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Waste Management

A PROJECT ON
WASTE MANAGEMENT
COMMOM EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT
(A STEP TOWARDS BETTER ENVIRONMENT)

SUBMITTED BY
Ms. VIRAL PATEL
T.Y.B.M.S

SUBJECTED TO
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
2007-2008

GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS COLLEGE


S.V ROAD
MALAD (WEST)
MUMBAI - 400 064

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Waste Management

WASTE MANAGEMENT

COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT


PLANT

A STEP TOWARDS BETTER


ENVIRONMENT

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Waste Management

DECLARATION

I, Ms. VIRAL PATEL of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College, Malad


TYBMS (SEMESTER V) hereby declare that I have completed the
project on WASTE MANAGEMENT in the academic year 2007-
08.The information submitted is true and original to the best of my
knowledge.

SIGNATURE OF THE STUDENT

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RAJASTHANI SAMMELAN’S
GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS’ COLLEGE
(Arts & Commerce)

ACCREDITED BY NAAC WITH ‘A’ GRADE

S.V. ROAD, MALAD (W),


MUMBAI- 400 064

CERTIFICATE

I, Prof. GURUNATHAN PILLAI (Project Guide) hereby certifies that


Ms VIRAL PATEL of T.Y.B.M.S (Semester V ) of GHANSHYAMDAS
SARAF GIRLS COLLEGE, MALAD has completed the project
WASTE MANAGEMENT in the academic year 2007-08 .The
information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

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Project Co-ordinator College seal Principal
Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I sincerely thank the teaching faculty of the self financing


department of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College and also to the
university of Mumbai to give us such big opportunity to work upon this
project.

I would particularly like to thank Prof. GURUNATHAN PILLAI for


being my project guide and for giving his valuable advice, guidance,
and suggestion on the subject.

Thanks are due to Mr. JATIN PATEL (Managing Director of


GESCL) for providing guidance, support, useful material and
information on the subject.

I also wish to thank all the employees of the GESCL who shared
their views while acquiring some of the information and for all the
support and help rendered in compilation of the project.
My thanks are also due to the college library for providing me
necessary books.

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I thus acknowledge their contribution with full sincerity.

VIRAL PATEL

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Waste management is an important part of the urban infrastructure as


it ensures the protection of the environment and of human health. It is not
only a technical environmental issue but also a highly political one. Waste
management is closely related to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles,
resource consumption patterns, jobs and income levels, and other socio-
economic and cultural factors.

Waste prevention and minimization has positive environmental,


human health and safety, and economic impacts. Implementing a "less is
better" concept provides better protection of human health and safety by
reducing exposures, generating less demand for disposal on the
environment. Less Waste also lowers disposal cost.

Arising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns


have had a unintended and negative impact on the urban environment -
generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban
governments and agencies. Cities are now grappling with the problems of
high volumes of waste, the costs involved, the disposal technologies and

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methodologies, and the impact of wastes on the local and global
environment.

But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for


cities to find solutions - involving the community and the private sector;
involving innovative technologies and disposal methods; and involving

behaviour changes and awareness raising. These issues have been amply
demonstrated by good practices from many cities around the world.

There is a need for a complete rethinking of "waste" - to analyze if


waste is indeed waste. A rethinking that calls for

WASTE to become WEALTH


REFUSE to become RESOURCE
TRASH to become CASH

There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is
focused on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology, to move
more towards waste processing and waste recycling (that involves public-
private partnerships, aiming for eventual waste minimization - driven at the
community level, and using low energy/low technology resources. Some of
the defining criteria for future waste minimization programmes will include
deeper community participation, understanding economic benefits/recovery
of waste, focusing on life cycles (rather than end-of-pipe solutions),

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decentralized administration of waste, minimizing environmental impacts,
reconciling investment costs with long-term goals.

INDEX

Serial no. Content Page no.


1. Waste management introduction
- What is waste 1
- What is management 2
- What is waste management 3
- History of waste management 4
2. About waste mangement
- Waste management concepts 5
- Waste collection methods 7
- Waste disposal methods 8
- Types of waste 17
- Health impacts of waste 22
- Preventive measures 27
3. Waste water management
- Classification of waste water 31
- Water Conservation 33
- Industrial wastewater treatment 41
- How to dispose of water wastes 44
- Recycling and its advantages 45
4. Waste management in India 47
5. About the visit to GESCSL
- Company Profile 49
- Introduction 51
- Process overview 53

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- Laboratory 55
- Secured landfill facility 58.

Research Methodology

I have used both primary and secondary research method for the purpose of
my project.

Primary Research

Primary research is a data you retrieve by doing some fieldwork. I have


visited an industrial waste water purification plant in order to know the
process to purify the waste water of various industries. Primary research can
often prove more relevant than secondary research because the primary
research can be co-ordinated to facts and data you want retrieve.

Secondary Research

Secondary research is a method of research carried out of another company


or organization. I have got the required information from various sources.
Mainly, I have used the internet, some books from the library.

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What is waste?

Waste is rubbish, trash, garbage, or junk is unwanted or undesired material.


There are a number of different types of waste. It can exist as a solid, liquid,
or gas or as waste heat. When released in the latter two states the wastes can
be referred to as emissions. It is usually strongly linked with pollution. Waste
may also be intangible in the case of wasted time or wasted opportunities.
The term waste implies things, which have been used inefficiently or
inappropriately.

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Some components of waste can be recycled once recovered from the waste
stream, e.g. plastic bottles, metals, glass or paper. The biodegradable
component of wastes (e.g. paper & food waste) can be composted or
anaerobicly digested to produce soil improvers and renewable fuels. If it is
not dealt with sustainably in this manner biodegradable waste can contribute
to greenhouse gas emissions and by implication climate change.

There are two main definitions of waste. One view comes from the individual
or organization producing the material, the second is the view of Government,
and is set out in different acts of waste legislation. The two have to combine
to ensure the safe and legal disposal of the waste.

What is management?

The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel


leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through
the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material,
intellectual or intangible).

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word "manage" comes


from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse), which in turn

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derives from the Latin manus (hand). The French word mesnagement (later
ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word
management in the 17th and 18th centuries.

What is waste management?

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment),


recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human
activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics
or amenity. A sub focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials'
effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources
from them. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous
substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each.

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Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for
urban and rural areas, and for residential, industrial, and commercial
producers. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional
waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government
authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial
waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.
The purpose of waste management is to:
1. Protect people who handle waste items from accidental injury.

2. Prevent the spread of infection to healthcare workers who handle the


waste.

3. Prevent the spread of infection to the local community.

4. Safely dispose of hazardous materials

5. Open piles of waste should be avoided because they are a risk to those
who scavenge and unknowingly reuses contaminate items.
The history of waste management

Historically, the amount of wastes generated by human population was


insignificant mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the
fact there was very little exploitation of natural resources. Common wastes
produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human &
biodegradable wastes, and these were released back into the ground locally,
with minimal environmental impact.

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Before the widespread use of metals, wood was widely used for most
applications. However, reuse of wood has been well documented
Nevertheless, it is once again well documented that reuse and recovery of
such metals have been carried out by earlier humans.

With the advent of industrial revolution, waste management became a


critical issue. This was due to the increase in population and the massive
migration of people to industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the
18th century. There was a consequent increase in industrial and domestic
wastes posing threat to human health and environment.

Waste has played a tremendous role in history. The Plague, cholera and
typhoid fever, to mention a few, were diseases that altered the populations of
many country. They were perpetuated by filth that harbored rats, and
contaminated water supply. It was not uncommon for everybody to throw
their waste and human wastes out of the window which would decompose in
the street.

Waste management concepts

There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in


their usage between countries or regions. This section presents some of the
most general, widely-used concepts.

Waste hierarchy

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The waste hierarchy

The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which
classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms
of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most
waste minimisation strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract
the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum
amount of waste.

Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R':


"Re-think", with the implied meaning that the present system may have
fundamental flaws, and that a thoroughly effective system of waste
management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste. Some "re-
think" solutions may be counter-intuitive, such as cutting fabric patterns
with slightly more "waste material" left -- the now larger scraps are then
used for cutting small parts of the pattern, resulting in a decrease in net
waste. This type of solution is by no means limited to the clothing industry.
Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other

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materials by modifying industrial production. Source reduction methods
involve changes in manufacturing technology, raw material inputs, and
product formulation. At times, the term "pollution prevention" may refer to
source reduction.

Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling.


Many communities in the United States are implementing variable rate
pricing for waste disposal (also known as Pay As You Throw - PAYT)
which has been effective in reducing the size of the municipal waste stream.

Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in


waste. Toxics use reduction is a more controversial approach to source
reduction that targets and measures reductions in the upstream use of toxic
materials. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the more preventive aspects of
source reduction but, due to its emphasis on toxic chemical inputs, has been
opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. Toxics use reduction
programs have been set up by legislation in some states .

WASTE COLLECTION METHODS

Collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions,


and it would be impossible to describe them all. Many areas, especially
those in less developed countries, do not have a formal waste-collection
system in place.

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For example, in Australia most urban domestic households have a 240-litre
(63.4 U.S. gallon) bin that is emptied weekly from the curb using side- or
rear-loading compactor trucks. In Europe and a few other places around the
world, a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as
Envac, which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum
system. In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common
method of disposal, whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables
and/or organics on a scheduled basis. In rural areas people usually dispose of
their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. Waste collected is then
transported to a regional landfill.

WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS

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Landfill Incineration Resource


recovery Recovery

Disposal methods for waste products vary widely, depending on the


area and type of waste material. For example, in Australia, the most
common method of disposal of solid household waste is in landfill
sites, as it is a large country with a low-density population. By contrast,
in Japan it is more common for waste to be incinerated, because the
country is smaller and land is scarce. Other waste types (such as liquid
sewage) will be disposed of in different ways in both countries.

Landfill

Disposing of waste in a landfill is one of the most traditional method of


waste disposal, and it remains a common practice in most countries.
Historically, landfills were
often established in disused
quarries, mining voids or
borrow pits. A properly-
designed and well-managed
landfill can be a hygienic and
relatively inexpensive method A landfill compaction vehicle in operation
of disposing of waste materials in a way that minimises their impact on the
local environment. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can

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create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter,
attraction of vermin, and generation of leachate where result of rain
percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of
decomposition, chemicals and other materials in the waste to produce the
leachate which can pollute groundwater and surface water. Another
byproduct of landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane and
carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down
anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation,
and is a greenhouse gas.

Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain


leachate, such as clay or plastic lining material. Disposed waste is normally
compacted to increase its density and stablise the new landform, and
covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats) and reduce the
amount of wind-blown litter. Many landfills also have a landfill gas
extraction system installed after closure to extract the landfill gas generated
by the decomposing waste materials. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using
perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate
electricity. Even flaring the gas is a better environmental outcome than
allowing it to escape to the atmosphere, as this consumes the methane,
which is a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.

Many local authorities, especially in urban areas, have found it difficult to


establish new landfills due to opposition from owners of adjacent land. Few
people want a landfill in their local neighborhood. As a result, solid waste
disposal in these areas has become more expensive as material must be
transported further away for disposal (or managed by other methods).

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This fact, as well as growing concern about the impacts of excessive
materials consumption, has given rise to efforts to minimise the amount of
orts include taxing or levying waste sent to landfill, recycling the materials,
converting material to energy, designing products that use less material, and
legislation mandating that manufacturers become responsible for disposal
costs of products or packaging. A related subject is that of industrial
ecology, where the material flows between industries is studied. The by-
products of one industry may be a useful commodity to another, leading to a
reduced materials waste stream.

Incineration

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A waste-to-energy plant in Saugus, Massachusetts, the first plant in the


United States.

Incineration is a waste disposal method that involves the combustion of


waste at high temperatures. Incineration and other high temperature waste
treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". In effect,
incineration of waste materials converts the waste into heat, gaseous
emissions, and residual solid ash. Other types of thermal treatment include
pyrolysis and gasification.

A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that


burns wastes in high-efficiency furnace/boilers to produce steam and/or
electricity and incorporates modern air pollution control systems and
continuous emissions monitors. This type of incinerator is sometimes called
an energy-from-waste (EfW) facility.

Incineration is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce


resource, as they do not consume as much area as a landfill. Sweden has
been a leader in using the energy generated from incineration over the past
20 years. It is recognised as a practical method of disposing of certain
hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste), though it

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remains a controversial method of waste disposal in many places due to
issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.

Resource recovery

A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste
material as a resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to
be managed and disposed of. There are a number of different methods
by which resources may be extracted from waste: the materials may
be extracted and recycled, or the calorific content of the waste may be
converted to electricity.

The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred


to as secondary resource recovery, recycling, and other terms. The practice
of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common,
especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming
scarcer. There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of
waste materials is unsustainable in the long term, as there is a finite supply
of most raw materials.

There are a number of methods of recovering resources from waste


materials, with new technologies and methods being developed
continuously.

In some developing nations some resource recovery already takes place by


way of manual labourers who sift through un-segregated waste to salvage
material that can be sold in the recycling market. These unrecognised

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workers called waste pickers or rag pickers, are part of the informal sector,
but play a significant role in reducing the load on the Municipalities' Solid
Waste Management departments. There is an increasing trend in recognising
their contribution to the environment and there are efforts to try and
integrate them into the formal waste management systems, which is proven
to be both cost effective and also appears to help in urban poverty
alleviation. However, the very high human cost of these activities including
disease, injury and reduced life expectancy through contact with toxic or
infectious materials would not be tolerated in a developed country

Recycling

Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be
considered waste. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most developed
countries has come to refer to the widespread collection and reuse of various
everyday waste materials. They are collected and sorted into common
groups, so that the raw materials from these items can be used again
(recycled).

In developed countries, the most common consumer items recycled include


aluminium beverage cans, steel, food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET
plastic bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers,
magazines, and cardboard. Other types of plastic (PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS:
see resin identification code) are also recyclable, although not as commonly
collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material,
making them relatively easy to recycle into new products.The recycling of
obsolete computers and electronic equipment is important, but more costly

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due to the separation and extraction problems. Much electronic waste is sent
to Asia, where recovery of the gold and copper can cause environmental
problems (monitors contain lead and various "heavy metals", such as
selenium and cadmium; both are commonly found in electronic items).

Recycled or used materials have to compete in the marketplace with new


(virgin) materials. The cost of collecting and sorting the materials often
means that they are equally or more expensive than virgin materials. This is
most often the case in developed countries where industries producing the
raw materials are well-established. Practices such as trash picking can
reduce this value further, as choice items are removed (such as aluminium
cans). In some countries, recycling programs are subsidised by deposits paid
on beverage containers (see container deposit legislation).

The economics of recycling junked automobiles also depends on the scrap


metal market except where recycling is mandated by legislation (as in
Germany).

However, most economic systems do not account for the benefits to the
environment of recycling these materials, compared with extracting virgin
materials. It usually requires significantly less energy, water and other
resources to recycle materials than to produce new materials. For example,

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recycling 1000 kg of aluminum cans saves approximately 5000 kg of
bauxite ore being mined (source: ALCOA Australia) and prevents the
generation of 15.17 tonnes CO2 greenhouse gases; recycling steel saves
about 95% of the energy used to refine virgin ore (source: U.S. Bureau of
Mines).

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Waste Disposal Methods
Advantages and Disadvantages

Ocean dumping
Advantages Disadvantages
• Convenient • ocean overburdened
• inexpensive • destruction of food sources
• source of material, shelter and • killing of plankton
breeding • desalination
Sanitary landfill
Advantages Disadvantages
• volume can increase with • completed landfill areas
little can
addition of people/equipment and requires maintenance
• filled land can be reused • requires proper planning,
for design and operation.
other community purposes.
Incineration
Advantages Disadvantages
• requires minimum land • Inexpensive to build and
• can be operated in any operate
weather • High energy requirement
• produces stable odor- • Requires skilled
free personnel and continuous
residue maintenance
• refuse volume is Unsightly-smell waste,vermin.
reduced by half
Open dumping
Advantages Disadvantages
Inexpensive • Health hazard- insects,
rodents etc.
Damage due to air pollution
• Groundwater and run off
pollution.
Recycling
Advantages Disadvantages

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liviable Some wastes cannot push
environment for the future. needed
• Separation of useful
material from waste difficult.

Types of solid waste

Household Industrial Biomedical


waste waste or hospital
waste

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Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source:
a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste,
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b)Industrial waste as hazardous waste
c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.

Municipal solid waste

Municipal solid waste consists of household waste,


construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue,
and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly
from residential and commercial complexes. With rising
urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal
solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947
cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste,
in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes. More than 25% of the municipal solid
waste is not collected at all; 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to
transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste. The
existing landfills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined
properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater.

Garbage: the four broad categories

Organic waste: kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers, leaves, fruits.

Toxic waste: old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer and
pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish.

Recyclable: paper, glass, metals, plastics.

Soiled: hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other fluids.

Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to
products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such
nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In
India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to
have achieved success. For example, today one will not see a single piece 28 of
plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban
Waste Management

Health impacts of waste

Modernization and progress has had its share of disadvantages and one of
the main aspects of concern is the pollution it is causing to the earth – be it
land, air, and water. With increase in the global population and the rising
demand for food and other essentials, there has been a rise in the amount of
waste being generated daily by each household. This waste is ultimately
thrown into municipal waste collection centres from where it is collected by
the area municipalities to be further thrown into the landfills and dumps.
However, either due to resource crunch or inefficient infrastructure, not all
of this waste gets collected and transported to the final dumpsites. If at this
stage the management and disposal is improperly done, it can cause serious
impacts on health and problems to the surrounding environment.

Waste that is not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquid and
solid waste from households and the community, are a serious health hazard
and lead to the spread of infectious diseases. Unattended waste lying around
attracts flies, rats, and other creatures that in turn spread disease. Normally it
is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odour. This leads to
unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems. The
plague outbreak in Surat is a good example of a city suffering due to the
callous attitude of the local body in maintaining cleanliness in the city.
Plastic waste is another cause for ill health. Thus excessive solid waste that
is generated should be controlled by taking certain preventive measures.

Impacts of solid waste on health

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The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the
population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method,
especially the pre-school children; waste workers; and workers in facilities
producing toxic and infectious material. Other high-risk group includes
population living close to a waste dump and those, whose water supply has
become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill
sites. Uncollected solid waste also increases risk of injury, and infection.

In particular, organic domestic waste poses a serious threat, since they


ferment, creating conditions favourable to the survival and growth of
microbial pathogens. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various
types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag
pickers being the most vulnerable.

Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human health, children being more
vulnerable to these pollutants. In fact, direct exposure can lead to diseases
through chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the
environment leads to chemical poisoning. Many studies have been carried
out in various parts of the world to establish a
connection between health and hazardous waste.

Waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks.
Other than this, co-disposal of industrial hazardous waste with municipal
waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards. Uncollected

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solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff, resulting in the forming of
stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground of disease. Waste
dumped near a water source also causes contamination of the water body or
the ground water source.

Direct dumping of untreated waste in rivers, seas, and lakes results in the
accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain through the plants and
animals that feed on it.

Disposal of hospital and other medical waste requires special attention


since this can create major health hazards. This waste generated from the
hospitals, health care centres, medical laboratories, and research centres
such as discarded syringe needles, bandages, swabs, plasters, and other types
of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular non-infectious waste.

Waste treatment and disposal sites can also create health hazards for the
neighbourhood. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution
and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects
and rodents that spread disease. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe
distance from all human settlement. Landfill sites should be well lined and
walled to ensure that there is no leakage into the nearby ground water
sources.

Recycling too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken.
Workers working with waste containing chemical and metals may
experience toxic exposure. Disposal of health-care wastes require special

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attention since it can create major health hazards, such as Hepatitis B and C,
through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Rag pickers and others who
are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be
recycled, may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these
infectious items.

Occupational hazards associated with waste handling

Infections

Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and from
infected wounds. Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to
infected dust, especially during landfill operations.
Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on the waste.
Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste.

Chronic diseases

Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases, including


cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds.

Accidents
Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy
containers. Infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects.

Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of
hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste.

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Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste
disposal sites or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites.

Diseases

Certain chemicals if released untreated, e.g. cyanides, mercury, and


polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease
or death. Some studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed
to hazardous waste. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of
the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste.

The role of plastics

The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health
has become a matter of concern. Coloured plastics are harmful as their
pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. Some of the harmful
metals found in plastics are copper, lead, chromium, cobalt, selenium, and
cadmium. In most industrialized countries, colour plastics have been legally
banned. In India, the Government of Himachal Pradesh has banned the use
of plastics and so has Ladakh district. Other states should emulate their
example.

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Preventive measure

Proper methods of waste disposal have to be undertaken to ensure that it


does not affect the environment around the area or cause health hazards to
the people living there.

At the household-level proper segregation of waste has to be done and it


should be ensured that all organic matter is kept aside for composting, which
is undoubtedly the best method for the correct disposal of this segment of
the waste. In fact, the organic part of the waste that is generated decomposes
more easily, attracts insects and causes disease. Organic waste can be
composted and then used as a fertilizer.

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How we all contribute everyday?

All of us in our daily lives contribute our bit to this change in the climate.
Give these points a good, serious thought:

-Electricity is the main source of power in urban areas. All our gadgets run
on electricity generated mainly from thermal power plants. These thermal
power plants are run on fossil fuels (mostly coal) and are responsible for the
emission of huge amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants

- Cars, buses, and trucks are the principal ways by which goods and people
are transported in most of our cities. These are run mainly on petrol or diesel
both fossil fuels. We generate large quantities of waste in the form of
plastics that remain in the environment for many years and cause damage

- We use a huge quantity of paper in our work at schools and in offices.


Have we ever thought about the number of trees that we use in a day?

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Waste Management

- Timber is used in large quantities for construction of houses, which means


that large areas of forest have to be cut down.

- A growing population has meant more and more mouths to feed. Because
the land area available for agriculture is limited (and in fact, is actually
shrinking as a result of ecological degradation!), high-yielding varieties of
crop are being grown to increase the agricultural output from a given area of
land. However, such high-yielding varieties of crops require large quantities
of fertilizers; and more fertilizer means more emissions of nitrous oxide.

PREVENTION & CONTROL OF WATER WASTE

Water pollution are contributed due to industrial effluents and sewage. The
time has came to avert major disaster. Effluent treatment systems have to be
incorporated in industry. Industries, where it is already in existence, need to
operate their plants regularly without looking for savings.

1. New techniques that need no water is highly beneficial. Some of the


wet processes is replaced by the dry processes. For example, metal

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Waste Management
pickling once carried out by acids is replaced by sand blasting in which
no liquid effluent is generated.
2. To minimize the volume of effluents, the waste water that is less
polluted may be used in rinsing. For instance, in the mercerizing of yarn,
the final rinse water containing little alkali is used for the first and second
rinsing of yarn containing excess alkali.
3. Concentrated wastes, low in volume, are mingled with diluted waste
for treatment or disposal. It can be segregated from other streams of
diluted wastes, for reduction in pollution load and the diluted wastes after
minor treatment is utilised for irrigation. This method is used for treating
tannery effluents.
4. Small industries cannot afford treatment plants as they frequently
discharge their effluents, near agricultural lands and on roads. It can be
avoided by setting up a common effluent treatment plant where industries
are located.

5. Waste can be converted into wealth. For instance, in our country


distilleries can set up bio-gas plants which are fed by their effluents
resulting in reduction in fuel costs and decrease in effluent’s strength.

6. The sludge obtained is a problem. The sludge from pulp and paper
industry may be used for manufacturing boards used in packing or in
preparation of artificial wooden panels while those from the
electroplating industry may form water–proofing compounds.

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Waste Management
Recovery of chemicals and metals is practiced in most industries. The
reclaimed waste water can be reused for industrial processes such as boiler,
feeding, cooling, which will help cut down the fresh water needs. And paper
mills, sugar industries and distilleries that let out more effluents can be used
for irrigation or as fertilizers after proper treatment, without affecting ground
water.

Waste Water Management

Water is one of the most essential parts for human survival. Human water
demand for industrial water supply, irrigation, and generation of power is
ever increasing with development of civilization. Since the start of the
industrial revolution and the fast expanding agricultural activities water
resource began to deteriorate with time. In view of the wide range of

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activities affecting the quality of water, a large number of variables are to be
considered to describe water quality and water use. Water quality, in
general, is determined by the gases, solutes and suspended mater in the
water.

In any case water quality is usually affected, directly or indirectly, by human


activities making it harmful for living plants and animals.

Industrial operations produce a liquid product that almost always must be


treated before being returned to the environment. There are three different
groups of wastewater to be considered.

Classifications of Waste Water

1. Domestic waste waters: These waters are produced by the mere acts

of living such as using the bathroom, doing laundry, or washing the


dishes. These wastes are normally handled by the sanitation department,
which eliminates pathogens before disposal.

2. Process waste waters: These waters are produced by some industrial


processes and include the undesired liquid product of any unit operation.
The major concern with these wastes is the reactions that may occur with
the environment being either direct or indirect. Some may rob oxygen
from the environment, while others may be toxic

3. Cooling waste waters: These waters are produced as a result of some sort
of heat exchanger where heat is removed from the product. Waters can be

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Waste Management
used once or recycled. Recycling creates the necessity for periodic
cleaning, where at least some may be released into the environment. This
type of waste must also be monitored and often treated, and is also a
major factor in thermal pollution of water sources.

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Waste Management

Water conservation

Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water
storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days.
Over the years rising populations, growing industrialization, and
expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. Efforts have
been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging
wells; some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate (remove
salts) water. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The
idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining
importance in many cities.

In the forests, water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the
fall. This groundwater in turn feeds wells, lakes, and rivers. Protecting
forests means protecting water 'catchments'. In ancient India, people
believed that forests were the 'mothers' of rivers and worshipped the
sources of these water bodies.

Some ancient Indian methods of water conservation


The Indus Valley Civilization, that flourished along the banks of the river
Indus and other parts of western and northern India about 5,000 years
ago, had one of the most sophisticated urban water supply and sewage 41
systems in the world. The fact that the people were well acquainted with
Waste Management

Industrial wastewater treatment

Industrial Waste Water Treatment can be classified into the following


categories:

• Boiler water treatment


• Cooling water treatment
• Wastewater treatment

Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes,


such as: heating, cooling, processing, cleaning, and rinsing, so that operating
costs and risks are reduced. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the
surfaces of pipes and vessels which contain it. Steam boilers can scale up or
corrode, and these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same
amount of water. Cooling towers can also scale up and corrode, but left
untreated, the warm, dirty water they can contain will encourage bacteria to
grow, and Legionnaires' Disease can be the fatal consequence. Domestic
water can become unsafe to drink if proper hygiene measures are neglected.

In many cases, effluent water from one process might be perfectly suitable
for reuse in another process somewhere else on site. With the proper
treatment, a significant proportion of industrial on-site wastewater might be
reusable. This can save money in three ways: lower charges for lower water
consumption, lower charges for the smaller volume of effluent water

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discharged and lower energy costs due to the recovery of heat in recycled
wastewater.

Industrial water treatment seeks to manage four main problem areas: scaling,
corrosion, microbiological activity and disposal of residual wastewater.
Boilers do not have many problems with microbes as the high temperatures
prevents their growth.

Scaling occurs when the chemistry and temperature conditions are such that
the dissolved mineral salts in the water are caused to precipitate and form
solid crystalline deposits. These can be mobile, like a fine silt, or can build
up in layers on the metal surfaces of the systems. Scale is a problem because
it insulates and heat exchange becomes less efficient as the scale thickens,
which wastes energy. Scale also narrows pipe widths and therefore increases
the energy used in pumping the water through the pipes.

Corrosion occurs when the parent metal oxidises (as iron rusts, for example)
and gradually the integrity of the plant equipment is compromised. The
corrosion products can cause similar problems to scale, but corrosion can
also lead to leaks, which in a pressurised system can lead to catastrophic
failures.

Microbes can thrive in untreated cooling water, which is warm and


sometimes full of organic nutrients, as wet cooling towers are very efficient
air scrubbers. Dust, flies, grass, fungal spores and so on collect in the water
and create a sort of "microbial soup" if not treated with biocides. Most

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outbreaks of the deadly Legionnaires' Disease have been traced to


unmanaged cooling towers, and the UK has had stringent Health & Safety
Guidelines concerning cooling tower operations for many years as have had
governmental agencies in other countries.

Disposal of residual wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and


costly problem. Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical
plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant
concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or
national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community
treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans.

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HOW TO DISPOSE OF WATER WASTES

Liquid contaminated waste (e.g., human tissue, blood, feces, urine and other
body fluids) requires special handling, because it may pose an infectious risk
to healthcare workers who contact or handle the waste.

STEP 1: Wear PPE (utility gloves, protective eyewear and plastic apron)
Note: Liquid wastes can when handling and transporting liquid wastes.
also be poured into the latrine.

STEP 2: Carefully pour wastes down a utility sink drain or into a flushable
toilet and rinse the toilet or sink carefully and thoroughly with water to
remove residual wastes. Avoid splashing.

STEP 3: If a sewage system doesn’t exist, dispose of liquids in a deep,


covered hole, not into open drains.

STEP 4: Decontaminate specimen containers by placing them in a 0.5%


chlorine solution for 10 minutes before washing them.

STEP 5: Remove utility gloves (wash daily or when visibly soiled and dry).

STEP 6: Wash and dry hands or use an antiseptic handrub as described


above.

Cholera Epidemic In case of a cholera epidemic, hospital sewage must also


be treated and disinfected.

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Waste Management

Advantages of Recycling & Reuse Of Waste Water

• Reduction in interference with the Environment will increase by


reducing or eliminating the effluent discharge. It is an effective approach
towards 'Sero Liquid Discharge'.
• Recycled water can be treated to almost any standards hence is
suitable for any end usage.
• Reduction in "Fresh water" intake and the costs associated with it.
• Reduction in "Disposal Volume" and the costs associated with it.
• Recycled water is like creation of "New", "In-house" source of good
quality water largely unaffected by external factors. In areas where "fresh
water" cost is presently high or likely to be hiked, the recycled water
shall provide "ongoing savings".
• Recycling & reuse is an approach towards ISO - 14000.

Sources of waste water for recycle & reuse

In a running industry the water in untreated or treated form is used for


various applications. Hence the waste water is being generated in various
sections. The sources typically are treated effluent from effluent treatment
plant, boiler blow down, floor washings.

End use of recycled water


the recycled water generated from waste water can be used for various

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applications after suitable post – treatment like process water, boiler feed
cooling tower, chillers, as soft water gardening etc.

Process of recycling

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Waste Management

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

There is no Indian policy document, which examines waste as part of a cycle


of production-consumption-recovery or perceives the issue of waste through
a prism of overall sustainability. In fact, interventions have been fragmented
and are often contradictory. The new Municipal Solid Waste Management
Rules 2000, which came into effect from January 2004, fails even to manage
waste in a cyclic process. Waste management still is a linear system of
collection and disposal, creating health and environmental hazards.

Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming
years. Till now, the problem of waste has been seen as one of cleaning and
disposing as rubbish. But a closer look at the current and future scenario
reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically, recognizing its natural
resource roots as well as health impacts. Waste can be wealth; which has
tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban poor
but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling rather than
spreading pollution as has been the case. Increasing urban migration and a
high density of population will make waste management a difficult issue to
handle in the near future, if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created.

Developing countries, such as India, are undergoing a massive migration of


their population from rural to urban centres. New consumption patterns and
social linkages are emerging. India, will have more than 40 per cent, i.e.
over 400 million people clustered in cities over the next thirty years (UN,

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1995). Modern urban living brings on the problem of waste, which increases
in quantity, and changes in composition with each passing day. There is,
however, an inadequate understanding of the problem, both of infrastructure
requirements as well as its social dimensions. Urban planners, municipal
agencies, environmental regulators, labour groups, citizens’ groups and non-
governmental organizations need to develop a variety of responses which are
rooted in local dynamics, rather than borrow non-contextual solutions from
elsewhere.

There have been a variety of policy responses to the problem of urban solid
waste in India, especially over the past few years, yet sustainable solutions
either of organic or inorganic waste remains an untapped and unattended
area. All policy documents as well as legislation dealing with urban solid
waste mention or acknowledge recycling as one of the ways of diverting
waste, but they do so in a piece meal manner and do not address the
framework needed to enable this to happen. Critical issues such as industry
responsibility, a critical paradigm to enable sustainable recycling and to
catalyse waste reduction through, say better packing, has not been touched
upon.

This new paradigm should include a cradle-to-grave approach with


responsibility being shared by many stakeholders, including product
manufacturers, consumers and communities, the recycling industry, trade,
municipalities and the urban poor.

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Waste Management
COMPANY PROFILE

Constitution : The CETP at Vatva is managed by a Co.operative Society


named The Green Environment Services Co. Operative Society Limited
formed by the member units of GIDC Estate, Vatva. (Registration No. S
24106 Dated 08-09-1992)
Land Area : The Total Land area is 21000 sq. mtrs. The land for the
project is given at the token price of Rs. 1 by GIDC.
Cost of Project : The total cost of the project is about Rs. 32.00 crore.

Internal collection systems Rs. 10.17 crore


Treatment units Rs. 18.00 crore
Conveyance line upto AMC Pirana Plant
Rs. 5.11 crore
Sabarmati
Total Rs. 33.28 crore

Source of Finance :
Contribution from Member units Rs. 22.23 crore
Subsidy from Central/State Govt. Rs. 10.75 crore
Total Rs. 32.98 crore

Society has obtained the loan amounting Rs. 1150 lacs from Industrial
Development Bank of India and same has been prepaid before maturity.
Power Requirement : The total connected power is 1100KW Supplied by
A.E.C. Ltd. In case of power failure they have stand by DG set of 1000
KVA which is sufficient to run the entire project.
Technology : M/s. Advent Corporation USA has carried out the process
design of the CETP. The construction work was started in March 96 and the
plant was pre-commissioned in just two year i.e. in May 98.

Salient features of the plant :


a) It has a state of art technology called as AIS (Advent's Intergral

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System) Which consists Aeration system with Inbuit clarifier.
b) The advantage of this system is about 66% saving in land area, project
cost and power supply as compared to conventional systems.
c) There are no moving parts in the Aeration Tank as well as clarifier.
d) There is no pumping anywhere in the plant once effluent reaches to
E.Q. Tank as it's designed based on gravity flow only through the
system.

Charging Basis :
Effluent Rs. 20/kg. Toc/DAY
Solid waste : Rs. 200/MT.
They Collect extra treatment charges from the Member units who discharge
their Effluent exceeding specified norms given by GESCSL.
Incase of exceeding in any of the parameter than the specified by us, they
are calling them individually against our technical committee and proper
technology is being guided to them to control it at their premises itself.
which helps us in improving the quality of Influent of CETP.

INTRODUCTION

The Vatva Industrial Estate has been developed by Gujarat Industries


Development Corporation in the year 1960 to accommodate small scale and
medium scale industries. This Estate is located in the south east direction of
Ahmedabad City on Ahmedabad-Mehmadabad state highway.

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Waste Management
In this Industrial Estate there are approximately 1800 units, out of which
approximately 680 industries generates the effluent. These units include
Pharmaceutical products manafacturers, rolling mills, Process houses, Dyes
& Dye Intermediates manufacturers, Pigment manufacturers etc.

To treat the effluent by individual member units at source was very difficult
and Techno-economically not viable hence to solve this problem, the most
practical and cost-effective approach was adopted by establishing the
Common Effluent Treatment Plant under the name "The Green Environment
Services Co-op. Soc. Ltd.", with the support of Vatva Industries Association
and Gujarat Dyestuff Manufacturer's Association.

The process designing is carried out by M/s. Advent Corporation, U.S.A.


one of the internationally renowned consultants for the industrial wastewater
treatment. The commissioning and operations supervision is done by
advent's Indian Collaborators Advent Envirocare Technology Pvt. Ltd.,
Ahmedabad. Detailed engineering for the CETP project is carried our by
renowed consultant M/s. Sudarshan Chemicals Ind. Ltd., Pune (India).

It is therefore necessary for the member units to give primary treatment to


their effluent before discharging the wastewater into ICS of CETP for the
further treatment. Treated effluent is taken to pirana sewage treatment plant
through a closed pipeline.

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Waste Management

PROCESS OVERVIEW
INTERNAL COLLECTION SYSTEM & CONVEYANCE NETWORK

There are 680 member units spread in an area of 13.5 sq. km. in Vatva
Insustrial Complex. The effluent from every member is conveyed through
the ICS to CETP in a most scientific and economical way. To Control the
quality & quantity of member’s effluent, control system is also provided.
The detailed engineering for ICS is carried out by renowed consultant M/s.

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Dalal Consultants and Engineers Ltd., Ahmedabad based on the Techno-
economic feasibility study of the various alternative of ICS. The salient
features of the Internal Effluent Collection System are as under.

The 680 members which are scattered in different area of the complex are
covered in 92 sump rooms from where, the wastewater flows by gravity to
the pumping stations. The wastewater is pumped to CETP from six
pumping stations. In all there are six pumping stations located in such a
way that maximum flow from sump rooms to pumping stations is available
by gravity, so that pumping cost can be minimised. One new pumping
station No. 7 is installed to divert choked gravity mains of pumping station
no. 5 and its discharge goes to pumping station 5.

All the members discharge their effluent from their over head discharge
tank in the respective sumps. The magnetic flow meter & butterfly valves

are provided in each sump room maximum 9 connections are given. It is


obligatory on the part of member to construct discharge tank having holding
capacity of waste water of one day volume at 15' height for gravity
discharge.
In Internal Collection System, Gravity mains is having a total pipe length of
17,588 mts. and of different sizes varying from 250mm to 600mm diameter
and are made up of R.C.C. and stoneware. The rising mains have a total
length of 6119m and their sizes vary from 180mm to 400mm and are made
up of HDPE.

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Waste Management

LABORATORY
The CETP has its own in house well equiped, laboratory. The laboratory has
been divided into four sections :
The Chemistry lab.
The Microbiology lab.
The TOC lab.
The R&D lab.
The physical and the chemical analysis of the wastewater from different
units of the CETP as well as influent from the individual member is carried
out in the laboratory. We have modern and Imported Analytical Instruments
for the Analysis.
The laboratory is functioning round the clock for the determination of
various parameters of the effluent and solid waste.
This CETP is a result of joint efforts and strong determination put together to

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make environment pollution free and earth a better place.

TOC Laboratory

Analytical Laboratory

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Waste Management

Instrument Laboratory

57
SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF CETP, VATVA
Waste Management

SECURED LANDFILL FACILITY (SLF)


The Society developed three Secured Landfill Sites for the disposal of
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hazardous solid waste.

The Govt. of Gujarat, Forests and Environment Department notified the area
most suitable for developing Secured Landfill Facility.

Environmental
Waste Management Impact Assessment study was done by Ms. National
Productivity Council (NPC), New Delhi.

Detailed engineering design, construction and operation are done in


compliance with the guidelines issued by CPCB and GPCB.

The major types of solid waste include:


a ) Gypsum Waste;
b) Incinerator ash;
c ) Iron Powder and,
d) ETP sludge.

Charges for disposal of solid waste:


a ) Rs. 250/ MT of solid waste – member units from Vatva.
b) Rs. 400/MT of solid waste- member units outside of Vatva.

CONCLUSION

Vasundhara or earth is the only planet in our solar system which can
support life so it is very important to save it from various waste hazards.

Thus, Waste management is of great concern to mankind as it affects the


entire planet and all its living creatures. Increasing amounts of wastes
generated everyday is becoming a major problem particularly in urban cities
around the globe.
With the rapid growth of population, there has been a substantial
increase in the generation of solid waste resulting into the contamination of

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air, water and land resources. Human activities create waste, and it is the
way these wastes are handled, stored, collected and disposed of that pose
risks to the environment and to public health.

Thus, it is rightly said that God Gives Enough to Satisfy Every


Man’s Need but not Every Man’s Greed.
End Waste Before It Ends Your Life

CASE STUDY

Waste Minimization Through Plant Process Design And Modification

The trend for waste management has been moving from traditional “end-of-
pipe” treatment to “waste minimization” solution. Instead of treating waste
at the end of manufacturing processes, process engineers have been playing
a more important role in waste management by either eliminating emissions
at source or recovering and reusing materials that would otherwise be
discharged. This can be achieved using various process design and
modification techniques. For instance, the waste can be reduced from source

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Waste Management
by designing or modifying process equipment or technology, by changing
process or procedure, by substituting raw materials, and by improving the
housekeeping and inventory control. This topical presentation includes:

• Introduction of the waste minimization concepts .


• Discussions on holistic approach for source reduction .
• Identification of system components and process activities that may
contribute unnecessary waste generation .
• Examination of practical techniques for planning .
• Implementing and monitoring effective waste minimization principles.
• Cost justification for waste minimization.

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Indian Oil Corporation is the largest commercial enterprise in India, engaged in the
business of refining, transportation and marketing of petroleum products throughout the
country. For sustainable growth, safe disposal of oily sludge in a cost-effective manner is
a key issue that has confronted the oil industry in India for a long time. At a conservative
estimate, over 20,000 MT of oily sludge gets generated in the country every year.
To find an environmentally safe and cost effective solution to the problem, a
collaborative research project was launched by Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) and
Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI). This led to development of OiliVorous-S, a
commercially produced microbial consortium to biodegrade the hazardous constituents of
oily sludge. This product was successfully field tested in Mathura, Barauni and Digboi
refineries of IOCL and 4000 MT of sludge was biodegraded during the year 2002-2003 at
an average cost of about US$15 per MT of sludge.

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Waste Management
Indian Oil Corporation has adopted a holistic approach for handling oily sludge at its
refineries and other locations.

The strategies adopted include:

• Minimization of sludge generation at source .

• In-situ cleaning of tanks by chemical and mechanical means.


• Incineration .
• Bio-remediation / bio-degradation.

General Manager (Safety & Environment Protection)


INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED

APPENDIX - 1

HAZARDOUS WASTE DROWNING GROUND WATER

India generates enough untreated hazardous waste to cover the whole of


Delhi. Going by the latest report of the hazardous waste management
committee of the Supreme Court, there are only 10 independent operational
treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDF) for industrial hazardous

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waste in the country. This takes care only 40% of the hazardous waste
generated that includes harmful metals like lead and mercury and lethal
chemicals.
According to industry estimates, the country generates 5 million tonnes
of hazardous waste every year and 10 TSDFs have the capacity to treat not
more than 2 million tonnes. While independent TSDFs are open for
industries to use at a price, some large companies build their own. However,
since TSDFs involve multi- crore investments for development and
maintenance, most companies, especially small ones, rely on independent
TSDFs. The 10 TSDFs are spread out in a few states including Andhra
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. In Kerela, Tamil Nadu, West
Bengal and Haryana, among others, the TSDFs are still in the process of
development.
“Since in many states such facilities don’t exist, many companies
transport the waste to a state where a TSDF exists while others allow their
waste to remain untreated”, environment ministry official said. According to
the hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection
Act, that came into play in 1989, hazardous waste must be kept in storage
after which it is to be treated in a TSDFs facility. In 2002, the environment
ministry issued guidelines under the rules, one of which states the storage
time should not exceed three months. “ The three month guideline is rarely
followed and most of the hazardous waste is dumped in open spaces.
Contamination of ground water due to this is common,” Delhi- based NGO
Toxic Link director Ravi Agarwal said.
In 2003, the Supreme Court asked states to strictly implement the
hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection Act

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and had appointed a committee to monitor the implementation of the rules.
The apex court said every state must have at least one TSDF. Officials said
the Centre and the monitoring committee have repeatedly asked states to
identify land for TSDFs.
“Lack of availability of appropriate land is the biggest constraint in
developing TSDFs and the state governments need to be proactive,” said AK
Saxena, vice president of Ramky Enviro Engineers, that runs 7 TSDFs. The
state authorities are supposed to provide land for TDSFs at a subsidized rate.
A TSDFs includes a laboratory and an incinerator where different waste is
treated separately and a landfill where treated waste is disposed. The bottom
of the landfill is covered by a high density polyethylene layer.

SOURCE- THE ECONOMIC TIMES


DATED- 5th July, 2007 Thursday

APPENDIX - 2

Now, power your house from plastic waste

Asian electronics & Singapore company to Build Power Plants Fired By


Liquid Hydrocarbons

Electricity from plastic waste. It may sound unrealistic, but it’s now
being touted as the technology of future for the power- deficit India. Alka

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Umesh Zadgaonkar, who has got six patents in India for the technology and
in the process of filing for international patent, is joining hands with two
large corporates to make it a commercial success.

Mumbai- based Asian Electronics (AEL) AND Singapore ‘s environ- Hub


Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW)
each based on this commercially viable’ technology. The plants will be fired
by the liquid hydrocarbons produced from plastic waste.

MUMBAI: Electricity from plastic waste. It may sound unrealistic, but it’s
now being touted as the technology of future for the power-deficit India.
Alka Umesh Zadgaonkar, who has got six patents in India for the technology
and in the process of filing for international patent, is joining hands with two
large corporate to make it a commercial success.
Mumbai-based Asian Electronics (AEL) and Singapore’s Enviro-Hub
Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW)
each based on this ‘commercially viable’ technology. The plants will be
fired

by the liquid hydrocarbons produced from plastic waste.


The new initiate will take shape through the projects of joint venture
company, Green Hydrocarbons (GHL) which is registered in Japan, Europe
and the US. The power plants will be set up in Navi Mumbai, Bhiwandi,
Thane and Rajasthan at a total capex of Rs 128 crore. On experimental basis,
AEL had set up a 2 MW plant in Nagpur, which is running in full steam,
according to

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The AEL board is expected to clear the proposals on Thursday (July 5), said
the official. AEL is already in talks Hindustan Petroleum Corporation
(HPCL) for a JV to develop technology for optimum conversion of crude oil
into petrol and diesel. In the present scenario, only 70% of the crude is
refined to fuel. Using our technology, it can be improved to 90%, claimed
the official.

AEL top management refused to comment on their JV plans and proposals


for setting up power plants. On Wednesday, AEL’s share price has moved
up 2% to close at Rs 908 on BSE. The stock price has seen 43% jump over
last one month.

Raymond Ng, executive chairman of Enviro-Hub, told ET from Singapore


that his company is looking forward to jointly set up fuel plants in and
around Singapore with the help of Unique and AEL. Cimelia, a part of $260
million Enviro-Hub, has already established its brand name in the global e-
waste management and recycling industry, he said.

The JV is planning to set up plants to process plastic waste in eight countries


in Far-East Asia and Brazil. Enviro-Hub has access to nearly 50,000 tonnes
waste in each of these markets. Each plant with a capacity of 12,000 tonnes
per annum can be set up at a cost of $12 million. Our estimate is that the
plant can generate a revenue of up to $10-$12 million.

Mrs Zadgaonkar, who developed the technology for producing fuel from
plastic waste, owns the patent for her invention. While working as the head

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Waste Management
of chemistry department in Raisoni Engineering College in Nagpur, Mrs
Zadgaonkar invented the new method to reuse the hydrocarbons in plastic.

“On a December morning almost a decade ago, when 300 gm of plastic


waste she was processing in her college lab broke down into a dark brown
liquid. It took time to reach a happy confirmation that the derivative was
indeed liquid hydrocarbons. After years of refining processes, she tested the
fuel in bikes and proved successful,” said the official.

Enviro-Hub’s subsidiary Cimelia Resource Recovery will hold 50% stake in


GHL and the remaining 50% will be owned by Shah-controlled companies,
AEL and US Instruments. “In US Instruments, Mrs Zadgaonkar holds 26%
stake. US Instruments has got the manufacturing licence from Unique Waste
Plastic Management and Research, a company owned by Mrs Zadgaonkar
and family,” said the official.

As per the request of President APJ Abdul Kalam, the ministries, including

coal and mines, science and technology, petroleum and natural gas, have
done studies on the process and given permission to start commercial
production of fuel from plastic waste. Maharashtra Energy Development
Agency had signed a memorandum of understanding with Mrs Zadgaonkar
for a JV to develop commercial process for fuel from plastic. Rajasthan State
Industrial Development & Investment Corporation has expressed interest in
setting up similar plants across the state.

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Waste Management
“Plastic, a product of petroleum, gives a fuel better than petrol and diesel as
the impurities are less when compared to the crude oil. Through the new
technology, we can convert the waste plastic into oil (70%), gas (20%) and
coke (10%),” said the official.

APPENDIX - 3

QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Why did you decided to have a plant for industrial waste water treatment?

2. How the process of the plant works?

3. What do you with the water that is purified?

4. How much percent of waste do you think is purified?

5. Is the technology oriented or labour oriented?

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Waste Management
6. Does the government provide any assistance or subsidy for the work
done?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Material

Company (GESCSL) Booklet


Pamphlets

Newspapers

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Waste Management
The Economic Times
Times of India

Websites

www.gescsl.com
www.wikipedia.com

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