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Articles of Confederation

A Just Right
Powers of natl v. state govts

How states represented in natl govt

Executive Power

Vote required to make laws

Vote required to change (amend) govt
Articles of Confederation
State governments had more power
Each state had only one vote regardless of population
No executive power divided among committees
2/3 majority (9 of 13 states)
All 13 states had to approve amendments to the Articles
Tax Power

Military Powers

Currency Powers

Commerce Powers (trade)

Court System
Articles of Confederation
Could NOT raise money by taxing
Could create armies, declare war, negotiate treaties
Could NOT establish a common currency
Could NOT regulate trade
There was NO system of federal courts
Lets review!
List what the Articles of Confederation
CAN do:
List what the Articles of Confederation

Confederation Congress
Articles of Confederation
National Government Structure
Chosen by state
legislatures (rather
than voters)
Each state had 1
single vote in
Given power to make,
implement, and
enforce laws
Committees of Congressmen
No executive branch
or President
Powers of executive
divided among
Powers of the National Congress
Federal Congress could not:
Establish a common currency
Regulate interstate commerce
Raise taxes !
Needed funds to pay for war debts, but states
wouldnt pay up

Other weakness:
No executive branch to enforce laws

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
High inflation - $1000.00 = $1.00 gold
Deep debt - $60.000 ($745.000 today) to
states and foreign countries
France wants us humble and poor
Soldiers unpaid no pensions

In early 1787 a group of small farmers protested against the
Massachusetts govt.
Why? They were in debt, their homes being repossessed and
unfair taxation.
They were led by Daniel Shays, a former army captain in the
Revolutionary War.
The purpose of the rebellion was to prevent foreclosures by
keeping the courts from sitting until the next election.
Shays Rebellion was put down by private army paid for by
wealthy merchants from Boston.
The AOC was unable to put down the rebellion with a national
guard or army.

Attacks by Shay followers
Encounters between
Shays and hired militias.
Rebellion put down
by a private militia
US Govt. too weak
to put down
Americans feared
govt. too weak =
Call for a Constitutional Convention to change
AOC and create a stronger national government.
Slowdown in trade caused:
increased unemployment
reduced prices paid to farmers

Most Americans were farmers, most
farmers in debt

W. Mass. 1786 farmers tried to shut
down courts to stop foreclosure
hearings leader Daniel Shays;
could not pay high Mass. taxes

1787 Shays led 1,000 farmers to
seize weapons from an armory &
again attempted to shut down the
courts Shays Rebellion

Farmers Revolt in Massachusetts
Strengths of the Articles of Confederation
Land Ordinance of 1785
System for surveying &
distributing public land
Townships, sections, half-
sections, etc.
Income from 16th section
provided $ for public

Northwest Ordinance of 1787
system for governing
Pop. 5,000 establish elected
Pop. 60,000 write Const;
request admission as state
Admitted as an equal set
Slavery prohibited
5 new states: OH, IN, IL, MI,
Congress created a plan for western lands:
Page 138
The Articles of Confederation
was an effective form of

Create a T-Chart of +/- about the
Based on your findings, create one
sentence about the Articles of
Organization of the A of C
Power rested in the states weak central authority
No executive to carry out laws
Unicameral legislature (Congress), one representative
per state
No national courts only state courts
9 of 13 states to approve laws
13 of 13 states to amend Articles
Congress has not power to tax can request $
Congress cannot regulate trade among the states
Congress can declare war, make treaties, but it cannot
draft an army
No national currency states coin own money
Achievements of the A of C
Power to make treaties, declare war, and
receive ambassadors
Successful conclusion of the Revolution
Negotiation of the Treaty of Paris and gaining
land to the Mississippi River
Passage of the Land Ordinance of 1785
selling of federal lands
Passage of Northwest Ordinance of 1787
pattern to admit new states, prohibits slavery in
Northwest Territory
Drafting the Constitution
The Convention Begins
12 of 13 states sent
delegates to convention in
Philadelphia in May 1787
Mission: make amendments
to the Articles
Held in Independence Hall
Meetings kept secret from
public so delegates could
speak freely
Alexander Hamilton

disliked democracy
(preferred British model)

Important during the
creation & adoption of the

Would later become 1

Secretary of the Treasury
James Madison
Father of the Constitution

favored a republic rather than the
British system

wanted government that was both

wanted well educated to govern

Important during the creation &
adoption of the Constitution

Legislative Question to Answer
1. How should Congress be
The Virginia Plan vs. The New Jersey Plan
The Virginia Plan
Big state plan
Proposed by Madison
3 Branches of Govt
Bicameral legislature -
representation based
on population
Called for a strong

The New Jersey Plan
small state plan
Proposed by William
3 Branches
Unicameral legislature -
equal representation
(1 state, 1 vote)
Executive committee, no President

The Great Compromise
Created a bicameral legislature

Legislative Branch
House of
(based on states
(2 senators from every
1. Trust the people to elect the
President or not?
Executive Question to Answer
(said educated, moneyed,
elite should chose)
Solution: The Electoral College
Popular vote gets to send electors to vote at electoral college

House of Representatives # + 2 Senators =
# of electors for a state
(not the same people, electoral college is chosen by Party Conventions in
each state)
Slavery Questions to Answer
1. Should slavery continue?
2. Should slaves be counted as
part of the population?
The Three-Fifths Compromise
Protection of Slavery
Constitution forbade Congress from
blocking the importation of slaves
for 20 yrs
Three-Fifths Compromise
counted each slave as 3/5 of a
person when determining
delegates for House of
Representatives & electoral
Constitution committed all states
to return fugitive slaves to their
Thursday September 4, 2014
Please take out your handout from yesterday
on the Northwest Ordinance. Answer
questions 1-5 on the handout.

You may use your notes or the textbook to
complete this task.
U.S. Government: 3 Branches
Separation of Powers (Montesquieu)
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Executive Branch
Carries out the Laws
Legislative Branch
Makes the Laws
Judicial Branch
Supreme Court
Interprets Laws
Can remove president from office
Can Override Presidential Veto
Can veto acts of congress
Powers of natl v. stage govts

How states represented in natl govt (Congress)

Executive Power

Vote required to make laws

Vote required to change (amend) govt
Federalism power divided between state and federal
Senate: 2 from every state
House of Representatives: based on population
Powerful President who carries out the laws
Majority in House & Senate, then signed by Pres.
Approved by of state legislatures or special state
conventions in of the states
Tax Power

Military Powers

Currency Powers

Commerce Powers (trade)

Court System
CAN raise money by taxing
Congress: approve treaties, declare war
President: Commander-in-Chief, negotiates treaties
CAN create a common, national currency
CAN regulate trade
MADE a system of federal courts (Judicial Branch)
Ratifying the Constitution
Chapter 5, section 3
The Struggle over Ratification
Ratification required approval of 9
of 13 states

Two groups emerge in the states:
Federalists those who
supported the Constitution

Antifederalists those who
opposed the Constitution
Antifederalists vs. Federalists
Antifederalist concerns
Constitution gave national
govt too much power
President will be just like a
Individual liberties of people
will be threatened by a
powerful govt
Federal govt could come
under control of one
powerful group
Federalist response
enough power to solve
the countrys problems
system of checks and
balances will limit
presidents power
Bill of Rights will protect
citizens freedom
Country is too big to be
dominated by one group