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Navnath L .
Guidence :-
Prof :- Om Karad Sir MIT Pune
What is DNA?

•It is nucleic acid
that contain genetic
instruction used in
Development of all
Known living
organism& viruses
What is a DNA Chip?
• “DNA chip” is slang for DNA microarray.

 Containing all the gene(40,000)
• in the entire Human Genome into
• hundreds to thousand pixels.

 Each gene or “probe” occupies a
• particular “spot” on the chip.

 various glowing activity show different level of

• gene activity In genetic material.
DNA chips
 Probes are DNA fragments, usually bigger than

 Probes are deposited on a solid support,

•either positively charged nylon or glass slide

 At least two samples are hybridized to chip

 Samples are labeled using fluorescent dyes

 Fluorescence at different wavelengths

• measured by a scanner
Gens : Piece of genome
•Genome is all of leaving thing’s genetic material, work for
assembling cell.

•Genes are responsible for control
and hereditary transfer of
a single characteristic.

•Genes were linked to DNA.

Few concepts :
What is probe?
A single standard DNA molecules used to
detect the presence of a complementary
sequence among a mixture of other single-
stranded DNA.

PCR: (Polymer Chain Reaction)

Is a technique to amplify a single Or few
copies of a piece of DNA.
The Power of Micro - Arrays
•Micro-Arrays quickly
show the relationships
between specific genes
and specific character
and similarity.

•Thus, we efficiently
gain valuable coming
into how our genetics
specifically affect us.
 DNA hybridization (1960s)
• Detection of hybrids
a) radioactive labeling (chemical process to replace stable
chemical element with radioactive tracer)
b) enzyme-linked detection (Detection reagents in a varity
of sensitive immunoassys)
c) fluorescent labeling (covalently attaching a flurophor to
another molecule )

 Fixing sample on solid support

a) Southern blots (1970s):Study of specific DNA sequence
b) Northern blots: Study of detection of RNA
c) Dot blots : used to detect Bimolecule.
DNA chip design
• Probe selection
• Non-redundant set of probes
• Includes genes of interest to project
• Corresponds to physically available clones
• Chip layout
• Grouping of probes by function
• Correspondence between wells in microtitre
plates and spots on the chip
How DNA Chips Are Made
 Step 1: Make gene probes.

tep 2 : Manufacture substrate wafer .

Step 3 : Deposit genetic sequences

Step 4 : Customer use .

How Genetic Sequencing
Step 1 : Determine chemical structure of
fragment .

Step 2 : Separate strands .

Step 3 : Introduce sample .

Step 4 : Identify result .


Use by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency )

•DARPA funds projects of DNA chip’s for "dual use“.

•Must have both civilian and military applications.

•Advanced detection of battlefield biological and
chemical weapons.

Universal Hybridization Chips

•Universal hybridization chip technology that

can be used for a multitude of genetic analysis

future diagnostic
 Analysts have high hopes for future
diagnostic applications of DNA chips,
such as this standard 100-site
microarray .

 DNA-chip developers have commercialized
by forming partnerships with drug

 Using this tech. they will come know that
which proper medicine should be
preferred for controlling daises.

 Rapid advances are also being made in

 It is a technology essential for the manufacture of
DNA chips.

 Researchers are beginning to develop microchip-
called nanoscale devices, the name implying a
1000-fold improvement over micrometer-scale

 DNA chips will bring about a sea change in
the way that some of humankind's most
difficult diseases are diagnosed and

 Development of DNA chips is accelerating.

 By 2015—or sooner— absolutely believe
that we will see instrumentation using
DNA chips in point-of-care applications.


Thank You For Your Time

Thank You For Your Time
• Respected,
• All The Faculty Member

• By
• Navnath L. Shete
• MIT Pune