ROAD SIGNBOARD Road signs in Malaysia are standardized road signs similar to those used in other nations but

with certain distinctions. Until the early 1980s, Malaysia followed closely the Australia-Japan-Switzerland standard of road signs with diamond warning signs and circular signs as restrictive signs to maintain traffic. Signs usually use the FHWA Series fonts (Highway Gothic) typeface also used in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Malaysian traffic signs use Malay, the official and national language in Malaysia. However, English is also used for important public places such as tourist attractions, airports, railway stations and immigration checkpoints. Both Malay and English are used in the road signs that are located along the Pengerang Highway (Federal route ), which links Kota Tinggi to Sungai Rengit in Johor state and Genting SempahGenting Highlands Highway which links Genting Sempah to Genting Highlands. According to the road category under 333 Act, the Malaysian Road Transportation Act 1987, chapter 67, blue traffic signs are used for federal, state and municipal roads. Green signs are used for toll expressways or highways only. State roads use letters. For example, Negeri Sembilan N70, Melaka M70and expressways use letters E. Federal Roads only use numbers and digits, for example Federal Route .

However, federal road numbers can also be added with the prefix before the route number, which is normally used by the Malaysian Public Works Department (JKR) and Malaysian police. For example, Federal Route Federal Route .[1] can also be written as

Non-tolled Federal, state and municipal roads Malaysian road signs are blue and have a simple code:• • • JKR hexagon-shaped highway shield with highway code signs are black and yellow Blue with white letters signs for federal, state and municipal roads. Blue with orange letters for road names. Jalan Raja Laut EXIT 224 PERSIMPANGAN JALAN TEMPLER • EXIT 218 SUSUR KELUAR MAJLIS LINK

White with Black letters for exit signs (Usually at Federal Highway)

Malaysian federal road shield

Junction to next Exit to next destinations destinations (usually for (usually for highways) trunk roads)

Fourth-junction directions

Roundabout directions

Places distance

Primary milestones

Secondary milestones

Name of roads

Motorcycle lane • Malaysian motorcycle lane signs are blue.

Motorcycle lane entrance signs

Motocycle lane directions signs

Border signs Border signs in Malaysia are green for state and blue for district.

Sempadan Negeri SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN

State border signs

SEMPADAN DAERAH KUALA SELANGOR ULU TIRAM

District border signs

Sempadan Sempadan WILAYAH Daerah Polis PERSEKUTUAN PETALING KUALA LUMPUR

important signs These are other important signs in Malaysia such as government institutions and tourist destinations.

‫مارا ڠ‬ Mara ng

Tap ah Roa d

White with black letters for towns and other settlements.

↑ Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA) • Green with orange letters for government institutions.

Masjid Negara (National Mosque)

Air Terjun Kota Tinggi

White with green letters and Maroon with white letters for tourist destinations.

Warning signs

Give way • Malaysian warning signs are diamond shaped and are yellow and black in colour.

Construction signs

KAWASAN PEMBINAAN -- m DI HADAPAN

The construction signs in Malaysia are diamond shaped and are orange and black in colour.

Bridge-related signs
FT001/222/ 0047 SG REMBAU

Bridge numbers

River signs
SG DAMANSAR A

Sign vocabulary

National Speed Limit signboard on Malaysian federal roads.

Common state road signboard which is similar to the signboards on federal roads.

Some road signs in Malaysia are in English, such as this one near Jalan Beringin in Damansara Town Centre, Kuala Lumpur. Most road signs in Malaysia use Malay (or Bahasa Melayu); the official and national language of that country. However, English is still used for important directional signs such as CIQ checkpoints, airports and tourist attractions. Below are the translations for the road signs : ARAH = Bound ○ Example: ARAH UTARA = North Bound UTARA = North SELATAN = South BARAT = West TIMUR = East AWAS = Caution KAWASAN KEMALANGAN = Accident Area KAWASAN KAMPUNG = Village area SELEKOH BAHAYA DI HADAPAN = Sharp corner ahead KURANGKAN LAJU = Reduce Speed SIMPANG KE = Junction to SUSUR KELUAR KE = Exit to SUSUR MASUK KE = Entry to (usually at weighing bridge) PEMBINAAN DI HADAPAN = Construction ahead PEMBINAAN TAMAT = End of construction BERHENTI = Stop JALAN SEHALA = One Way BERI LALUAN = Give Away ZON HAD LAJU DIHADAPAN = Speed Limit Zone ahead HAD LAJU KEBANGSAAN = National Speed Limits HAD KETINGGIAN = Height limit JALAN = Road LEBUH RAYA = Expressway / Highway (Avenue = usually in Penang only for example Peel Avenue become Lebuh Raya Peel) LEBUH = Street PERSIARAN = Drive LORONG MEMOTONG DI HADAPAN = Overtaking lane ahead IKUT KIRI KECUALI MEMOTONG or IKUT KIRI JIKA TIDAK MEMOTONG = Keep Left Unless Overtaking KENDERAAN BERAT SILA IKUT KIRI = Heavy vehicles, please keep left

                           

                                 

KENDERAAN --- KELUAR/MASUK DIHADAPAN = --- Vehicles In/Out ahead KECUALI KECEMASAN = Except Emergency PERLAHAN = Slow/Slow Down LAMPU ISYARAT DI HADAPAN = Traffic lights ahead HENTIAN SEBELAH = Layby KAWASAN REHAT DAN RAWAT (R&R) (R&R) (R&R) = Rest and Service Areas PLAZA RESTORAN DAN REHAT (R//R) (R//R) = Restaurant and Rest Plazas STESEN MINYAK = Petrol Station KECEMASAN = Emergency RESTORAN JEJANTAS (OBR) (R&R) = Overhead Bridge Restaurant (OBR) TEROWONG = Tunnel PERSIMPANGAN BERTINGKAT/PERSIMPANGAN = Interchange SUSUR KELUAR = Exit NYALAKAN LAMPU ANDA or SILA NYALAKAN LAMPU = Turn on your headlamps/Please turn on headlamps ANGIN LINTANG = Crosswind GUNAKAN GEAR RENDAH = Shift to lower gears LALUAN MOTOSIKAL = Motorcycle lane GUNAKAN LORONG MOTOSIKAL = Use motorcycle lane KAWASAN SEKOLAH = School area AIR TERJUN = Waterfall PANTAI = Beach KOMPLEKS SEJARAH = Historical Complex MASJID = Mosque WISMA/BANGUNAN = Building LAPANGAN TERBANG = Airport ○ LAPANGAN TERBANG ANTARABANGSA = International Airport LITAR LUMBA = Racing Circuit PUSAT KHIDMAT PELANGGAN = Customers Service Centre PUSAT PENERANGAN PELANCONGAN = Tourist Information Centre JAMBATAN = Bridge JAMBATAN TIMBANG = Weighing Bridge PLAZA TOL = Toll Plaza STESEN KERETAPI = Railway Station TANDAS = Toilet TELEFON = Telephone

             

BANGUNAN IBUSAWAT TELEFON = Telephone exchange building MENARA = Tower STESEN PENGUATKUASAAN JABATAN PENGANGKUTAN JALAN = Road Transport Department Enforcement Station TANJUNG = Cape TELUK = Bay PULAU = Island SUNGAI = River PARIT = Canal PINTU AIR = Water gate KAWASAN TENTERA = Armed forces base area KAWASAN LARANGAN = Prohibited area KAWASAN BANJIR = Flood area KAWASAN KEMALANGAN = Accident prone area ZON PERANGKAP HAD LAJU = Speed trap zone

Paint
History Cave paintings drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal may have been made by early Homo sapiens as long as 40,000 years ago. Ancient painted walls at Denerdera, Egypt, which were exposed for many ages to the open air, still possess a perfect brilliancy of color, as vivid as when they were painted about 2,000 years ago. The Egyptians mixed their colors with some gummy substance, and applied them separated from each other without any blending or mixture. They appeared to have used six colors: white, black, blue, red, yellow, and green. They first covered the field entirely with white, upon which they traced the design in black, leaving out the lights of the ground color. They used minium for red, and generally of a dark tinge. Pliny mentions some painted ceilings in his day in the town of Ardea, which had been executed at a date prior to the foundation of Rome. He expresses great surprise and admiration at their freshness, after the lapse of so many centuries.

Paint was made with the yolk of eggs and therefore, the substance would harden and stick onto the surface applied. Some red paint was made of blood of animals. [citation needed] Pigments were made from plants and sands.

Components This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Pigment Main article: Pigment Pigments are granular solids incorporated into the paint to contribute color, toughness, texture or simply to reduce the cost of the paint. Alternatively, some paints contain dyes instead of or in combination with pigments. Pigments can be classified as either natural or synthetic types. Natural pigments include various clays, calcium carbonate, mica, silicas, and talcs. Synthetics would include engineered molecules, calcined clays, blanc fix, precipitated calcium carbonate, and synthetic silicas.

Hiding pigments, in making paint opaque, also protect the substrate from the harmful effects of ultraviolet light. Hiding pigments include titanium dioxide, phthalo blue, red iron oxide, and many others. Fillers are a special type of pigment that serve to thicken the film, support its structure and simply increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually comprised of cheap and inert materials, such as diatomaceous earth, talc, lime, baryte, clay, etc. Floor paints that will be subjected to abrasion may even contain fine quartz sand as a filler. Not all paints include fillers. On the other hand some paints contain very large proportions of pigment/filler and binder. Some pigments are toxic, such as the lead pigments that are used in lead paint. Paint manufacturers began replacing white lead pigments with the less toxic substitute, titanium white (titanium dioxide), even before lead was functionally banned in paint for residential use in 1978 by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. The titanium dioxide used in most paints today is often coated with silicon or aluminum oxides for various reasons such as better exterior durability, or better hiding performance (opacity) via better efficiency promoted by more optimal spacing within the paint film.

Binder or vehicle The binder, commonly referred to as the vehicle, is the actual film forming component of paint. It is the only component that must be present; other components listed below are included optionally, depending on the desired properties of the cured film. The binder imparts adhesion, binds the pigments together, and strongly influences such properties as gloss potential, exterior durability, flexibility, and toughness. Binders include synthetic or natural resins such as acrylics, polyurethanes, polyesters, melamine resins, epoxy, or oils. Binders can be categorized according to drying, or curing mechanism. The four most common are simple solvent evaporation, oxidative crosslinking, catalyzed polymerization, and coalescence. There are others. Note that drying and curing are two different processes. Drying generally refers to evaporation of the solvent or thinner whereas curing refers to polymerization of the binder. (The term "vehicle" is industrial jargon which is used inconsistently, sometimes to refer to the solvent and sometimes to refer to the binder.) Depending on chemistry and composition, any particular paint may undergo either, or both processes. Thus, there are paints that dry only, those that dry then cure, and those that do not depend on drying for curing Paints that dry by simple solvent evaporation contain a solid binder dissolved in a solvent; this forms a solid film when the solvent evaporates, and the film can redissolve in the solvent again. Classic nitrocellulose lacquers fall into this category, as do non-grain raising stains composed of dyes dissolved in solvent. Latex paint is a water-borne dispersion of sub-micrometre polymer particles. The term "latex" in the context of paint simply means an aqueous dispersion; latex rubber (the sap of the rubber tree that has historically been called latex) is not an ingredient. These dispersions are prepared by emulsion polymerization. Latex paints cure by a process called coalescence where first the water, and then the trace, or coalescing, solvent, evaporate and draw together and soften the latex binder particles and fuse them together into irreversibly bound networked structures, so that the paint will not redissolve in the solvent/water that originally carried it. Residual surfactants in the paint as well as hydrolytic effects with some polymers cause the paint to remain susceptible to softening and, over time, degradation by water. Paints that cure by oxidative crosslinking are generally single package coatings that when applied, the exposure to oxygen in the air starts a process that crosslinks and

polymerizes the binder component. Classic alkyd enamels would fall into this category. Paints that cure by catalyzed polymerization are generally two package coatings that polymerize by way of a chemical reaction initiated by mixing resin and hardener, and which cure by forming a hard plastic structure. Depending on composition they may need to dry first, by evaporation of solvent. Classic two package epoxies or polyurethanes would fall into this category.[2] Still other films are formed by cooling of the binder. For example, encaustic or wax paints are liquid when warm, and harden upon cooling. In many cases, they will resoften or liquify if reheated. Recent environmental requirements restrict the use of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), and alternative means of curing have been developed, particularly for industrial purposes. In UV curing paints, the solvent is evaporated first, and hardening is then initiated by ultraviolet light. In powder coatings there is little or no solvent, and flow and cure are produced by heating of the substrate after application of the dry powder. Solvent The main purposes of the solvent are to adjust the curing properties and viscosity of the paint. It is volatile and does not become part of the paint film. It also controls flow and application properties, and affects the stability of the paint while in liquid state. Its main function is as the carrier for the non volatile components. In order to spread heavier oils (i.e. linseed) as in oil-based interior housepaint, a thinner oil is required. These volatile substances impart their properties temporarily—once the solvent has evaporated or disintegrated, the remaining paint is fixed to the surface. Solvent-borne, also called oil-based, paints can have various combinations of solvents as the diluent, including aliphatics, aromatics, alcohols, ketones and white spirit. These include organic solvents such as petroleum distillate, esters, glycol ethers, and the like. Sometimes volatile low-molecular weight synthetic resins also serve as diluents. Such solvents are used when water resistance, grease resistance, or similar properties are desired.

Additives Besides the three main categories of ingredients, paint can have a wide variety of miscellaneous additives, which are usually added in very small amounts and yet give a very significant effect on the product. Some examples include additives to modify surface tension, improve flow properties, improve the finished appearance,

increase wet edge, improve pigment stability, impart antifreeze properties, control foaming, control skinning, etc. Other types of additives include catalysts, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, texturizers, adhesion promoters, UV stabilizers, flatteners (de-glossing agents), biocides to fight bacterial growth, and the like. Additives normally do not alter the percentages of individual components in a formulation

Color changing paint Various technologies exist for making paints that change color. Thermochromic paints and coatings contain materials that change conformation when heat is applied, and so they change color. Liquid crystals have been used in such paints, such as in the thermometer strips and tapes used in fishtanks. Photochromic paints and coatings contain dyes that change conformation when the film is exposed to UV light, and so they change color. These materials are used to make eyeglasses. Electrochromic paints change color in response to an applied electric current. Car manufacturer Nissan has been reportedly working on an electrochromic paint for use in its vehicles, based on particles of paramagnetic iron oxide. When subjected to an electromagnetic field the paramagnetic particles change spacing, modifying their color and reflective properties. The electromagnetic field would be formed using the conductive metal of the car body.[4] Electrochromic paints can be applied to plastic substrates as well, using a different coating chemistry. The technology involves using special dyes that change conformation when an electric current is applied across the film itself. Recently, this new technology has been used to achieve glare protection at the touch of a button in passenger airplane windows.

Application Paint can be applied as a solid, a gaseous suspension (aerosol) or a liquid. Techniques vary depending on the practical or artistic results desired. As a solid (usually used in industrial and automotive applications), the paint is applied as a very fine powder, then baked at high temperature. This melts the powder and causes it to adhere (stick) to the surface. The reasons for doing this involve the chemistries of the paint, the surface itself, and perhaps even the chemistry of the substrate (the overall object being painted). This is commonly referred to as "powder coating" an object.

As a gas or as a gaseous suspension, the paint is suspended in solid or liquid form in a gas that is sprayed on an object. The paint sticks to the object. This is commonly referred to as "spray painting" an object. The reasons for doing this include: The application mechanism is air and thus no solid object ever touches the object being painted; The distribution of the paint is very uniform so there are no sharp lines; It is possible to deliver very small amounts of paint; A chemical (typically a solvent) can be sprayed along with the paint to dissolve together both the delivered paint and the chemicals on the surface of the object being painted; Some chemical reactions in paint involve the orientation of the paint molecules. In the liquid application, paint can be applied by direct application using brushes, paint rollers, blades, other instruments, or body parts such as fingers. Paint application by spray is the most popular method in industry. In this, paint is atomized by the force of compressed air or by the action of high pressure compression of the paint itself, which results in the paint being turned into small droplets which travel to the article which is to be painted. Rollers generally have a handle that allows for different lengths of poles which can be attached to allow for painting at different heights. Generally, roller application takes two coats for even color. A roller with a thicker nap is used to apply paint on uneven surfaces. Edges are often finished with an angled brush. After liquid paint is applied, there is an interval during which it can be blended with additional painted regions (at the "wet edge") called "open time." The open time of an oil or alkyd-based emulsion paint can be extended by adding white spirit, similar glycols such as Dowanol (propylene glycol ether) or commercial open time prolongers. This can also facilitate the mixing of different wet paint layers for aesthetic effect. Latex and acrylic emulsions require the use of drying retardants suitable for water-based coatings. Paint may also be applied by flipping the paint, dripping, or by dipping an object in paint. Interior/exterior house paint tends to separate when stored, the heavier components settling to the bottom. It should be mixed before use, with a flat wooden stick or a paint mixing accessory; pouring it back and forth between two containers is also an effective manual mixing method. Paint stores have machines for mixing the paint by shaking it vigorously in the can for a few minutes.

The opacity and the film thickness of paint may be measured using a drawdown card. Oil-based paints when dry tend to be very durable, washable, and long-lasting. The paint would take about almost 1 day to dry. Water-based paints tend to be the safest, and easiest to clean up after using—the brushes and rollers can be cleaned with soap and water. It is difficult to reseal the paint container and store the paint well for a long period of time. It should be stored upside down, for a good seal. Storage should be in a cool dry place, protected from freezing. Proper disposal of left over paint is a challenge. Sometimes it can be recycled: Old paint may be usable for a primer coat or an intermediate coat, and paints of similar chemistry can be mixed to make a larger amount of a uniform color. If it is necessary to dispose of paint, one approach is to dry it, either by leaving the lid off until it solidifies (which tends to work well only for small quantities), or by pouring it into a disposable drying device, such as a piece of plywood surrounded by a lip. Once dry, the paint may be discarded with normal trash. Wet oil based paint should be treated as hazardous waste, and disposed of according to local regulations. Product variants A collection of cans of paint and variantsPrimer is a preparatory coating put on materials before painting. Priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface, increases paint durability, and provides additional protection for the material being painted. Emulsion paint is a water-based paint used for painting interior or exterior surfaces. Varnish and shellac provide a protective coating without changing the color. They are paints without pigment. Wood stain is a type of paint that is very "thin," that is, low in viscosity, and formulated so that the pigment penetrates the surface rather than remaining in a film on top of the surface. Stain is predominantly pigment or dye and solvent with little binder, designed primarily to add color without providing a surface coating. Lacquer is usually a fast-drying solvent-based paint or varnish that produces an especially hard, durable finish. An enamel paint is a paint that dries to an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Enamel paints contain either glass powder or tiny metal flake fragments instead of the color pigments found in standard oil-based paints. Enamel paint is also mixed with varnish to increase shine as well as assist its hardening process.

A glaze is an additive used with paint to slow drying time and increase translucency, as in Faux Painting and Art Painting. A roof coating is a fluid applied membrane which has elastic properties that allows it to stretch and return to their original shape without damage. It provides UV protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used as part of a roof restoration system. Fingerpaint is a kind of paint intended to be applied with the fingers; it typically comes in pots and is used by small children, though it has very occasionally been used by adults either to teach art to children, or for their own independent use. Inks are similar to paints, except they are typically made using finely ground pigments or dyes, and are designed so as not to leave a thick film of binder. Titanium dioxide is extensively used for both house paint and artist's paint, because it is permanent and has good covering power. Titanium oxide pigment accounts for the largest use of the element. Titanium paint is an excellent reflector of infrared, and is extensively used in solar observatories where heat causes poor seeing conditions. Anti-graffiti coatings are used to defeat the marking of surfaces by graffiti vandals. There are two categories, sacrificial and non-bonding. Sacrificial coatings are clear coatings that allow the removal of graffiti, usually by pressure washing the surface with high-pressure water, removing the graffiti, and the coating (hence, sacrificed.) They must be re-applied afterward for continued protection. This is most commonly used on natural-looking masonry surfaces, such as statuary and marble walls, and on rougher surfaces that are difficult to clean. Non-bonding coatings are clear, highperformance coatings, usually catalyzed polyurethanes, that allow the graffiti very little to bond to. After the graffiti is discovered, it can be removed with the use of a solvent wash, without damaging the underlying substrate or protective coating. These work best when used on smoother surfaces, and especially over other painted surfaces, including murals. Anti-climb paint is a non-drying paint that appears normal while still being extremely slippery. It is usually used on drainpipes and ledges to deter burglars and vandals from climbing them, and is found in many public places. When a person attempts to climb objects coated with the paint, it rubs off onto the climber, as well as making it hard for them to climb.

Example

Seamaster 6600 Superglo is a high quality economical enamel finishing paint. Specially formulated to provide fast drying enamel finish for interior use on wood and metal surfaces. Excellent for painting of metal structures.

AVAILABLE COLORS :-

Place your mouse over the colors to determine the COLOR CODE/NAME but the colors shown above are for illustration only and do not represent the actual color painted.

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