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Lecture 07 Bearings

Lecture 07 Bearings

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72
Elements of
Mechanical Design

Lecture 07: Rolling
contact bearings
2 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Schedule and reading assignment
Quiz
 Constraints

Topics
 Bearing types & failure modes
 Experimental results to modeling
 Bearing load-life-reliability
 Start spindle exercise

Reading assignment
 None, work on getting bearings done

Quiz Tuesday
 Bearings (conceptual)
www.renault4.co.uk/
Besides the children’s toy (sorry bout that), what do
you notice about the bearing that should be of import?
3 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Loose ends
Thermal stability
 Function of separation distance and contact geometry - cancellation
 Will you always have bearing death if it is not thermally stable?







Mounting of races: Inside rotating vs. outside rotating
 Friction torques
 Look at the tapered roller example from lab
T
R
T
q
A
=

cross
Cond T
A k
t
R =
÷
surface
Conv T
A h
R
1
=
÷
4 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Rough design steps – Inherently iterative
Step 1: Functional requirements
 DOF
 Stiffness
 Lifetime/reliability
 Etc…

Step 2: Bearing type/layout

Step 3: System design & mfg issues
 Housing geometry Shaft geometry
 Shaft deflection Preload
 Thermal Tolerances

Step 4: Assembly specifications
Iteration


Types of rolling contact
bearings
6 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Examples of rolling element bearings
static.howstuffworks.com
www.machinedesign.com
www.gm-exports.com/
www.bearingsworld.com
7 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Inner
 Ring Race

Outer
 Ring Race

Diameters
 Outer Bore

Ball/roller

Cage/separator

Face

Width
Elements: Rotary rolling contact bearing


Bearing failure:
Causes and
failure mode
9 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Brinelling plus cracks
www.amstedrail.com
Subsurface face fatigue crack that has progressed
to surface. Magnification 100X
Cracks in bearings elements
Brinelling of surface
10 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Failure mode: Spalling
http://www.tsb.gc.ca
http://www.tsb.gc.ca
11 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Causes of spalling
Spalling
 Surface fatigue that occurs as a result of contact

Seeds of failure
 Crack growth
 Inclusions
 Impact
 Cyclic high stress
 Degradation of the lubricant

Once it starts, what happens?
 Minor spalling + correct problem may slow/stop
 Typically increases in size with continued service
http://www.tsb.gc.ca
http://www.tsb.gc.ca
Steel quality key to
making long-lasting
bearings


Preload
13 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Model ball-groove contacts as six balls on flats









Important relationships for ball-flat contact
Ball-flat elastomechanics: Hertz contact
1 1
2 2
2
n e
k R E o = · · ·
F
Hertzian contacts
act as non-linear
springs
Hertz
1857-1894
o
14 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Location, magnitude of max shear stress
Max t

Max shear stress occurs below
surface, in the member with
largest R if ball and flat of same
material
3
1
2
2
48 . 0
max
6 1
31 . 0
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ·
· · =
· =
e
e
contact of center
radius contact depth
R
E F
t
t
or major or major
e
R R R R
R
min 2 2 min 1 1
1 1 1 1
1
+ + +
=
2
2
2
1
2
1
1 1
1
E E
E
e
q q ÷
+
÷
=
Equivalent modulus
Equivalent radius
15 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Preload increases stiffness




A little preload goes a long way



Classes of preload, as % of static load capacity
 Heavy 5%
 Medium 3%
 Light 2%
Sensitivity of contact stiffness to AF
3
1
3
2
3
1
o
K
n e e n
F E R k ·
|
.
|

\
|
· · =
Contact stiffness
0
05
10
20
30
0 250 500 750 1000
Fn [N]
k

[
N
/
m
i
c
r
o
n
]
Large Ak for small APreload
16 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
How do you preload a bearing?
Direct
 Nuts pressing directly on races
 Uses compliance of contacts

Internal
 Oversized balls
 Uses compliance of ball-race contacts

Nuts-springs
 Spring in series with bearing
 Primarily uses compliance of spring

Think in terms of relative stiffness because…
 Sensitivity of force to the displacement…
Many bearings come
preloaded “out of the box”

Check to make sure so that
you do not add preload that
will act to overload


Bearing life and
reliability
18 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Bearing life depends on:
 Load and revolutions

From experimentation: For a given R, linear log behavior
 Reliability = % chance that the part will function as expected





Where
 a = 3 for ball bearings
 a = 3.333 for roller bearings
Bearing life at rated reliability
¢ =
a
L F
1
log(F)
log(L)
19 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Regression fit to experimental data
Manufacturers provide a match of:
 Cycle rating: Revolutions For example 10
6
or 90
6
revs
 Load rating: Force Anything…

that defines bearing failure for a given reliability

Given these two numbers, and:



This may be used to extrapolate behavior at different
loads and revs
design
a
design
i
a
i
L F L C
1 1
=
¢ =
a
L F
1
Units of force
Constant
Units of revolutions
Why C vs. F?
This is for common
reliability
20 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Design life in terms of hours or revolutions?
We can think in terms of life as time if:

| | L
hr
rev
hr t =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

min
60
min
e
( )
a
design
design
a
design
a
t F L F L C
1
1
1
10 10
60 e = =
( ) ( )
a
design design design
a
rated rated
t F t C
1 1
10
60 60 e e =
( )
( )
a
rated rated
a
design design
design
t
t
F C
1
1
10
60
60
e
e
=
Dynamic
load
rating
Revs at failure
Be careful with units
21 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Reliability vs. life
Reliability often well-predicted via Weibull distribution
 x
o
= minimum guaranteed value of x
 θ = corresponds to 63.2 percentile of the variate (stochastic variable)
 b = a shape parameter (controls skew, large = right)








 For bearings, we use this as:


10
L
L
x =
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷ =
b
o
o
x
x x
x R
u
exp
r(x)
x
x
o
Commonly used to fit experimental
data; b & u come from fit
This is for common
load on bearings
22 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
BUT the catalogue never tells me what happens for….
 My exact desired load
 My exact desired life
 Situations when I want a reliability that is different than R = 0.90



C
10
x

Design
R = 0.90
Relationship between load, life and reliability
PF
L
L
x =
log(x)
log(F)
A
D
B
2
1
a
D D
a
B B
x F x F
1 1
: y reliabilit Constant
= =¢
1
( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
÷ =
b
o
o B
x
x x
x R
u
exp
load Constant
2
23 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Relationship between load, life and reliability
Load as a function of reliability & vice versa for given:
 C
10
 L
10
 R = 0.90; x = 1 when L = L
10



( )
a
b
D
O O
D
D
R
x x
x
F C
1
1
10
1
ln
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ +
=
u
C
10
x

Design
R = 0.90
PF
L
L
x =
log(x)
log(F)
A
D
24 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Reliability of multi-bearing sets
What is the reliability of:
 One bearing?
 A spindle with two bearings?
 With N bearings?



For first order design, how should individual bearing
reliability scale as a function of N?
25 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
How to handle combined loading
So far we have only considered radial loading…

What about combined radial, Fr, and axial loading , Fa?
 Use an equivalent load, Fe, that does the same amount of damage.



Where V = 1.2 for outer ring rotation and 1 for inner ring
 This has to do with the fact that outer ring fails more often

X
i
and Y
i
are a function of the
 Axial load, Fa
 Static load rating, Co
a i r i e
F Y F V X F + =
26 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Other issues, Shigley/Mischke covers well
Life recommendations (hrs)
 Aircraft engines 0 500 – 2 000
 24-hour critical service 100 000 – 200 000


Application factors
 General commercial 1.1 – 1.3
 Moderate impact 1.5 – 3.0

27 © Martin Culpepper, All rights reserved
Group exercise
Work on your spindle housing-shaft-bearing design
 Constraint layout
 Loads
 Preload
 Thermal stability
 Cost

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