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Engineering Management

Huthaifa Khalil
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Engineer Management is concerned with the design, installation, and
improvement of integrated systems of people, material, information, equipment,
and energy by drawing upon specialized knowledge and skills in the
mathematical, physical, and social sciences, together with the principles and
methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluatethe
resultstobeobtainedfromsuchsystems
Scientific discipline, which designs, implements and/or develops models,
processes and systems by taking into account the engineering relationships
between the management tasks of planning, organizing, leading and controlling
and the human element in production, research, marketing, finance and other
services.
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Engineering management is the fusion of business and engineering principles.
By having knowledge of economics and management they can forecast or can
predict the utility, advantages, disadvantages of the product. also get to know the
scope of the product and it's contribution in growth.
Specialized form of management that is concerned with the application of
engineering principles to business practice.
Career that brings together the technological problem-solving savvy of
engineering and the organizational, administrative, and planning abilities of
management in order to oversee complex enterprises from conception to
completion.
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Engineering Management Domain
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Exampleareasof engineeringmanagement areaare:
Productdevelopment
Manufacturing
Construction
Designengineering
Industrial engineering
Technology
Production
Successful engineeringmanagerstypicallyrequiretrainingandexperience
inbusinessandengineeringto:
Operatingeffectiveness andefficiency is
Problemsolvingandoperationsimprovement
Managers within the field of engineering are trained to understand Human
resourcemanagement, finances, industrial psychology, quality control, operations
researchandenvironmental management.
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Engineering Management
A set of activities (includingplanningand
decision making, organising, leading and
control) directed at an organisations
resources(human, financial, physical and
Theprofession in which aknowledgeof
the mathematical and natural science
gainedby study, experience, andpractice
isappliedwithjudgement todevelop
ways to utilize,
economically, the
materials and
forces of nature
for the benefit of
mankind
informational) with
the aim of achieving
organisational goals
in an efficient and
effective manner.
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Management is getting things through others, Management needs:
Objective
Resources,
Methods,
Organization setting,
People
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Function of Manager
Planning
Organizing
Directing
Controlling
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Planning
Manager should have objective in mind
Planning help manager to do the right things
Well planning needs the following
Defining objectives,
Deciding what/when/how/who
What is to be done,
When it is to be done,
How it is to be done,
Who is to do it,
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Organizing
Gathering and allocating resources,
Coordinating the work of the organization,
Deliberate creation a configuration that defines the followings:
How authority is structured,
How communication flows,
How tasks are accomplished
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Directing
Redirecting human behavior to achieve objectives
Motivating others to produce,
Influencing subordinates
Controlling
Keeping things on track,
Steering performance towards desired goal,
Coordinating monitoring and adjusting performance
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Managerial skills
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Contrast between American and Japanese organizations
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Difference Between Boss & Leader
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Course Outline:
Engineering Management
Marketing & Strategy
Organizational Model & Human Resource
Cost Management & Productivity
Project Management
Quality Control
Operations Researches
Supply Chain
Industrial safety
Lec1. Engineering Management . By: Huthaifa Khalil
Engineering Management
Reference Book
Cost Accounting (A Managerial Emphasis) Fourteenth Edition 2012, Charles T. Horngren,
Srikant M. Datar, MadhavV. Rajan,
Principles of Marketing, FourthEuropeanEdition2005, PHILIP KOTLER , VERONICA WONG,
J OHN SAUNDERS, GARY ARMSTRONG
Handbook of Industrial Engineering (Technology and Operations Management), ThirdEdition
2001, Editedby: GAVRIEL SALVENDY
Operations Research: An Introduction, EighthEdition2007, HamdyA. Taha
Guide to the Engineering Management (Body of Knowledge), 2010
Knowledge Engineering and Management, 2000
AGuide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Third Edition,2004
Organization and Systems Design, Theory of Deferred Action, Nandish V. Patel, 2006
Introduction to Operations Research, Seventh Edition, FREDERICK S. HILLIER, GERALD J .
LIEBERMAN, 2001
Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, Montgomery. 5th Ed.,J ohnWiley & Sons.
Marketing
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Market: Collection of buyers and sellers, interaction, determine the prices of
products
Buyers: consumerspurchasegoods, companiespurchaselabor andinputs
Sellers: consumerssell labor, resourceownerssell inputs, firmssell goods
Arbitrage: Thepracticeof buyingaproduct at alowpriceinonelocationand
sellingit for moreinanother location.
Product isanythingthat canbeofferedtosomeonetosatisfyaneedor want
Market Price: Transactionsbetweenbuyersandsellersareexchanges of goods
for acertainprice.
Goods: physical, tangibleentities
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Core Market Concept
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Types of Markets:
Perfectlycompetitivemarkets:
Thelargenumber of buyersandsellers
Noindividual buyer or seller caninfluencetheprice
Example: Most agricultural markets
NoncompetitiveMarkets
Marketswhereindividual producerscaninfluencetheprice
Example: OPEC dominateswithworldoil market
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
The Supply Curve
Showshowmuchof agoodproducersarewillingtosell at agivenprice
Thisprice-quantityrelationshipcanbeshownbytheequation:
Variablesof Demand: Costsof Production
Labor
Capital
RawMaterials
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
The Demand Curve
Shows howmuch of agood consumers arewilling to buy as thepriceper
unit.
Thisprice-quantityrelationshipcanbeshownbytheequation:
Variablesof Demand
Income
Consumer Tastes
Priceof RelatedGoods
Substitutes
Complements
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
The Market Mechanism
Supplyanddemandinteract todeterminethemarket-clearingprice.
When not in equilibrium, the market will adjust to alleviate a shortage or
surplusandreturnthemarket toequilibrium.
Marketsmust becompetitivefor themechanismtobeefficient.
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
The Market Mechanism
Characteristics of the equilibrium or market clearing price:
QD =QS
No shortage
No excess supply
No pressure on the
price to change
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Surplus
The market price is above equilibrium
There is excess supply
Producers lower prices
Quantity demanded
increases and quantity
supplieddecreases
The market continues
to adjust until the
equilibrium price is
reached.
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Shortage
The market price is below
equilibrium:
Thereisashortage
Producersraiseprices
Quantity demanded decreases
andquantitysuppliedincreases
The market continues to
adjust until the new equilibrium
priceisreached.
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Consumer Behavior
Theexplanationof howconsumers allocateincometo thepurchaseof
different goodsandservices.
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
The Consumer Decision Process:
Needrecognition
The first stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer
recognisesaproblemor need
Informationsearch
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer is
arousedtosearchfor moreinformation; theconsumer may simply have
heightenedattentionor may gointoactiveinformationsearch
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
The Consumer Decision Process:
Evaluationof alternatives
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer uses
informationtoevaluatealternativebrandsinthechoiceset
Purchasedecision
Thestageof thebuyer decisionprocess inwhichtheconsumer actually buys
theproduct
Postpurchasebehaviour
The stage of the buyer decision process in which consumers take further
actionafter purchasebasedontheir satisfactionor dissatisfaction
TheCognitive Dissonance is thebuyers discomfort caused by post purchase
conflict
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Stages in Adoption Process
Awareness
The consumer becomes aware of the new product, but lacks
informationabout it
Interest
Theconsumer seeksinformationabout thenewproduct
Evaluation
Theconsumer considerswhether tryingthenewproduct makessense
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Stages in Adoption Process
Trail
The consumer tries the new product on a small scale to improve his or her
estimateof itsvalue
Adoption
Theconsumer decidestomakefull andregular useof thenewproduct
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Individual Differences in Innovativeness:
Innovators:
adventurous: theytrynewideasat somerisk
Early Adopters
guided by respect: they are opinion leaders in their community and
adoptnewideasearlybut carefully
Early Majority
deliberate: although they are rarely leaders, they adopt new ideas
beforetheaverageperson
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Individual Differences in Innovativeness:
Late Majority
sceptical: they adopt an innovation only after most people have
triedit.
Laggards
tradition-bound: they are suspicious of changes and adopt the
innovationonlywhenit hasbecomesomethingof atraditionitself
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Difference between Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Market Segmentation
Process which involves subdividing the total market into groups or
segments composed of people or organizations who share somewhat
similar needs with regard to agiven product, so as to beableto plan a
marketingmixwhichwill best satisfythoseneeds.
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Market Segmentation
Segmentation Variables
Thecharacteristicsof individuals, groupsor organizationswhichareused
tosubdividethemarket intosegments.
Geographic
Demographic
Psychographic
Behavioural
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Market Targeting
Targeting is thesecond stageand is doneoncethemarkets havebeen
segmented, Organizations withthehelp of various marketingplans and
schemestarget their productsamongst thevarioussegments.
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Market Positioning
The whole set of decisions and activities aimed at creating and
maintainingacertainconcept of thecompany's product (withrespect to
competingproducts) inthemindsof prospectivebuyers.
Whenacompany launchesanewproduct, theytrytopositionit sothat
it isseenhashavingthecharacteristicsmost desiredbythetarget market
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
New Product Development Process
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Product Life-Cycle
Thecourseof aproductssalesandprofitsover itslifetime.
It involves five distinct stages: product development, introduction,
growth, maturityanddecline.
Lec2. Marketing. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Marketing
Product Life-Cycle
Strategy
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
A set of actions that managers take to increase their companys performance
relativetoindustryrivals.
A strategy is implemented to create a competitive advantage over other
companies
A company is said to have a competitive advantage when its profitability is
greater thantheaverageprofitabilityfor all firmsintheindustry
A competitive advantage is considered sustained when it is maintained for
several years
Theessenceof strategy liesincreatingtomorrowscompetitiveadvantagefaster
thancompetitorsmimic theonesyoupossesstoday.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stakeholders
Individuals or groups with an interest, claim, or stakein thecompany and
howwell it performs
Anyoneinanexchangerelationshipwiththecompany
Corporate Governance:
Mechanismsto monitor managers makingsurethey pursuestrategiesinthe
interest of Stakeholders
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Internal Stakeholders
Stockholders
Employees
Executivesandmanagers
Boardmembers
External Stakeholders
Customersandsuppliers
Creditors
Governments
General public
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
The Mission Statement
Toestablishtheguidingprinciplesfor strategicdecisionmaking
Includes4mainelements:
TheMission
TheVision
Values
Goal of theCorporation
The mission statement is a key indicator of how an organization views the
claimsof stakeholders
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
The Mission
Describeswhat thecompanydoes
Canbeproductoriented:
Focusontheproductthecompany
Canbecustomer oriented:
Focusonsatisfyingcustomers needs
The Vision
Tellswhat thecompanywouldliketoachieve
Intendedtostretchacompanybyarticulatingitsambitions
Meant tobeanattainablegoal that will motivateemployees
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Values
Tell howmanagersandemployees shouldconductthemselves
Establishesthebasisof theorganizational culture
Major Goals
A goal isapreciseandmeasurablefuturestatethat acompanyattemptstorealize
Goodgoal characteristics:
Preciseandmeasurable
Addressimportant issues
Challengingbut realistic
Timeperiodspecified
Most companiesoperatewithgoalsof profitabilityandprofit growth.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Industry
A groupof companies offeringproducts or services that areclosesubstitutes for each
other.
Analysis of Industry
Goalsof industryanalysis:
Togainanunderstandingof theopportunitiesandthreatsconfrontingthefirm
Tousethisunderstandingtoidentifystrategies
thatwill enablethecompanytooutperformrivals
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
SWOTAnalysis
SWOT analysis is a distillation of the findings of the internal and external audits
which draw attention to the critical organisational strengths and weaknesses and
opportunities andthreats facingthecompany.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
SWOTAnalysis
Strengths: internal factors which make it possible to exploit external
opportunitiesanddefendagainst threats.
Weaknesses: internal factors which may block an exploitation of external
opportunitiesandrender thecompanyvulnerabletoexternal threats
Opportunities: external factors which, if well managed, can reinforce the
positionof theproductinthemarket.
Threats: external factors which, if managed poorly, can weaken theposition of
theproductinthemarket.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Porters Five Forces Model
1. Risk of entry by potential competitors
Function of the height of barriers of entry
Economies of Scale
Brand Loyalty
Absolute cost advantage
Superior production operations and processes
Control of particular inputs
Access to cheaper funds to lower risk of existing cost
Customer switching costs
Government regulation
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Porters Five Forces Model
2. The intensity of rivalry among established companies
Thecompetitivestrugglefor market sharethat dependson:
Theindustryscompetitivestructure
Industry demand
3. Bargaining power of buyers
Theabilityof buyerstodrivepricesdownor qualityup.
Bargainingpower of buyersisgreatest when:
buyersarelargeandfewandsuppliersfragmented
buyerspurchaseinlargequantities
wheneconomicallyfeasibletohavemanysuppliers
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Porters Five Forces Model
4. Bargaining power of suppliers
Theabilityof supplierstoraisethecostsof theindustry.
Suppliersaremost powerful when:
fewsubstitutesandvital
industrynot important customer
5. Threat of Substitutes (Closeness of product substitutes)
Other productscansatisfy thesamecustomer need.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Porters Five Forces Model
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stages in the Industry Life Cycle
An important determinant of the strength of the competitive forces in an industry
is the changes that take place over time.
The industry life cycle is a useful tool for analyzing the effects of industry
evolution on competitive forces.
Competition increases as the industry progresses through the cycle.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stages in the Industry Life Cycle
There are five sequential stages:
Embryonic
Growth
Shakeout
Mature
Decline
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stages in the Industry Life Cycle
Embryonic:
Theindustryisjust beginningtodevelop,
Development isslow
Buyersareunfamiliar withproduct,
Highprices
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stages in the Industry Life Cycle
Growth:
Demandtakesoff
Manynewcustomers
Pricesfall withdevelopment andhigher volume
Entrybarriersarerelativelylow
Relativelylowcompetition
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stages in the Industry Life Cycle
Shakeout:
Rateof growthslows
Demandapproachessaturationlevels
Fewpotential first-timebuyers
Rivalriesbecomeintense
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stages in the Industry Life Cycle
Mature:
Market is totally saturated
Demand is limited to replacement demand
Growth is low or zero
Barriers increase
Threat of new entries decrease
Competition drives prices down
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Stages in the Industry Life Cycle
Decline:
Fallingdemand=Excesscapacity
Growthbecomesnegativedueto
Technologysubstitution
Demographics
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Company Profitability
Amount of Valuethat customersplaceonagoodor service
Valuecreationistheheart of competitiveadvantage
The greater the value customers place on a product, the more the
companycancharge.
A products price is usually less than the value placed on it by the
averagecustomer.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Company Profitability
A company will look for ways to increase productivity of capital and labor
through:
Economiesof Scale
The increase in efficiency of production as the number of
goodsbeingproducedincreases.
Spreadfixedcost over large
productvolume
Greater divisionof labor
andspecialization
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Value Creation
TwoBasicStrategiesfor CreatingValue:
Low Cost- Drive down cost structure
Differentiation
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Value Creation
A company that has high profitability =competitive advantage, when it
createsmorevaluefor itscustomersthandorivals.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Building Competitive Advantage:
4Factors buildingblocksof competitiveadvantage:
Efficiency
Innovation
Quality
Customer Responsiveness
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Efficiency
Efficiency =outputs/inputs
2 of the most important component of efficiency are:
Employee Productivity: output per employee
Capital Productivity: Output per unit of investment capital
High Productivity =greater efficiency and low costs
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Innovation:
The act of creating new products or processes
Product Innovation- The development of products that are new to the world
or have superior attributes to existing products.
Process Innovation-The development of a new process for producing
products and delivering them
Competition can be seen as a process driven by innovation
Innovations give a company something unique that their competitors
lack : diving either differentiation or cost advantage
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Quality:
Customers perceive attributes of a product to be better than rivals attributes
1 type of quality: Excellence, when excellence is built into product offering,
consumers have to pay more to own or consume the product:
Design
Style
Aesthetic appeal
Features and functions
Level of service that comes with the product
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Quality:
2 type of quality: Reliability ,
A product is reliable if it:
Consistently does the job it was designed for
Does the job well
Rarely breaks down
Less time is spent of defective products and fixing mistakes
Reliability increases the value a consumer gets from the product and
increases the price that the company can charge
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Customer Responsiveness
Superior customer responsiveness implies being better than competitors at
identifyingandsatisfyingcustomers needs, thus;
If a customers need is satisfied better by a certain product, the
customer will attributemorevaluetotheproduct. therefore:
More value creates a differentiation and ultimately a
competitiveadvantage
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Strategic Change
The movement of a company away from its present state toward some
desiredfuturestatetoincreaseitscompetitiveadvantageandprofitability.
Reengineering:
Focus not on companys functional activities but on the business
processesunderlyingthevaluecreationprocess
Restructuring:
Process by which managers simplify organizational structures by
eliminating divisions, departments or levels in the hierarchy and
downsizebyterminatingemployees, therebyloweringoperatingcosts.
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Change Process
Determiningtheneedfor change
Identifyagapbetweendesiredandactual performance
Determiningtheobstaclestochange
Change is frequently (always) resisted by people and groups
insideanorganization
Identifyyour obstacles
ManageandevaluateChange
Lec3. Strategy. By:Huthaifa Khalil
Strategy
Course Outline:
Engineering Management
Marketing & Strategy
Organizational Model & Human Resource
Cost Management & Productivity
Project Management
Quality Control
Operations Researches
Supply Chain
Industrial safety
Organizational Model
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Organization
Any collection of persons, materials, procedures, ideas or facts so
managed & ordered that in each case the combination of parts makes a
meaningful wholethat at achievingorganization objectives.
In other words the process of organization implies the arrangement of
human & nonhuman resources to make a meaningful whole that
accomplishesorganizational objectives.
Every employee must be informed of what is expected of him
(responsibility) & what is within his power (authorities), This is usually
foundinthe"jobdescription".
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Organization
Managersdecidehowto
Dividetheoverall task intosuccessively smaller jobs
Decide thebasesbywhichtogroupthejobs
Theappropriatesizeof thegroupreportingtoeachsuperior
Distribute authorityamongthejobs
After decidingonthemajor operatingunits & departments therequired
resourcesmust beacquired& fittedintheright place.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Organizational Charts
Formal relationship between people in various positions in the
organization.
They shown who supervises whom& howvarious jobs & departments
arelinkedtogether tomakeachievecoordinatedsystem.
Mainchannels of communication(downward, upward, horizontal, and
diagonal)
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Organizational Charts
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Organization Structure
Organization structure designates formal reporting relationships,
includingthenumber of levelsinthehierarchyandthespanof control of
managersandsupervisors.
Organization structure identifies the grouping together of individuals
intodepartmentsandof departmentsintothetotal organization.
Organization structure includes the design of systems to ensure
effective communication, coordination, and integration of effort across
departments
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Elements Organization Structure
Division of Labor
Departmentalization
Span of Control
Delegation of Authority
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Division of Labor
It is the process of dividing work into relatively specialized jobs to achieve
advantagesof specialization.
Subdivisionof work intoseparatejobsassignedtodifferent people
Divisionof Labor OccursinThreeDifferent Ways:
1. Personal specialties
e.g., accountants, softwareengineers, graphicdesigners, scientists
2. Natural sequenceof work
e.g., dividing work in a manufacturing plant into fabricating and
assembly(horizontal specialization)
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Division of Labor
3. Vertical plane
e.g., hierarchy of authority fromlowest-level manager to highest-level
manager
Coordination
Coordination means assembling & synchronizing work efforts so that
theyfunctionharmoniously toattainorganizational objectives.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Departmentalization
Departmentalization is the (horizontal) differentiation of the
organization in departments. Departments are organizational units that
share a common supervisor and common resources, are jointly
responsible for performance, and tend to identify and collaborate with
oneanother.
The process of grouping activities into units for purposes of
administration.
It canbegroupingbyservices, location, or bygeographicarea.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Departmentalization
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Span of Control
Number of individualswhoreport toaspecificmanager.
Number of peopledirectlyreportingtothenext level.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Span of Control
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Delegation of Authority
Processof distributingauthoritydownwardinanorganization.
Managers decidehowmuch authority should bedelegated to each job
andtoeachjobholder
ThreeFormsof Authority:
Line authority flowsupanddownthechainof command
Staff authority is based on expertise that usually involves
counselingandadvisinglinemanagers
Committee and team authority isgrantedtocommitteesor work
teamsinvolvedinafirmsdailyoperations
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Centralization and Decentralization
Refers to the level at which most or the operating decisions will be
made.
Thegreater thenumber of decisionsmadelower downthemanagement
Hierarchythegreater thedegreeof decentralization.
Generallyspeaking, it isadvisablethat decisionsconcerningday- today
matters should be pushed down the organization structure and not be
handledbytopmanagement.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Advantages of Decentralization
Quick actionregardingspecificproblems.
Facilitatesadaptationof decisionsaccordingtolocal needs.
Relieves top management frominvolvement in routine decisions thus
savingtimeandenergy.
Increases flexibility of action as junior staff are allowed to make
Prompt decisions without having to wait for approval from to
management.
Effective in developing the junior staff to hold top management
Positions.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Advantages of Centralization
Uniformity of policy and action.
Enables maximum use of the skills and knowledge of centralized Staff.
Fosters better control of the organizations activities.
Enables the use of not highly skilled subordinates since every little
detail is set by the top management.
Unity of Command The classical principle of command suggested
that each individual in the Organization should be directly responsible to,
and receive orders from, Only ONE supervisor and through this
ultimately answerable to the head Of the organization.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Dimensions of Structure
Formalization theextent to whichexpectations regardingthemeans
andendsof work arespecified, written, andenforced
Centralization the location of decision-making authority in the
hierarchy
Complexity the direct outgrowth of dividing work and creating
departments
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Mechanistic vs. Organic Structures
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Mechanistic vs. Organic Structures
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Mechanistic vs. Organic Structures
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Functional Organizational Structure
Organizesemployees aroundskillsor other resources(marketing, production)
Createsubordinategoals.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Functional Organizational Structure
Benefits
Supportsprofessional identityandcareer paths
Permitsgreater specialization
Easier supervision--similar issues
Createsaneconomyof scale--commonpool of talent
Limitations
More emphasis on subunit than organizational goals; failure to develop
broadunderstandingof thebusiness
Higher dysfunctional conflict because emphasized differences across
subunits
Poorer coordination-- requiresmorecontrols
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Divisional Organizational Structures
Organizesemployees aroundoutputs, clients, or geographicareas
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Divisional Organizational Structures
Benefits
Buildingblockstructure-- accommodatesgrowth
Better coordinationindiversemarkets
Limitations
Duplicationandinefficient useof resources
Specializationsaredispersed, creatingsilosof knowledge
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
The Matrix Organizational Structures
Employees are temporarily assigned to a specific project team and have a
permanent functional unit
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
The Matrix Organizational Structures
Attempts to maximizethe strengths and minimize the weaknesses of both the
functional andproductbases
Superimposeahorizontal structureof authority, influence, and communication
onthevertical structure
Facilitatestheutilizationof highlyspecializedstaff andequipment
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Hybrid Organizational Structures
Parts are combined to maintain balance of power and effectiveness across
functional, product, geographicandclient focusedunits.
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Organizational Culture
A system of shared values, assumptions, beliefs, and norms that unite the
membersof anorganization.
Reflectsemployees viewsabout theway thingsaredone
The culture specific to each firmaffects how employees feel and act and the
typeof employeehiredandretainedbythecompany
Lec4. Organizational Model. By: Huthaifa Khalil
Organizational Model
Characteristics of Organization Culture
It isdistinctive
It isbasedoncertainNorms
It promotesStablevalues
It leadstocommonbehavioral aspects
It shapesphilosophyandrules
Itsstrengthvaries
Human Resource Management
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Human Resource
The science and the practice that deals with the nature of the
employment relationshipand all of thedecisions, actions andissues that
relatetothisrelationship.
The process of attracting, developing and maintaining a talented and
energetic workforce to support organizational mission, objectives and
strategies
It involvesanorganizationsacquisition, development andutilizationof
employees, well as theemployeerelationship to an organization and its
performance.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Human Resource
Theresourcethat lies withinemployees andhowthey areorganizedis
critical tostrategicsuccessandcompetitiveadvantage.
Theoverall purposeof HRM istoensurethat theorganizationisableto
achievesuccessthroughpeople.
Managers must find ways to get thehighest level of contribution from
their workers. Andthey will not beabletodothat unlessthey areaware
of the many ways that their under-standing of diversity relates to how
well, or howpoorly, peoplecontribute
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
HRM Includes:
Equal Employment Opportunity
Health and Safety
Industrial Relations
Recruitment / Selection
Induction / Orientation
Training and Professional Development
Performance Appraisal and Management
Quality of Work Life
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Principles of HRM
Strategicintegration
Treat all labour management processes in a strategic fashion by
integratingthemwiththebroader business.
Organisational flexibility
Highly skilledknowledgeworkerswithfull timejobs.
Commitment
Throughchangingtheorganisationsculture.
Quality
Qualitywork, qualityworkers, qualityproductsandservices.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
HRMActivities
Job analysis definesajobintermsof specifictasksandresponsibilities
and identifies theabilities, skills and qualifications needed to performit
successfully.
Human resource planning or employment planning istheprocessby
which an organisation attempts to ensurethat it has theright number of
qualifiedpeopleintheright jobsat theright time.
Employee recruitment is theprocess of seeking and attracting apool
of applicantsfromwhichqualifiedcandidatesfor jobvacancieswithinan
organisationcanbeselected.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
HRMActivities
Employee selection involves choosing fromthe available candidates
theindividual predicted to bemost likely to performsuccessfully in the
job.
Performance appraisal is concerned with determining how well
employees are doing their jobs, communicating that information to the
employeesandestablishingaplanfor performanceimprovement.
Training and development activities help employees learn how to
performtheir jobs, improvetheir performanceandpreparethemselvesfor
moresenior positions.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
HRMActivities
Career planning and development activities benefit both employees
(by identifying employee career goals, possible future job opportunities
and personal improvement requirements) and the organisation (by
ensuringthat qualifiedemployeesareavailablewhenneeded).
Employee motivation is vital to the success of any organisation.
Highly motivatedemployees tendto bemoreproductiveandhavelower
ratesof absenteeismandturnover.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Human Resource Development
A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization
to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and
futurejobdemands.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Training and Development
Training
improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for
theshort-term, particular toaspecificjobor task
Development
preparingfor futureresponsibilities, whileincreasingthecapacity
toperformat acurrent job
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
The Tangible vs. Intangible Assets
Thetangibleassets of thefirmarevisibleandquantified, canbeeasily
duplicated, depreciatewithuse
Ex: manufacturingplant, equipment, buildings andother physical
infrastructure
The intangible assets are invisible, difficult to quantify, must be
developedover time, appreciatewithpurposeful use
Ex: technological know-how, customer loyalty, branding, business
processes
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
FirmCapital
HumanCapital
Knowledge, skills, abilitiesof individuals
Social Capital
Relationshipsinsocial networks
Structural, cognitive, relational dimensions
Intellectual capital
Knowledgeandknowingcapabilityof social collectivities
Procedural/declarative; tacit/explicit; individual/social
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Human Capital
TheHumanCapital of anorganizationconsistsof thepeoplewho work
for it andonwhomthesuccessof thebusinessdepends.
Human Capital represents the human factor in the organization: the
combined intelligence, skills and expertisethat givetheorganizationthe
distinctivecharacter
The human elements are those that are capable of learning, changing,
innovating.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Knowledge Economy
The Knowledge Economy encompasses all jobs, companies and
industries inwhichtheknowledgeandcapabilities of people, rather than
the capabilities of machines or technologies, determine competitive
advantage.
Knowledge Workers
Knowledge workers have high degrees of expertise, educations or
experience and the primary purpose of their jobs involves the creation,
distributionof applicationof knowledge.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Challenges for HR
Competing in the Global Economy
New technologies
Need for more skilled and educated workers
Cultural sensitivity required
Team involvement
Problem solving
Better communications skills
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Challenges for HR
Need for Learning
Organizations change
Technologies change
Products change
Processes change
PEOPLE must change!!
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Reward and Recognition SystemManagement
By valuating and recognizing people, you harness the power of
motivation, which is the single most powerful strategy used to promote
performanceandpositivebehaviors
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Reward and Recognition SystemManagement
A reward is given by an organization to value something it already
hasor it ascribesavaluetoaparticular job/ event
A recognitionisjust anexpressionof feeling. It happens whenaperson
isimpactedbyanother personandhe/ sheexpressesit openly
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Human Resource Analysis
Toidentifythesize, skillsandstructuresurroundingcurrent employees
To identifyfuturehumanresourceneedsof theorganization
Obtainsomebasicinformationonthepeople
Explore in detail the role and contribution of the human resources
management functioninthedevelopment of strategy
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Coaching and Mentoring
Mentoring
Concerned with supporting practitioners whilst they makea significant
career transition
Mentoring in intended to be supportive of the individual and occurs at
need.
Coaching
Used to support the process of reviewing established or emerging
practices. It isfocusedoninnovation, changeor specificskills.
Conceived as a more structured learning process aimed at explicit
professional development inanagreedareaof performance.
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Competencies
A collection of characteristics (i.e. skills, knowledge and self-concept,
traits, behavior, motivation, etc.), that enables someone to successfully
completeagiventask
Lec5. Human Resource Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Human Resource Management
Course Outline:
Engineering Management
Marketing & Strategy
Organizational Model & Human Resource
Cost Management & Productivity
Project Management
Quality Control
Operations Researches
Supply Chain
Industrial safety
Cost Management
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Cost Terminology
Cost sacrificed resource to achieve a specific objective
Actual Cost a cost that has occurred
Budgeted Cost a predicted cost
Cost Object anything of interest for which a cost is desired
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Cost Terminology
Direct Costs: canbeconvenientlyandeconomicallytraced(tracked)
toacost object
Parts, Assembly linewages
Indirect Costs: cannot be conveniently or economically traced
(tracked) toacost object.
Electricity, Rent, Propertytaxes
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Cost Terminology
Variable Costs: changes in total in proportion to changes in the
related level of activity or volume
Fixed Costs: remain unchanged in total regardless of changes in the
related level of activity or volume
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Types of Inventories
Direct Materials: resourcesinstockandavailablefor use
Work-in-Process (or progress): products started but not yet
completed. OftenabbreviatedasWIP
Finished Goods: productscompletedandreadyfor sale
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Types of Product Costs
Direct Materials
Direct Labor
Indirect Manufacturing factory costs that are not traceable to the
product. Also known as Manufacturing Overhead costs or Factory
Overheadcosts
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis
Changes in production/sales volume are the sole cause for cost and
revenue changes
Total costs consist of fixed costs and variable costs
Revenue and costs behave and can be graphed as a linear function (a
straight line)
Selling price, variable cost per unit, and fixed costs are all known and
constant
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis
Basic Formulae
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Contribution Margin
ContributionMarginequalssaleslessvariablecosts
CM =S VC
Contribution Margin per unit equals unit selling price less variable
cost per unit
CMu=SP VCu
Contribution Margin also equals contribution margin per unit
multipliedbythenumber of unitssold
CM =CMu. Q
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Contribution Margin
Contribution Margin Ratio (percentage) equals contribution margin
per unit divided by selling price
CMR =CMu SP
A horizontal presentation of the Contribution Margin Income
Statement:
Operating Income (OI) =Sales VC FC
OI=(SP x Q) (VCu x Q) FC
OI=Q (SP VCu) FC
OI =Q (CMu) FC
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Breakeven Point
Recall the last equation in an earlier slide:
Q (CMu) FC =OI
A simple manipulation of this formula, and setting OI to zero will
result in the Breakeven Point (quantity):
BEQ =FC CMu
At this point, a firm has no profit or loss at a given sales level
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Breakeven Point
If per-unit values are not available, the Breakeven Point may be
restated in its alternate format:
BE Sales =FC CMR
With a simple adjustment, the Breakeven Point formula can be
modified to become a Profit Planning tool
Q =(FC +OI)/CMu
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
CVP, Graphically:
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
CVP and Income Taxes
Fromtime to time it is necessary to move back and forth between
pre-tax profit (OI) and after-tax profit (NI), depending on the facts
presented
After-tax profit canbecalculatedby:
NI =OI x(1-TaxRate)
NI cansubstituteintotheprofit planningequationthroughthisform:
OI =NI / (1-TaxRate)
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Operating Leverage:
Operating Leverage (OL) is the effect that fixed costs have on
changes inoperatingincomeas changes occur inunits sold, expressed
aschangesincontributionmargin
OL =ContributionMargin/ OperatingIncome
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Effects of Sales-Mix on CVP:
Theformulaepresentedtothispoint haveassumedasingleproduct is
produced and sold, A more realistic scenario involves multiple
productssold, indifferent volumes, withdifferent costs
For simplicitys sake, only two products will be presented, but this
could easily beextended to even moreproducts, A weighted-average
CM must becalculated(inthiscase, for twoproducts)
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Example: Fill intheblanksof thefollowing
Example:
Lec6. Cost Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Cost Management
Example: Company producestwodifferent softwareproduct
Quality Control
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Quality
Qualityof aproduct or servicereferstothedegreetowhichtheproduct
or serviceisabletosatisfy(statedor implied) needs.
Quality is the degree to which a product/service conforms to its
requirements.
Every product posses a number of characteristics that are critical to
quality(for theuser/consumer):
Lengthof mechanical components
Dutyof batteries
Thicknessof thecoat of paint
Amount of material inatubeof toothpaste
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Quality
Most organizations find it difficult (and expensive) to provide the
customer with products that have quality characteristics, which are
alwaysidentical fromunit tounit.
Chartsareamajor component of qualitycontrol. They helptovisualize
calculations and relationships between the processes and the
measurementsof their quality.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Variability
Twoproductscannot beever identical (e.g. thediameter of ascrew).
If the variation is large, the customer may perceive the unit to be
undesirableandunacceptable.
Beyond this, if the variation is large, these units cannot be
interchangeable(e.g. problemsintheassembly process).
Most commonsourcesof variability:
Differencesinmaterials.
Differencesintheperformanceof themanufacturingequipment.
Differencesinthewayoperatorsperformtheir tasks.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Variability
Examplethediameter (D) of awork piecemanufacturedholecannot be
identical inall theproducts.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specifications
Quality characteristics are evaluated relative to specifications, a value
of a measurement that corresponds to the desired value is called the
Nominal (or target) Value;
Thesevalues areusually bounded by arangeof values that webelieve
will besufficiently closeto thetarget so as to not impact thefunctionor
performanceof theproduct if thequalitycharacteristicisinthat range.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specifications
SpecificationLimit
USL (Upper Specification Limit): the largest allowable value;
LSL (Lower Specification Limit): the smallest allowable value.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Natural Variability
Process tendency towards producing (in normal conditions) products
withqualitycharacteristicsdifferent fromtarget values.
It isaninternal characteristicof theprocess.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Statistical Process Control
Methods make it possible to control quality characteristics during
production (on-line), in order to maintain the process under-control and
todetect andcorrectpossibleabnormalities.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
Natural Tolerance (NT) range is a measure of the natural variability of the
process.
Theprocessvariabilityisusuallymeasuredbythestandarddeviation().
(), anindexof thenatural dispersionof theprocess.
Specification range (S) is determined externally (usually set by product
designers).
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
For every product quality characteristic (e.g. geometrical dimensions)
wedefinethespecificationlimits(USL, LSL).
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
A process operating with only chance causes of variation (not other
assignablecauses) generally showarandompattern (also defined as
whitenoise).
Typically it followsaNormal Distribution.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
Example: nonrandompattern(RUN), duetothepresenceof assignable
causes(e.g. thermal expansion, tool wear)
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
Example: nonrandompattern, duetothepresenceof twopointsrelated
toassignablecauses(e.g. failuresintheprocess).
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
It is customary to define the upper and lower natural tolerance limits,
sayUNTL andLNTL, as3 aboveandbelowtheprocessmean.
To calculate the natural tolerance NT 6, we should know the
standarddeviation() of thepopulation.
can be estimated by using the sample standard deviations (s) or the
sampleranges(R), relatedtoseveral samplesextractedfromthepopulation.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
Normal Distribution:
Exponential Distribution:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Specification and Natural Tolerance Limits
Example: msamples areextractedfromthepopulation; eachsampleis
madeof nobservations.
Standard deviation of the
population () can beestimated
using(sj) or (Rj).
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Linear Function
Example: Dimensional quality characteristics of 3 components
assembledtogether, What istheNT of theproduct ?
Theaveragevalueof product I isgivenbythesumof A, B andC average
values I =1.000+0.500+2.000=3.500cm
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Linear Function
If thedifferent quality characteristics (A, B, C) arestatistically independent
(the occurrence of one event occurs does not affect the outcome of the
occurrence of the other event) and normally distributed, then we can use the
followingformula:
Asaconsequence, consideringthat NTi =3i:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Linear Function
Example:
Assuming that a chain is made of 100 chain rings, the chain average
lengthisgivenby:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Linear Function
, chain can be correctly calculated by applying the following formula
(probabilisticmethod):
The lengths of the parts can be assumed independent. When the process is
operating in regular conditions, the length of one part is not influenced by the
lengthof theprevious, consequently:
Let noticethat in this case theglobal variability ( chain) is much lower
than in the previous one. This is due to a sort of compensation among the
variationsinthepartsassembledtogether
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Linear Function
Inamoregeneral case:
If X and Y arenot statistically independent, all theprevious equations
arenot valid. Additional termsshouldbeintroduced(Covariance).
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Linear Function
Example: A shaft is to be assembled into abearing. The internal diameter of
thebearingisanormal randomvariable say x1 withmean(1=1.500) inches
and standard deviation (1=0.002) inches. The external diameter of the shaft
say x2 is normally distributed with mean (2=1.480) inches and standard
deviation(2=0.004) inches. Whenthetwopartsareassembled, interferencewill
occur if theshaft diameter islarger thanthebearingdiameter that is, if:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Linear Function
Thedistributionof yisnormal, withmean:
Variance
Therefore, theprobabilityof interferenceis:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Non Linear Function
So far, wehave been considering linear functions only (among the assembled
componentandtheparts).
Insomeproblems, thedimensionof interest may beanonlinear functionof the
partdimensions(x1, x2, , xn)
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Non Linear Function
For non linear functions, Considering a first order Taylor series (truncated)
development of thepreviousfunction, intheneighborhoodof themeanvaluesof
theparts:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Non Linear Function
Fromstatistics, wecanapplythefollowing(approximate) formulas:
Let noticethat thepreviousformulascanbeappliedassuming:
Normal Distributionof thequalitycharacteristics,
Statistical independence of the quality characteristics(we intuitively mean that
knowing something about the valueof one of themdoes not yield any information
aboutthevalueof theothers
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Non Linear Function
Example: EvaluateV andNTV of V?
Supposingthedistributionsof R andI tobenormal, wecancalculate:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Assembled Components: Non Linear Function
TocalculateNTV, weneed:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
Control chartsarepractical toolstomonitor theevolutionof production
processes.
In any production process a certain amount of natural variability will
always exist (this is the cumulative effect of small and unavoidable
causes).
A processthat isoperatinginthepresenceof chancecausesof variation
onlyissaidtobeinstatistical control.
Control charts are not designed to provide any information about the
processconformitywithspecificationlimits.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
A processthat isoperatinginthepresenceof assignablecauses(sources
of variability that arenot part of thechancecauses) is said to beout of
control, Threemainsourcesof assignablecauses:
Improperlyadjustedor controlledmachines(or failures);
Operator errors;
Defectiverawmaterials.
In other terms, a process is out of control when it does not follow a
randompatternandthereasonof thiscanbeunivocallyassociatedtoone
of thepreviouscauses.
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
Control Chart Contains:
A center line (CL)
An upper control limit (UCL)
A lower control limit (LCL)
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
Basic Criteria:
A point that plots within the control limits indicates that the
processisincontrol noactionisnecessary
A point that plots outside the control limits is evidence that the
processisout of control
Furthermore, in the presence of chance causes of variation only,
plottedpointsshouldexhibit arandompattern
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
Model of Control Chart
Let wbesamplestatistic withmean
w
, andthestandarddeviation
of wis
w:
WhereL is thedistanceof thecontrol limits fromthecenter line,
ingeneral weuseL=3
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
ThereareTwo Main Types of control charts:
For Variables (quality characteristics measured on a numerical scale;
e.g. geometrical dimensions, weights, )
(mean) control charts
R (range) control charts
S
2
(samplevariance) control charts
S(samplestandarddeviation) control charts
X
i
(control chartsfor individual measurements)
X
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
ThereareTwo Main Types of control charts:
For Attributes (quality characteristics assuming only 2 states:
defective/non-defective, conforming/non-conforming)
control chartsfor nonconforming(defective):
p(percentageof defectiveunits)
np(number of defectiveunits)
control chartsfor noncomformities(defects):
u(number of defectsper unit)
c(number of defectsper sample)
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
Control Charts:
Control charts make it possible to identify when the process is out of control
(abnormal conditions) not out of specifications.
Theseconditionsarenot correlated
A process can be out of control, but within specification limits (typically if
NT<<S);
A process can be in control, but out of specification limits (typically when the
processnatural variabilityistoolarge)
A control chart may indicateanout-of-control condition:
Whenone(or more) point fallsbeyondthecontrol limits;
When theplotted points exhibit somenonrandompattern (even insidethecontrol
limits).
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
P - Control Charts:
The fraction nonconforming (p) is defined as the ratio of the number of
defectiveitemsinapopulationtothetotal number of itemsinthat population
If wewant toconsider thesample(n) fractionnonconforming
Theaverageof theseindividual fraction
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
P - Control Charts:
Thecontrol chart is
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
P - Control Charts:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
P - Control Charts:
Lec7. Quality Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Quality Control
P - Control Charts:
Project Management
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Project management is the art of directing and coordinating human and
material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern
management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope, cost,
time, qualityandparticipationsatisfaction.
Project management involves planning, monitoring, and control of people,
process, andeventsthat occur duringtheprojectdevelopment.
Project management: is the application of knowledge, skill, tools, and
techniques to project activities inorder to meet or exceedstakeholders needs
andexpectationfromaproject.
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Projectmanager will typicallybeinvolvedin:
Ensuringprogressof theprojectaccordingtodefinedmetrics
Identifyingrisks
Ensuring progress toward deliverables within time and resource
constraints
Negotiationfor resourcesonbehalf of theproject
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Project:
The process required to produce a new product, new systemor other
specified.
Theactivities whichisplannedfor afinitedurationwithaspecific goal
tobeachieved.
Project objectives:
Performance
Time
Cost
Project Life Cycle
Defining
Planning
Executing
Delivering
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Defining
Isthefirst phaseof theaproject lifecycleanditswheretheproject requested&
approvedandFeasibilityAnalysis.
Itsinvolved:
Set maingoals, thespecificationingeneral,
Definetasks, responsibility
Assigningproject manager:
Inthedefiningstagewehavetomakeaninitial estimationfor timeandcost.
Definingstagemeansthat theproject hasbeenformally started.
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Planning
Theprimary purposeof planningistoestablishaset of direction(inenoughdetail) to
tell theproject teamexactly what must bedone, It tells everyoneinvolved whereyou
aregoingandhowyouaregoingtoget there.
Itsconsist of:
Scheduling: identifythestart, andschedulefor eachphasefor thewholeproject.
Budgeting: estimatethecost of eachphase/task for thewholeproject.
Resources: defineresourcesandallocatethem.
Plan for risk: Identify source of risk, Set each risk probability and impact,
Minimize, avoidor accept eachrisk.
Staffing
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Executing
Well put all theplansintoaction.
Most of theproject resourcesareutilizedandmost of thebudget isspent.
Executingactivities:
Statusreports, Qualityassurance, Forecasts
Delivering
Closingdown: deliveringbeforenormal end.
DeliveringActivities:
Traincustomers , Transfer documents, Releaseresources, Releasestaff, Lessons
learned
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
PDM isamethodof constructingaproject schedulenetwork diagramthat usesboxes
or rectangles, referred to as nodes, to represent activities and connects them with
arrowsthat showthedependencies
Thistechniqueisalsocalledactivity-on-node(AON), andisthemethodusedbymost
projectmanagement softwarepackages.
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
PDM includesfour typesof dependenciesor precedencerelationships:
Finish-to-Start. The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the
completionof thepredecessor activity.
Finish-to-Finish. The completion of the successor activity depends upon the
completionof thepredecessor activity.
Start-to-Start. The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the
initiationof thepredecessor activity.
Start-to-Finish. The completion of the successor activity depends upon the
initiationof thepredecessor activity.
In PDM, finish-to-start is themost commonly used typeof precedencerelationship.
Start-to-finishrelationshipsarerarelyused.
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Critical Path Method
A mathematically basedalgorithmfor schedulingaset of project activities.
It isanimportant tool for effectiveproject management
The essential technique for using CPM is to construct, a model of the project that
includesthefollowing:
A list of all activitiesrequiredtocompletetheproject
Thetime(duration) thateachactivitywill taketocompletion
Thedependenciesbetweentheactivities.
CPM calculates:
The longest path of planned activities to the end of the project
The earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Critical Path Method
Example:
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
Critical Path Method
Example: The software project consists of a list of tasks along with their estimated
durations which are shown in the estimation table below.
Find the critical path ?
Lec8. Project Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Project Management
S-Curve Concept
An understanding of S-Curve theory and its analyses will help learners and team
members grasp the importanceof monitoring theprogress and growth of an ongoing
projectataspecificstageor percentageof completion.
The S-Curve model simply makes use of the projected number of man-hours and
costs to completetheproject vs. theactual number of hours andcosts incurredwithin
thesametimeframe.
Theproposedtime, man-hour andcost
dataarereferredtoasthebaseline data.
Supply Chain Management
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec9. Supply Chain Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Supply Chain Management
SupplyChain
All All facilities, facilities, functions, functions, activities, activities, associated associated with with flow flow and and
transformation transformationof of goods goodsand andservices servicesfrom fromraw rawmaterials materialsto to customer, customer,
as aswell well as asthe the associated associatedinformation informationflows flows
An Anintegrated integrated group group of of processes processes to to source, source, make, make, and and deliver deliver
products products
Lec9. Supply Chain Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Supply Chain Management
SupplyChainIllustration
Lec9. Supply Chain Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Supply Chain Management
Valuevs. SupplyChain
Value chain
every step from raw materials to the eventual end user
ultimate goal is delivery of maximum value to the end user
Supply chain
activities that get raw materials and subassemblies into
manufacturing operation
Lec9. Supply Chain Management By: Huthaifa Khalil
Supply Chain Management
SupplyChainManagement (SCM)
Managing flowof information through supply chain in order to attain
the level of synchronization that will make it more responsive to
customer needswhileloweringcosts
One goal in SCM: respond to uncertainty in customer demand without
creating costly excess inventory
KeystoeffectiveSCM
information
communication
cooperation
trust
Inventory Control
Huthaifa Khalil
Lec10. Inventory Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Inventory Control
Inventory systems are one of the most established subjects in engineering
management, Focus onstudyinginventory dynamics, withinventory viewed
asabuffer betweensupplyproductionandcustomer demand.
Inventoryexistsbecauseof amismatchbetweensupplyanddemand.
Inventory: Stockof itemskept tomeet futuredemand
A high level of product availability requires largeinventories, which raises
supplychaincosts.
A balancemust beachievedbetweenthelevel of availabilityandthecost of
inventory.
However, it isarisk for highly customizedproductswithshort lifecycles.
Lec10. Inventory Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Inventory Control
Whenthesupply anddemandis variableanduncertainthecompany should
consider thefollowingapproaches:
SafetyInventorytoguaranteetheproductavailability
Product Substitution: useof oneproduct (generally withhigher value) tosatisfy
demandfor adifferent productnot ininventory
Trade-off :
If responsiveness is a strategic competitive priority, a firmcan locate larger
amountsof inventorycloser tocustomers.
moreinventory: greater responsivenessbutgreater cost
If cost is more important, inventory can be reduced to make the firmmore
efficient.
lessinventory: lower cost but lower responsiveness
Lec10. Inventory Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Inventory Control
Purpose of inventory management:
how many units to order
when to order
Types of Inventory
Raw materials
Purchased parts and supplies
Work-in-process (partially completed) products (WIP)
Items being transported
Tools and equipment
Lec10. Inventory Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Inventory Control
Inventory Costs:
Carrying cost
Cost of holding an item in inventory
Ordering cost
Cost of replenishing inventory
Shortage cost
Temporary or permanent loss of sales when demand cannot be met
Lec10. Inventory Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Inventory Control
Inventory Control Systems:
Continuous system (fixed-order-quantity)
constant amount ordered when inventory declines to predetermined
level
Periodic system (fixed-time-period)
order placed for variable amount after fixed passage of time
Lec10. Inventory Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Inventory Control
The ABC Classification
The ABC classification system is to grouping items according to annual
sales volume, in an attempt to identify the small number of items that will
account for most of the sales volume and that are the most important ones
to control for effective inventory management.
The finished products classified into three categories:
A: outstandingly important;
B: of average importance;
C: Relatively unimportant as a basis for a control scheme.
Lec10. Inventory Control By: Huthaifa Khalil
Inventory Control
The ABC Classification
Each category can and sometimes should be handled in a different way,
with more attention being devoted to category A, less to B, and less to C.
Class A
5 15 % of units
70 80 % of value
Class B
30 % of units
15 % of value
Class C
50 60 % of units
5 10 % of value