Assignment on

HRM (recruitment & selection)


Suneet Seth MBA 1 s t SEM R.N 430

INTRODUCTION: Today, in every organisation personnel planning as an activity is necessary. It is an important part of an organisation. Human Resource Planning is a vital ingredient for the success of the organisation in the long run. There are certain ways that are to be

followed by every organisation, which ensures that it has right number and kind of people, at the right place and right time, so that organisation can achieve its planned objective. The objectives of Human Resource Department are Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Career planning, Transfer and Promotion, Risk Management, Performance Appraisal and so on. Each objective needs special attention and proper planning and implementation. For every organisation it is important to have a right person on a right job. Recruitment and Selection plays a vital role in this situation. Shortage of skills and the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers go about Recruiting and Selecting staff. First we will know what is recruitment and selectionRecruitment and Selection are simultaneous process and are incomplete without each other. Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel management. Recruitment precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate. They are important components of the organisation and are different from each other

Meaning of Recruitment:
Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arran gements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for the jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected. In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees Flippo’s definition: “It is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization.”

Need for recruitment:
The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation: a) Vacancies due to promotions, transfer, retirement, termination, permanent disability, death and labour turnover. b) Creation of new vacancies due to the growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job specification.

Purpose and importance of Recruitment:

1. Determine the present and future requirements of the organization on conjunction with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities. 2. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. 3. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. 4. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time. 5. Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force.

6. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. 7. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. 8. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.

Sources of Recruitment



1) Promotion 2) Transfers 3) Internal notification service (Advertisement) exchanges 4) Retirement transfer another 5) Recall schemes 6) Former employees 7) Miscellaneous external sources

1) Campus recruitment 2) Press advertisement 3) Management consultancy & private employment 4) Deputation of personnel or From one enterprise to 5) Management training 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins


Recruitment Pros and Cons:

The Internal Recruitment can build a strong loyalty with the organization as the employees have a chance to change their position after a period of time. The employees are not pressed to look for opportunities on the external job market. The Internal Recruitment can be cheaper for the organization and can save the costs dedicated to the training and induction of new employees. Also, as the candidate knows the organization, the possibility of the failure is not a significant issue to the organization. The Internal Recruitment needs strong management from the HRM Function, which can lead to the conflicts and the HRM Function has to have a position to be able to act as a strong facilitator in the conflict resolution. The Internal Recruitment can lead to huge issues when the candidates come from one department. The managers have to have the right to protect their own interests in the organization as they are responsible for the smooth operation. The Internal Recruitment does not bring new skills and competencies to the organization and organization with an intensive usage of the internal recruitment can suffer from the fresh blood. External Recruitment Pros and Cons: The External Recruitment brings new people to the organization, which can be a huge benefit for the organization. The External Recruitment allows the organization to define the right requirements and the organization can select the candidate, which suits the organization best. The external recruitment can be in many situations quicker solutions, mainly in the situation, when the job market is full of potential job candidates. The external recruitment and proper campaign increase the popularity of the organization on the job market, which helps to improve the position for further expansion. On the other hand, the external recruitment is expensive and takes a lot of energy from the HRM Function to handle all the job candidates in the selection process.

Meaning of SELECTION:
Selection is defined as the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the appropriate qualification and competency to do the job. The difference between recruitment and selection: Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to apply for a job. And Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants . Selection process starts where recruitment ends

SELECTION PROCESS Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment.

The following chart gives an idea about selection process: External environment Internal environment

Preliminary interview

Selection test

Rejected Application

Employment interview

Reference and Background Analysis

Selection decision

Physical examination

Job offer

Employment contract


Environment factor affecting selection: Selection is influenced by several factors. More prominent among them are supply and demand of specific skills in the labor market, unemployment rate, labor- market conditions, legal and political considerations, company’s image, company’s policy, human resources planning and cost of hiring. The last three constitute the internal environment and the remaining form the external environment of selection process. STEP 1 : PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW

The applicants received from job seekers would be subject to scrutiny so as to eliminate unqualified applicants. This is usually followed by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as scrutiny of application, that is, eliminate of unqualified applicants. Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified jobseekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. Preliminary interview, on the other hand, helps reject misfits for reason, which did not appear in the application forms. Besides, preliminary interview, often called ‘courtesy interview’, is a good public relation exercise. STEP 2 : SELECTION TEST: Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for tests. Different types of tests may be administered, depending on the job and the company. Generally, tests are used to determine the applicant’s ability, aptitude and personality. The following are the type of tests taken: 1). Ability tests:

2). Aptitude test :

Assist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. An excellent illustration of this is the typing tests given to a prospective employer for secretarial job. Also called as ‘ACHEIVEMENT TESTS’. It is concerned with what one has accomplished. When applicant claims to know something, an achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it. Trade tests are the most common type of achievement test given. Questions have been prepared and tested for such trades as asbestos worker, punch-press operators, electricians and machinists. Aptitude tests measure whether an individual’s has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. The use of aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no experience along the line of the job opening. Aptitudes tests help determine a person’s potential to learn in a given area. An example of such test is the general management aptitude tests (GMAT), which many business students take prior to gaining admission to a graduate business school programme. Forms of aptitude test:

1. Mental or intelligence tests 2. Mechanical aptitude tests: 3. Psychomotor or skills tests: 4. Intelligence test: 5. Interest Test: 6. Personality Test: 7. Projective Test: 8. General knowledge Test: 9. Perception Test: 10. Graphology Test: 11. Polygraph Test:

12. Medical Test: STEP 3 : INTERVIEW: The next step in the selection process is an interview. Interview is formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. It is considered to be excellent selection device. It is face-to-face exchange of view, ideas and opinion between the candidates and interviewers. Basically, interview is nothing but an oral examination of candidates. Interview can be adapted to unskilled, skilled, managerial and profession employees.
Types of interview:

Interviews can be of different types. There interviews employed by the companies. Following are the various types of interview: 1) I n f o r m a l I n t e r v i e w : An informal interview is an oral interview and may take place anywhere. The employee or the manager or the personnel manager
may ask a few almost inconsequential questions like name, place of birth, names of relatives etc. either in their respective offices or anywhere outside the plant of company . 2) F o r m a l I n t e r v i e w :

Formal interviews may be held in the employment office by the employment office in a more formal atmosphere, with the help of well structured questions, the time and place of the interview will be stipulated by the employment office. 3) N o n - d i r e c t i v e I n t e r v i e w : Non-directive interview or unstructured interview is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e.g. “Mr. Ray, please tell us about yourself after you’re graduated from high school”. 4) Depth Interview: It is designed to intensely examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. For example, if

the candidate says that he is interested in tennis, a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. These probing questions must be asked with tact and through exhaustive analysis; it is possible to get a good picture of the candidate. 5) Stress Interview: It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain. The interviewer may start with “Mr. Joseph, we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position,’ and watch the reaction of the candidates. A good candidates will not yield, on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job. 6) G r o u p I n t e r v i e w : It is designed to save busy executive’s time and to see how the candidates may be brought together in the employment office and they may be interviewed. 7) Panel Interview: A panel or interviewing board or selection committee may interview the candidate, usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions. This type of interview pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in questioning the faculties of the candidate. 8) Sequential Interview: The sequential interview takes the one-to-one a step further and involves a series of interview, usually utilizing the strength and knowledgebase of each interviewer, so that each interviewer can ask questions in relation to his or her subject area of each candidate, as the candidate moves from room to room. 9) Structures Interview: In a structured interview, the interviewer uses preset standardized questions, which are put to all the interviewees. This interview is also called as ‘Guided’ or ‘Patterned’ interview. It is useful for valid results, especially when dealing with the large number of applicants. 10) Unstructured Interview: It is also known as ‘Unpatterned’ interview, the interview is largely unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. Unguided interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendly conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and in the process, the later reveals more of his or her desire and problems. 11) Mixed Interview: In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. This approach is called the Mixed Interview. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants. 12) Dinner Interviews: These interviews may be structured, informal, or socially situated, such as in a restaurant. Decide what to eat quickly, some interviewers will ask you to

order first (do not appear indecisive). Avoid potentially messy foods, such as spaghetti. Be prepared for the conversation to abruptly change from friendly chat to direct interview questions, however, do not underestimate the value of casual discussion, some employers place a great value on it. Be prepared to switch gears rapidly, from fun talk to business talk. 13) Telephone Interviews: Have a copy of your resume and any points you want to remember to say nearby. If you are on your home telephone, make sure that all roommates or family members are aware of the interview (no loud stereos, barking dogs etc.). Speak a bit slower than usual. It is crucial that you convey your enthusiasm verbally, since the interviewer cannot see your face. If there are pauses, do not worry; the interviewer is likely just taking some notes. STEP 4 : REFERENCE CHECK: Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps, gaining additional background information on an applicant. Although listed on the application form, references are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. When the labour market is very tight, organisations sometimes hire applicants before checking references. They should chek all the reference of candidate. STEP 5 : SELECTION DECISION: After obtaining information through the preceding steps, selection decisionthe most critical of all the steps- must be made. The other stages in the selection process have been used to narrow the number of the candidates. The final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pas the tests, interviews and reference checks. STEP 6: PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is, often, contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. There are several objectives behind a physical test. Obviously, one reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease. Secondly, the test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work. Thirdly, the physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain physical capabilities, which differentiate successful and less successful employees. Fourth, medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employer’s property.

STEP 7: JOB OFFER: The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. Job offer is made through a letter of appointed. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. The appointee must be given reasonable time for reporting. Thos is particularly necessary when he or she is already in employment, in which case the appointee is required to obtain a relieving certificate from the previous employer. Again, a new job may require movement to another city, which means considerable preparation, and movement of property. STEP 8: CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT: After the job offer has been made and candidates accept the offer, certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. One such document is the attestation form. This form contains vital details about the candidate, which are authenticated and attested by him/her. Attestation form will be a valid record for the future reference. STEP 9: CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS: Contrary to popular perception, the selection process will not end with executing the employment contract. There is another step – amore sensitive one reassuring those candidates who have not selected, not because of any serious deficiencies in their personality, but because their profile did not match the requirement of the organisation. They must be told that those who were selected were done purely on relative merit. STEP 10:EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME: The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. An organisation must have competent and committed personnel. The selection process, if properly done, will ensure availability of such employees. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programme? A periodic audit is the answer. People who work independent of HR department must conduct audit. The table below contains an outline that highlights the areas and questions to be covered in a systematic evaluation.

So this is the full process of recruitment and selection which is discussed in the human resource management.

Selection process of INFOSyS
If we see the steps follow by the INFOSYS during selection process then it is found that the selection steps are as below shown by the diagram -

Regarding Application They will ask Application before the

Filling the Form: to Fill an Form

commencement of the Examination which consists of 4 pages and regarding our personal details, like - Date, Place of Birth - Blood Group - Allergies - Last Major illness / Surgery with specific date - Eye Vision - Parent's Details - Passport Details (If not having, no problem)

- Educational Details along with % (from SSC to PG) - Languages Known - Previous Working Details (If Experienced) - Two Reference's Addresses & Details like Email, Ph no. (can give our HOD's or lecturers Details) for the Verification purpose - Two Infosys employees details (if known anybody) - Whether appeared for Infosys or Progeon (Sister concern of Infosys) previously - Educational Achievements like Scholarships, prizes - Extra currical Activities & Achievements - Etc., and some more details I think so. Regarding the Exam Pattern: The Exam is for 1 1/2 Hours, in which 1 Hour is given for 10 Puzzles to solve, and the Remaining 1/2 an Hour is given to answer 45 Simple English Grammar Questions. In English It'll be Quite Easy questions. Regarding Puzzles & English: The Puzzles is of 50 Marks, and one have to score above 35 to get qualified in the test. They will take the Puzzles Question Paper after the completion of 1 Hour. So, if there are any unsolved puzzles, you can note them in the rough paper which they will give you to make the rough work, and can try to solve them during the English Section. Sometimes, they are asking two essays and asking to write an essay among them. If you got selected in the written test, then that's all. You can be confirmed that you got selected for Infosys. 99% of the people got selected in the written test got selected in the Interviews also. The remaining 1% those who not selected are because of their communication skills. Regarding Interview: The Interview is of Purely HR Based. There will be Two Persons. One Younger and One Elder. Younger One make to keep us cool, where as Elder one fire the Questions on us, that too HR Questions. The Questions are as Follows: Tell me about yourself? What are Ur Strengths and Weakness? Explain Ur Project in Clay men Words and Do U tested it or not why do you want to join in Infosys? What does u know about us? Why should we hire you? What can u do for us if you are selected? What are your strengths and Weakness? What's the time you faced a lot of trouble in your life and how you solved it? And some more questions like this, And questions based on your Interests and Hobbies. They stress mainly on your hobbies, so be careful in answering to those questions.

A NEW STRATEGY of INFOSYS ( 60-Second Guide to Hiring the Right People)
0:60 Define the Duties: To find promising employees, you must first determine what you want them to do. Carefully consider all direct and associated responsibilities and incorporate them into a written job description. Be careful with general titles such as typist or sales clerk, as they have different meanings to different people. 0:49 What it Takes to do them:
Fulfilling these responsibilities will require some level of skill and experience, even if it is an entry-level position. Be reasonable about your expectations. Setting the bar too high may limit your available talent pool; setting it too low risks a flood of applications from those unqualified for the job.

0:37 Make it Worth their While: Likewise, you don’t want to be overly generous or restrictive about compensation. State and local chambers of commerce, employment bureaus and professional associations can help you determine appropriate wages and benefits. Scanning descriptions of comparable jobs in the classified ads and other employment publications will also provide clues about prevailing wage rates. 0:38 Spread the Word:
How you advertise your job opening depends on who you want to attract. Some positions are as easy to promote as posting a “help wanted” sign in your store window or placing an ad in your local newspaper. For jobs requiring more specialized skills, consider targeted channels such as trade magazines, on-line job banks and employment agencies (though these may require a fee). And don’t overlook sources such as friends, neighbours, supplier’s customers and present employees.

0:25 Talk it Over: Because you have clearly defined the role and requirements, you should have little difficulty identifying candidates for interviews. Make sure you schedule them when you have ample time to review the resume, prepare your questions and give the candidate your undivided attention. After the interview, jot down any impressions or key points while they’re still fresh in your mind. This will be a valuable reference when it’s time to make a decision.

0:12 Follow-up on Interviews: You want to believe your candidates are being honest, but never assume. Contact references to make sure you’re getting the facts or to clear up any uncertainties. Professional background checks are a wise investment for highly sensitive positions, or those that involve handling substantial amounts of money and valuables. 0:03 you’ve Found them; now keep them: Now that you’ve hired ideal employees, make sure they stay with you by providing training and professional development opportunities. The small business experts at SCORE can help you craft human resource policies and incentive plans that will ensure your company remains the small business employer of choice. REASONS FOR REJECTION IN THE INTERVIEW (INFOSIS) 1. Poor attitude. Many candidates come across as arrogant. While employers can afford to be self-centred, candidates cannot. 2. Appearance. Many candidates do not consider their appearance as much as they should. First impressions are quickly made in the first three to five minutes. (For details regarding Appearance, refer to the message 'Interview Etiquette' which I had posted earlier in "CHETANA-JOBS" group). 3. Lack of research. It's obvious when candidates haven't learned about the job, company or industry prior to the interview. Visit the library or use the Internet to research the company, then talk with friends, peers and other professionals about the opportunity before each meeting. 4. Not having questions to ask. Asking questions shows your interest in the company and the position. Prepare a list of intelligent questions in advance. 5. Not readily knowing the answers to interviewers' questions. Anticipate and rehearse answers to tough questions about your background, such as recent termination or an employment gap. Practicing with your spouse or a friend before the interview will help you to frame intelligent responses. 6. Relying too much on resumes. Employees hire people, not paper. Although a resume can list qualifications and skills, it's the interview dialogue that will portray you as a committed, responsive team player. 7. Too much humility. Being conditioned not to brag, candidates are sometimes reluctant to describe their accomplishments. Explaining how you reach difficult or impressive goals helps portray you as a committed, responsive team player. 8. Not relating skills to employers' needs. A list of sterling accomplishments means little if you can't relate them to a company's requirements. Reiterate your skills and convince the employer that you can "do the same for them". 9. Handling salary issues ineptly. Candidates often ask about salary and benefit packages too early. If they believe an employer is interested, they may demand inappropriate amounts and price themselves out of the jobs. Candidates who ask for too little undervalue themselves or appear desperate.

10. Lack of career direction. Job hunters who aren't clear about their career goals often can't spot or commit to appropriate opportunities. Not knowing what you want wastes everybody's time. 11. Job shopping. Some applicants, particularly those in certain high-tech, sales and marketing fields, will admit they're just "shopping" for opportunities and have little intention of changing jobs. This wastes time and leaves a bad impression with employers they may need to contact in the future.

Sample set of INFOSYS PAPER ON 19th AUGUST 2006 1) In a game of cricket azahar scored 28 less than dravid.and sachin scored 72 more than Azahar.the total runs made by Azahar and robin are 94.robin scored 26 more than zadeja.dravid scored 26 more than robin. What is the score?Make some equations ..based on the above datas n solve it…its an easy one.. 2) Reema and Mona went to shopping, they had spent half of the money plus Rs.2 in butcher shop, then they had gone to xxx spent half of the remaining +Rs.5.then they went to bakery and spent half of the remaining amount. Finally Rs.5 was left with them. How many rupees did they carry. 3) Two train starts from two town for each hour. it takes 5hours to reach other town. how many trains does the train come across. 4) and XYZ +AB -AB __________ _______________ CDEF BGA Then find the value of X,Y,Z ,G 5) There are five persons in an office in the post of buyer, clerk, floorwalker, manager, and cashier. Allen, Benett, Clark, Ewinger, Davis holds the post. 1. Among the 5 two have their lunch time from 11:30- 12:30 and the rest have it in 12:30 -1:30 2. Mrs Allen and Mrs Benett are sisters. 3. Cashier and floorwalker share their lunch among themselves. 4. Cashier and clerk share Bachelors rooms. 5. Davis and Ewinger doesn't face each other from the day Davis reported Ewinger to the Manager when he returned from lunch and found out that Ewinger has already left for lunch before time. 6) A couple had triplets - Annie, Fannie and Danny. One of them broke a drum with flour in it and there were foot-prints all around the kitchen-floor. The parents could not tell to whom those footprints belonged coz all of them wore same shoes. Then they asked their children who did it. Annie said "I didn't do it". Fannie said "Danny did it". Danny said "Fannie is lying". Only one of them spoke truth while the other 2 were lying. Whose the culprit? XYZ

7) a )1,2,3,5,16,_____? b) 1,2,3,8,--?,224 8) A man starts from XYZ city and drives a constant speed. After some time he sees a milestone with two digits written on it. after he drives for an hour, he sees another milestone with the same digits, but in reversed order. After another hour of journey, he sees another milestone with original digits but with a zero between them. What was the speed of his car if milestones show kilometers? 9) A man asked a taxi driver his number to which he replied: If you divide my taxi no with 2,3,4,5 or 6, it leaves a remainder 1, but it is completely divisible by 11. And there’s no other taxi driver in the city having a smaller number than my taxi who can say the same. What was his taxi no?? 10) There were less than 500 students in a school. one-third of the number of students in the school was a whole number and so were one-fourth , one-fifth and one-seventh of students in the school. What's the total no of students in the school? Engilsh section was there And then Interview.

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