Lower Kingdoms!

A kingdom by kingdom look at viruses, fungus, bacteria and protozoa
Marshall Jiang 5th Period • Chiles High School • March 27, 2008

Marshall Jiang • email: marshall.jiang@gmail.com • Biology



Lytic Infection The host cellʼs machinery are converted to produce the virus. The ribosomes and enzymes make the various parts of the virus and the cell lyses to release the viruses

Lysogenic Infection The virusʼs DNA is inserted into the cellular DNA so that the virusʼs DNA is replicated with the cell. The virus may escape from time to time, infecting other cells or may go into a lytic cycle.

Dead or Alive?
A virus is not considered alive due to the fact that: 1. they have no metabolism 2. they form crystals, a property of chemicals 3. they are dependent upon a host cell to reproduce 4. They do not respond to stimuli

Virus Defense
Possible defence/treatment of a viral infection is to use restriction enzymes that recognize the virusʼs DNA. The enzyme then will cut and remove the DNA, allowing the cell to resume normal operation.

Pros The ability of virus to insert their DNA into cells allows gene therapy to take advantage of them

Cons The viruses can easily replicate, evolve and evade cells at the cellʼs expense, sometimes causing death or the organism


Past Infections
In the 20th century, the destruction of elm trees in the United States and Europe was caused by the fungus Ceratocystis ulmi. The disease is mainly transferred through the Elm beetles. The fungus, Phytophthora infestans, is responsible for the potato famine of the 1840ʼs. The resulting famine left over 1 million dead and more than 1.5 million left Ireland. This blight is currently also a big threat to potato crops now as a new strain appeared which is extremely virulent and destructive.

Types of Fungus
1. Deuteromycota - No spore, reproduces asexually 2. Chytridiomycota (chytrids) - Produces spores that are capable of movement with a flagellum 3. Basidiomycota (club fungi) - produces meiospores (produced by meiosis, haploid)

Fungus rarely infect humans because most of them are facultative parasites. Some examples of human diseases caused by fungus includes: • Conidiobolus coronatus - Nasal polyps and sinus infection • Ustilago maydis - skin lesions • Schizophyllum commune - A wood decomposing mushroom sometimes found in finger nails

Human diseases

Edible Fungus
The most common types of edible fungus are mushrooms. Other edible uses for fungus includes using their spores to foment the growth of mold in cheeses. Some examples are: 1. Stilton Cheese 2. Portobello Mushrooms 3. Straw Mushrooms

Types of Bacteria
Eubacteria 1. Chemotrophs Archbacteria 1. Methanogens CO2 and H2 to create CH4 2. Extreme Halophiles - extremely salty places 3. Thermoacidophiles - Hot, acidic areas

Biological Warfare
In biological warfare, a nation could use recombinant DNA by inserting antibiotics resistant strands into the organism in use. Furthermore, one could implant more lethal elements into a bacteriaʼs DNA, creating a unstoppable attack.

2. Autotrophs

3. Heterotrophs

The Good and the Bad
A type of bacteria culture that has potential benefit for humans are called probiotics. The most common ones are lactic acid bacteria as they are the ones responsible for cheese and yogurts. Also, some bacterial culture lives in our digestive tract that some claim to help strengthen the immune system. Other bacteria, such as TB or typhoid fever, can cause death is humans.

Botox© and Botulism?
Botox is the trademarked name for botulinum toxin A, which is related to botulism. The way botox treats wrinkles is under the concept that botulism paralyzes muscle and paralyzed muscle canʼt form wrinkles. Other uses of the botulism bacteria is that of applying it in small amounts to overactive muscles such as “crossed eyes” and “uncontrollable blinking.” Botulinum by itself, is extremely poisonous as it paralyzes the respiratory system, causing the person to not be able to breath.

Biological Warfare
Tuberculosis can become resistant to antibiotics because of the length required for a full TB treatment. Many people stop treatment in the middle, thus leaving the stronger ones alive for transmission. This is the same reason why most bacteria are gaining resistance to antibiotics.

Seaweeds, Plantae?
Giant seaweeds are part of the Protista Kingdom because they lack a specialized vascular system, such as roots, stems, leaves and enclosed reproductive structures like flowers and cones. The discussion over this classification is controversial is because seaweeds, like true plants, uses chlorophyll to go through photosynthetic.

Human Diseases Malaria (Plasmodium) African Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosoma) Leishmaniasis Toxoplasmosis Paramecium usually reproduces asexually by splitting into two, almost identical organism. In this type of reproduction, no genetic material is exchanged and is called “fission.” Sometimes conditions such as overcrowding or other stress causes paramecium to reproduce sexually. In a process called conjugation, two paramecium line up side by side, fuse together, and the nucleus divides. This cause the chromosomes to mix and cause diversity. The paramecium then made go to asexual fission.

Paramecium movement is propelled by thousands of little cilia on itʼs body. On the other hand, Euglena moves by using a single flagellum. Amoeba moves using pseudopods; to get food, the amoeba surrounds the food with the pseudopods and store it in a vacuole

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