Waste Management






Waste Management



Waste Management


I, Ms. VIRAL PATEL of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College, Malad TYBMS (SEMESTER V) hereby declare that I have completed the project on WASTE MANAGEMENT in the knowledge. academic year 200708.The information submitted is true and original to the best of my



Waste Management



I, Prof. GURUNATHAN PILLAI (Project Guide) hereby certifies that Ms VIRAL PATEL of T.Y.B.M.S (Semester V ) of GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS COLLEGE, MALAD WASTE MANAGEMENT has completed the project in the academic year 2007-08 .The

information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.


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Project Co-ordinator Date:

College seal



I sincerely thank the teaching faculty of the self financing department of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College and also to the university of Mumbai to give us such big opportunity to work upon this project. I would particularly like to thank Prof. GURUNATHAN PILLAI for being my project guide and for giving his valuable advice, guidance, and suggestion on the subject.

Thanks GESCL)

are due to Mr. for providing


(Managing Director of

guidance, support, useful material and

information on the subject. I also wish to thank all the employees of the GESCL who shared their views while acquiring some of the information and for all the support and help rendered in compilation of the project. My thanks are also due to the college library for providing me necessary books.


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I thus acknowledge their contribution with full sincerity. VIRAL PATEL

Waste management is an important part of the urban infrastructure as it ensures the protection of the environment and of human health. It is not only a technical environmental issue but also a highly political one. Waste management is closely related to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles, resource consumption patterns, jobs and income levels, and other socioeconomic and cultural factors. Waste prevention and minimization has positive environmental, human health and safety, and economic impacts. Implementing a "less is better" concept provides better protection of human health and safety by reducing exposures, generating less demand for disposal on the environment. Less Waste also lowers disposal cost. Arising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had a unintended and negative impact on the urban environment generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban governments and agencies. Cities are now grappling with the problems of high volumes of waste, the costs involved, the disposal technologies and


Waste Management

methodologies, and the impact of wastes on the local and global environment. But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for cities to find solutions - involving the community and the private sector; involving innovative technologies and disposal methods; and involving

behaviour changes and awareness raising. These issues have been amply demonstrated by good practices from many cities around the world. There is a need for a complete rethinking of "waste" - to analyze if waste is indeed waste. A rethinking that calls for WASTE to become WEALTH REFUSE to become RESOURCE TRASH to become CASH There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is focused on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology, to move more towards waste processing and waste recycling (that involves publicprivate partnerships, aiming for eventual waste minimization - driven at the community level, and using low energy/low technology resources. Some of the defining criteria for future waste minimization programmes will include deeper community participation, understanding economic benefits/recovery of waste, focusing on life cycles (rather than end-of-pipe solutions),


Waste Management

decentralized administration of waste, minimizing environmental impacts, reconciling investment costs with long-term goals.

INDEX Serial no. 1. Content
Waste management introduction - What is waste - What is management - What is waste management - History of waste management About waste mangement - Waste management concepts - Waste collection methods - Waste disposal methods - Types of waste - Health impacts of waste - Preventive measures Waste water management - Classification of waste water - Water Conservation - Industrial wastewater treatment - How to dispose of water wastes - Recycling and its advantages Waste management in India About the visit to GESCSL - Company Profile - Introduction - Process overview

Page no.
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 17 22 27 31 33 41 44 45 47 49 51 53



4. 5.


Waste Management - Laboratory - Secured landfill facility 55 58.

Research Methodology

I have used both primary and secondary research method for the purpose of my project. Primary Research Primary research is a data you retrieve by doing some fieldwork. I have visited an industrial waste water purification plant in order to know the process to purify the waste water of various industries. Primary research can often prove more relevant than secondary research because the primary research can be co-ordinated to facts and data you want retrieve. Secondary Research Secondary research is a method of research carried out of another company or organization. I have got the required information from various sources. Mainly, I have used the internet, some books from the library.


Waste Management

What is waste?
Waste is rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material. There are a number of different types of waste. It can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas or as waste heat. When released in the latter two states the wastes can be referred to as emissions. It is usually strongly linked with pollution. Waste may also be intangible in the case of wasted time or wasted opportunities. The term waste implies things, which have been used inefficiently or inappropriately.


Waste Management

Some components of waste can be recycled once recovered from the waste stream, e.g. plastic bottles, metals, glass or paper. The biodegradable component of wastes (e.g. paper & food waste) can be composted or anaerobicly digested to produce soil improvers and renewable fuels. If it is not dealt with sustainably in this manner biodegradable waste can contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and by implication climate change. There are two main definitions of waste. One view comes from the individual or organization producing the material, the second is the view of Government, and is set out in different acts of waste legislation. The two have to combine to ensure the safe and legal disposal of the waste.

What is management?

The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "manage" comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse), which in turn


Waste Management

derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.

What is waste management?
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment), recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. A sub focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each.


Waste Management

Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential, industrial, and commercial producers. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.

The purpose of waste management is to:
1. Protect people who handle waste items from accidental injury. 2. Prevent the spread of infection to healthcare workers who handle the waste. 3. Prevent the spread of infection to the local community. 4. Safely dispose of hazardous materials 5. Open piles of waste should be avoided because they are a risk to those who scavenge and unknowingly reuses contaminate items.

The history of waste management

Historically, the amount of wastes generated by human population was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the fact there was very little exploitation of natural resources. Common wastes produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human & biodegradable wastes, and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimal environmental impact.


Waste Management

Before the widespread use of metals, wood was widely used for most applications. However, reuse of wood has been well documented Nevertheless, it is once again well documented that reuse and recovery of such metals have been carried out by earlier humans. With the advent of industrial revolution, waste management became a critical issue. This was due to the increase in population and the massive migration of people to industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the 18th century. There was a consequent increase in industrial and domestic wastes posing threat to human health and environment. Waste has played a tremendous role in history. The Plague, cholera and typhoid fever, to mention a few, were diseases that altered the populations of many country. They were perpetuated by filth that harbored rats, and contaminated water supply. It was not uncommon for everybody to throw their waste and human wastes out of the window which would decompose in the street.

Waste management concepts
There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in their usage between countries or regions. This section presents some of the most general, widely-used concepts.

Waste hierarchy


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The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Re-think", with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws, and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste. Some "rethink" solutions may be counter-intuitive, such as cutting fabric patterns with slightly more "waste material" left -- the now larger scraps are then used for cutting small parts of the pattern, resulting in a decrease in net waste. This type of solution is by no means limited to the clothing industry. Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other


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materials by modifying industrial production. Source reduction methods involve changes in manufacturing technology, raw material inputs, and product formulation. At times, the term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction. Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling. Many communities in the United States are implementing variable rate pricing for waste disposal (also known as Pay As You Throw - PAYT) which has been effective in reducing the size of the municipal waste stream. Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in waste. Toxics use reduction is a more controversial approach to source reduction that targets and measures reductions in the upstream use of toxic materials. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the more preventive aspects of source reduction but, due to its emphasis on toxic chemical inputs, has been opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. Toxics use reduction programs have been set up by legislation in some states .


Collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions, and it would be impossible to describe them all. Many areas, especially those in less developed countries, do not have a formal waste-collection system in place.


Waste Management

For example, in Australia most urban domestic households have a 240-litre (63.4 U.S. gallon) bin that is emptied weekly from the curb using side- or rear-loading compactor trucks. In Europe and a few other places around the world, a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as Envac, which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum system. In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common method of disposal, whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis. In rural areas people usually dispose of their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to a regional landfill.



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Resource recovery


Disposal methods for waste products vary widely, depending on the area and type of waste material. For example, in Australia, the most common method of disposal of solid household waste is in landfill sites, as it is a large country with a low-density population. By contrast, in Japan it is more common for waste to be incinerated, because the country is smaller and land is scarce. Other waste types (such as liquid sewage) will be disposed of in different ways in both countries.

Disposing of waste in a landfill is one of the most traditional method of waste disposal, and it remains a common practice in most countries. Historically, quarries, borrow landfills were or often established in disused mining pits. A voids properly-

designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method A landfill compaction vehicle in operation of disposing of waste materials in a way that minimises their impact on the local environment. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can


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create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of leachate where result of rain percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of decomposition, chemicals and other materials in the waste to produce the leachate which can pollute groundwater and surface water. Another byproduct of landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas. Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate, such as clay or plastic lining material. Disposed waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stablise the new landform, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats) and reduce the amount of wind-blown litter. Many landfills also have a landfill gas extraction system installed after closure to extract the landfill gas generated by the decomposing waste materials. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. Even flaring the gas is a better environmental outcome than allowing it to escape to the atmosphere, as this consumes the methane, which is a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Many local authorities, especially in urban areas, have found it difficult to establish new landfills due to opposition from owners of adjacent land. Few people want a landfill in their local neighborhood. As a result, solid waste disposal in these areas has become more expensive as material must be transported further away for disposal (or managed by other methods).


Waste Management

This fact, as well as growing concern about the impacts of excessive materials consumption, has given rise to efforts to minimise the amount of orts include taxing or levying waste sent to landfill, recycling the materials, converting material to energy, designing products that use less material, and legislation mandating that manufacturers become responsible for disposal costs of products or packaging. A related subject is that of industrial ecology, where the material flows between industries is studied. The byproducts of one industry may be a useful commodity to another, leading to a reduced materials waste stream.



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A waste-to-energy plant in Saugus, Massachusetts, the first plant in the United States. Incineration is a waste disposal method that involves the combustion of waste at high temperatures. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". In effect, incineration of waste materials converts the waste into heat, gaseous emissions, and residual solid ash. Other types of thermal treatment include pyrolysis and gasification. A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that burns wastes in high-efficiency furnace/boilers to produce steam and/or electricity and incorporates modern air pollution control systems and continuous emissions monitors. This type of incinerator is sometimes called an energy-from-waste (EfW) facility. Incineration is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource, as they do not consume as much area as a landfill. Sweden has been a leader in using the energy generated from incineration over the past 20 years. It is recognised as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste), though it


Waste Management

remains a controversial method of waste disposal in many places due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Resource recovery

A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to be managed and disposed of. There are a number of different methods by which resources may be extracted from waste: the materials may be extracted and recycled, or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery, recycling, and other terms. The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common, especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long term, as there is a finite supply of most raw materials. There are a number of methods of recovering resources from waste materials, with new technologies and methods being developed continuously.

In some developing nations some resource recovery already takes place by way of manual labourers who sift through un-segregated waste to salvage material that can be sold in the recycling market. These unrecognised


Waste Management

workers called waste pickers or rag pickers, are part of the informal sector, but play a significant role in reducing the load on the Municipalities' Solid Waste Management departments. There is an increasing trend in recognising their contribution to the environment and there are efforts to try and integrate them into the formal waste management systems, which is proven to be both cost effective and also appears to help in urban poverty alleviation. However, the very high human cost of these activities including disease, injury and reduced life expectancy through contact with toxic or infectious materials would not be tolerated in a developed country

Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered waste. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most developed countries has come to refer to the widespread collection and reuse of various everyday waste materials. They are collected and sorted into common groups, so that the raw materials from these items can be used again (recycled). In developed countries, the most common consumer items recycled include aluminium beverage cans, steel, food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET plastic bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines, and cardboard. Other types of plastic (PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable, although not as commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products.The recycling of obsolete computers and electronic equipment is important, but more costly


Waste Management

due to the separation and extraction problems. Much electronic waste is sent to Asia, where recovery of the gold and copper can cause environmental problems (monitors contain lead and various "heavy metals", such as selenium and cadmium; both are commonly found in electronic items). Recycled or used materials have to compete in the marketplace with new (virgin) materials. The cost of collecting and sorting the materials often means that they are equally or more expensive than virgin materials. This is most often the case in developed countries where industries producing the raw materials are well-established. Practices such as trash picking can reduce this value further, as choice items are removed (such as aluminium cans). In some countries, recycling programs are subsidised by deposits paid on beverage containers (see container deposit legislation). The economics of recycling junked automobiles also depends on the scrap metal market except where recycling is mandated by legislation (as in Germany). However, most economic systems do not account for the benefits to the environment of recycling these materials, compared with extracting virgin materials. It usually requires significantly less energy, water and other resources to recycle materials than to produce new materials. For example,


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recycling 1000 kg of aluminum cans saves approximately 5000 kg of bauxite ore being mined (source: ALCOA Australia) and prevents the generation of 15.17 tonnes CO2 greenhouse gases; recycling steel saves about 95% of the energy used to refine virgin ore (source: U.S. Bureau of Mines).


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Waste Disposal Methods Advantages and Disadvantages
Ocean dumping Advantages • Convenient • inexpensive • source of material, shelter and breeding Sanitary landfill Advantages • volume can increase with little addition of people/equipment • filled land can be reused for other community purposes. Incineration Advantages • requires minimum land • can be operated in any weather • produces stable odorfree residue • refuse volume is reduced by half Open dumping Advantages Inexpensive

• • • •

Disadvantages ocean overburdened destruction of food sources killing of plankton desalination Disadvantages • completed landfill areas can and requires maintenance • requires proper planning, design and operation.

Disadvantages • Inexpensive to build and operate • High energy requirement • Requires skilled personnel and continuous maintenance Unsightly-smell waste,vermin. Disadvantages • Health hazard- insects, rodents etc. Damage due to air pollution • Groundwater and run off pollution. Disadvantages

Recycling Advantages


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liviable environment for the future.

Some wastes cannot push needed • Separation of useful material from waste difficult.

Types of solid waste

Household waste

Industrial waste

Biomedical or hospital waste


Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste, b)Industrial waste as hazardous waste c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.
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Municipal solid waste
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste, in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste. The existing landfills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater. Garbage: the four broad categories Organic waste: kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers, leaves, fruits. Toxic waste: old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish. Recyclable: paper, glass, metals, plastics. Soiled: hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other fluids. Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. For example, today one will not see a single piece of 28 plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban

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Health impacts of waste

Modernization and progress has had its share of disadvantages and one of the main aspects of concern is the pollution it is causing to the earth – be it land, air, and water. With increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other essentials, there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. This waste is ultimately thrown into municipal waste collection centres from where it is collected by the area municipalities to be further thrown into the landfills and dumps. However, either due to resource crunch or inefficient infrastructure, not all of this waste gets collected and transported to the final dumpsites. If at this stage the management and disposal is improperly done, it can cause serious impacts on health and problems to the surrounding environment. Waste that is not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquid and solid waste from households and the community, are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases. Unattended waste lying around attracts flies, rats, and other creatures that in turn spread disease. Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odour. This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems. The plague outbreak in Surat is a good example of a city suffering due to the callous attitude of the local body in maintaining cleanliness in the city. Plastic waste is another cause for ill health. Thus excessive solid waste that is generated should be controlled by taking certain preventive measures. Impacts of solid waste on health


Waste Management

The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method, especially the pre-school children; waste workers; and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material. Other high-risk group includes population living close to a waste dump and those, whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites. Uncollected solid waste also increases risk of injury, and infection. In particular, organic domestic waste poses a serious threat, since they ferment, creating conditions favourable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable. Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human health, children being more vulnerable to these pollutants. In fact, direct exposure can lead to diseases through chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the environment leads to chemical poisoning. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste.

Waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. Other than this, co-disposal of industrial hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards. Uncollected


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solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff, resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground of disease. Waste dumped near a water source also causes contamination of the water body or the ground water source. Direct dumping of untreated waste in rivers, seas, and lakes results in the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain through the plants and animals that feed on it. Disposal of hospital and other medical waste requires special attention since this can create major health hazards. This waste generated from the hospitals, health care centres, medical laboratories, and research centres such as discarded syringe needles, bandages, swabs, plasters, and other types of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular non-infectious waste. Waste treatment and disposal sites can also create health hazards for the neighbourhood. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects and rodents that spread disease. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe distance from all human settlement. Landfill sites should be well lined and walled to ensure that there is no leakage into the nearby ground water sources.

Recycling too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Workers working with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure. Disposal of health-care wastes require special


Waste Management

attention since it can create major health hazards, such as Hepatitis B and C, through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Rag pickers and others who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recycled, may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items. Occupational hazards associated with waste handling Infections Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and from infected wounds. Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially during landfill operations. Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on the waste. Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste. Chronic diseases Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds. Accidents Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containers. Infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects.

Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste.


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Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites. Diseases Certain chemicals if released untreated, e.g. cyanides, mercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease or death. Some studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste. The role of plastics The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a matter of concern. Coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper, lead, chromium, cobalt, selenium, and cadmium. In most industrialized countries, colour plastics have been legally banned. In India, the Government of Himachal Pradesh has banned the use of plastics and so has Ladakh district. Other states should emulate their example.


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Preventive measure

Proper methods of waste disposal have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment around the area or cause health hazards to the people living there. At the household-level proper segregation of waste has to be done and it should be ensured that all organic matter is kept aside for composting, which is undoubtedly the best method for the correct disposal of this segment of the waste. In fact, the organic part of the waste that is generated decomposes more easily, attracts insects and causes disease. Organic waste can be composted and then used as a fertilizer.


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How we all contribute everyday?

All of us in our daily lives contribute our bit to this change in the climate. Give these points a good, serious thought: -Electricity is the main source of power in urban areas. All our gadgets run on electricity generated mainly from thermal power plants. These thermal power plants are run on fossil fuels (mostly coal) and are responsible for the emission of huge amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants

- Cars, buses, and trucks are the principal ways by which goods and people are transported in most of our cities. These are run mainly on petrol or diesel both fossil fuels. We generate large quantities of waste in the form of plastics that remain in the environment for many years and cause damage

- We use a huge quantity of paper in our work at schools and in offices. Have we ever thought about the number of trees that we use in a day?


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- Timber is used in large quantities for construction of houses, which means that large areas of forest have to be cut down.

- A growing population has meant more and more mouths to feed. Because the land area available for agriculture is limited (and in fact, is actually shrinking as a result of ecological degradation!), high-yielding varieties of crop are being grown to increase the agricultural output from a given area of land. However, such high-yielding varieties of crops require large quantities of fertilizers; and more fertilizer means more emissions of nitrous oxide.

Water pollution are contributed due to industrial effluents and sewage. The time has came to avert major disaster. Effluent treatment systems have to be incorporated in industry. Industries, where it is already in existence, need to operate their plants regularly without looking for savings. 1. New techniques that need no water is highly beneficial. Some of the wet processes is replaced by the dry processes. For example, metal


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pickling once carried out by acids is replaced by sand blasting in which no liquid effluent is generated. 2. To minimize the volume of effluents, the waste water that is less polluted may be used in rinsing. For instance, in the mercerizing of yarn, the final rinse water containing little alkali is used for the first and second rinsing of yarn containing excess alkali. 3. Concentrated wastes, low in volume, are mingled with diluted waste for treatment or disposal. It can be segregated from other streams of diluted wastes, for reduction in pollution load and the diluted wastes after minor treatment is utilised for irrigation. This method is used for treating tannery effluents. 4. Small industries cannot afford treatment plants as they frequently discharge their effluents, near agricultural lands and on roads. It can be avoided by setting up a common effluent treatment plant where industries are located.

5. Waste can be converted into wealth. For instance, in our country distilleries can set up bio-gas plants which are fed by their effluents resulting in reduction in fuel costs and decrease in effluent’s strength. 6. The sludge obtained is a problem. The sludge from pulp and paper industry may be used for manufacturing boards used in packing or in preparation of artificial wooden panels while those from the electroplating industry may form water–proofing compounds.


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Recovery of chemicals and metals is practiced in most industries. The reclaimed waste water can be reused for industrial processes such as boiler, feeding, cooling, which will help cut down the fresh water needs. And paper mills, sugar industries and distilleries that let out more effluents can be used for irrigation or as fertilizers after proper treatment, without affecting ground water.

Waste Water Management

Water is one of the most essential parts for human survival. Human water demand for industrial water supply, irrigation, and generation of power is ever increasing with development of civilization. Since the start of the industrial revolution and the fast expanding agricultural activities water resource began to deteriorate with time. In view of the wide range of


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activities affecting the quality of water, a large number of variables are to be considered to describe water quality and water use. Water quality, in general, is determined by the gases, solutes and suspended mater in the water. In any case water quality is usually affected, directly or indirectly, by human activities making it harmful for living plants and animals. Industrial operations produce a liquid product that almost always must be treated before being returned to the environment. There are three different groups of wastewater to be considered. Classifications of Waste Water
1. Domestic waste waters: These waters are produced by the mere acts

of living such as using the bathroom, doing laundry, or washing the dishes. These wastes are normally handled by the sanitation department, which eliminates pathogens before disposal.

2. Process waste waters: These waters are produced by some industrial processes and include the undesired liquid product of any unit operation. The major concern with these wastes is the reactions that may occur with the environment being either direct or indirect. Some may rob oxygen from the environment, while others may be toxic 3. Cooling waste waters: These waters are produced as a result of some sort of heat exchanger where heat is removed from the product. Waters can be


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used once or recycled. Recycling creates the necessity for periodic cleaning, where at least some may be released into the environment. This type of waste must also be monitored and often treated, and is also a major factor in thermal pollution of water sources.


Waste Management

Water conservation
Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days. Over the years rising populations, growing industrialization, and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging wells; some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate (remove salts) water. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many cities. In the forests, water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the fall. This groundwater in turn feeds wells, lakes, and rivers. Protecting forests means protecting water 'catchments'. In ancient India, people believed that forests were the 'mothers' of rivers and worshipped the sources of these water bodies. Some ancient Indian methods of water conservation

The Indus Valley Civilization, that flourished along the banks of the river Indus and other parts of western and northern India about 5,000 years ago, had one of the most sophisticated urban water supply and sewage 41 systems in the world. The fact that the people were well acquainted with

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Industrial wastewater treatment

Industrial Waste Water Treatment can be classified into the following categories:
• • •

Boiler water treatment Cooling water treatment Wastewater treatment

Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes, such as: heating, cooling, processing, cleaning, and rinsing, so that operating costs and risks are reduced. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the surfaces of pipes and vessels which contain it. Steam boilers can scale up or corrode, and these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same amount of water. Cooling towers can also scale up and corrode, but left untreated, the warm, dirty water they can contain will encourage bacteria to grow, and Legionnaires' Disease can be the fatal consequence. Domestic water can become unsafe to drink if proper hygiene measures are neglected. In many cases, effluent water from one process might be perfectly suitable for reuse in another process somewhere else on site. With the proper treatment, a significant proportion of industrial on-site wastewater might be reusable. This can save money in three ways: lower charges for lower water consumption, lower charges for the smaller volume of effluent water


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discharged and lower energy costs due to the recovery of heat in recycled wastewater. Industrial water treatment seeks to manage four main problem areas: scaling, corrosion, microbiological activity and disposal of residual wastewater. Boilers do not have many problems with microbes as the high temperatures prevents their growth. Scaling occurs when the chemistry and temperature conditions are such that the dissolved mineral salts in the water are caused to precipitate and form solid crystalline deposits. These can be mobile, like a fine silt, or can build up in layers on the metal surfaces of the systems. Scale is a problem because it insulates and heat exchange becomes less efficient as the scale thickens, which wastes energy. Scale also narrows pipe widths and therefore increases the energy used in pumping the water through the pipes. Corrosion occurs when the parent metal oxidises (as iron rusts, for example) and gradually the integrity of the plant equipment is compromised. The corrosion products can cause similar problems to scale, but corrosion can also lead to leaks, which in a pressurised system can lead to catastrophic failures. Microbes can thrive in untreated cooling water, which is warm and sometimes full of organic nutrients, as wet cooling towers are very efficient air scrubbers. Dust, flies, grass, fungal spores and so on collect in the water and create a sort of "microbial soup" if not treated with biocides. Most


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outbreaks of the deadly Legionnaires' Disease have been traced to unmanaged cooling towers, and the UK has had stringent Health & Safety Guidelines concerning cooling tower operations for many years as have had governmental agencies in other countries. Disposal of residual wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem. Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans.


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Liquid contaminated waste (e.g., human tissue, blood, feces, urine and other body fluids) requires special handling, because it may pose an infectious risk to healthcare workers who contact or handle the waste. STEP 1: Wear PPE (utility gloves, protective eyewear and plastic apron) Note: Liquid wastes can when handling and transporting liquid wastes. also be poured into the latrine. STEP 2: Carefully pour wastes down a utility sink drain or into a flushable toilet and rinse the toilet or sink carefully and thoroughly with water to remove residual wastes. Avoid splashing. STEP 3: If a sewage system doesn’t exist, dispose of liquids in a deep, covered hole, not into open drains. STEP 4: Decontaminate specimen containers by placing them in a 0.5% chlorine solution for 10 minutes before washing them. STEP 5: Remove utility gloves (wash daily or when visibly soiled and dry). STEP 6: Wash and dry hands or use an antiseptic handrub as described above. Cholera Epidemic In case of a cholera epidemic, hospital sewage must also be treated and disinfected.


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Advantages of Recycling & Reuse Of Waste Water

Reduction in interference with the Environment will increase by

reducing or eliminating the effluent discharge. It is an effective approach towards 'Sero Liquid Discharge'.

Recycled water can be treated to almost any standards hence is Reduction in "Fresh water" intake and the costs associated with it. Recycled water is like creation of "New", "In-house" source of good

suitable for any end usage.

• Reduction in "Disposal Volume" and the costs associated with it.

quality water largely unaffected by external factors. In areas where "fresh water" cost is presently high or likely to be hiked, the recycled water shall provide "ongoing savings". • Recycling & reuse is an approach towards ISO - 14000.

Sources of waste water for recycle & reuse In a running industry the water in untreated or treated form is used for various applications. Hence the waste water is being generated in various sections. The sources typically are treated effluent from effluent treatment plant, boiler blow down, floor washings.

End use of recycled water the recycled water generated from waste water can be used for various


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applications after suitable post – treatment like process water, boiler feed cooling tower, chillers, as soft water gardening etc.

Process of recycling


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There is no Indian policy document, which examines waste as part of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery or perceives the issue of waste through a prism of overall sustainability. In fact, interventions have been fragmented and are often contradictory. The new Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000, which came into effect from January 2004, fails even to manage waste in a cyclic process. Waste management still is a linear system of collection and disposal, creating health and environmental hazards. Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming years. Till now, the problem of waste has been seen as one of cleaning and disposing as rubbish. But a closer look at the current and future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically, recognizing its natural resource roots as well as health impacts. Waste can be wealth; which has tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban poor but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling rather than spreading pollution as has been the case. Increasing urban migration and a high density of population will make waste management a difficult issue to handle in the near future, if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created. Developing countries, such as India, are undergoing a massive migration of their population from rural to urban centres. New consumption patterns and social linkages are emerging. India, will have more than 40 per cent, i.e. over 400 million people clustered in cities over the next thirty years (UN,


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1995). Modern urban living brings on the problem of waste, which increases in quantity, and changes in composition with each passing day. There is, however, an inadequate understanding of the problem, both of infrastructure requirements as well as its social dimensions. Urban planners, municipal agencies, environmental regulators, labour groups, citizens’ groups and nongovernmental organizations need to develop a variety of responses which are rooted in local dynamics, rather than borrow non-contextual solutions from elsewhere. There have been a variety of policy responses to the problem of urban solid waste in India, especially over the past few years, yet sustainable solutions either of organic or inorganic waste remains an untapped and unattended area. All policy documents as well as legislation dealing with urban solid waste mention or acknowledge recycling as one of the ways of diverting waste, but they do so in a piece meal manner and do not address the framework needed to enable this to happen. Critical issues such as industry responsibility, a critical paradigm to enable sustainable recycling and to catalyse waste reduction through, say better packing, has not been touched upon. This new paradigm should include a cradle-to-grave approach with responsibility being shared by many stakeholders, including product manufacturers, consumers and communities, the recycling industry, trade, municipalities and the urban poor.


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Constitution : The CETP at Vatva is managed by a Co.operative Society named The Green Environment Services Co. Operative Society Limited formed by the member units of GIDC Estate, Vatva. (Registration No. S 24106 Dated 08-09-1992) Land Area : The Total Land area is 21000 sq. mtrs. The land for the project is given at the token price of Rs. 1 by GIDC. Cost of Project : The total cost of the project is about Rs. 32.00 crore. Internal collection systems Rs. 10.17 crore Treatment units Rs. 18.00 crore Conveyance line upto AMC Pirana Plant Rs. 5.11 crore Sabarmati Total Rs. 33.28 crore Source of Finance : Contribution from Member units Subsidy from Central/State Govt. Total Rs. 22.23 crore Rs. 10.75 crore Rs. 32.98 crore

Society has obtained the loan amounting Rs. 1150 lacs from Industrial Development Bank of India and same has been prepaid before maturity. Power Requirement : The total connected power is 1100KW Supplied by A.E.C. Ltd. In case of power failure they have stand by DG set of 1000 KVA which is sufficient to run the entire project. Technology : M/s. Advent Corporation USA has carried out the process design of the CETP. The construction work was started in March 96 and the plant was pre-commissioned in just two year i.e. in May 98. Salient features of the plant : a) It has a state of art technology called as AIS (Advent's Intergral


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System) Which consists Aeration system with Inbuit clarifier. b) The advantage of this system is about 66% saving in land area, project cost and power supply as compared to conventional systems. c) There are no moving parts in the Aeration Tank as well as clarifier. d) There is no pumping anywhere in the plant once effluent reaches to E.Q. Tank as it's designed based on gravity flow only through the system. Charging Basis : Effluent Rs. 20/kg. Toc/DAY Solid waste : Rs. 200/MT. They Collect extra treatment charges from the Member units who discharge their Effluent exceeding specified norms given by GESCSL. Incase of exceeding in any of the parameter than the specified by us, they are calling them individually against our technical committee and proper technology is being guided to them to control it at their premises itself. which helps us in improving the quality of Influent of CETP.


The Vatva Industrial Estate has been developed by Gujarat Industries Development Corporation in the year 1960 to accommodate small scale and medium scale industries. This Estate is located in the south east direction of Ahmedabad City on Ahmedabad-Mehmadabad state highway.


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In this Industrial Estate there are approximately 1800 units, out of which approximately 680 industries generates the effluent. These units include Pharmaceutical products manafacturers, rolling mills, Process houses, Dyes & Dye Intermediates manufacturers, Pigment manufacturers etc. To treat the effluent by individual member units at source was very difficult and Techno-economically not viable hence to solve this problem, the most practical and cost-effective approach was adopted by establishing the Common Effluent Treatment Plant under the name "The Green Environment Services Co-op. Soc. Ltd.", with the support of Vatva Industries Association and Gujarat Dyestuff Manufacturer's Association. The process designing is carried out by M/s. Advent Corporation, U.S.A. one of the internationally renowned consultants for the industrial wastewater treatment. The commissioning and operations supervision is done by advent's Indian Collaborators Advent Envirocare Technology Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad. Detailed engineering for the CETP project is carried our by renowed consultant M/s. Sudarshan Chemicals Ind. Ltd., Pune (India).

It is therefore necessary for the member units to give primary treatment to their effluent before discharging the wastewater into ICS of CETP for the further treatment. Treated effluent is taken to pirana sewage treatment plant through a closed pipeline.


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INTERNAL COLLECTION SYSTEM & CONVEYANCE NETWORK There are 680 member units spread in an area of 13.5 sq. km. in Vatva Insustrial Complex. The effluent from every member is conveyed through the ICS to CETP in a most scientific and economical way. To Control the quality & quantity of member’s effluent, control system is also provided. The detailed engineering for ICS is carried out by renowed consultant M/s.


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Dalal Consultants and Engineers Ltd., Ahmedabad based on the Technoeconomic feasibility study of the various alternative of ICS. The salient features of the Internal Effluent Collection System are as under. The 680 members which are scattered in different area of the complex are covered in 92 sump rooms from where, the wastewater flows by gravity to the pumping stations. The wastewater is pumped to CETP from six pumping stations. In all there are six pumping stations located in such a way that maximum flow from sump rooms to pumping stations is available by gravity, so that pumping cost can be minimised. One new pumping station No. 7 is installed to divert choked gravity mains of pumping station no. 5 and its discharge goes to pumping station 5. All the members discharge their effluent from their over head discharge tank in the respective sumps. The magnetic flow meter & butterfly valves

are provided in each sump room maximum 9 connections are given. It is obligatory on the part of member to construct discharge tank having holding capacity of waste water of one day volume at 15' height for gravity discharge. In Internal Collection System, Gravity mains is having a total pipe length of 17,588 mts. and of different sizes varying from 250mm to 600mm diameter and are made up of R.C.C. and stoneware. The rising mains have a total length of 6119m and their sizes vary from 180mm to 400mm and are made up of HDPE.


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The CETP has its own in house well equiped, laboratory. The laboratory has been divided into four sections : The Chemistry lab. The Microbiology lab. The TOC lab. The R&D lab. The physical and the chemical analysis of the wastewater from different units of the CETP as well as influent from the individual member is carried out in the laboratory. We have modern and Imported Analytical Instruments for the Analysis. The laboratory is functioning round the clock for the determination of various parameters of the effluent and solid waste. This CETP is a result of joint efforts and strong determination put together to


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make environment pollution free and earth a better place.

TOC Laboratory

Analytical Laboratory


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Instrument Laboratory


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The Society developed three Secured Landfill Sites for the disposal of hazardous solid waste.

The Govt. of Gujarat, Forests and Environment Department notified the area

most suitable for developing Secured Landfill Facility. Environmental Waste Management Impact Assessment study was done by Ms. National Productivity Council (NPC), New Delhi. Detailed engineering design, construction and operation are done in compliance with the guidelines issued by CPCB and GPCB. The major types of solid waste include: a ) Gypsum Waste; b) Incinerator ash; c ) Iron Powder and, d) ETP sludge. Charges for disposal of solid waste: a ) Rs. 250/ MT of solid waste – member units from Vatva. b) Rs. 400/MT of solid waste- member units outside of Vatva.


Vasundhara or earth is the only planet in our solar system which can support life so it is very important to save it from various waste hazards. Thus, Waste management is of great concern to mankind as it affects the entire planet and all its living creatures. Increasing amounts of wastes generated everyday is becoming a major problem particularly in urban cities around the globe. With the rapid growth of population, there has been a substantial increase in the generation of solid waste resulting into the contamination of


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air, water and land resources. Human activities create waste, and it is the way these wastes are handled, stored, collected and disposed of that pose risks to the environment and to public health.

Thus, it is rightly said that God Gives Enough to Satisfy Every

Man’s Need but not Every Man’s Greed. End Waste Before It Ends Your Life


Waste Minimization Through Plant Process Design And Modification The trend for waste management has been moving from traditional “end-ofpipe” treatment to “waste minimization” solution. Instead of treating waste at the end of manufacturing processes, process engineers have been playing a more important role in waste management by either eliminating emissions at source or recovering and reusing materials that would otherwise be discharged. This can be achieved using various process design and modification techniques. For instance, the waste can be reduced from source


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by designing or modifying process equipment or technology, by changing process or procedure, by substituting raw materials, and by improving the housekeeping and inventory control. This topical presentation includes:
• • •

Introduction of the waste minimization concepts . Discussions on holistic approach for source reduction . Identification of system components and process activities that may Examination of practical techniques for planning . Implementing and monitoring effective waste minimization principles. Cost justification for waste minimization.

contribute unnecessary waste generation .
• • •

Indian Oil Corporation is the largest commercial enterprise in India, engaged in the business of refining, transportation and marketing of petroleum products throughout the country. For sustainable growth, safe disposal of oily sludge in a cost-effective manner is a key issue that has confronted the oil industry in India for a long time. At a conservative estimate, over 20,000 MT of oily sludge gets generated in the country every year. To find an environmentally safe and cost effective solution to the problem, a collaborative research project was launched by Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) and Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI). This led to development of OiliVorous-S, a commercially produced microbial consortium to biodegrade the hazardous constituents of oily sludge. This product was successfully field tested in Mathura, Barauni and Digboi refineries of IOCL and 4000 MT of sludge was biodegraded during the year 2002-2003 at an average cost of about US$15 per MT of sludge.


Waste Management Indian Oil Corporation has adopted a holistic approach for handling oily sludge at its refineries and other locations. The strategies adopted include:

• • •

Minimization of sludge generation at source .

In-situ cleaning of tanks by chemical and mechanical means. Incineration . Bio-remediation / bio-degradation.









India generates enough untreated hazardous waste to cover the whole of Delhi. Going by the latest report of the hazardous waste management committee of the Supreme Court, there are only 10 independent operational treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDF) for industrial hazardous


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waste in the country. This takes care only 40% of the hazardous waste generated that includes harmful metals like lead and mercury and lethal chemicals. According to industry estimates, the country generates 5 million tonnes of hazardous waste every year and 10 TSDFs have the capacity to treat not more than 2 million tonnes. While independent TSDFs are open for industries to use at a price, some large companies build their own. However, since TSDFs involve multi- crore investments for development and maintenance, most companies, especially small ones, rely on independent TSDFs. The 10 TSDFs are spread out in a few states including Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. In Kerela, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Haryana, among others, the TSDFs are still in the process of development. “Since in many states such facilities don’t exist, many companies transport the waste to a state where a TSDF exists while others allow their waste to remain untreated”, environment ministry official said. According to the hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection Act, that came into play in 1989, hazardous waste must be kept in storage after which it is to be treated in a TSDFs facility. In 2002, the environment ministry issued guidelines under the rules, one of which states the storage time should not exceed three months. “ The three month guideline is rarely followed and most of the hazardous waste is dumped in open spaces. Contamination of ground water due to this is common,” Delhi- based NGO Toxic Link director Ravi Agarwal said. In 2003, the Supreme Court asked states to strictly implement the hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection Act


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and had appointed a committee to monitor the implementation of the rules. The apex court said every state must have at least one TSDF. Officials said the Centre and the monitoring committee have repeatedly asked states to identify land for TSDFs. “Lack of availability of appropriate land is the biggest constraint in developing TSDFs and the state governments need to be proactive,” said AK Saxena, vice president of Ramky Enviro Engineers, that runs 7 TSDFs. The state authorities are supposed to provide land for TDSFs at a subsidized rate. A TSDFs includes a laboratory and an incinerator where different waste is treated separately and a landfill where treated waste is disposed. The bottom of the landfill is covered by a high density polyethylene layer.



Now, power your house from plastic waste Asian electronics & Singapore company to Build Power Plants Fired By Liquid Hydrocarbons Electricity from plastic waste. It may sound unrealistic, but it’s now being touted as the technology of future for the power- deficit India. Alka


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Umesh Zadgaonkar, who has got six patents in India for the technology and in the process of filing for international patent, is joining hands with two large corporates to make it a commercial success. Mumbai- based Asian Electronics (AEL) AND Singapore ‘s environ- Hub Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW) each based on this commercially viable’ technology. The plants will be fired by the liquid hydrocarbons produced from plastic waste. MUMBAI: Electricity from plastic waste. It may sound unrealistic, but it’s now being touted as the technology of future for the power-deficit India. Alka Umesh Zadgaonkar, who has got six patents in India for the technology and in the process of filing for international patent, is joining hands with two large corporate to make it a commercial success. Mumbai-based Asian Electronics (AEL) and Singapore’s Enviro-Hub Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW) each based on this ‘commercially viable’ technology. The plants will be fired by the liquid hydrocarbons produced from plastic waste.

The new initiate will take shape through the projects of joint venture company, Green Hydrocarbons (GHL) which is registered in Japan, Europe and the US. The power plants will be set up in Navi Mumbai, Bhiwandi, Thane and Rajasthan at a total capex of Rs 128 crore. On experimental basis, AEL had set up a 2 MW plant in Nagpur, which is running in full steam, according to


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The AEL board is expected to clear the proposals on Thursday (July 5), said the official. AEL is already in talks Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) for a JV to develop technology for optimum conversion of crude oil into petrol and diesel. In the present scenario, only 70% of the crude is refined to fuel. Using our technology, it can be improved to 90%, claimed the official.

AEL top management refused to comment on their JV plans and proposals for setting up power plants. On Wednesday, AEL’s share price has moved up 2% to close at Rs 908 on BSE. The stock price has seen 43% jump over last one month.

Raymond Ng, executive chairman of Enviro-Hub, told ET from Singapore that his company is looking forward to jointly set up fuel plants in and around Singapore with the help of Unique and AEL. Cimelia, a part of $260 million Enviro-Hub, has already established its brand name in the global ewaste management and recycling industry, he said.

The JV is planning to set up plants to process plastic waste in eight countries in Far-East Asia and Brazil. Enviro-Hub has access to nearly 50,000 tonnes waste in each of these markets. Each plant with a capacity of 12,000 tonnes per annum can be set up at a cost of $12 million. Our estimate is that the plant can generate a revenue of up to $10-$12 million.

Mrs Zadgaonkar, who developed the technology for producing fuel from plastic waste, owns the patent for her invention. While working as the head


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of chemistry department in Raisoni Engineering College in Nagpur, Mrs Zadgaonkar invented the new method to reuse the hydrocarbons in plastic. “On a December morning almost a decade ago, when 300 gm of plastic waste she was processing in her college lab broke down into a dark brown liquid. It took time to reach a happy confirmation that the derivative was indeed liquid hydrocarbons. After years of refining processes, she tested the fuel in bikes and proved successful,” said the official.

Enviro-Hub’s subsidiary Cimelia Resource Recovery will hold 50% stake in GHL and the remaining 50% will be owned by Shah-controlled companies, AEL and US Instruments. “In US Instruments, Mrs Zadgaonkar holds 26% stake. US Instruments has got the manufacturing licence from Unique Waste Plastic Management and Research, a company owned by Mrs Zadgaonkar and family,” said the official.

As per the request of President APJ Abdul Kalam, the ministries, including coal and mines, science and technology, petroleum and natural gas, have done studies on the process and given permission to start commercial production of fuel from plastic waste. Maharashtra Energy Development Agency had signed a memorandum of understanding with Mrs Zadgaonkar for a JV to develop commercial process for fuel from plastic. Rajasthan State Industrial Development & Investment Corporation has expressed interest in setting up similar plants across the state.


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“Plastic, a product of petroleum, gives a fuel better than petrol and diesel as the impurities are less when compared to the crude oil. Through the new technology, we can convert the waste plastic into oil (70%), gas (20%) and coke (10%),” said the official.

QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Why did you decided to have a plant for industrial waste water treatment? 2. How the process of the plant works? 3. What do you with the water that is purified? 4. How much percent of waste do you think is purified? 5. Is the technology oriented or labour oriented?


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6. Does the government provide any assistance or subsidy for the work done?

Reference Material
Company (GESCSL) Booklet Pamphlets



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The Economic Times Times of India

www.gescsl.com www.wikipedia.com


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