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Acceleration

Suvajanee Angsuphant (Gift) 10-6

Supawich Weesapen (Pleum) 10-6

Objectives

- To
learn
the
relationship
between
mass,
velocity,
and
radius
with
the

centripetal
force.

- The
learner
can
be
able
to
analyze
the
result
(graphs).

- To
know
how
to
use
the
equipment
and
demonstrate
them
as
a
group.

Materials

1. LabQuest

2. Vernier
Photogate

3. Vernier
Dual-Range
Force
Sensor

4. Vernier
Centripetal
Force
Apparatus

5. Masses

Procedure

Part
1
Force
VS
velocity

1. Attach
a
Dual-Range
Force
Sensor
and
a
Vernier
Photogate
to
the
Bernier

Centripetal
Force
Apparatus
(CFA),
as
shown
in
the
figure

2. Connect
the
force
sensor
and
the
photogate
to
LabQuest

3.
Set
up
data
collection.

a. Tap
Mode.
The
default
Photogate
ModeMotion
works
for
this

experiment.
Select
the
User
defined
button.
The
distance
to
be
entered
is

1/10
of
the
circumference
of
the
mass
path.
Because
the
radius
in
part
1

is
10
cm,
this
value
should
be
0.0628
m.

b. To
control
when
data
collection
stops,
tap
the
option
labeled
with
the

Stop
button
in
the
field
labeled
End
data
collection.
Tap
OK.

c. From
the
Graph
menu
select
Graph
1.
Change
the
axes
of
the
graph
so
that

it
shows
force
vs.
velocity.

d. Tap
the
Meter
tab.

4.
Determine
the
mass
of
the
sliding
mass
carriage.
Add
mass
to
both
the
sliding

and
fixed
mass
carriages
as
directed
by
your
instructor.
The
mass
of
the

sliding
and
fixed
carriages
should
be
the
same
so
that
the
beam
is
balanced.

Record
the
total
mass
of
the
sliding
carriage
and
extra
mass.

5.
Position
the
fixed
carriage
so
that
its
center
is
10
cm
from
the
axis
of
rotation.

Adjust
the
position
of
the
force
sensor
on
the
rail
so
that,
when
the
line
is

tensed,
the
center
of
the
sliding
mass
carriage
is
also
at
10
cm.

6.
Zero
the
force
sensor.

7.
Spin
the
beam
by
twisting
the
knurled
spindle
of
the
CFA
with
your
fingers.

When
the
force
reaches
34
N,
begin
collecting
data.
Let
data
collection

continue
for
20-40
s.
When
you
stop
data
collection,
use
the
friction
between

your
hand
and
the
knurled
spindle
to
stop
the
beam.

8.
If
your
graph
of
force
vs.
velocity
is
not
linear,
create
a
calculated
column

that
will
enable
you
to
obtain
a
linear
graph
(linearized
graph
F
vs.
v2).
Your

instructor
will
explain
step
by
step
how
to
do
this
if
you
cannot
do
it
by
yourself.

PART
2
INVESTIGATING
THE
EFFECT
OF
MASS
AND
RADIUS

When
a
quantity
(in
this
case,
force)
is
a
function
of
more
than
one
variable,
it
is

usually
the
case
that
the
slope
of
the
graph
is
related
to
the
parameters
held

constant
during
the
experiment.
Examine
the
units
of
the
slope
of
your
graph
of
F
vs.

v2.
Write
an
expression
involving
mass
and
radius
that
has
the
same
units
as
that
of

your
slope.
Substitute
the
known
values
of
these
parameters;
how
closely
does
the

value
of
this
expression
agree
with
that
of
your
slope?
Predict
the
effect
of
doubling

the
mass
on
the
value
of
the
slope.
What
effect
would
doubling
the
radius
have
on

the
slope?
You
can
test
your
conclusions
by
varying
first
the
mass
and
then
the

radius
as
follows.

PROCEDURE

1.
Change
the
mass
on
both
the
fixed
and
sliding
carriages
and
record
the
value

of
the
total
mass
of
the
sliding
carriage
and
any
extra
masses.

2.
Re-zero
the
force
sensor,
then
spin
the
beam
as
you
did
before.
Once
the

force
reaches

58
N,
begin
collecting
data.
When
you
stop
data
collection,
stop
the
beam
as
you

did
in
Part
1.

3.
Change
the
system
mass
again
and
record
the
value
of
the
total
mass
of
the

sliding
carriage
and
any
extra
masses,
then
repeat
Step
2.

4.
Return
the
mass
on
both
the
fixed
and
sliding
carriages
to
the
original
value

used
in
Part
1.
Decrease
the
radius
of
both
the
sliding
and
fixed
mass
carriage
by

2-3
cm.
Record
the
value
of
the
radius.
Adjust
the
value
of
the
User
defined

distance
in
the
Mode
window
so
that
it
is
1/10
of
the
circular
path
of
the
mass

carriage.
A
warning
will
appear.
Choose
to
discard
the
data.

5.
Re-zero
the
force
sensor,
then
spin
the
beam
as
you
did
before.
Once
the

force
reaches
58
N,
begin
collecting
data.
When
you
stop
data
collection,
stop

the
beam.

6.
Now,
change
the
radius
so
that
it
is
23
cm
greater
than
your
initial
value.
Be

sure
to
adjust
the
User
defined
distance
as
you
did
in
Step
5.
Record
the
value
of

the
radius,
then
repeat
Step
6
and
7.

7.
Repeat
step
8
of
last
section
to
linearize
your
last
plots.
Again,
create
a

calculated
column
for
v2.
Use
this
calculated
column
to
plot
F
vs.
v2.

Result

Analysis

After
we
did
an
experiment,
we
acknowledge
that
the
relationship
between

the
mass,
velocity,
and
the
radius
are
related
to
the
centripetal
force.
With
the

results,
if
we
put
the
more
mass,
I
had
to
put
more
force
to
spin
the
knurled
spindle.

So,
the
green
line
in
the
graph
1
is
the
one
that
has
the
heaviest
mass.
Comparing
the

2
graphs
together,
the
graph1
has
a
10
cm
of
radius,
and
the
graph2
has
a
13
cm
of

radius.
Due
to
the
theory,
the
smaller
radius
means
you
will
have
bigger
velocity.

You
will
see
in
the
graph
that
the
graph1
has
more
force
because
it
requires
more

centripetal
force
to
apply.
Lastly,
if
the
object
has
small
the
velocity,
you
will
need

small
centripetal
force
either.

Conclusion

As
we
have
shown
our
results,
we
can
conclude
that
the
centripetal
force
are

related
to
mass,
velocity,
and
radius.
We
have
learnt
the
relationship
between
these

factors
by
doing
the
experiment.
We
can
summarize
that
if
the
mass
increase,
the

velocity
will
decrease.
Also,
more
mass
you
have,
more
force
you
will
be
required.

The
force
increase,
the
velocity
will
increase
either.
Moreover,
if
the
radius
is

smaller,
the
velocity
is
higher
too.
These
are
the
relationship
between
the
mass,

velocity,
and
radius
with
the
centripetal
force
that
our
group
observed
during
the

experiment.

However,
during
the
experiment,
our
group
faced
with
many
errors.
The

error
that
we
cannot
avoid
is
to
collect
the
data.
Since
our
group
had
to
collect
the

data
while
we
were
doing
the
experiment,
we
still
misunderstand
about
the
data

that
we
got.
Therefore,
some
results
are
not
accurate
because
we
had
to
do
more

than
one
round.
Besides,
the
force
that
we
put
to
spin
the
knurled
spindle
was

inexact
because
in
each
round,
the
force
that
we
put
were
not
precise.
Simply
put,
in

order
to
make
the
result
accurately,
we
had
to
try
to
understand
how
to
correct
the

data
precisely
and
be
exactly
while
doing
the
experiment.
To
minimize
the
error
in

the
future,
we
have
to
study
more
in
term
of
how
to
use
the
Labquest
or
another

equipment
because
they
will
help
us
to
get
the
better
result.
Another
way
is
we
have

to
do
many
experiments
that
we
can.
Therefore,
we
can
get
the
most
accurate

results.

EXTRA
POINTS
(5
PTS.)

In
our
daily
life,
we
use
a
lot
of
thing
that
based
on
the
centripetal
force.
A

centripetal
force
is
a
force
that
is
applied
perpendicular
or
orthogonal
to
the

direction
of
motion
of
an
object.
For
example,
the
motion
of
Moon
around
the
Earth

is
one
the
situation
that
can
represent
the
centripetal
force.
The
Moon
is
going

around
the
Earth
through
centripetal
force
caused
by
the
constant
gravitational

force
of
the
space.
If
the
gravitational
force
of
the
space
is
gone,
the
Moon
will
shoot

off
in
a
straight
line.
As
we
have
learnt
in
the
class
that
in
the
centripetal
force
the

object
are
moving
in
a
curve
in
the
circle
form,
and
the
equation
for
the
force
is

F=mv^2/r.

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