &r#-s t*#t
Section >2(") of RA 6>C2 'e decl#red unconstitution#l #s t*e s#%e denies
indiidu#ls, 3*o #re not c#ndid#tes, t*eir freedo% of s&eec* #nd of t*e &ressB #nd
c#ndid#tes t*e ri.*t to s&e#= #nd 3rite, discuss #nd de'#te in f#or of t*eir
c#ndid#cies or #.#inst t*e c#ndid#cies of ot*ers. Section >2 (") &roides t*#t t*e
Co%elec “s*#ll ende#or to o't#in free s&#ce fro% ne3s&#&ers, %#.#)ines #nd
&eriodic#ls 3*ic* s*#ll 'e =no3n #s Co%elec s&#ce, #nd s*#ll #lloc#te t*is s&#ce
e5u#ll- #nd i%&#rti#ll- #%on. #ll c#ndid#tes 3it*in t*e #re#s in 3*ic* t*e
ne3s&#&ers #re circul#ted. Outside of s#id Co%elec s&#ce, it s*#ll 'e unl#3ful to
&rint or &u'lis*, or c#use to 'e &rinted or &u'lis*ed, #n- #dertise%ent, &#id
co%%ent or &#id #rticle in furt*er#nce of or in o&&osition to t*e c#ndid#c- of #n-
&erson for dele.#te, or %entionin. t*e n#%e of #n- c#ndid#te #nd t*e f#ct of *is
c#ndid#c-, unless #ll t*e n#%es of #ll ot*er c#ndid#tes in t*e district in 3*ic* t*e
c#ndid#te is runnin. #re #lso %entioned 3it* e5u#l &ro%inence.! Co%elec
Resolution RR+@24, #s #%ended, %erel- rest#tes t*e '#n in Section >2 (").
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e '#n in Section >2 (") is #lid or constitution#l.
:eld$ Ender Section >2 ("), t*e %one-ed c#ndid#te or indiidu#l 3*o c#n #fford to
&#- for #dertise%ents, co%%ents or #rticles in f#or of *is c#ndid#c- or #.#inst t*e
c#ndid#c- of #not*er or 3*ic* %ention *is n#%e #nd t*e f#ct of *is c#ndid#c-, is
re5uired to %ention #ll t*e ot*er c#ndid#tes in t*e s#%e district 3it* e5u#l
&ro%inence, to e4e%&t *i% fro% t*e &en#l s#nction of t*e l#3. /*e eident &ur&ose
of t*e li%it#tion is to .ie t*e &oor c#ndid#tes # fi.*tin. c*#nce in t*e election. /*e
restriction is onl- one of t*e %e#sures deised '- t*e l#3 to &resere suffr#.e &ure
#nd undefiled #nd to #c*iee t*e desired e5u#lit- of c*#nces #%on. #ll t*e
c#ndid#tes. Considerin. t*e fore.oin. li%it#tion in Section >2(") in t*e li.*t of t*e
ot*er &roisions of RA 6>C2 desi.ned to %#4i%i)e, if not #&&ro4i%#te, e5u#lit- of
c*#nces #%on. t*e #rious c#ndid#tes in t*e s#%e district, t*e s#id restriction on t*e
freedo% of e4&ression #&&e#rs too insi.nific#nt to cre#te #n- #&&reci#'le dent on t*e
indiidu#l6s li'ert- of e4&ression. 7t s*ould 'e noted t*#t Section 8(#) of t*e s#%e l#3,
&ro*i'itin. &olitic#l &#rties fro% #idin. c#ndid#tes #nd t*us 3#s %ore restrictie t*#n
Section >2("), 3#s &reiousl- u&*eld to 'e #lid. /*e li%it#tion in Section >2(") is #
re#soned #nd re#son#'le <ud.%ent on t*e &#rt of Con.ress. 7t is not unconstitution#l.

84
Election Laws
MARCOS vs. COMELEC ( 248 SCRA *00 )
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ On 8 ,#rc* >995, 7%eld# Ro%u#lde)+,#rcos filed *er Certific#te of
C#ndid#c- for t*e &osition of Re&resent#tie of t*e "irst ?istrict of 1e-te, indic#tin.
t*#t s*e 3#s # resident of s#id constituenc- for seen %ont*s. "#ced 3it* &etition for
c#ncell#tion #nd dis5u#lific#tion '- t*e incu%'ent re&resent#tie Cirilo Ro- ,onte<o,
,#rcos filed #n #%ended certific#te c*#n.in. t*e entr- “seen %ont*s! to “since
c*ild*ood.! /*e Co%%ission on Elections, on 24 A&ril, ordered t*e dis5u#lific#tion of
,#rcos fro% runnin. for t*e con.ression#l se#t of t*e "irst ?istrict of 1e-te. 7t
#&&e#rs *o3eer, t*#t ,#rcos .#rnered t*e %ost otes in t*e 8 ,#- election. /*e
Co%%ission on Elections, t*us, sus&ended *er &rocl#%#tion.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e st#te%ent in t*e certific#te of c#ndid#c- (“seen!) deter%ines
3*et*er #n indiidu#l s#tisfied t*e constitution6s residenc- 5u#lific#tion re5uire%ent,
to 3#rr#nt ,#rcos6 dis5u#lific#tion.
:eld$ 7t is t*e f#ct of residence, not # st#te%ent+in # certific#te of c#ndid#c- 3*ic*
ou.*t to 'e decisie in deter%inin. 3*et*er or not #n indiidu#l *#s s#tisfied t*e
constitution6s residenc- 5u#lific#tion re5uire%ent. /*e s#id st#te%ent 'eco%es
%#teri#l onl- 3*en t*ere is or #&&e#rs to 'e # deli'er#te #tte%&t to %isle#d,
%isinfor%, or *ide # f#ct 3*ic* 3ould ot*er3ise render # c#ndid#te ineli.i'le. 7t 3ould
'e &l#inl- ridiculous for # c#ndid#te to deli'er#tel- #nd =no3in.l- %#=e # st#te%ent
in # certific#te of c#ndid#c- 3*ic* 3ould le#d to *is or *er dis5u#lific#tion. A close
loo= #t s#id certific#te 3ould ree#l t*e &ossi'le source of t*e confusion$ t*e entr- for
residence is follo3ed i%%edi#tel- '- t*e entr- for residence in t*e constituenc-
3*ere # c#ndid#te see=s election. ,#rcos %erel- co%%itted #n *onest %ist#=e in
<ottin. do3n t*e 3ord “seen,! o'iousl- resultin. fro% t*e confusion 3*ic* &ro%&ted
,#rcos to 3rite do3n t*e &eriod of *er #ctu#l st#- in /olos#, 1e-te inste#d of *er
&eriod of residence in t*e "irst district, 3*ic* 3#s “since c*ild*ood! in t*e s&#ce
&roided. 7t %ust 'e noted #.#in t*#t “residence! is used to indic#te # &l#ce of #'ode,
3*et*er &er%#nent or te%&or#r-, 3*ile “do%icile! denotes # fi4ed &er%#nent
residence to 3*ic*, 3*en #'sent, one *#s t*e intention of returnin.. Residence for
election &ur&oses is used s-non-%ousl- 3it* do%icile.

85
Election Laws
S&NGA vs. COMELEC (288 SCRA $6)
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ ,#nuel C. Sun.# #nd "erdin#nd B. /rinid#d (incu%'ent %#-or) 3ere
c#ndid#tes for t*e &osition of ,#-or in t*e 7.ui., C#.#-#n, in t*e 8 ,#- >995
elections. On 22 A&ril #nd @ ,#-, Sun.# filed 3it* t*e Co%elec co%&l#ints for
dis5u#lific#tion #.#inst /rinid#d (l#ter consolid#ted in #n #%ended &etition), #ccusin.
*i% of usin. loc#l .oern%ent e*icles in *is c#%&#i.n, t*e use of t*re#ts,
inti%id#tion, terroris% or ot*er for%s of coercion, ote 'u-in., #nd ot*er det#ils. /*e
Co%elec Second ?iision referred t*e co%&l#int to its 1#3 ?e&#rt%ent for
inesti.#tion. ,e#n3*ile, /rinid#d .#rnered t*e *i.*est nu%'er of otes. Sun.#
%oed for t*e sus&ension of t*e &rocl#%#tion of /rinid#d, 'ut t*e l#tter 3#s
&rocl#i%ed neert*eless. 1#ter on, t*e Co%elec En B#nc #&&roed t*e findin.s of
t*e 1#3 ?e&#rt%ent in its re&ort of 28 June #nd directed t*e filin. of t*e
corres&ondin. infor%#tions in t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court #.#inst /rinid#d. On 2 ,#-
>996 Sun.# filed # Second Er.ent ,otion to Sus&end t*e Effects #nd Annul t*e
2rocl#%#tion 3it* Er.ent ,otion for E#rl- Resolution of t*e 2etition, 'ut suc* 3#s
dis%issed '- t*e Co%elec6s Second diision.
7ssue$ 8*et*er # dis5u#lific#tion c#se filed 'efore t*e election s*ould 'e dis%issed if
t*e c#se re%#ined unresoled #fter t*e election.
:eld$ /*ere is not*in. in Co%elec Resolution 2A5A (to 3*ic* t*e Co%elec relied
*e#il- on, 'esides t*e c#se of Silestre s. ?u#it, in its co%%ent) decl#rin.,
orderin., or directin. t*e dis%iss#l of # dis5u#lific#tion c#se filed 'efore t*e election
'ut 3*ic* re%#ined unresoled #fter t*e election. /*e le.isl#tie intent in RA 6646
(Section 6, Effects of ?is5u#lific#tion C#se) is t*#t t*e Co%elec s*ould continue t*e
tri#l #nd *e#rin. of t*e dis5u#lific#tion c#se to its conclusion, i.e., until <ud.%ent is
rendered t*ereon. A 5u#si+<udici#l 'od- or #n #d%inistr#tie #.enc- c#nnot #%end
#n #ct of Con.ress. /*e f#ct t*#t /rinid#d 3#s #lre#d- &rocl#i%ed #nd *#d #ssu%ed
t*e &osition of %#-or did not diest t*e Co%elec of #ut*orit- #nd <urisdiction to
continue t*e *e#rin. #nd eentu#ll- decide t*e dis5u#lific#tion c#se. A c#ndid#te *#s
'een &rocl#i%ed elected does not si.nif- t*#t *is dis5u#lific#tion is dee%ed
condoned #nd %#- no lon.er 'e t*e su'<ect of # se&#r#te inesti.#tion. /*e Court
ordered t*e Co%elec to reinst#te t*e dis5u#lific#tion c#se #.#inst /rinid#d #nd to #ct
u&on it in li.*t of its &ronounce%ents. /*us, in t*e eent t*#t /rinid#d is #d<ud.ed to
'e dis5u#lified, # &er%#nent #c#nc- 3ill 'e cre#ted for f#ilure of t*e elected %#-or
to 5u#lif- for t*e s#id office. 7n suc* eentu#lit-, t*e dul- elected ice+%#-or s*#ll
succeed #s &roided '- l#3.

86
Election Laws
NOLASCO vs. COMELEC (2$5 SCRA $62)
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ "lorentino 2. Bl#nco #nd Edu#do A. Al#rill# 'ot* ied for t*e %#-or#l &osition
of ,e-c#u#-#n, Bul#c#n durin. t*e election *eld 8 ,#- >995. Bl#nco .#rnered t*e
*i.*est nu%'er of otes. Ed.#rdo (ol#sco 3#s elected ice+%#-or. On 9 ,#-,
Al#rill# filed 3it* t*e Co%elec # &etition to dis5u#lif- Bl#nco on .rounds t*#t t*e l#tter
co%%itted #cts in iol#tion of Section 68 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code, i.e. for .iin.
%one- to influence, induce or corru&t t*e oters or &u'lic offici#ls &erfor%in. election
functionsB for co%%ittin. #cts of terroris% to en*#nce *is c#ndid#c-B #nd for
s&endin. in *is election c#%&#i.n #n #%ount in e4cess of t*#t #llo3ed '- t*e
Election Code (2>A %illion #.#inst 9@,AAA re.istered oters). On >5 Au.ust, t*e
Co%elec dis5u#lified Bl#nco on t*e .round of ote+'u-in. #nd ordered t*e Bo#rd of
C#n#ssers of ,e-c#u#-#n, Bul#c#n to reconene #nd to deter%ine t*e 3inner out
of t*e re%#inin. 5u#lified c#ndid#tes 3*o s*#ll 'e i%%edi#tel- &rocl#i%ed. Bl#nco
%oed for reconsider#tion 3*ile (ol#sco, #s ice %#-or, interened in t*e
&roceedin.s. (ol#sco ur.ed t*#t #s ice+%#-or *e s*ould 'e decl#red %#-or in t*e
eent Bl#nco 3#s fin#ll- dis5u#lified. Bot* %otions 3ere denied. :ence, t*e &etition
for certior#ri.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e dis5u#lific#tion of t*e %#-or+elect 3#rr#nts t*e decl#r#tion of #n-
of t*e re%#inin. 5u#lified %#-or#l c#ndid#tes, u&on t*e c#n#ssin. of otes, #s
%#-or.
:eld$ 7n # %#-or#lt- election, t*e c#ndid#te 3*o o't#ined t*e second *i.*est nu%'er
of otes c#nnot 'e &rocl#i%ed 3inner in c#se t*e 3innin. c#ndid#te is dis5u#lified.
2er%#nent #c#ncies (i.e. 3*en #n electie loc#l offici#l fills # *i.*er #c#nt office,
refuses to #ssu%e office, f#ils to 5u#lif-, dies, is re%oed fro% office, olunt#ril-
resi.ns, or is ot*er3ise &er%#nentl- inc#&#cit#ted to disc*#r.e t*e functions of *is
office) in t*e Offices of t*e 0oernor, Kice 0oernor, ,#-or, #nd Kice ,#-or #re
.oerned '- Section 44, C*#&ter 2 of t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent Code of >99> #nd
Article C8 of t*e Rules #nd Re.ul#tions i%&le%entin. t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent Code of
>99>. Kice+,#-or Ed.#rdo C. (ol#sco 3#s #d<ud.ed #s ,#-or of ,e-c#u#-#n,
Bul#c#n in ie3 of t*e dis5u#lific#tion of %#-or+elect "lorentino 2. Bl#nco.

87
Election Laws
A.&INO vs. COMELEC (248 SCRA 400)
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ On 2A ,#rc* >995, A.#&ito A. A5uino filed *is Certific#te of C#ndid#c- for t*e
&osition of Re&resent#tie for t*e ne3 Second 1e.isl#tie ?istrict of ,#=#ti Cit-. 7n
*is certific#te of c#ndid#c-, A5uino st#ted t*#t *e 3#s # resident of t*e
#fore%entioned district for >A %ont*s. "#ced 3it* # &etition for dis5u#lific#tion, *e
#%ended t*e entr- on *is residenc- in *is certific#te of c#ndid#c- to > -e#r #nd >C
d#-s. /*e Co%%ission on Elections dis%issed t*e &etition on 6 ,#- #nd #llo3ed
A5uino to run in t*e election of 8 ,#-. A5uino 3on. Actin. on # %otion for
reconsider#tion of t*e #'oe dis%iss#l, t*e Co%%ission on Election l#ter issued #n
order sus&endin. t*e &rocl#%#tion of A5uino until t*e Co%%ission resoled t*e
issue. On 2 June, t*e Co%%ission on Elections found A5uino ineli.i'le #nd
dis5u#lified for t*e electie office for l#c= of constitution#l 5u#lific#tion of residence.
7ssue$ 8*et*er “residenc-! in t*e certific#te of c#ndid#c- #ctu#ll- connotes “do%icile!
to 3#rr#nt t*e dis5u#lific#tion of A5uino fro% t*e &osition in t*e elector#l district.
:eld$ /*e &l#ce “3*ere # &#rt- #ctu#ll- or constructiel- *#s *is &er%#nent *o%e,!
3*ere *e, no %#tter 3*ere *e %#- 'e found #t #n- .ien ti%e, eentu#ll- intends to
return #nd re%#in, i.e., *is do%icile, is t*#t to 3*ic* t*e Constitution refers 3*en it
s&e#=s of residence for t*e &ur&oses of election l#3. /*e &ur&ose is to e4clude
str#n.ers or ne3co%ers unf#%ili#r 3it* t*e conditions #nd needs of t*e co%%unit-
fro% t#=in. #d#nt#.e of f#or#'le circu%st#nces e4istin. in t*#t co%%unit- for
elector#l .#in. A5uino6s certific#te of c#ndid#c- in # &reious (>992) election indic#tes
t*#t *e 3#s # resident #nd # re.istered oter of S#n Jose, Conce&cion, /#rl#c for
%ore t*#n 52 -e#rs &rior to t*#t election. A5uino6s connection to t*e Second ?istrict
of ,#=#ti Cit- is #n #lle.ed le#se #.ree%ent of # condo%iniu% unit in t*e #re#. /*e
intention not to est#'lis* # &er%#nent *o%e in ,#=#ti Cit- is eident in *is le#sin. #
condo%iniu% unit inste#d of 'u-in. one. /*e s*ort len.t* of ti%e *e cl#i%s to 'e #
resident of ,#=#ti (#nd t*e f#ct of *is st#ted do%icile in /#rl#c #nd *is cl#i%s of ot*er
residences in ,etro ,#nil#) indic#te t*#t *is sole &ur&ose in tr#nsferrin. *is &*-sic#l
residence is not to #c5uire # ne3, residence or do%icile 'ut onl- to 5u#lif- #s #
c#ndid#te for Re&resent#tie of t*e Second ?istrict of ,#=#ti Cit-. A5uino 3#s t*us
ri.*tfull- dis5u#lified '- t*e Co%%ission on Elections.

88
Election Laws
OR)EGA vs. COMELEC (211 SCRA 2#$)
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ R#%on 1#'o, Jr., 3*o #.#in, 'eliein. t*#t *e is # "ili&ino citi)en, l#unc*ed
*is c#ndid#c- for %#-or of B#.uio Cit- in t*e >> ,#- >992 elections '- filin. *is
certific#te of c#ndid#c- on 2C ,#rc*. Ro'erto Orte.# #lso filed *is certific#te of
c#ndid#c- for t*e s#%e office on 25 ,#rc*. On 26 ,#rc*, Orte.# filed #
dis5u#lific#tion &roceedin. #.#inst 1#'o 'efore t*e Co%elec see=in. to c#ncel
1#'o6s certific#te of c#ndid#c- on t*e .round t*#t 1#'o %#de # f#lse re&resent#tion
3*en *e st#ted t*erein t*#t t*e l#tter is # “n#tur#l+'orn! citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines. On
9 ,#-, t*e Co%elec resoled t*e &etition, denied due course #nd c#ncelled 1#'o6s
certific#te of c#ndid#c-. /*e ne4t d#-, #ctin. on 1#'o6s e4+&#rte %otion, t*e Co%elec
#llo3ed 1#'o to 'e oted u&on #s ,#-or#l c#ndid#te until t*e fin#l resolution of t*e
issue, in t*e eent t*e c#se is r#ised to t*e Su&re%e Court. On >C ,#-, Co%elec
resoled, %otu &ro&rio, to sus&end t*e &rocl#%#tion of 1#'o in t*e eent *e 3ins in
t*e elections for t*e Cit- ,#-or of B#.uio. On >5 ,#-, 1#'o filed # &etition for reie3
3it* t*e Su&re%e Court. ,e#n3*ile, 1#'o .#rnered t*e *i.*est nu%'er of otes.
7ssue$ 8*et*er t*e resolution c#ncelin. 1#'o6s certific#te of c#ndid#c- (*ence, *is
dis5u#lific#tion) 3#rr#nts t*e c#ndid#te receiin. t*e ne4t *i.*est nu%'er of otes to
'e decl#red ,#-or of B#.uio Cit-.
:eld$ /*e 9 ,#- >992 Co%elec resolution c#ncellin. 1#'o6s certific#te of c#ndid#c-
*#d #lre#d- 'eco%e fin#l #nd e4ecutor- on >4 ,#-, # d#- 'efore 1#'o filed *is
&etition in t*e Su&re%e Court. /*e Co%elec6s rulin. is fin#l #nd e4ecutor- 3it* 5
d#-s, #fter t*e &#rties t*e co&- t*ereof, unless restr#ined '- t*e Su&re%e Court. /*is
is &ursu#nt to Section @8 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code, #nd Section C of Rule C9 of
t*e Co%elec Rules of 2rocedure. 1#'o, t*us, c#nnot 'e &rocl#i%ed #s ,#-or of
B#.uio Cit-. :is dis5u#lific#tion, *o3eer, does not necess#ril- entitle Orte.# to 'e
&rocl#i%ed #s %#-or. /*e ineli.i'ilit- of # c#ndid#te receiin. %#<orit- otes does not
entitle t*e eli.i'le c#ndid#te receiin. t*e ne4t *i.*est nu%'er of otes to 'e
decl#red elected. A %inorit- or defe#ted c#ndid#te c#nnot 'e dee%ed elected to t*e
office. :#in. lost in t*e election for %#-or, Orte.# 3#s o'iousl- not t*e c*oice of
t*e &eo&le of B#.uio Cit-. As # conse5uence of 'ot* &#rties6 ineli.i'ilit-, # &er%#nent
#c#nc- in t*e contested office *#s occurred. 7n ie3 of suc* #c#nc-, t*e ice+
%#-or elect of t*e cit- in t*e s#id elections 3#s decl#red ,#-or of B#.uio Cit- #fter
'ein. &rocl#i%ed '- t*e Cit- Bo#rd of C#n#ssers.

89
Election Laws
0O s. CO,E1EC
( C5@ SCRA @C9, 2AA> )
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 3#s t*e incu%'ent re&resent#tie of t*e "ift* ?istrict, &roince of
1e-te 3*en s*e filed on "e'ru#r- 2@, 2AA> 3it* t*e %unici&#l election officer of t*e
%unici&#lit- of B#-'#-, 1e-te, # certific#te of c#ndid#c- for %#-or of t*e s#id
%unici&#lit-.
On "e'ru#r- 28, 2AA>, #t >>$4@ &.%., &etitioner filed 3it* t*e &roinci#l election
su&erisor of 1e-te, 3it* office #t /#clo'#n Cit-, #not*er certific#te of c#ndid#c- for
.oernor. Si%ult#neousl- t*ere3it*, s*e #tte%&ted to file 3it* t*e &roinci#l election
su&erisor #n #ffid#it of 3it*dr#3#l of *er c#ndid#c- for %#-or. :o3eer, t*e
&roinci#l election su&erisor refused to #cce&t t*e #ffid#it of 3it*dr#3#l #nd
su..ested t*#t, &ursu#nt to CO,E1EC Resolution (o. C25C+A, s*e s*ould file it 3it*
t*e %unici&#l election officer of B#-'#-, 1e-te 3*ere s*e filed *er certific#te of
c#ndid#c- for %#-or.
2ri#te res&ondents filed si%il#r &etitions to dis5u#lif- &etitioner on t*e .round t*#t
&etitioner filed certific#tes of c#ndid#c- for t3o &ositions, n#%el-, t*#t for %#-or, #nd
t*#t for .oernor, t*us, %#=in. *er ineli.i'le for 'ot*.
/*e CO,E1EC .r#nted t*e &etition #nd dis5u#lified t*e &etitioner fro% runnin. for
'ot* &osition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not #n #ffid#it of 3it*dr#3#l of c#ndid#c- s*ould 'e filed 3it* t*e
election officer of t*e &l#ce 3*ere t*e certific#te of c#ndid#c- 3#s filed.
:eld$ (o. /*ere is not*in. in Section @C of t*e O%ni'us Election Code 3*ic*
%#nd#tes t*#t t*e #ffid#it of 3it*dr#3#l %ust 'e filed 3it* t*e s#%e office 3*ere t*e
certific#te of c#ndid#c- to 'e 3it*dr#3n 3#s filed. /*us, it c#n 'e filed directl- 3it*
t*e %#in office of t*e CO,E1EC, t*e office of t*e re.ion#l election director
concerned, t*e office of t*e &roinci#l election su&erisor of t*e &roince to 3*ic* t*e
%unici&#lit- inoled 'elon.s, or t*e office of t*e %unici&#l election officer of t*e s#id
%unici&#lit-.
8*ile it %#- 'e true t*#t Section >2 of CO,E1EC Resolution (o. C25C+A re5uires
t*#t t*e 3it*dr#3#l 'e filed 'efore t*e election officer of t*e &l#ce 3*ere t*e
certific#te of c#ndid#c- 3#s filed, suc* re5uire%ent is %erel- director-, #nd is
intended for conenience.

90
Election Laws
GARVIDA vs. SALES (R. ( 2$1 SCRA $6$ 1##$ )
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ On ,#rc* >6, >996, &etitioner #&&lied for re.istr#tion #s %e%'er #nd oter of
t*e D#ti&un#n n. D#'#t##n of B#r#n.#- S#n 1oren)o, B#n.ui, 7locos (orte. /*e
Bo#rd of Election /ellers, *o3eer, denied *er #&&lic#tion on t*e .round t*#t
&etitioner, 3*o 3#s t*en t3ent-+one -e#rs #nd ten (>A) %ont*s old, e4ceeded t*e
#.e li%it for %e%'ers*i& in t*e D#ti&un#n n. D#'#t##n.
On A&ril 2C, >996, &etitioner filed *er certific#te of c#ndid#c- for t*e &osition of
C*#ir%#n, S#n..uni#n. D#'#t##n. :o3eer, res&ondent Election Officer ?ionisio ".
Rios dis#&&roed &etitioner6s certific#te of c#ndid#c- #.#in due to *er #.e. 2etitioner,
*o3eer, #&&e#led to t*e CO,E1EC Re.ion#l ?irector 3*o set #side t*e order of
res&ondents #nd #llo3ed t*e &etitioner to run.
2ri#te res&ondent "lorencio 0. S#les, Jr., # ri#l c#ndid#te for C*#ir%#n of t*e
S#n..uni#n. D#'#t##n, filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc # “2etition of ?eni#l #ndGor
C#ncell#tion of Certific#te of C#ndid#c-! #.#inst &etitioner 0#rid# for f#lsel-
re&resentin. *er #.e 5u#lific#tion in *er certific#te of c#ndid#c-.
/*e CO,E1EC en '#nc .r#nted t*e &etition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc *#s t*e <urisdiction to #ct on t*e
&etition to den- or c#ncel t*e &etitioner6s certific#te of c#ndid#c-.
:eld$ (o. Ender t*e Rules of 2rocedure, <urisdiction oer # &etition to c#ncel #
certific#te of c#ndid#c- lies 3it* t*e CO,E1EC sittin. in ?iision, not en '#nc. C#ses
'efore # ?iision %#- onl- 'e entert#ined '- t*e CO,E1EC en '#nc 3*en t*e
re5uired nu%'er of otes to re#c* # decision, resolution, order or rulin. is not
o't#ined in t*e ?iision. ,oreoer, onl- %otions to reconsider decisions, resolutions,
orders or rulin.s of t*e CO,E1EC in ?iision #re resoled '- t*e CO,E1EC en
'#nc. 7t t*erefore #cted 3it*out <urisdiction or 3it* .r#e #'use of discretion 3*en it
entert#ined t*e &etition #nd issued t*e 5uestioned order.

91
Election Laws
LOONG vs. COMELEC (216 SCRA $60 1##2)
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ On >5 J#nu#r- >99A, &etitioner filed 3it* res&ondent Co%%ission *is
certific#te of c#ndid#c- for t*e &osition of Kice+0oernor of t*e ,ind#n#o
Autono%ous Re.ion in t*e election *eld on >@ "e'ru#r- >99A. On 5 ,#rc* >99A (or
>6 d#-s #fter t*e election), res&ondent Etut#lu% filed 'efore t*e res&ondent
Co%%ission # &etition see=in. to dis5u#lif- &etitioner for t*e office of Re.ion#l Kice+
0oernor, on t*e .round t*#t t*e l#tter %#de # f#lse re&resent#tion in *is certific#te
of c#ndid#c- #s to *is #.e.
2etitioner 1oon. sou.*t t*e dis%iss#l of t*e &etition on t*e .round t*#t t*e
res&ondent CO,E1EC *#s no <urisdiction. /*e %otion to dis%iss 3#s denied '- t*e
CO,E1EC in # resolution 3*ic* is t*e su'<ect of t*is &etition.
2etitioner 1oon. contends t*#t S2A (o. 9A+AA6 (# &etition to c#ncel t*e certific#te of
c#ndid#c- of &etitioner 1oon.) 3#s filed out of ti%e 'ec#use it 3#s filed 'e-ond t*e
25+d#- &eriod &rescri'ed '- Section @8 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not S2A (o. 9A+AA6 3#s filed 3it*in t*e &eriod &rescri'ed '- l#3.
:eld$ (o. /*e &etition filed '- &ri#te res&ondent Etut#lu% 3it* t*e res&ondent
CO,E1EC to dis5u#lif- &etitioner 1oon. on t*e .round t*#t t*e l#tter %#de # f#lse
re&resent#tion in *is certific#te of c#ndid#c- #s to *is #.e, cle#rl- does not f#ll under
t*e .rounds of dis5u#lific#tion #s &roided for in Rule 25 'ut is e4&ressl- coered '-
Rule 2C of t*e Co%elec Rules of 2rocedure .oernin. &etitions to c#ncel certific#te
of c#ndid#c-. ,oreoer, Section C, Rule 25 3*ic* #llo3s t*e filin. of t*e &etition #t
#n- ti%e #fter t*e l#st d#- for t*e filin. of certific#tes of c#ndid#c- 'ut not l#ter t*#n
t*e d#te of &rocl#%#tion, is %erel- # &rocedur#l rule issued '- res&ondent
Co%%ission 3*ic*, #lt*ou.* # constitution#l 'od-, *#s no le.isl#tie &o3ers. /*us, it
c#n not su&ersede Section @8 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code 3*ic* is # le.isl#tie
en#ct%ent.

92
Election Laws
%NOC2ENERGY DEVELO%MEN) COR%ORA)ION vs. NLRC ( 222 SCRA 8*1 )
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ 7n (oe%'er, >98@, 3*ile *oldin. t*e &osition of 0eot*er%#l Construction
Secret#r-, En.ineerin. #nd Construction ?e&#rt%ent, #t /on.on#n 0eot*er%#l
2ro<ect, Or%oc Cit-, ,#nuel S. 2ined# decided to run for councilor of t*e ,unici&#lit-
of D#n#n.#, 1e-te, in t*e loc#l elections sc*eduled in J#nu#r-, >988, #nd filed t*e
corres&ondin. certific#te of c#ndid#c- for t*e &osition. O'<ection to 2ined#6s 'ein. #
c#ndid#te 3*ile ret#inin. *is <o' in t*e 2(OC+E?C 3#s s*ortl- t*ere#fter re.istered
'- ,#-or Arturo Corne<os of D#n#n.#, 1e-te.
Section 66 of t*e Election Code &roides #%on. ot*ers t*#t officers #nd e%&lo-ees
of 0OCCs #re considered #s i&so f#cto resi.ned u&on t*e filin. of t*eir certific#te of
c#ndid#c-.
7t 3#s t*e #r.u%ent of 2ined# t*#t 2(OC+E?C 3#s not cre#ted t*rou.* # s&eci#l
l#3, it is not coered '- t*e Ciil Serice 1#3 #nd, t*erefore, not conte%&l#ted under
Section 66 of t*e Election Code.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not #n e%&lo-ee in # .oern%ent+ o3ned or controlled cor&or#tion
3it*out #n ori.in#l c*#rter f#lls 3it*in t*e sco&e of Section 66 of t*e O%ni'us
Election Code.
:eld$ ;es. 7f # cor&or#tion6s c#&it#l stoc= is o3ned '- t*e 0oern%ent, or it is
o&er#ted #nd %#n#.ed '- officers c*#r.ed 3it* t*e %ission of fulfillin. t*e &u'lic
o'<ecties for 3*ic* it *#s 'een or.#ni)ed, it is # .oern%ent+o3ned or controlled
cor&or#tion een if or.#ni)ed under t*e Cor&or#tion Code #nd not under # s&eci#l
st#tute. E%&lo-ees t*ereof, een if not coered '- t*e Ciil Serice 'ut '- t*e 1#'or
Code, #re nonet*eless “e%&lo-ees in .oern%ent+o3ned or controlled cor&or#tion,!
#nd co%e 3it*in t*e letter of Section 66 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code, decl#rin.
t*e% i&so f#cto resi.ned fro% t*eir office u&on t*e filin. of t*eir certific#te of
c#ndid#c-.

93
Election Laws
(&RILLA vs. COMELEC ( 2*2 SCRA $58 )
“C#ndid#tes, C. Certific#te of C#ndid#c-!
"#cts$ On ,#rc* 2C, >992, res&ondent Antonio K. :ern#nde) filed 3it* t*e
Co%%ission on Elections *is certific#te of c#ndid#c- for one of t*e contested se#ts
for councilors in t*e Second ?istrict of Lue)on Cit-. 7n 7te% (o. 6 of *is certific#te *e
.#e #s *is #ddress “B 26 1 > (e3 C#&itol Est#tes, Lue)on Cit-.! :o3eer, *e did
not indic#te in t*e s&#ce &roided in 7te% (o. >2 t*erein *is 2recinct (u%'er #nd t*e
&#rticul#r B#r#n.#- 3*ere *e 3#s # re.istered oter. :is 'iod#t# su'%itted to.et*er
3it* *is certific#te of c#ndid#c- .#e *is #ddress #s “Ac#ci# Street, ,#ri#n#, Lue)on
Cit-,! 3*ic* is # &#rt of t*e "ourt* ?istrict of Lue)on Cit-. 7n ot*er 3ords, *is
certific#te of c#ndid#c- #nd *is 'iod#t# filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC did not e4&ressl-
st#te t*#t *e 3#s # re.istered oter of Lue)on Cit- or t*#t *e 3#s # resident of t*e
Second ?istrict t*ereof 3it*in t*e &urie3 of Sec. C9, &#r. (#), of t*e 1oc#l
0oern%ent Code of >99>.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e f#ilure of # c#ndid#te to indic#te *is 2recinct (u%'er #nd
t*e &#rticul#r B#r#n.#- 3*ere *e 3#s # re.istered oter in#lid#tes *is certific#te of
c#ndid#c-.
:eld$ (o. 7t %#- 'e .le#ned fro% t*e &roisions of Sec. C9, &#r. (#), of t*e 1oc#l
0oern%ent Code of >99>, e#rlier 5uoted, t*#t t*e l#3 does not s&ecific#ll- re5uire
t*#t # c#ndid#te %ust st#te in *is certific#te of c#ndid#c- *is 2recinct (u%'er #nd
t*e B#r#n.#- 3*ere *e is re.istered. A&&#rentl-, it is enou.* t*#t *e is #ctu#ll-
re.istered #s # oter in t*e &recinct 3*ere *e intends to ote, 3*ic* s*ould 'e 3it*in
t*e district 3*ere *e is runnin. for office.
7n t*e c#se #t '#r, *is f#ilure to st#te in *is certific#te of c#ndid#c- *is 2recinct
(u%'er is s#tisf#ctoril- e4&l#ined '- *i% in t*#t #t t*e ti%e *e filed *is certific#te *e
3#s not -et #ssi.ned # &#rticul#r 2recinct (u%'er in t*e Second ?istrict of Lue)on
Cit-. :e 3#s for%erl- # re.istered oter of ,#nil#, #lt*ou.* for t*e &#st t3o (2) -e#rs
&rior to t*e elections *e 3#s #lre#d- # resident of “B 26, 1 > (e3 C#&itol Est#tes,!
#d%ittedl- 3it*in t*e Second ?istrict of Lue)on Cit-

94
Election Laws
RODRIG&EZ vs. COMELEC ( 25# SCRA 2#6 1##6 )
“C#ndid#tes, B. ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ /*e &etitioner Edu#rdo /. Rodri.ue) 3#s # c#ndid#te for 0oernor in t*e
2roince of Lue)on in t*e ,#- 8, >995 elections. :is ri#l c#ndid#te for t*e s#id
&osition 3#s Bienenido O. ,#r5ue), Jr., *erein &ri#te res&ondent. 2ri#te
res&ondent filed # &etition for dis5u#lific#tion 'efore t*e CO,E1EC '#sed &rinci&#ll-
on t*e #lle.#tion t*#t Rodri.ue) is # “fu.itie fro% <ustice.! 2ri#te res&ondent
ree#led t*#t # c*#r.e for fr#udulent insur#nce cl#i%s, .r#nd t*eft #nd #tte%&ted
.r#nd t*eft of &erson#l &ro&ert- is &endin. #.#inst t*e &etitioner 'efore t*e 1os
An.eles ,unici&#l Court. Rodri.ue) is t*erefore # “fu.itie fro% <ustice! 3*ic* is #
.round for *is dis5u#lific#tionG ineli.i'ilit- under Section 4A (e) of t*e 1oc#l
0oern%ent Code #ccordin. to ,#r5ue).
Rodri.ue), *o3eer, su'%itted # certific#tion fro% t*e Co%%ission of 7%%i.r#tion
s*o3in. t*#t Rodri.ue) left t*e ES on June 25, >985+ rou.*l- fie (5) %ont*s &rior to
t*e institution of t*e cri%in#l co%&l#int filed #.#inst *i% 'efore t*e 1os An.eles
Court.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not Rodri.ue) is # “fu.itie fro% <ustice.!
:eld$ (o. /*e Su&re%e Court reiter#ted t*#t # “fu.itie fro% <ustice! includes not onl-
t*ose 3*o flee #fter coniction to #oid &unis*%ent 'ut li=e3ise 3*o, 'ein. c*#r.ed,
flee to #oid &rosecution. /*e definition t*us indic#tes t*#t t*e intent to e#de is t*e
co%&ellin. f#ctor t*#t #ni%#tes one6s fli.*t fro% # &#rticul#r <urisdiction. And
o'iousl-, t*ere c#n onl- 'e #n intent to e#de &rosecution or &unis*%ent 3*en
t*ere is =no3led.e '- t*e fleein. su'<ect of #n #lre#d- instituted indict%ent or of #
&ro%ul.#ted <ud.e%ent of coniction.

95
Election Laws
MAR.&EZ (R. vs. COMELEC ( 24* SCRA 5*8 1##5 )
“C#ndid#tes, B. ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ Bienenido ,#r5ue), # defe#ted c#ndid#te for t*e electie &osition of
0oernor in t*e 2roince of Lue)on in t*e ,#- >>, >992 elections filed t*is &etition
for certior#ri &r#-in. for t*e reers#l of t*e resolution of t*e Co%%ission of Election
3*ic* dis%issed *is &etition for 5uo 3#rr#nto #.#inst t*e 3innin. c#ndid#te, *erein
res&ondent Edu#rdo Rodri.ue), for 'ein. #lle.edl- # fu.itie fro% <ustice.
7t is #erred t*#t #t t*e ti%e &ri#te res&ondent filed *is certific#te of c#ndid#c-, #
cri%in#l c*#r.e #.#inst *i% for ten (>A) counts of insur#nce fr#ud or .r#nd t*eft of
&erson#l &ro&ert- 3#s still &endin. 'efore t*e ,unici&#l Court of 1os An.eles
Judici#l ?istrict, Count- of 1os An.eles, St#te of C#liforni#, E.S.A. A 3#rr#nt issued
'- s#id court for *is #rrest, it is cl#i%ed, *#s -et to 'e sered on &ri#te res&ondent
on #ccount of *is #lle.ed “fli.*t! fro% t*#t countr-.
/*e &ri#te res&ondent contended, *o3eer, t*#t under Article @C of t*e Rules #nd
Re.ul#tions 7%&le%entin. t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent Code, t*e ter% “fu.itie fro%
<ustice! refers to one 3*o *#s 'een conicted '- fin#l <ud.e%ent.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not # coniction '- fin#l <ud.e%ent is necess#r- to f#ll 3it*in t*e
ter% “fu.itie fro% <ustice! conte%&l#ted '- Section 4A (e) of t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent
Code.
:eld$ (o. /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t Article @C of t*e 7%&le%entin. Rules, to t*e
e4tent t*#t it confines t*e ter% “fu.itie fro% <ustice! to refer onl- to # &erson (t*e
fu.itie) “3*o *#s 'een conicted '- fin#l <ud.e%ent,! is #n ordin#te #nd undue
circu%scri&tion of t*e l#3.
/*e ter% “fu.itie fro% <ustice! includes not onl- t*ose 3*o #fter coniction to #oid
&unis*%ent 'ut li=e3ise t*ose 3*o, #fter 'ein. c*#r.ed, flee to #oid &rosecution.
/*is definition trul- finds su&&ort fro% <uris&rudence, #nd it %#- 'e conceded #s
e4&ressin. t*e .ener#l #nd ordin#r- connot#tion of t*e ter%.

96
Election Laws
GREGO vs. COMELEC ( 2$4 SCRA 481 1##$ )
“C#ndid#tes, B. ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ On Octo'er C>, >98>, 'efore t*e effectiit- of t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent Code of
>99>, &ri#te res&ondent :u%'erto B#sco 3#s re%oed fro% *is &osition #s ?e&ut-
S*eriff '- no less t*#n t*e Su&re%e Court u&on # findin. of serious %isconduct in #n
#d%inistr#tie co%&l#int.
Su'se5uentl-, B#sco r#n #s # c#ndid#te for councilor in t*e Second ?istrict of t*e
Cit- of ,#nil# in t*e J#nu#r- >8, >988 loc#l elections. :e 3on #nd #ssu%ed office.
:e 3#s successfull- re+elected in >992 #nd >995.
7t 3#s *is l#test re+election 3*ic* is t*e su'<ect of t*e &resent &etition on t*e .round
t*#t *e is dis5u#lified under Section 4A(') of t*e 10C of >99>. Ender s#id section,
t*ose re%oed fro% office #s # result of #n #d%inistr#tie c#se #re dis5u#lified to run
for #n- electie loc#l &osition.
7ssue$ ?oes Section 4A(') of t*e 1oc#l 0oern%ent Code of >99> #&&l- retro#ctiel-
to t*ose re%oed fro% office 'efore it too= effect on J#nu#r- >, >992M
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t its refus#l to .ie retro#ctie #&&lic#tion to t*e
&roision of Section 4A(') is #lre#d- # settled issue #nd t*ere e4ist no co%&ellin.
re#son for t*e Court to de&#rt t*erefro%.
/*#t t*e &roision of t*e Code in 5uestion does not 5u#lif- t*e d#te of # c#ndid#te6s
re%o#l fro% office #nd t*#t it is couc*ed in t*e &#st tense s*ould not deter t*e Court
fro% #&&l-in. t*e l#3 &ros&ectiel-. A st#tute, des&ite t*e .ener#lit- in its l#n.u#.e,
%ust not 'e so construed #s to oerre#c* #cts, eents or %#tters 3*ic* tr#ns&ired
'efore its &#ss#.e.

97
Election Laws
DE LA )ORRE vs COMELEC ( 258 SCRA 48* 1##6 )
“C#ndid#tes, B. ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Rol#ndo 2. ?el# /orre 3#s dis5u#lified '- t*e Co%%ission on
Elections fro% runnin. for t*e &osition of ,#-or of C#inti, 1#.un# in t*e ,#- 8,
>995 elections. /*e .round cited '- t*e CO,E1EC 3#s Section 4A(#) of t*e 1oc#l
0oern%ent Code of >99>. S#id section &roides t*#t t*ose sentenced '- fin#l
<ud.e%ent for #n offense inolin. %or#l tur&itude or for #n offense &unis*#'le '-
one (>) -e#r or %ore i%&rison%ent 3it*in t3o (2) -e#rs #fter serin. sentence #re
dis5u#lified fro% runnin. for #n- electie loc#l &osition. 7t 3#s est#'lis*ed '- t*e
CO,E1EC t*#t t*e &etitioner 3#s found .uilt- '- t*e ,unici&#l /ri#l Court for
iol#tion of t*e Anti+"encin. 1#3. 7t 3#s contended '- t*e &etitioner t*#t Section
4A(#) is not #&&lic#'le to *i% 'ec#use *e 3#s .r#nted &ro'#tion '- t*e ,/C.
7ssues$
>. 8*et*er or not t*e cri%e of fencin. inoles %or#l tur&itude.
2. 8*et*er or not # .r#nt of &ro'#tion #ffects Section 4A(#)6s #&&lic#'ilit-.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t #ctu#l =no3led.e '- t*e “fence! of t*e f#ct t*#t
&ro&ert- receied is stolen dis&l#-s t*e s#%e de.ree of %#licious de&ri#tion of
one6s ri.*tful &ro&ert- #s t*#t 3*ic* #ni%#ted t*e ro''er- or t*eft 3*ic*, '- t*eir er-
n#ture, #re cri%es of %or#l tur&itude.
Anent t*e second issue, suffice it to s#- t*#t t*e le.#l effect of &ro'#tion is onl- to
sus&end t*e e4ecution of t*e sentence. 2etitioner6s coniction of fencin. 3*ic*
#lre#d- decl#red #s # cri%e of %or#l tur&itude #nd t*us f#llin. s5u#rel- under t*e
dis5u#lific#tion found in Section 4A(#), su'sists #nd re%#ins tot#ll- un#ffected
not3it*st#ndin. t*e .r#nt of &ro'#tion.

98
Election Laws
CAASI vs. COMELEC ( 1#1 SCRA 22# 1##0 )
“C#ndid#tes, B. ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2ri#te res&ondent ,erito ,i.uel 3#s elected #s %unici&#l %#-or of Bolin#o,
2#n.#sin#n durin. t*e loc#l elections of J#nu#r- >8, >988. :is dis5u#lific#tion,
*o3eer, 3#s sou.*t '- *erein &etitioner, ,#teo C##si, on t*e .round t*#t under
Section 68 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code &ri#te res&ondent 3#s not 5u#lified
'ec#use *e is # .reen c#rd *older, *ence, # &er%#nent resident of t*e Enited St#tes
of A%eric#, not of Bolin#o.
7ssues$
>. 8*et*er or not # .reen c#rd is &roof t*#t t*e *older is # &er%#nent resident of
t*e Enited St#tes.
2. 8*et*er res&ondent ,i.uel *#d 3#ied *is st#tus #s # &er%#nent resident of or
i%%i.r#nt to t*e E.S.A. &rior to t*e loc#l elections on J#nu#r- >8, >988.
:eld$ /*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t ,i.uel6s #&&lic#tion for i%%i.r#nt st#tus #nd
&er%#nent residence in t*e E.S. #nd *is &ossession of # .reen c#rd #ttestin. to suc*
st#tus #re conclusie &roof t*#t *e is # &er%#nent resident of t*e E.S. des&ite *is
occ#sion#l isits to t*e 2*ili&&ines. /*e 3#ier of suc* i%%i.r#nt st#tus s*ould 'e
#s indu'it#'le #s *is #&&lic#tion for it. A'sent cle#r eidence t*#t *e %#de #n
irreoc#'le 3#ier of t*#t st#tus or t*#t *e surrendered *is .reen c#rd to t*e
#&&ro&ri#te E.S. #ut*orities 'efore *e r#n for %#-or of Bolin#o in t*e loc#l election
on J#nu#r- >8, >988, t*e Court6s conclusion is t*#t *e 3#s dis5u#lified to run for s#id
&u'lic office, *ence, *is election t*ereto 3#s null #nd oid.

99
Election Laws
VILLABER vs. COMELEC ( *6# SCRA 126 )
“C#ndid#tes, B. ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ Bot* &etitioner Kill#'er #nd res&ondent ?ou.l#s R. C#.#s 3ere ri#l
c#ndid#tes for # con.ression#l se#t in t*e "irst ?istrict of ?##o del Sur durin. t*e
,#- >4, 2AA> elections.
C#.#s filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC, # consolid#ted &etition to dis5u#lif- Kill#'er #nd to
c#ncel t*e l#tter6s certific#te of c#ndid#c-, #lle.in. t*#t Kill#'er 3#s conicted for
iol#tion of B#t#s 2#%'#ns# Bl.. 22. C#.#s furt*er #lle.ed t*#t t*is cri%e inoles
%or#l tur&itudeB *ence, under Section >2 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code, *e is
dis5u#lified to run for #n- &u'lic office.
CO,E1EC issued t*e resolution decl#rin. Kill#'er dis5u#lified #s # c#ndid#te. /*e
l#tter filed # %otion for reconsider#tion 'ut 3#s denied.
:ence, t*is &etition.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not iol#tion of B.2. Bl.. 22 inoles %or#l tur&itude, 3*ic* 3ould
dis5u#lif- Kill#'er #s # c#ndid#te for #nd fro% *oldin. #n- &u'lic office.
:eld$ CO,E1EC 'elieed it is, #&&l-in. Section >2 of t*e O%ni'us Election Code
t*#t #n- &erson 3*o *#s 'een sentenced '- fin#l <ud.%ent for #n- offense for 3*ic*
*e *#s 'een sentenced for # cri%e inolin. %or#l tur&itude, s*#ll 'e dis5u#lified to
'e # c#ndid#te #nd to *old #n- office.
,or#l tur&itude is #n #ct of '#seness, ileness, or de&r#it- in t*e &ri#te duties
3*ic* # %#n o3es *is fello3 %en, or to societ- in .ener#l, contr#r- to t*e #cce&ted
#nd custo%#r- rule of ri.*t #nd dut- 'et3een %#n #nd 3o%#n, or conduct contr#r-
to <ustice, *onest-, %odest-, or .ood %or#ls.
7n t*e c#se #t '#r, &etitioner does not #ss#il t*e f#cts #nd circu%st#nces surroundin.
t*e co%%ission of t*e cri%e. 7n effect, *e #d%its #ll t*e ele%ents of t*e cri%e for
3*ic* *e 3#s conicted.
/*ere 3#s no .r#e #'use of discretion co%%itted '- res&ondent CO,E1EC in
issuin. t*e #ss#iled Resolutions.

100
Election Laws
D&MLAO vs. COMELEC ( #5 SCRA *#2 )
“C#ndid#tes, A. Lu#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2etitioner 2#tricio ?u%l#o, is # for%er 0oernor of (ue# Ki)c#-#, 3*o *#s
filed *is certific#te of c#ndid#c- for s#id &osition of 0oernor in t*e fort*co%in.
elections of J#nu#r- CA, >98A. 2etitioner ?u%l#o s&ecific#ll- 5uestions t*e
constitution#lit- of section 4 of B#t#s 2#%'#ns# Bl.. 52 #s discri%in#tor- #nd
contr#r- to t*e e5u#l &rotection #nd due &rocess .u#r#ntees of t*e Constitution
3*ic* &roides t*#t “R.An- retired electie &roinci#l cit- or %unici&#l offici#l 3*o
*#s receied &#-%ent of t*e retire%ent 'enefits to 3*ic* *e is entitled under t*e l#3
#nd 3*o s*#ll *#e 'een 65 -e#rs of #.e #t t*e co%%ence%ent of t*e ter% of office
to 3*ic* *e see=s to 'e elected s*#ll not 'e 5u#lified to run for t*e s#%e electie
loc#l office fro% 3*ic* *e *#s retired.! :e li=e3ise #lle.es t*#t t*e &roision is
directed insidiousl- #.#inst *i%, #nd is '#sed on “&urel- #r'itr#r- .rounds, t*erefore,
cl#ss le.isl#tion.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not >st &#r#.r#&* of section 4 of B2 22 is #lid.
:eld$ 7n t*e c#se of # 65+-e#r old electie loc#l offici#l, 3*o *#s retired fro% #
&roinci#l, cit- or %unici&#l office, t*ere is re#son to dis5u#lif- *i% fro% runnin. for
t*e s#%e office fro% 3*ic* *e *#d retired, #s &roided for in t*e c*#llen.ed
&roision. /*e need for ne3 'lood #ssu%es rele#nce. /*e tiredness of t*e retiree
for .oern%ent 3or= is &resent, #nd 3*#t is e%&*#tic#ll- si.nific#nt is t*#t t*e retired
e%&lo-ee *#s #lre#d- decl#red *i%self tired #nd un##il#'le for t*e s#%e
.oern%ent 3or=, 'ut, 3*ic*, '- irtue of # c*#n.e of %ind, *e 3ould li=e to #ssu%e
#.#in. 7t is for t*is er- re#son t*#t ine5u#lit- 3ill neit*er result fro% t*e #&&lic#tion of
t*e c*#llen.ed &roision. Just #s t*#t &roision does not den- e5u#l &rotection,
neit*er does it &er%it of suc* deni#l.
/*e e5u#l &rotection cl#use does not for'id #ll le.#l cl#ssific#tion. 8*#t is &roscri'es
is # cl#ssific#tion 3*ic* is #r'itr#r- #nd unre#son#'le. /*#t constitution#l .u#r#ntee
is not iol#ted '- # re#son#'le cl#ssific#tion '#sed u&on su'st#nti#l distinctions,
3*ere t*e cl#ssific#tion is .er%#ne to t*e &ur&ose of t*e lo3 #nd #&&lies to #ll t*ose
'elon.in. to t*e s#%e cl#ss.
8:ERE"ORE, t*e first &#r#.r#&* of section 4 of B#t#s 2#%'#ns# Bil#n. 52 is
*ere'- decl#red #lid.

101
Election Laws
CO vs. COMELEC ( 1## SCRA 6#2 )
“C#ndid#tes, A. Lu#lific#tions!
"#cts$ /*e :RE/ decl#red t*#t res&ondent Jose On., Jr. is # n#tur#l 'orn "ili&ino
citi)en #nd # resident of 1#o#n., (ort*ern S#%#r for otin. &ur&oses. /*e
con.ression#l election for t*e second district of (ort*ern S#%#r 3#s *eld. A%on. t*e
c#ndid#tes 3*o ied for t*e &osition of re&resent#tie in t*e second le.isl#tie district
#re t*e &etitioners, Si4to B#lin5uit #nd Antonio Co #nd t*e &ri#te res&ondent, Jose
On., Jr. Res&ondent On. 3#s &rocl#i%ed t*e dul- elected re&resent#tie of t*e
second district of (ort*ern S#%#r.
/*e &etitioners filed election &rotests on t*e .rounds t*#t Jose On., Jr. is not #
n#tur#l 'orn citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines #nd not # resident of t*e second district of
(ort*ern S#%#r.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not Jose On., Jr. is # citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines.
:eld$ ;es. 7n t*e -e#r >895, t*e &ri#te res&ondent6s .r#ndf#t*er, On. /e, #rried in
t*e 2*ili&&ines fro% C*in# #nd est#'lis*ed *is residence in t*e %unici&#lit- of
1#o#n., S#%#r. /*e f#t*er of t*e &ri#te res&ondent, Jose On. C*u#n 3#s 'orn in
C*in# in >9A5 'ut 3#s 'rou.*t '- On. /e to S#%#r in t*e -e#r >9>5, *e filed 3it* t*e
court #n #&&lic#tion for n#tur#li)#tion #nd 3#s decl#red # "ili&ino citi)en.
7n >984, t*e &ri#te res&ondent %#rried # "ili&in# n#%ed ?esiree 1i%. "or t*e
elections of >984 #nd >986, Jose On., Jr. re.istered *i%self #s # oter of 1#o#n.,
S#%#r, #nd oted t*ere durin. t*ose elections.
Ender t*e >9@C Constitution, t*ose 'orn of "ili&ino f#t*ers #nd t*ose 'orn of "ili&ino
%ot*ers 3it* #n #lien f#t*er 3ere &l#ced on e5u#l footin.. /*e- 3ere 'ot*
considered #s n#tur#l 'orn citi)ens. Besides, &ri#te res&ondent did %ore t*#n
%erel- e4ercise *is ri.*t of suffr#.e. :e *#s est#'lis*ed *is life *ere in t*e
2*ili&&ines.
On t*e issue of residence, it is not re5uired t*#t # &erson s*ould *#e # *ouse in
order to est#'lis* *is residence #nd do%icile. 7t is enou.* t*#t *e s*ould lie in t*e
%unici&#lit- or in # rented *ouse or in t*#t of # friend or rel#tie. /o re5uire *i% to
o3n &ro&ert- in order to 'e eli.i'le to run for Con.ress 3ould 'e t#nt#%ount to #
&ro&ert- 5u#lific#tion. /*e Constitution onl- re5uires t*#t t*e c#ndid#te %eet t*e #.e,
citi)ens*i&, otin. #nd residence re5uire%ents.

102
Election Laws
LABO vs. COMELEC ( 1$6 SCRA 1 )
“C#ndid#tes, A. Lu#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2etitioner R#%on 1#'o, elected %#-or of B#.uio Cit- 3#s 5uestioned on *is
citi)ens*i&. :e 3#s %#rried in t*e 2*ili&&ines to #n Austr#li#n citi)en. /*e %#rri#.e
3#s decl#red oid in t*e Austr#li#n "eder#l Court in S-dne- on t*e .round t*#t t*e
%#rri#.e *#d 'een 'i.#%ous. Accordin. to Austr#li#n records, 1#'o is still #n
Austr#li#n citi)en.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not 2etitioner 1#'o is # citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines.
:eld$ /*e &etitioner6s contention t*#t *is %#rri#.e to #n Austr#li#n n#tion#l in >9@6
did not #uto%#tic#ll- diest *i% of 2*ili&&ine citi)ens*i& is irrele#nt. /*ere is no
cl#i% or findin. t*#t *e #uto%#tic#ll- ce#sed to 'e # "ili&ino 'ec#use of t*#t
%#rri#.e. :e 'ec#%e # citi)en of Austr#li# 'ec#use *e 3#s n#tur#li)ed #s suc*
t*rou.* # for%#l #nd &ositie &rocess, si%&lified in *is c#se 'ec#use *e 3#s %#rried
to #n Austr#li#n citi)en. As # condition for suc* n#tur#li)#tion, *e for%#ll- too= t*e
O#t* of Alle.i#nce #ndGor %#de t*e Affir%#tion of Alle.i#nce, renouncin. #ll ot*er
#lle.i#nce. 7t does not #&&e#r in t*e record, nor does t*e &etitioner cl#i%, t*#t *e *#s
re#c5uired 2*ili&&ine citi)ens*i&.

103
Election Laws
0RIVALDO vs. COMELEC ( 1$4 SCRA 245 )
“C#ndid#tes, A. Lu#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Ju#n 0. "ri#ldo 3#s &rocl#i%ed .oernor+elect #nd #ssu%e office
in due ti%e. /*e 1e#.ue of ,unici&#lities filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC # &etition for
#nnul%ent of "ri#ldo6s election #nd &rocl#%#tion on t*e .round t*#t *e 3#s not #
"ili&ino citi)en, *#in. 'een n#tur#li)ed in t*e Enited St#tes. "ri#ldo #d%itted t*e
#lle.#tion 'ut &le#ded t*e s&eci#l #nd #ffir%#tie defenses t*#t *is n#tur#li)#tion 3#s
%erel- forced u&on *i%self #s # %e#ns of suri#l #.#inst t*e unrelentin.
&rosecution '- t*e ,#rti#l 1#3 ?ict#tor6s #.ent #'ro#d.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not "ri#ldo 3#s # citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines #t t*e ti%e of *is
election.
:eld$ (o. Section >>@ of t*e O%ni'us Election Code &roides t*#t # 5u#lified oter
%ust 'e, #%on. ot*er 5u#lific#tions, # citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines, t*is 'ein. #n
indis&ens#'le re5uire%ent for suffr#.e under Article K, Section >, of t*e Constitution.
Een if *e did lose *is n#tur#li)ed A%eric#n citi)ens*i&, suc* forfeiture did not #nd
could not *#e t*e effect of #uto%#tic#ll- restorin. *is citi)ens*i& in t*e 2*ili&&ines
t*#t *e *#d e#rlier renounced.
Lu#lific#tions for &u'lic office #re continuin. re5uire%ents #nd %ust 'e &ossessed
not onl- #t t*e ti%e of #&&oint%ent or election or #ssu%&tion of office 'ut durin. t*e
officer6s entire tenure.
"ri#ldo decl#red not # citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines #nd t*erefore dis5u#lified fro%
serin. #s # 0oernor of t*e 2roince of Sorso.on.

104
Election Laws
1E0ASCA s. ?E KERA ( @92*il. Re&orts C@6 )
“2olitic#l 2#rties, B. 2olitic#l 2#rties!
"#cts$ 1e.#sc#, *erein &etitioner, si.ned *i%self #s 2resident of 0ood3ill 2#rt-,
#s=in. t*#t t*e l#tter 'e reco.ni)ed #s # dul- or.#ni)ed &olitic#l &#rt-. CO,E1EC
denied &etitioner6s &r#-ers u&on conclusion t*#t it is not # &olitic#l &#rt-
conte%&l#ted in t*e Election Code.
Res&ondents #ns3ered #lle.in. t*#t &etitioner did not *#e # &er%#nent #ddress
3*#tsoeerB t*#t so+c#lled 0ood3ill 2#rt- is neit*er or.#ni)ed nor is co%&osed of #
.rou& of &ersons &ursuin. t*e s#%e &olitic#l ide#ls in t*e .oern%ent, it *#in. no
%e%'ers t*#n &etitioner *i%selfB t*#t &etitioner *#s not &resented #n- ot*er &roof of
%e%'ers*i& or or.#ni)#tions #side fro% *is .r#tuitous #nd unsu'st#nti#l cl#i%.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not 0ood3ill 2#rt- is # &olitic#l &#rt- under t*e &urie3 of t*e
Election Code.
:eld$ /*ere c#nnot 'e #n- 5u#rrel t*#t t*e &l#tfor% of t*e 0ood3ill 2#rt- e%'odies
%#n- ide#ls of # &olitic#l c*#r#cter. But no3*ere #&&e#rs t*e e4istence of “#n
or.#ni)ed .rou& of &ersons! &ursuin. s#id ide#ls. 2etitioner6s cl#i% of 45C,989
indiidu#ls is not enou.*. 7t is necess#r- t*#t t*ere s*ould 'e “#n or.#ni)ed .rou&.!
/*ere is no eidence on record #s to t*e e4istence of #n or.#ni)ed .rou&, it is
necess#r- t*#t #ll of t*e% 'e <oined in # cor&or#te 'od-, #rticul#te, 3it* t*e #ttri'utes
of # soci#l &erson#lit-. A constitution, '-+l#3s, rules, or so%e =ind of c*#r#cter is
needed so #s to .ie e4istence to t*e or.#ni)#tion.
/*e so+c#lled 0ood3ill 2#rt- is not # &olitic#l &#rt-.

105
Election Laws
NACIONALIS)A %AR)Y vs. BA&)IS)A ( 85 SCRA 101 )
“2olitic#l 2#rties, A. 2#rt- S-ste%!
"#cts$ 2etitioner (#cion#list# 2#rt- #lle.es t*#t it is or.#ni)ed #nd re.istered under
t*e l#3s of t*e 2*ili&&ines, 'rou.*t t*is #ction &r#-in. t*#t # 3rit of &ro*i'ition issue
co%%#ndin. t*e res&ondent Solicitor 0ener#l to desist foreer fro% #ctin. #s #ctin.
%e%'er of t*e Co%%ission on Elections under t*e desi.n#tion rendered to *i% '-
2resident Luirino, unless *e is le.#ll- #&&ointed #s re.ul#r %e%'er of t*e s#id
Co%%ission on Elections.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not &etitioner, # &olitic#l &#rt- is entitled to 'rin. #n #ction in t*e
courts of <ustice.
:eld$ 7t %#- 'e or.#ni)ed #nd re.istered #s # &olitic#l &#rt- in or 3it* t*e
Co%%ission on Elections for t*e &ur&oses of t*e Reised Election Code (Re&u'lic
Act (o. >8A), 'ut for t*e &ur&ose of 'rin.in. #n #ction in t*e courts of <ustice suc*
or.#ni)#tion #nd re.istr#tion #re not sufficient. 7t *#s to 'e incor&or#ted under Act
>459 for onl- n#tur#l or <uridic#l &ersons %#- 'e &#rties in # ciil #ction, 'ut t*is
tec*nic#l defect %#- 'e cured '- #llo3in. t*e su'stitution of t*e re#l &#rties in
interest for t*e &etitioner.
/*e &etitioner is .r#nted fie d#-s 3it*in 3*ic* to #%end its &etition so #s to
su'stitute t*e re#l &#rties in interest for it (t*e &etitioner) or to s*o3 t*#t it is #
<uridic#l &erson entitled to institute t*ese &roceedin.s. Ot*er3ise, or if t*e &etitioner
does not #%end its &etition or does not s*o3 t*#t it is # <uridic#l entit-, t*e &etition 3ill
'e dis%issed. After t*e #%end%ent or s*o3in. referred to s*#ll *#e 'een %#de, t*e
3rit &r#-ed for 3ill issue.

106
Election Laws
&)&)AL&M vs. COMELEC ( 181 SCRA **5 )
“Koters, C. Annul%ent of Boo= of Koters!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Ent#lu% o't#ined 482 otes 3*ile res&ondent Anni receied C5,58>
otes out of t*e C9,8A> oters. 7f t*e returns of Si#si 3ere e4cluded, &etitioner 3ould
*#e le#d of 5,CA> otes. 2etitioner filed 3ritten o'<ections to t*e returns fro% Si#si
on t*e .round t*#t t*e- “#&&e#r to 'e t#%&ered 3it* or f#lsified! o3in. to t*e “.re#t
e4cess of otes! #&&e#rin. in t*e s#id returns.
CO,E1EC issued #nnullin. t*e Si#si 1ist of Koters “on t*e .round of %#ssie
irre.ul#rities co%%itted in t*e &re&#r#tion #nd 'ein. st#tistic#ll- i%&ro'#'le!, #nd
orderin. # ne3 re.istr#tion of oters for t*e loc#l elections.
2etitioner contends t*#t t*e issue *e r#ised referred to “o'ious %#nuf#ctured
returns,! # &ro&er su'<ect %#tter for # &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- #nd t*erefore
co.ni)#'le '- t*e CO,E1ECB t*#t election returns fro% Si#si s*ould 'e e4cluded
fro% t*e c#n#ss of t*e results since its ori.in#l 1ist of Koters *#d #lre#d- 'een
fin#ll- #nnulled.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e election returns fro% Si#si s*ould 'e e4cluded fro% t*e
c#n#ss of t*e results since t*e ori.in#l 1ist of Koters *#d 'een fin#ll- #nnulled.
:eld$ /*e Si#si returns, *o3eer, do not s*o3 &ri%# f#cie t*#t on t*e '#sis of t*e old
1ist of Koters, t*ere is #ctu#ll- # .re#t e4cess of otes oer 3*#t could *#e 'een
le.#ll- c#st considerin. t*#t onl- C6,AAA &ersons #ctu#ll- oted out of t*e C9,8A>
oters.
2etitioner6s c#use of #ction is not # listed .round for # &re+&rocl#%#tion controers-.
/o #llo3 t*e CO,E1EC to do so retro#ctiel- 3ould 'e to e%&o3er it to #nnul #
&reious election 'ec#use of t*e su'se5uent #nnul%ent of # 5uestioned re.istr-. /*e
list %ust t*en 'e considered conclusie eidence of &ersons 3*o could e4ercise t*e
ri.*t of suffr#.e in # &#rticul#r election.
/*e &re&#r#tion of # oter6s list is not # &roceedin. 'efore t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers.
A &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- is li%ited to c*#llen.es directed #.#inst t*e Bo#rd of
C#n#ssers, not t*e Bo#rd of Election 7ns&ectors #nd suc* c*#llen.e s*ould rel#te to
s&ecified election returns #.#inst 3*ic* t*e &etitioner s*ould *#e %#de er'#l
elections.

107
Election Laws
&S VS SANC&YA ( 1* %39/ R+8o-"s $2# )
“Koters, B. Re.istr#tion!
"#cts$ ?efend#nts, ins&ectors of election, refused to &er%it Rufino 7sturis to re.ister
#s #n elector. 7sturis cl#i%ed t*e ri.*t '- irtue of *is o3ners*i& of re#l &ro&ert-
3ort* 25AA, #s &rescri'ed in su'section ('), section >C, of Act (o. >582.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e ins&ectors of election c#n refuse re.istr#tion of #n
un5u#lified oter.
:eld$ 8*en #n elector cl#i%s t*e ri.*t to ote '- irtue of t*e #'oe &roision of l#3
t*e ins&ectors #re #ut*ori)ed to e4ercise # 5u#si+<udici#l &o3er in decidin. t*e
5uestion inoled, #nd unless t*e- =no3in.l-, 3illfull-, #nd %#liciousl- refuse to
re.ister # 5u#lified oter t*e- #re not cri%in#ll- li#'le.
Eidence insufficient to sust#in coniction. Jud.%ent reersed #nd defend#nts
#c5uitted.

108
Election Laws
AKBAYAN YO&)1 vs. COMELEC ( G.R. No. 14$066 M,-!3 26 2001 )
“Koters, B. Re.istr#tion!
"#cts$ 2etitoners, re&resentin. t*e -out* sector, see= to direct t*e Co%elec to
conduct # s&eci#l re.istr#tion 'efore t*e ,#- >4, 2AA> 0ener#l Elections of ne3
oters. Accordin. to t*e &etitioners #round 4 ,illion -out* f#iled to re.ister on or
'efore t*e ?ece%'er 2@, 2AAA de#dline set '- t*e res&ondent Co%%ission under
R.A. 8>89. On J#nu#r- 29, 2AA> Co%%issioners /#nt#n.co #nd 1#ntion su'%itted
,e%or#ndu% (o. 2AA>+A2@ re5uestin. for # t3o+d#- #ddition#l re.istr#tion of ne3
oters, to 'e set on "e'ru#r- >@ #nd >8, 2AA> n#tion3ide. Su'se5uentl-, Co%elec
issued Resolution (o. C584 den-in. s#id re5uest, it 3#s t*e consensus.
A..rieed '- t*e deni#l, &etitioners filed # &etition for certior#ri #nd %#nd#%us,
3*ic* see=s to nullif- res&ondent Co%elec6s resolution #nd G or to decl#re Sec. 8 of
R.A. 8>89 unconstitution#l insof#r #s s#id &roision effectiel- c#uses t*e
disenfr#nc*ise%ent of &etitioners #nd ot*ers si%il#rl- situ#ted.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not res&ondent Co%elec co%%itted .r#e #'use of discretion in
issuin. Resolution (o. C584 d#ted "e'. 8, 2AA> #s it denies &etitioners6 ri.*t to ote.
:eld$ /*e #ct of re.istr#tion is #n indis&ens#'le &recondition to t*e ri.*t of suffr#.e.
"or re.istr#tion is &#rt #nd &#rcel of t*e ri.*t to ote #nd #n indis&ens#'le ele%ent in
t*e election &rocess. Section 8 of R.A. 8>89, &roides t*#t no re.istr#tion s*#ll 'e
conducted >2A d#-s 'efore # re.ul#r election #nd 9A d#-s 'efore # s&eci#l election.
7n t*e li.*t of t*e fore.oin. t*e #ss#iled resolution %ust 'e u&*eld. /*e so+c#lled
“st#nd+'- &o3ers! or “residu#l! &o3ers of t*e Co%elec, #s r#ised '- t*e &etitioners is
&roided under t*e rele#nt &roisions of Section 29 of R.A. (o. 6646 #nd #do&ted
er'#ti% in Section 28 of R.A. (o. 84C6, 3*erein t*e co%%ission s*#ll fi4 ot*er
&eriods #nd d#tes for t*e #cco%&lis*%ent of &re+election #cts if it is no lon.er
&ossi'le to o'sere t*e d#tes #nd &eriods &rescri'ed '- l#3, c#nnot 'e #&&lied in
t*is c#se.
/*e Su&re%e Court *eld t*#t Section 8 of R.A. 8>89 #&&lies for t*e &ur&ose of
u&*oldin. t*e resolution. Section 28 of R.A. 84C6, &resu&&oses t*e &ossi'ilit- of its
'ein. e4ercised or ##iled of #nd not ot*er3ise. 7n t*e c#se #t '#r t*e Co%elec
st#ted t*e “o&er#tion#l i%&ossi'ilit-! of *oldin. t*e #ddition#l t3o+d#- re.istr#tion,
#nd t*erefore Section 8 of R.A. 84C6 %#- not #&&l-. Co%elec #cted 3it*in t*e
confines of t*e #&&lic#'le l#3 in den-in. t*e &etitioners6 re5uest.

109
Election Laws
ABELLA vs. COMELEC ( 201 SCRA 25* 1##1 )
“Koters, A. Lu#lific#tions G ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2etitioner Ben<#%in 2. A'ell# 3#s t*e offici#l c#ndid#te of t*e 1i'er#l 2#rt- for
&roinci#l .oernor of 1e-te in t*e loc#l election *eld on "e'ru#r- >, >988. /*e
&ri#te res&ondent, Adelin# 1#rr#)#'#l, is t*e 3ife of E%eterio K. 1#rr#)#'#l, t*e
ori.in#l c#ndid#te of t*e 1#=#s n. B#ns#+2?2+1#'#n 3*o 3#s dis5u#lified '- t*e
Co%%ission on Elections on J#nu#r- >8, >988, for l#c= of residence, filed *er o3n
certific#te of c#ndid#c- in su'stitution of *er *us'#nd, t*e d#- 'efore t*e election.
/*e follo3in. d#-, Silestre de l# Cru), # re.istered oter of /#clo'#n Cit-, filed #
&etition 3it* t*e &roinci#l election su&erisor of 1e-te to dis5u#lif- *er for #lle.ed
f#lse st#te%ents in *er certific#te of c#ndid#c- re.#rdin. *er residence. A'ell#
interened in t*e dis5u#lific#tion c#se #nd t*e follo3in. d#- filed # cri%in#l co%&l#int
c*#r.in. t*e &ri#te res&ondent 3it* f#lsific#tion #nd re&resent#tion of *er residence
in *er certific#te of c#ndid#c-.
/*e &osition of &etitioners ?e l# Cru) #nd A'ell# 3#s t*#t res&ondent 1#rr#)#'#l is
neit*er # resident nor # re.istered oter of D#n#n.#, 1e-te #s s*e cl#i%ed 'ut #
resident #nd re.istered oter of Or%oc Cit-, # co%&onent cit- of t*e &roince of
1e-te. On t*e ot*er *#nd, res&ondent 1#rr#)#'#l %#int#ined t*#t s*e 3#s # resident
#nd # re.istered oter of D#n#n.#, 1e-te. On "e'ru#r- >4, >99>, t*e second diision
in # 2+> ote rendered # decision dis5u#lif-in. 1#rr#)#'#l #s .oernor.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e &etitioner is # re.istered oter of D#n#n.#, 1e-te
:eld$ /*e CO,E1EC '#sed its findin. t*#t t*e &etitioner l#c=s t*e re5uired
residence on t*e eidence of record to t*e effect t*#t des&ite &rotest#tions to t*e
contr#r- %#de '- t*e &etitioner, s*e *#s est#'lis*ed *er residence #t Or%oc Cit-
fro% >9@5 to t*e &resent #nd not #t D#n#n.#, 1e-te. :er #tte%&t to &ur&ortedl-
c*#n.e *er residence one -e#r 'efore t*e election '- re.isterin. #t D#n#n.#, 1e-te
to 5u#lif- *er to run for t*e &osition of .oernor of t*e &roince of 1e-te cle#rl- s*o3s
t*#t s*e considers *erself #lre#d- # resident of Or%oc Cit-. 7n t*e #'sence of #n-
eidence to &roe ot*er3ise, t*e reli#nce on t*e &roisions of t*e "#%il- Code 3#s
&ro&er #nd in conson#nce 3it* *u%#n e4&erience. /*e &etitioner did not &resent
eidence to s*o3 t*#t s*e #nd *er *us'#nd %#int#in se&#r#te residences, s*e #t
D#n#n.#, 1e-te #nd *er *us'#nd #t Or%oc Cit-.

110
Election Laws
ROM&ALDEZ vs. R)C O0 )ACLOBAN ( 266 SCRA 406 1##$ )
“Koters, A. Lu#lific#tions G ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ /*e &etitioner 2*ili& Ro%u#lde), is # n#tur#l 'orn citi)en of t*e 2*ili&&ines.
So%eti%e in t*e e#rl- &#rt of >98A, t*e &etitioner, in conson#nce 3it* *is decision to
est#'lis* *is le.#l residence #t B#r#n.#- ,#l'o., /olos#, 1e-te, c#used t*e
construction of *is residenti#l *ouse t*erein. :e soon t*ere#fter #lso sered #s #
B#r#n.#- C#&t#in of t*e &l#ce. 7n t*e >984 B#t#s#n Election #nd >986 “sn#&!
2residenti#l Election, Ro%u#lde) #cted #s t*e C#%&#i.n ,#n#.er of t*e Dilus#n.
B#.on. 1i&un#n (DB1) in 1e-te 3*ere *e oted.
8*en “E?SA 2eo&le6s 2o3er Reolution of >986S too= &l#ce on 2>st to t*e 24t* of
"e'ru#r-, >986, so%e rel#ties #nd #ssoci#tes of t*e de&osed 2resident, fe#rin. for
t*eir &erson#l s#fet-, “fled! t*e countr-. 2etitioner Ro%u#lde), for one, to.et*er 3it*
*is i%%edi#te f#%il-, left t*e 2*ili&&ines #nd sou.*t “#s-lu%! in t*e Enited. 8*ile
#'ro#d, *e too= s&eci#l studies on t*e deelo&%ent of 1e-te+S#%#r #nd intern#tion#l
'usiness fin#nce.
7n t*e e#rl- &#rt of >98@, Ro%u#lde) #tte%&ted to co%e '#c= to t*e 2*ili&&ines to
run for # con.ression#l se#t in 1e-te. 8*en Ro%u#lde) #rried in t*e 2*ili&&ines, *e
did not del#- *is return to *is residence #t ,#l'o.. ?urin. t*e re.istr#tion of oters
conducted '- CO,E1EC for t*e S-nc*roni)ed (#tion#l #nd 1oc#l Election
sc*eduled for >> ,#- >992, &etitioner re.istered *i%self #ne3 #s # oter #t 2recinct
(o. 9 of ,#l'o.. /*e C*#ir%#n of t*e Bo#rd of Election 7ns&ectors, 3*o *#d =no3n
Ro%u#lde) to 'e # resident of t*e &l#ce #nd, in f#ct, #n elected B#r#n.#- C*#ir%#n
of ,#l'o. in >982, #llo3ed *i% to 'e re.istered.
2ri#te res&ondent ?on#to Adincul# filed # &etition for e4clusion 3it* t*e ,/C of
/olos#, 1e-te.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e res&ondent court erred in findin. t*e &etitioner to *#e
olunt#ril- left t*e countr- #nd #'#ndoned *is residence in ,#l'o., /olos#, 1e-te.
:eld$ /*e &olitic#l situ#tion 'rou.*t #'out '- t*e “2eo&le6s 2o3er Reolution! %ust
*#e trul- c#used .re#t #&&re*ension to t*e Ro%u#lde)es, #s 3ell #s # serious
concern oer t*e s#fet- #nd 3elf#re of t*e %e%'ers of t*eir i%%edi#te f#%ilies. /*eir
.oin. into self+e4ile until conditions f#or#'le to t*e% 3ould *#e so%e*o3
st#'ili)ed is underst#nd#'le. Cert#inl-, t*eir sudden de&#rture fro% t*e countr-
c#nnot 'e descri'ed #s “olunt#r-!, or #s “#'#ndon%ent of residence! #t le#st in t*e
conte4t t*#t t*ese ter%s #re used in #&&l-in. t*e conce&t of “do%icile '- c*oice.! 8e
*#e closel- e4#%ined t*e records, #nd 3e find not t*#t %uc* to conince us t*#t t*e
&etitioner *#d, in f#ct, #'#ndoned *is residence in t*e 2*ili&&ines #nd est#'lis*ed *is
do%icile else3*ere.
111
Election Laws
EKA(0E17S/A s. SA(/OS ( 86 2.R. C8@ )
“Koters, A. Lu#lific#tions G ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2l#intiff6s #re %inorit- stoc=*olders of t*e Kit#li 1u%'er Co%&#n-, 7nc., #
2*ili&&ine cor&or#tion or.#ni)ed for t*e e4&loit#tion of # lu%'er concession in
F#%'o#n.#, 2*ili&&inesB t*#t defend#nt *olds %ore t*#n 5A &er cent of t*e stoc=s of
s#id cor&or#tion #nd #lso is #nd #l3#-s *#s 'een t*e &resident, %#n#.er, #nd
tre#surer t*ereofB #nd t*#t defend#nt, in suc* tri&le c#&#cit-, t*rou.* f#ult, ne.lect,
#nd #'#ndon%ent #llo3ed its lu%'er concession to l#&se #nd its &ro&erties #nd
#ssets to dis#&&e#r, t*us c#usin. t*e co%&lete ruin of t*e cor&or#tion #nd tot#l
de&reci#tion of its stoc=s. /*eir co%&l#int t*erefore &r#-s for <ud.%ent re5uirin.
defend#nt$ (>) to render #n #ccount of *is #d%inistr#tion of t*e cor&or#te #ff#irs #nd
#ssets$ (2) to &#- &l#intiffs t*e #lue of t*eir res&ectie &#rtici&#tion in s#id #ssets on
t*e '#sis of t*e #lue of t*e stoc=s *eld '- e#c* of t*e%B #nd (C) to &#- t*e costs of
suit.
/*e co%&l#int does not .ie &l#intiffs6 residence, 'ut, for &ur&oses of enue, #lle.es
t*#t defend#nt resides #t 2>>2 ?e3e- Boule#rd, corner 1i'ert#d Street, 2#s#-,
&roince of Ri)#l. :#in. 'een sered 3it* su%%ons #t t*#t &l#ce, defend#nt filed #
%otion for t*e dis%iss#l of t*e co%&l#int on t*e .round of i%&ro&er enue #nd #lso
on t*e .round t*#t t*e co%&l#int did not st#te # c#use of #ction in f#or of &l#intiffs.
7n su&&ort of t*e o'<ection to t*e enue, defend#nt st#tes t*#t *e is # resident of 7loilo
Cit- #nd not of 2#s#-, defend#nt #lso &resented furt*er #ffid#it to t*e effect t*#t
3*ile *e *#s # *ouse in 2#s#-, 3*ere %e%'ers of *is f#%il- 3*o #re stud-in. in
,#nil# lie #nd 3*ere *e *i%self is so<ournin. for t*e &ur&ose of #ttendin. to *is
interests in ,#nil#, -et *e *#s *is &er%#nent residence in t*e Cit- of 7loilo 3*ere *e
is re.istered #s # oter for election &ur&oses #nd *#s 'een &#-in. *is residence
certific#te.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not defend#nt is # resident of 7loilo, t*erefore, t*ere 3#s no &ro&er
enue 3*en *e 3#s sered 3it* su%%ons in 2#s#-.
:eld$ /*e f#cts in t*is c#se s*o3 t*#t t*e o'<ection to t*e enue is 3ell+founded.
8*ere t*e &l#intiff is # nonresident #nd t*e contr#ct u&on 3*ic* suit is 'rou.*t 3#s
%#de in t*e 2*ili&&ine 7sl#nds it %#- s#fel- 'e #sserted t*#t t*e conenience of t*e
defend#nt 3ould 'e 'est sered '- # tri#l in t*e &roince 3*ere *e resides. /*e f#ct
t*#t defend#nt 3#s so<ournin. in 2#s#- #t t*e ti%e *e 3#s sered 3it* su%%ons
does not %#=e *i% # resident of t*#t &l#ce for &ur&oses of enue. Residence is “t*e
&er%#nent *o%e, t*e &l#ce to 3*ic*, 3*eneer #'sent for 'usiness or &le#sure, one
intends to return.

112
Election Laws
&Y)ENGS& vs. RE%&BLIC ( #5 %.R. 8#0 )
“Koters, A. Lu#lific#tions G ?is5u#lific#tions!
"#cts$ 2etitioner+#&&ellee 3#s 'orn, of C*inese &#rents, in ?u%#.uete, (e.ros
Orient#l on Octo'er 6, >92@, 3*ere *e #lso finis*ed *is &ri%#r- #nd second#r-
educ#tion. :e 3ent to t*e Enited St#tes, 3*ere, fro% >94@ to >95A, *e 3#s enrolled
in t*e 1el#nd St#nford Junior Eniersit-, in C#liforni#. 7n A&ril of t*e s#%e -e#r *e
returned to t*e 2*ili&&ines for four (4) %ont*s #c#tion. /*en, to 'e e4#ct, on Jul- >5,
>95A, *is &resent #&&lic#tion for n#tur#li)#tion 3#s filed. "ort*3it*, *e returned to t*e
Enited St#tes #nd too= # &ost.r#du#te course, in c*e%ic#l en.ineerin., in #not*er
educ#tion#l institution. :e finis*ed t*is course in Jul- >95>B 'ut did not return to t*e
2*ili&&ines until Octo'er >C, >95>.
2etitioner contends, #nd t*e lo3er court *eld, t*#t t*e 3ord “residence!, #s used in
t*e #fores#id &roision of t*e (#tur#li)#tion 1#3, is s-non-%ous 3it* do%icile,
3*ic*, once #c5uired, is not lost '- &*-sic#l #'sence, until #not*er do%icile is
o't#ined, #nd t*#t, fro% >946 to >95>, *e continued to 'e do%iciled in, #nd *ence #
resident of t*e 2*ili&&ines, *is &ur&ose in st#-in. in t*e Enited St#tes, #t t*#t ti%e,
'ein., %erel- to stud- t*erein.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e #&&lic#tion for n#tur#li)#tion %#- 'e .r#nted,
not3it*st#ndin. t*e f#ct t*#t &etitioner left t*e 2*ili&&ines i%%edi#tel- #fter t*e filin.
of *is &etition #nd did not return until seer#l %ont*s #fter t*e first d#te set for t*e
*e#rin. t*ereof.
:eld$ 8*ile, .ener#ll- s&e#=in., do%icile #nd residence %e#n one #nd t*e s#%e
t*in., residence co%'ined 3it* intention to re%#in, constitutes do%icile 3*ile #n
est#'lis*ed #'ode, fi4ed &er%#nentl- for # ti%e for 'usiness or ot*er &ur&oses,
constitutes # residence, t*ou.* t*ere %#- 'e #n intent, e4istin. #ll t*e 3*ile, to
return to t*e true do%icile.
8*ere t*e &etitioner left t*e 2*ili&&ines i%%edi#tel- #fter t*e filin. of *is &etition for
n#tur#li)#tion #nd did not return until seer#l %ont*s #fter t*e first d#te set for t*e
*e#rin. t*ereof, not3it*st#ndin. *is e4&licit &ro%ise, under o#t*, t*#t *e 3ould
reside continuousl- in t*e 2*ili&&ines “fro% t*e d#te of t*e filin. of *is &etition u& to
t*e ti%e of *is #d%ission to 2*ili&&ine citi)ens*i&!, *e *#s not co%&lied 3it* t*e
re5uire%ents of section @ of Co%%on3e#lt* Act (o. 4@C, #nd, conse5uentl-, not
entitled to # <ud.%ent in *is f#or.

113
Election Laws
MAS)&RA vs. COMELEC ( 285 SCRA 4#* 1##8 )
“CO,E1EC, C. 7nde&endence of t*e Co%%ission!
"#cts$ 2etitioner ,ic*#el O. ,#stur# #nd &ri#te res&ondent ?id#.en 2. ?il#n.#len
3ere con.ression#l c#ndid#tes for t*e first district of ,#.uind#n#o durin. t*e 8 ,#-
>995 elections. 7n t*e c#n#ssin. of otes, ?il#n.#len o'<ected to t*e inclusion of t*e
Certific#te of C#n#ss of t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#t#no. on t*e .round t*#t t*e s#%e
3#s #lle.edl- t#%&ered. Actin. on t*e o'<ection, t*e CO,E1EC Second ?iision
ordered t*e &roduction #nd e4#%in#tion of t*e election returns of t*e ,unici&#lit- of
,#t#no.. 7n t*e course of t*e e4#%in#tion four (4) '#llot 'o4es 3ere &roduced #nd
o&ened. E&on e4#%in#tion #nd co%&#rison of t*e co&ies of t*e election returns of
t*e ,/C Jud.e #nd t*e CO,E1EC, t*e CO,E1EC Second ?iision found t*#t,
indeed, t*e Certific#te of C#n#ss of t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#t#no. *#d 'een t#%&ered
3it*. Conse5uentl-, t*e CO,E1EC Second ?iision issued t*e *erein #ss#iled Order
of 29 "e'ru#r- >996 #nnullin. t*e Certific#te of C#n#ss of ,#t#no..
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not CO,E1EC c#n sus&end t*e c#n#ss of otes &endin. its
in5uir- 3*et*er t*ere e4ists # discre&#nc- 'et3een t*e #rious co&ies of election
returns fro% t*e dis&uted otin. centers.
:eld$ 8e find no .r#e #'use of discretion on t*e &#rt of res&ondent CO,E1EC. 7t is
settled <uris&rudence t*#t CO,E1EC c#n sus&end t*e c#n#ss of otes &endin. its
in5uir- 3*et*er t*ere e4ists # discre&#nc- 'et3een t*e #rious co&ies of election
returns fro% t*e dis&uted otin. centers. Coroll#ril-, once t*e election returns 3ere
found to 'e f#lsified or t#%&ered 3it*, t*e CO,E1EC c#n #nnul t*e ille.#l c#n#ss
#nd order t*e Bo#rd of C#n#ssers to reconene #nd &rocl#i% t*e 3inners on t*e
'#sis of t*e .enuine returns or, if it s*ould refuse, re&l#ce t*e %e%'ers of t*e 'o#rd
or &rocl#i% t*e 3inners itself.
/*#t t*e Certific#te of C#n#ss of t*e ,unici&#lit- of ,#t#no. 3#s t#%&ered 3it* is #
f#ctu#l findin. of t*e CO,E1EC. A'sent #n- s*o3in. of #'use of discretion
#%ountin. to l#c= of <urisdiction, t*is Court s*ould refr#in fro% reie3in. t*e s#%e,
#nd %ust #ccord it inste#d t*e res&ect it deseres. /*e rule t*#t f#ctu#l findin.s of
#d%inistr#tie 'odies 3ill not 'e distur'ed '- courts of <ustice e4ce&t 3*en t*ere is
#'solutel- no eidence or no su'st#nti#l eidence in su&&ort of suc* findin.s s*ould
'e #&&lied 3it* .re#ter force 3*en it concerns t*e CO,E1EC, #s t*e fr#%ers of t*e
Constitution intended to &l#ce t*e CO,E1EC + cre#ted #nd e4&licitl- %#de
inde&endent '- t*e Constitution itself + on # leel *i.*er t*#n st#tutor- #d%inistr#tie
or.#ns. /*e CO,E1EC *#s 'ro#d &o3ers to #scert#in t*e true results of t*e election
'- %e#ns ##il#'le to it. "or t*e #tt#in%ent of t*#t end, it is not strictl- 'ound '- t*e
rules of eidence.

114
Election Laws
S&M&LONG vs. COMELEC ( $* %.R. 288 1#42 )
“CO,E1EC, C. 7nde&endence of t*e Co%%ission!
"#cts$ Ender t*e #ut*orit- of Section 5 of Co%%on3e#lt* Act (o. 65@, Co%elec
#do&ted # resolution &roidin. for t*e #&&oint%ent of election ins&ectors to 'e
&ro&osed '- t*e &olitic#l &#rties #nd &ersons n#%ed t*erein. 2etitioner, Ju#n
Su%ulon., 2resident of t*e &olitic#l &#rt- 2#.=#=#is# n. B#-#n, cl#i%s t*e e4clusie
ri.*t to &ro&ose t*e #&&oint%ent of suc* ins&ectors. :e contends t*#t t*e resolution
of t*e Co%elec, '- .iin. t*e so+c#lled re'el c#ndid#te or free+)one f#ction of t*e
(#tion#list# 2#rt- t*e ri.*t to &ro&ose one election ins&ector for e#c* of t*e &recincts
in e#c* of t*e 5C le.isl#tie districts, contr#enes Section 5 of t*e Co%%on3e#lt*
Act (o. 65@. :e #r.ues t*#t under t*#t section t*e (#tion#list# 2#rt- *#s t*e ri.*t to
&ro&ose one, #nd onl- one ins&ector for e#c* &recinct, #nd t*#t t*e resolution *#s
t*e effect of .iin. t*#t &#rt- t3o ins&ectors in e#c* #nd eer- &recinct 3it*in t*ose
le.isl#tie districts. 2etitioner %#int#ins t*#t t*e discretion .ien '- Section 5 of
Co%%on3e#lt* Act (o. 65@ to t*e Co%elec in t*e C*oice of election ins&ectors is
not #'solute, 'ut li%ited '- t*e &roision of t*e Act t*#t t*e %#<orit- &#rt- s*#ll *#e
t*e ri.*t to &ro&ose onl- one ins&ector.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e Co%elec, in .iin. t*e so+c#lled re'el c#ndid#tes #nd free+
)one f#ctions of t*e (#tion#list# 2#rt- t*e ri.*t to &ro&ose election ins&ectors, *#s
#cted 3it*in t*e li%its of t*e discretion .r#nted to it '- l#3.
:eld$ /*e &resent c#se is not #n #&&ro&ri#te c#se for reie3 '- t*e Su&re%e Court.
/*e Co%elec is # constitution#l 'od-. 7t is intended to &l#- # distinct #nd i%&ort#nt
&#rt in our sc*e%e of .oern%ent. 7t s*ould 'e #llo3ed consider#'le l#titude in
deisin. %e#ns #nd %et*ods t*#t 3ill insure t*e #cco%&lis*%ent of t*e .re#t
o'<ectie for 3*ic* it 3#s cre#ted H free, orderl-, #nd *onest elections. /*e Su&re%e
Court %#- not #.ree full- 3it* its c*oice of %e#ns, 'ut unless t*ese #re cle#rl- ille.#l
G constitute .r#e #'use of discretion, t*is court s*ould not interfere. /*e Co%elec
'ec#use of its f#ct+findin. f#cilities, its cont#cts 3it* &olitic#l str#te.ists, #nd its
=no3led.e deried fro% #ctu#l e4&erience in de#lin. 3it* &olitic#l controersies, is
in # &eculi#rl- #d#nt#.eous &osition to decide co%&le4 &olitic#l 5uestions.
?ue re.#rd to t*e inde&endent c*#r#cter of t*e Co%%ission, #s ord#ined in t*e
Constitution re5uires t*#t t*e &o3er of t*e Su&re%e Court to reie3 t*e #cts of t*#t
'od- s*ould, #s # .ener#l &ro&osition, 'e used s&#rin.l-, 'ut fir%l- in #&&ro&ri#te
c#ses.

115
Election Laws
DE (ES&S vs. %EO%LE O0 )1E %1ILI%%INES ( 120 SCRA $60 1#8* )
“CO,E1EC, B. 2o3ers #nd "unctions!
"#cts$ After t*e loc#l elections of J#nu#r- >8, >98A, An#ni#s :i'o, defe#ted
c#ndid#te of t*e (#cion#list# 2#rt- for t*e office of %#-or of t*e ,unici&#lit- of
C#si.ur#n, Sorso.on filed 3it* t*e CO,E1EC # co%&l#int c*#r.in. &etitioner
Ro.elio de Jesus, t*en CO,E1EC re.istr#r of C#si.ur#n, 3it* iol#tion of t*e >9@8
Election Code. Asst. "isc#ls ,#nuel 0eno# #nd ?elfin /#ro., in t*eir c#&#cit- #s
de&uti)ed /#nod'#-#n &rosecutors, conducted #n inesti.#tion. A &ri%# f#cie c#se
#.#inst &etitioner for iol#tion of section 89 #nd su'+sections O4P #nd O%%P of Section
>@8 of t*e Election Code of >9@8 3#s found to e4ist. /*e follo3in. infor%#tion, 3#s
filed 'efore t*e S#ndi.#n'#-#n.
2etitioner filed # %otion to 5u#s* t*e infor%#tion, contendin. t*#t neit*er t*e
/#nod'#-#n nor t*e S#ndi.#n'#-#n *#s t*e #ut*orit- to inesti.#te, &rosecute #nd
tr- t*e offense. 7n its o&&osition, t*e &rosecution %#int#ined t*e /#nod'#-#n6s
e4clusie #ut*orit- to inesti.#te #nd &rosecute offenses co%%itted '- &u'lic officers
#nd e%&lo-ees in rel#tion to t*eir office, #nd conse5uentl-, t*e S#ndi.#n'#-#n6s
<urisdiction to tr- #nd decide t*e c*#r.es #.#inst &etitioner.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e /#nod'#-#n #nd t*e S#ndi.#n'#-#n *#e t*e &o3er to
inesti.#te, &rosecute, #nd tr- election offenses co%%itted '- # &u'lic officer in
rel#tion to *is office.
:eld$ /*e eident constitution#l intend%ent in 'esto3in. t*e &o3er to enforce #nd
#d%inister #ll l#3s rel#tie to t*e conduct of election #nd t*e conco%itt#nt #ut*orit-
to inesti.#te #nd &rosecute election offenses to t*e CO,E1EC is to insure t*e free,
orderl- #nd *onest conduct of elections, f#ilure of 3*ic* 3ould result in t*e frustr#tion
of t*e true 3ill of t*e &eo&le #nd %#=e # %ere idle cere%on- of t*e s#cred ri.*t #nd
dut- of eer- 5u#lified citi)en to ote. /o diest t*e CO,E1EC of t*e #ut*orit- to
inesti.#te #nd &rosecute offenses co%%itted '- &u'lic offici#ls in rel#tion to t*eir
office 3ould t*us seriousl- i%&#ir its effectieness in #c*iein. t*is cle#r
constitution#l %#nd#te.
"ro% # c#reful scrutin- of t*e constitution#l &roisions relied u&on '- t*e
S#ndi.#n'#-#n, 8e &erceie neit*er e4&licit nor i%&licit .r#nt to it #nd its
&rosecutin. #r%, t*e /#nod'#-#n, of t*e #ut*orit- to inesti.#te, &rosecute #nd *e#r
election offenses co%%itted '- &u'lic officers in rel#tion to t*eir office, #s
contr#distin.uis*ed fro% t*e cle#r #nd c#te.oric#l 'esto3#l of s#id #ut*orit- #nd
<urisdiction u&on t*e CO,E1EC #nd t*e courts of first inst#nce under Sections >82
#nd >84, res&ectiel-, of t*e Election Code of >9@8.

116
Election Laws
(ARDIEL vs. COMELEC ( 124 SCRA 650 1#8* )
“CO,E1EC, B. 2o3ers #nd "unctions!
"#cts$ 7n t*e loc#l elections of 2en#r#nd#, (ue# Eci<#, *eld on J#nu#r- CA, >98A,
&etitioner Ces#r J#rdiel, # Dilus#n. B#.on. 1i&un#n (DB1) c#ndid#te for ,#-or
see=in. re+election, &re#iled oer &ri#te res&ondent Ben<#%in Aes, # (#cion#list#
2#rt- ((2) c#ndid#te, '- # &lur#lit- of >,6@8 otes #nd 3#s &rocl#i%ed '- t*e
,unici&#l Bo#rd of C#n#ssers on t*e s#%e d#te.
/*e d#- #fter t*e elections, or on J#nu#r- C>, >98A, t*e CO,E1EC receied #
tele.r#&*ic re&ort fro% its S&eci#l Action /e#%, #nd # letter+re5uest fro% &ri#te
res&ondent reco%%endin. t*e sus&ension of t*e c#n#ss for ,#-or #nd Kice ,#-or
#nd t*e #nnul%ent of t*ose #lre#d- co%&leted. /*e letter #lle.ed t*#t #r%ed .oons
su&&ortin. t*e &etitioner disru&ted t*e countin. of otes #nd c#used t*e tr#nsfer of
t*e '#llot 'o4es #nd t*e c#n#ssin. of otes to t*e ,unici&#l :#ll 3*ere #ccredited
(2 3#tc*ers 3ere denied #ccess, #nd t*#t '#llots 3ere t#%&ered 3it* #nd 'l#n=
unused '#llots 3ere filled u& in f#or of DB1 c#ndid#tes.
After *e#rin. t*e &osition of t*e #derse &#rties t*e CO,E1EC decl#red t*e
elections or t*e results t*ereof, #nnulled for t*e- do not reflect t*e true or &o&ul#r 3ill
of t*e elector#te.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not CO,E1EC is esto&&ed to inesti.#te #nd &rosecute iol#tions
of t*e election l#3s durin. t*e J#nu#r- CA, >98A elections.
:eld$ 2etitioner6s contention t*#t t*e findin.s of t*e ,inistr- of Justice Election /#s=
"orce dis%issin. t*e co%&l#int #.#inst &etitioner for insufficienc- of eidence is res
<udic#t# is unten#'le. /*e /#s= "orce 3#s de&uti)ed '- t*e CO,E1EC to t*e end
t*#t iol#tors t*rou.*out t*e 2*ili&&ines of l#3s rel#tie to elections 3ould 'e
c*#r.ed in Court #nd corres&ondin.l- &en#li)ed. /*e c*#r.es filed 'efore it 3ere for
election offenses 3*ic* #re cri%in#l in n#ture. 7t 3#s not # 'od- e4ercisin. <udici#l
functions. /o t*e CO,E1EC 'elon.s t*e &rero.#tie to enforce #ll l#3s rel#tie to t*e
conduct of elections #nd to see to it t*#t elections #re free, *onest #nd orderl-. 7t
c#nnot 'e “esto&&ed! '- #n- findin. or reco%%end#tion '- #n- /#s= "orce
or.#ni)ed to #ssist it in t*e &erfor%#nce of its functions.

117
Election Laws
AG&AM vs. COMELEC ( 2* SCRA 88* 1#68 )
“CO,E1EC, B. 2o3ers #nd "unctions!
"#cts$ 7n t*e (oe%'er, >96@ elections, #%on.st t*e #s&ir#nts for ,#-or of 0#n#ssi,
1#n#o del Sur, 3ere$ &etitioner Eso ?#n A.u#%, res&ondent Ali% B#lindon., #nd Ali
?#ud B. ,#ro*o%'s#r. At t*e c#n#ssin. *eld in ,#r#3i Cit- on (oe%'er 2A,
>96@, &etitioner A.u#% 3#s &rocl#i%ed ,#-or+elect of 0#n#ssi, 3it* # %#r.in of
onl- t3o otes. 2etitioner too= *is o#t* #nd t*ere#fter #ssu%ed office #s ,#-or of
0#n#ssi. On J#nu#r- 6, >968, res&ondent B#lindon. 3ent to Co%elec 3it* # &etition
for t*e #nnul%ent of t*e (oe%'er 2A, >96@ c#n#ss #nd &rocl#%#tion, #nd for t*e
o&enin. of t*e '#llot 'o4 in 2recinct 8. Res&ondent #erred t*#t t*e election return
for 2recinct 8 3#s t#%&ered 3it* '- %#=in. it #&&e#r t*#t Ali% B#lindon. o't#ined 8
otes in s#id &recinct 3*en in f#ct *e o't#ined >C otesB #nd t*#t #s # result of suc*
t#%&erin., &etitioner Eso ?#n A.u#% *erein 3#s %#de to 3in #.#inst res&ondent
Ali% B#lindon. '- # %#r.in of C otes.
2etitioner A.u#% see=s to #nnul t*e resolution of t*e res&ondent Co%%ission on
Elections (Co%elec) of A&ril 2@, >968 decl#rin. t*#t it *#s <urisdiction to o&en t*e
'#llot 'o4 in 2recinct 8 of t*e %unici&#lit- of 0#n#ssi, 1#n#o del Sur, #nd to conduct
#n inesti.#tion into t*e #ut*entic elector#l return t*erefro%, u&on &etition of
res&ondent Ali% B#lindon..
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not Co%elec *#s t*e <urisdiction to in5uire into t*e nullit- of t*e
(o. 2A, >96@ &rocl#%#tion T conse5uentl- to in5uire into t*e t#%&erin. of t*e
election return in 2recint 8.
:eld$ B- constitution#l %#nd#te, Co%elec “s*#ll *#e e4clusie c*#r.e of t*e
enforce%ent #nd #d%inistr#tion of #ll l#3s rel#tie to t*e conduct of elections #nd
s*#ll e4ercise #ll ot*er functions 3*ic* %#- 'e conferred u&on it '- l#3.! /*e
Constitution en<oins Co%elec to “decide, s#e t*ose inolin. t*e ri.*t to ote, #ll
#d%inistr#tie 5uestions, #ffectin. elections.! And, #ll of t*ese #re #i%ed #t #c*iein.
#n ide#l$ “free, orderl-, #nd *onest elections.! 7%&le%entin. t*e constitution#l
&rece&t, Con.ress le.isl#ted in Section C of t*e Reised Election Code t*#t, in
#ddition to t*e &o3ers #nd functions conferred '- t*e Constitution, Co%elec *#s
“direct #nd i%%edi#te su&erision oer t*e &roinci#l, %unici&#l, #nd cit- offici#ls
desi.n#ted '- l#3 to &erfor% duties rel#tie to t*e conduct of elections.!

118
Election Laws
SANC1EZ vs. COMELEC ( 114 SCRA 454 1#8$ )
“CO,E1EC, B. 2o3ers #nd "unctions!
"#cts$ C#ndid#te S#nc*e) filed # &etition &r#-in. t*#t Co%elec #fter due *e#rin., 'e
directed to conduct # recount of t*e otes c#st in t*e >98@ sen#tori#l elections to
deter%ine t*e true nu%'er of otes to 'e credited to *i% #nd &r#-ed furt*er for #
restr#inin. order directin. t*e Co%elec to 3it**old t*e &rocl#%#tion of t*e l#st four
(4) 3innin. sen#tori#l c#ndid#tes on t*e .round t*#t otes intended for *i% 3ere
decl#red #s #str#- otes 'ec#use of t*e s#%eness of *is surn#%e 3it* t*#t of
dis5u#lified c#ndid#te 0il S#nc*e), 3*ose n#%e *#d not 'een crossed out fro% t*e
Co%elec election returns #nd ot*er election for%s.
On Jul- >6, >98@, t*e Co%elec, '- # ote of four to t*ree, &ro%ul.#ted its decision
dis%issin. &etitioner S#nc*e)6 &etition for recount. On Jul- 24, >98@, *o3eer,
res&ondent Co%elec, '- # ote of fie to t3o, reersed its order of dis%iss#l #nd
.r#nted S#nc*e)6 &etition for recount #ndGor re+#&&reci#tion of '#llots.
7ssue$ 8*et*er *is &etition for recount #ndGor re+#&&reci#tion of '#llots filed 3it* t*e
Co%elec %#- 'e considered # su%%#r- &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- or #n election
&rotest.
:eld$ /*e Court rules t*#t S#nc*e)6 &etition for recount #ndGor re+#&&reci#tion of t*e
'#llots c#st in t*e sen#tori#l elections does not &resent # &ro&er issue for # su%%#r-
&re+&rocl#%#tion controers-.
/*e sco&e of &re+&rocl#%#tion controers- is li%ited to t*e issues enu%er#ted under
sec. 24C of t*e O%ni'us Election Code. /*e enu%er#tion t*erein of t*e issues t*#t
%#- 'e r#ised in &re+&rocl#%#tion controers-, is restrictie #nd e4clusie. 7n t*e
#'sence of #n- cle#r s*o3in. or &roof t*#t t*e election returns c#n#ssed #re
inco%&lete or cont#in %#teri#l defects (sec. 2C4), #&&e#r to *#e 'een t#%&ered
3it*, f#lsified or &re&#red under duress (sec. 2C5) #ndGor cont#in discre&#ncies in t*e
otes credited to #n- c#ndid#te, t*e difference of 3*ic* #ffects t*e result of t*e
election (sec. 2C6), 3*ic* #re t*e onl- inst#nces 3*ere # &re+&rocl#%#tion recount
%#-'e resorted to, .r#nted t*e &reser#tion of t*e inte.rit- of t*e '#llot 'o4 #nd its
contents, S#nc*e)6 &etition %ust f#il. /*e co%&lete election returns 3*ose
#ut*enticit- is not in 5uestion, %ust 'e &ri%# f#cie considered #lid for t*e &ur&ose of
c#n#ssin. t*e s#%e #nd &rocl#%#tion of t*e 3innin. c#ndid#tes.
/*e l#3 #nd &u'lic &olic- %#nd#te t*#t #ll &re+&rocl#%#tion controersies s*#ll 'e
*e#rd su%%#ril- '- t*e Co%%ission #fter due notice #nd *e#rin. #nd <ust #s
su%%#ril- decided.
119
Election Laws
%EO%LE vs. DELGADO ( 18# SCRA $15 1##0 )
“CO,E1EC, B. 2o3ers #nd "unctions!
"#cts$ On J#nu#r- >4, >988 t*e CO,E1EC receied # re&ort+co%&l#int fro% t*e
Election Re.istr#r of /oledo Cit- #.#inst &ri#te res&ondents for #lle.ed iol#tion of
t*e O%ni'us Election Code. /*e CO,E1EC directed t*e 2roinci#l Election
Su&erisor of Ce'u to conduct t*e &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion of t*e c#se 3*o
eentu#ll- reco%%ended t*e filin. of #n infor%#tion #.#inst e#c* of t*e &ri#te
res&ondents for iol#tion of t*e O%ni'us Election Code. /*e CO,E1EC en '#nc
resoled to file t*e infor%#tion #.#inst t*e &ri#te res&ondents #s reco%%ended.
2ri#te res&ondents filed %otions for reconsider#tions #nd t*e sus&ension of t*e
3#rr#nt of #rrest 3it* t*e res&ondent court on t*e .round t*#t no &reli%in#r-
inesti.#tion 3#s conducted. 1#ter, #n order 3#s issued '- res&ondent court
directin. t*e CO,E1EC t*rou.* t*e Re.ion#l Election ?irector of Re.ion K77 to
conduct # reinesti.#tion of s#id c#ses. /*e CO,E1EC 2rosecutor filed # %otion for
reconsider#tion #nd o&&osition to t*e %otion for reinesti.#tion #lle.in. t*erein t*#t it
is onl- t*e Su&re%e Court t*#t %#- reie3 t*e decisions, orders, rulin.s #nd
resolutions of t*e CO,E1EC. /*is 3#s denied '- t*e court.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court (R/C) *#s t*e #ut*orit- to reie3 t*e
#ctions of t*e Co%%ission on Elections (CO,E1EC) in t*e inesti.#tion #nd
&rosecution of election offenses filed in s#id court.
:eld$ B#sed on t*e Constitution #nd t*e O%ni'us Election Code, it is cle#r t*#t #side
fro% t*e #d<udic#tor- or 5u#si+<udici#l &o3er of t*e CO,E1EC to decide election
contests #nd #d%inistr#tie 5uestions, it is #lso ested t*e &o3er of # &u'lic
&rosecutor 3it* t*e e4clusie #ut*orit- to conduct t*e &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion #nd
t*e &rosecution of election offenses &unis*#'le under t*e Code 'efore t*e co%&etent
court. /*us, 3*en t*e CO,E1EC, t*rou.* its dul- #ut*ori)ed l#3 officer, conducts
t*e &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion of #n election offense #nd u&on # &ri%# f#cie findin. of #
&ro'#'le c#use, files t*e infor%#tion in t*e &ro&er court, s#id court t*ere'- #c5uires
<urisdiction oer t*e c#se. Conse5uentl-, #ll t*e su'se5uent dis&osition of s#id c#se
%ust 'e su'<ect to t*e #&&ro#l of t*e court. /*e CO,E1EC c#nnot conduct #
reinesti.#tion of t*e c#se 3it*out t*e #ut*orit- of t*e court or unless so ordered '-
t*e court.
120
Election Laws
%EO%LE vs. IN)ING ( 18$ SCRA $88 )
“CO,E1EC, B. 2o3ers #nd "unctions!
"#cts$ ,rs. Edit*# B#r'# filed # letter+co%&l#int #.#inst O7C+,#-or ?o%in#dor
Re.#l#do of /#n<#-, (e.ros Orient#l 3it* t*e CO,E1EC for #lle.edl- tr#nsferrin.
*er, # &er%#nent (ursin. Attend#nt, 0r#de 7, in t*e office of t*e ,unici&#l ,#-or to #
er- re%ote '#r#n.#- #nd 3it*out o't#inin. &rior &er%ission or cle#r#nce fro%
CO,E1EC #s re5uired '- l#3.
After # &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion of B#r'#6s co%&l#int, Att-. 1itu#n#s found # &ri%#
f#cie c#se. :ence, on Se&te%'er 26, >988, *e filed 3it* t*e res&ondent tri#l court #
cri%in#l c#se for iol#tion of section 26>, 2#r. (*), O%ni'us Election Code #.#inst
t*e O7C+,#-or. 7n #n Order d#ted Se&te%'er CA, >988, t*e res&ondent court issued
# 3#rr#nt of #rrest #.#inst t*e #ccused O7C ,#-or.
:o3eer, in #n order d#ted Octo'er C, >988 #nd 'efore t*e #ccused could 'e
#rrested, t*e tri#l court set #side its Se&te%'er CA, >988 order on t*e .round t*#t
Att-. 1itu#n#s is not #ut*ori)ed to deter%ine &ro'#'le c#use &ursu#nt to Section 2,
Article 777 of t*e >98@ Constitution. /*e tri#l court l#ter on 5u#s*ed t*e infor%#tion.
:ence, t*is &etition.
7ssue$ ?oes # &reli%in#r- inesti.#tion conducted '- # 2roinci#l Election Su&erisor
inolin. election offenses *#e to 'e coursed t*rou.* t*e 2roinci#l 2rosecutor,
'efore t*e Re.ion#l /ri#l Court %#- t#=e co.ni)#nce of t*e inesti.#tion #nd
deter%ine 3*et*er or not &ro'#'le c#use e4istsM
:eld$ /*e >98@ Constitution e%&o3ers t*e CO,E1EC to conduct &reli%in#r-
inesti.#tions in c#ses inolin. election offenses for t*e &ur&ose of *el&in. t*e
Jud.e deter%ine &ro'#'le c#use #nd for filin. #n infor%#tion in court. /*is &o3er is
e4clusie 3it* CO,E1EC. /*e eident constitution#l intend%ent in 'esto3in. t*is
&o3er to t*e CO,E1EC is to insure t*e free, orderl- #nd *onest conduct of elections,
f#ilure of 3*ic* 3ould result in t*e frustr#tion of t*e true 3ill of t*e &eo&le #nd %#=e #
%ere idle cere%on- of t*e s#cred ri.*t #nd dut- of eer- 5u#lified citi)en to ote. /o
diest t*e CO,E1EC of t*e #ut*orit- to inesti.#te #nd &rosecute offenses
co%%itted '- &u'lic offici#ls in rel#tion to t*eir office 3ould t*us seriousl- i%&#ir its
effectieness in #c*iein. t*is cle#r constitution#l %#nd#te.
Be#rin. t*ese &rinci&les in %ind, it is #&&#rent t*#t t*e res&ondent tri#l court
%isconstrued t*e constitution#l &roision 3*en it 5u#s*ed t*e infor%#tion filed '- t*e
2roinci#l Election Su&erisor.

121
Election Laws
BRILLAN)ES vs. YORAC ( 1#2 SCRA *58 1##0 )
“CO,E1EC, A. Lu#lific#tion of ,e%'ers!
"#cts$ /*e 2resident desi.n#ted Associ#te Co%%issioner ;or#c #s Actin. C*#ir%#n
of t*e Co%%ission on Elections, in &l#ce of C*#ir%#n :il#rio B. ?#ide, 3*o *#d
'een n#%ed c*#ir%#n of t*e f#ct+findin. co%%ission to inesti.#te t*e ?ece%'er
>989 cou& d6 et#t #tte%&t. Brill#ntes c*#llen.ed t*e #ct of t*e 2resident #s contr#r-
to t*e constitution#l &roision t*#t ensures t*e inde&endence t*e Co%%ission on
Elections #s #n inde&endent constitution#l 'od- #nd t*e s&ecific &roision t*#t “(7)n
no c#se s*#ll #n- ,e%'er (of t*e Co%%ission on Elections) 'e #&&ointed or
desi.n#ted in # te%&or#r- or #ctin. c#&#cit-.! Brill#ntes contends t*#t t*e c*oice of
t*e Actin. C*#ir%#n of t*e Co%%ission on Elections is #n intern#l %#tter t*#t s*ould
'e resoled '- t*e %e%'ers t*e%seles #nd t*#t t*e intrusion of t*e 2resident of t*e
2*ili&&ines iol#tes t*eir inde&endence. /*e Solicitor 0ener#l t*e desi.n#tion %#de
'- t*e 2resident of t*e 2*ili&&ines s*ould t*erefore 'e sust#ined for re#sons of
“#d%inistr#tie e4&edienc-,! to &reent disru&tion of t*e functions of t*e CO,E1EC.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e 2resident %#- desi.n#te t*e Actin. C*#ir%#n of t*e
CO,E1EC in t*e #'sence of t*e re.ul#r C*#ir%#n.
:eld$ (O. /*e Constitution e4&ressl- descri'es #ll t*e Constitution#l Co%%issions
#s “inde&endent.! /*e- #re not under t*e control of t*e 2resident of t*e 2*ili&&ines in
t*e disc*#r.e of t*eir res&ectie functions. E#c* of t*ese Co%%issions conducts its
o3n &roceedin.s under t*e #&&lic#'le l#3s #nd its o3n rules #nd in t*e e4ercise of
its o3n discretion. 7ts decisions, orders #nd rulin.s #re su'<ect onl- to reie3 on
certior#ri '- t*is Court #s &roided '- t*e Constitution. /*e c*oice of # te%&or#r-
c*#ir%#n in t*e #'sence of t*e re.ul#r c*#ir%#n co%es under t*#t discretion. /*#t
discretion c#nnot 'e e4ercised for it, een 3it* its consent, '- t*e 2resident of t*e
2*ili&&ines.
/*e l#c= of # st#tutor- rule coerin. t*e situ#tion #t '#r is no <ustific#tion for t*e
2resident of t*e 2*ili&&ines to fill t*e oid '- e4tendin. t*e te%&or#r- desi.n#tion in
f#or of t*e res&ondent. /*e situ#tion could *#e 'een *#ndled '- t*e %e%'ers of
t*e Co%%ission on Elections t*e%seles 3it*out t*e &#rtici&#tion of t*e 2resident,
*o3eer 3ell+%e#nin..
7n t*e c*oice of t*e Actin. C*#ir%#n, t*e %e%'ers of t*e Co%%ission on Elections
3ould %ost li=el- *#e 'een .uided '- t*e seniorit- rule #s t*e- t*e%seles 3ould
*#e #&&reci#ted it. 7n #n- eent, t*#t c*oice #nd t*e '#sis t*ereof 3ere for t*e%
#nd not t*e 2resident to %#=e.

122
Election Laws
CAYE)ANO vs. MONSOD ( 201 SCRA 210 1##1 )
“CO,E1EC, A. Lu#lific#tion of ,e%'ers!
"#cts$ ,onsod 3#s no%in#ted '- 2resident A5uino to t*e &osition of C*#ir%#n of t*e
CO,E1EC on A&ril 25, >99>. C#-et#no o&&osed t*e no%in#tion 'ec#use #lle.edl-
,onsod does not &ossess t*e re5uired 5u#lific#tion of *#in. 'een en.#.ed in t*e
&r#ctice of l#3 for #t le#st ten -e#rs. C*#llen.in. t*e #lidit- of t*e confir%#tion '-
t*e Co%%ission on A&&oint%ents of ,onsod6s no%in#tion, &etitioner filed # &etition
for Certior#ri #nd 2ro*i'ition &r#-in. t*#t s#id confir%#tion #nd t*e conse5uent
#&&oint%ent of ,onsod #s C*#ir%#n of t*e Co%%ission on Elections 'e decl#red
null #nd oid 'ec#use ,onsod did not %eet t*e re5uire%ent of *#in. &r#cticed l#3
for t*e l#st ten -e#rs.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not ,onsod s#tisfies t*e re5uire%ent of t*e &osition of C*#ir%#n
of t*e CO,E1EC.
:eld$ /*e &r#ctice of l#3 is not li%ited to t*e conduct of c#ses in court. A &erson is
#lso considered to 'e in t*e &r#ctice of l#3 3*en *e$ “. . . for #lu#'le consider#tion
en.#.es in t*e 'usiness of #disin. &erson, fir%s, #ssoci#tions or cor&or#tions #s to
t*eir ri.*ts under t*e l#3, or #&&e#rs in # re&resent#tie c#&#cit- #s #n #doc#te in
&roceedin.s &endin. or &ros&ectie, 'efore #n- court, co%%issioner, referee, 'o#rd,
'od-, co%%ittee, or co%%ission constituted '- l#3 or #ut*ori)ed to settle
controersies. Ot*er3ise st#ted, one 3*o, in # re&resent#tie c#&#cit-, en.#.es in
t*e 'usiness of #disin. clients #s to t*eir ri.*ts under t*e l#3, or 3*ile so en.#.ed
&erfor%s #n- #ct or #cts eit*er in court or outside of court for t*#t &ur&ose, is
en.#.ed in t*e &r#ctice of l#3.!
Att-. C*risti#n ,onsod is # %e%'er of t*e 2*ili&&ine B#r, *#in. &#ssed t*e '#r
e4#%in#tions of >96A 3it* # .r#de of 86.55U. :e *#s 'een # dues &#-in. %e%'er
of t*e 7nte.r#ted B#r of t*e 2*ili&&ines since its ince&tion in >9@2+@C. :e *#s #lso
'een &#-in. *is &rofession#l license fees #s l#3-er for %ore t*#n ten -e#rs. Att-.
,onsod s &#st 3or= e4&eriences #s # l#3-er+econo%ist, # l#3-er+%#n#.er, #
l#3-er+entre&reneur of industr-, # l#3-er+ne.oti#tor of contr#cts, #nd # l#3-er+
le.isl#tor of 'ot* t*e ric* #nd t*e &oor Q eril- %ore t*#n s#tisf- t*e constitution#l
re5uire%ent Q t*#t *e *#s 'een en.#.ed in t*e &r#ctice of l#3 for #t le#st ten -e#rs.

123
Election Laws
)A&LE vs. SAN)OS ( 200 SCRA 512 1##1 )
“0ener#l 2rinci&les, B. ElectionG2eriod!
"#cts$ On June >8, >989, t*e "eder#tion of Associ#tions of B#r#n.#- Councils
("ABC) of C#t#ndu#nes, co%&osed of eleen (>>) %e%'ers conened in Kir#c,
C#t#ndu#nes 3it* si4 %e%'ers, includin. /#ule, in #ttend#nce for t*e &ur&ose of
*oldin. t*e election of its officers. /*e .rou& decided to *old t*e election des&ite t*e
#'sence of fie (5) of its %e%'ers. /*e 0oernor of C#t#ndu#nes sent # letter to
res&ondent t*e Secret#r- of 1oc#l 0oern%ent, &rotestin. t*e election of t*e officers
of t*e "ABC #nd see=in. its nullific#tion due to fl#.r#nt irre.ul#rities in t*e %#nner it
3#s conducted. /*e Secret#r- nullifed t*e election of t*e officers of t*e "ABC #nd
ordered # ne3 one to 'e conducted to 'e &resided '- t*e Re.ion#l ?irector of
Re.ion K of t*e ?e&#rt%ent of 1oc#l 0oern%ent. /#ule, contested t*e decision
contendin. t*#t neit*er t*e constitution nor t*e l#3 .r#nts <urisdiction u&on t*e
res&ondent Secret#r- oer election contests inolin. t*e election of officers of t*e
"ABC #nd t*#t t*e Constitution &roides t*#t it is t*e CO,E1EC 3*ic* *#s
<urisdiction oer #ll contests inolin. electie '#r#n.#- offici#ls.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e CO,E1EC *#s <urisdiction to entert#in #n election &rotest
inolin. t*e election of t*e officers of t*e "eder#tion of Associ#tion of B#r#n.#-
CouncilsB
:eld$ /*e <urisdiction of t*e CO,E1EC oer contests inolin. electie '#r#n.#-
offici#ls is li%ited to #&&ell#te <urisdiction fro% decisions of t*e tri#l courts. Ender t*e
l#3, t*e s3orn &etition contestin. t*e election of # '#r#n.#- officer s*#ll 'e filed 3it*
t*e &ro&er ,unici&#l or ,etro&olit#n /ri#l Court '- #n- c#ndid#te 3*o *#s dul- filed
# certific#te of c#ndid#c- #nd *#s 'een oted for t*e s#%e office 3it*in >A d#-s #fter
t*e &rocl#%#tion of t*e results.
/*e <urisdiction of t*e CO,E1EC does not coer &rotests oer t*e or.#ni)#tion#l set+
u& of t*e =#ti&un#n n. %.# '#r#n.#- co%&osed of &o&ul#rl- elected &unon.
'#r#n.#-s #s &rescri'ed '- l#3 3*ose officers #re oted u&on '- t*eir res&ectie
%e%'ers. /*e #ut*orit- of t*e CO,E1EC oer t*e =#ti&un#n n. %.# '#r#n.#- is
li%ited '- l#3 to su&erision of t*e election of t*e re&resent#tie of t*e =#ti&un#n
concerned to t*e s#n..uni#n in # &#rticul#r leel conducted '- t*eir o3n res&ectie
or.#ni)#tion.

124
Election Laws
%ERAL)A vs. COMELEC ( 82 SCRA *0 )
“0ener#l 2rinci&les, B. ElectionG2eriod!
"#cts$ Section 4 of t*e >9@8 Election Code &roides t*#t t*e election &eriod s*#ll 'e
fi4ed '- t*e Co%%ission on Elections in #ccord#nce 3it* Section 6, Article J77OCP of
t*e Constitution. /*e &eriod of c#%&#i.n s*#ll not 'e %ore t*#n fort-+fie d#-s
i%%edi#tel- &recedin. t*e election, e4cludin. t*e d#- 'efore #nd t*e d#- of t*e
election. 2etitioners 5uestioned t*e constitution#lit- of t*e 45+d#- c#%&#i.n &erion
'ec#use$ (#) it 3#s decreed '- t*e 2resident #nd not '- t*e Co%%ission on
Elections #s &roided '- Section 6 of Article J77+C #nd (') t*e &eriod s*ould coer #t
le#st ninet- d#-s (9A). /*e- #r.ue t*#t Section 6 of Article J77+C of t*e Constitution
&roides t*#t t*e election &eriod s*#ll co%%ence ninet- d#-s 'efore t*e d#- of
election #nd s*#ll end t*irt- d#-s t*ere#fter.!
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e 45+d#- &eriod is unconstitution#l
:eld$ /*e 45+d#- c#%&#i.n &eriod is constitution#l. Alt*ou.* t*e c#%&#i.n &eriod
&rescri'ed in t*e >9@8 Election Code for t*e election of t*e re&resent#ties to t*e
interi% B#t#s#n. 2#%'#ns# is less t*#n 9A d#-s #nd 3#s decreed '- t*e 2resident
#nd not '- t*e Co%%ission on Elections #s &roided '- Section 6 of Article J77+C of
t*e Constitution, t*e s#%e does not iol#te t*e Constitution, 'ec#use under
A%end%ent >, t*e %#nner of election of %e%'ers of t*e interi% B#t#s#n.
2#%'#ns# s*#ll 'e &rescri'ed #nd re.ul#ted '- l#3, #nd t*e incu%'ent 2resident
under A%end%ent (o. 5, s*#ll continue to e4ercise le.isl#tie &o3er until %#rti#l l#3
s*#ll *#e 'een lifted. ,oreoer, t*e election for %e%'ers in t*e interi% B#t#s#n.
2#%'#ns# is #n election in # st#te of e%er.enc- re5uirin. s&eci#l rules, #nd onl- t*e
incu%'ent 2resident *#s t*e #ut*orit- #nd %e#ns of o't#inin. infor%#tion on t*e
&e#ce #nd order condition of t*e countr- 3it*in 3*ic* #n elector#l c#%&#i.n %#- 'e
#de5u#tel- conducted in #ll re.ions of t*e n#tion. But een #ssu%in. t*#t it s*ould
'e t*e Co%%ission on Elections t*#t s*ould fi4 t*e &eriod of c#%&#i.n, t*e
constitution#l %#nd#te is co%&lied 3it* '- t*e f#ct t*#t t*e Co%%ission *#s #do&ted
#nd is enforcin. t*e &eriod fi4ed in Section 4, Article >, of t*e >9@8 Election Code.

125
Election Laws
GARC1I)ORENA vs. CRESCINI ( *# %R 258 1#18 )
“0ener#l 2rinci&les, B. ElectionG2eriod!
"#cts$ 7n June 6, >9>6, #n election 3#s *eld in t*e 2roince of A%'os C#%#rines,
for .oernor #nd ot*er &roinci#l #nd %unici&#l officers. 0#rc*itoren#, Crescini,
7%&eri#l, #nd Botor 3ere c#ndid#tes for t*e office of .oernor. /*e &roinci#l 'o#rd
of ins&ectors &rocl#i%ed Crescini #s t*e elected #nd issued to *i% # certific#te to
t*#t effect.
7%%edi#tel- u&on notice of s#id &rocl#%#tion, 0#rc*itoren# &resented # &rotest
#.#inst s#id election, #lle.in. t*#t %#n- fr#uds #nd irre.ul#rities *#d 'een
co%%itted in #rious %unici&#lities of s#id &roince, #nd t*#t *e *#d, in f#ct,
receied # %#<orit- of #ll le.#l otes c#st. After tri#l, t*e court decl#red t*#t
0#rc*itoren# *#d, in f#ct, receied # %#<orit- of t*e le.#l otes c#st, #nd ordered t*e
&roinci#l 'o#rd of ins&ectors to correct its re&ort. 1#ter, # ne3 tri#l 3#s ordered 'ut
t*e s#%e decision 3#s #rried #t #nd issued t*e s#%e order to t*e &roinci#l 'o#rd
of ins&ectors to correct t*eir re&ort or c#n#ss in #ccord#nce 3it* s#id decision.
"ro% t*#t decision, Crescini #nd 7%&eri#l #&&e#led to t*is Court, 'riefs 3ere
&resented, #nd t*e c#use 3#s fin#ll- su'%itted for decision on t*e >6t* d#- of
?ece%'er, >9>8.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not t*e court6s decision is correct.
:eld$ Jud.es ,in# #nd 2#redes, #fter discussion of t*e #rious fr#uds co%%itted in
s#id %unici&#lities #rried #t t*e s#%e conclusion, to 3it$ t*#t s#id fr#uds #nd
irre.ul#rities 3ere suc* #s to #'solutel- defe#t t*e *onest e4&ression of t*e desires
of t*e oters of s#id %unici&#lities. /*e eidence #dduced durin. t*e tri#l s*o3s #n
un%ist#=#'le intention #nd desi.n on t*e &#rt not onl- of t*e election ins&ectors 'ut
of %#n- of t*e oters, to defe#t, '- t*e %et*ods #do&ted, t*e true e4&ression of
o&inion, t*rou.* t*e '#llot, of t*e &eo&le of s#id %unici&#lities. /*e &resu%&tion is
t*#t #n election is *onestl- conducted, #nd t*e 'urden of &roof to s*o3 it ot*er3ise is
on t*e &#rt- #ss#ilin. t*e return. But 3*en t*e return is cle#rl- s*o3n to 'e 3ilfull-
#nd corru&tl- f#lse, t*e 3*ole of it 'eco%es 3ort*less #s &roof. 8*en t*e election
*#s 'een conducted so irre.ul#rl- #nd fr#udulentl- t*#t t*e true result c#nnot 'e
#scert#ined, t*e 3*ole return %ust 'e re<ected. 7t is i%&ossi'le to %#=e # list of #ll
t*e fr#uds 3*ic* 3ill in#lid#te #n election. E#c* c#se %ust rest u&on its o3n
eidence. /*e rule, *o3eer, is so 3ell est#'lis*ed t*#t #ut*orities need no lon.er 'e
cited in its su&&ort, t*#t 3*eneer t*e irre.ul#rities #nd fr#uds #re sufficient to defe#t
t*e 3ill of t*e &eo&le of t*e &#rticul#r %unici&#lit- or &recinct, t*e entire ote s*ould
'e re<ected, #nd t*ose 3*o #re .uilt- of suc* fr#uds #nd irre.ul#rities s*ould 'e
&unis*ed to t*e er- li%it of t*e l#3.

126
Election Laws
ROM&ALDEZ vs. R)C ( G.R. No. 104#60 S+8"+67+- 14 1##* )
“0ener#l 2rinci&les, A. Suffr#.e!
"#cts$ 2*ili& Ro%u#lde) 3#s # resident of B#r#n.#- ,#l'o., /olos#, 1e-te #nd in
>982 3#s elected #nd sered #s '#r#n.#- c*#ir%#n. 7n >986 “fled! t*e countr- #nd
sou.*t “#s-lu%! in t*e Enited St#tes 3*ic* 3#s .r#nted. 7n >99>, Ro%u#lde)
returned to t*e 2*ili&&ines #nd u&on #rri#l, *e returned to *is residence #t ,#l'o.
#nd re.istered *i%self #ne3 #s # oter #t 2recinct (o. 9. ?on#to Adincul#
c*#llen.ed t*e re.istr#tion 'efore t*e tri#l court &r#-in. t*#t Ro%u#lde) 'e e4cluded
fro% t*e list of oters #lle.in. t*#t Ro%u#lde) 3#s # resident of E.S.A.B t*#t *e *#d
<ust recentl- #rried in t*e 2*ili&&inesB #nd t*#t *e did not *#e t*e re5uired one+-e#r
residence in t*e 2*ili&&ines #nd t*e si4+%ont* residence in /olos# to 5u#lif- *i% to
re.ister #s # oter in B#r#n.#- ,#l'o.. Ro%u#lde) contended t*#t *e *#s 'een #
resident of /olos# since t*e e#rl- >98A6s, #nd t*#t *e *#s not #'#ndoned *is s#id
residence '- *is &*-sic#l #'sence t*erefro% durin. t*e &eriod fro% >986 u& to >99>.
7ssue$ 8*et*er or not Ro%u#lde) *#s olunt#ril- left t*e countr- #nd #'#ndoned *is
residence in /olos#, 1e-te #nd, t*erefore %#- not re.ister #s # oter.
:eld$ (o. /*e ter% “residence! #s used in t*e election l#3 is s-non-%ous 3it*
“do%icile!, 3*ic* i%&orts not onl- #n intention to reside in # fi4ed &l#ce 'ut #lso
&erson#l &resence in t*#t &l#ce, cou&led 3it* conduct indic#tie of suc* intention.
“?o%icile! denotes # fi4ed &er%#nent residence to 3*ic* 3*en #'sent for 'usiness
or &le#sure, or for li=e re#sons, one intends to return. /*#t residence, in t*e c#se of
t*e &etitioner, 3#s est#'lis*ed durin. t*e e#rl- >98A6s to 'e #t B#r#n.#- ,#l'o.,
/olos#, 1e-te. Residence t*us #c5uired, *o3eer, %#- 'e lost '- #do&tin. #not*er
c*oice of do%icile. 7n order, in turn, to #c5uire # ne3 do%icile '- c*oice, t*ere %ust
concur (>) residence or 'odil- &resence in t*e ne3 loc#lit-, (2) #n intention to re%#in
t*ere, #nd (C) #n intention to #'#ndon t*e old do%icile. 7n ot*er 3ords, t*ere %ust
'#sic#ll- 'e #ni%us %#nendi cou&led 3it* #ni%us non reertendi. /*e &ur&ose to
re%#in in or #t t*e do%icile of c*oice %ust 'e for #n indefinite &eriod of ti%eB t*e
c*#n.e of residence %ust 'e olunt#r-B #nd t*e residence #t t*e &l#ce c*osen for t*e
ne3 do%icile %ust 'e #ctu#l.

127

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