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hydraulics and geotechnical engineering

2003-2012
zherrinore..


1) -the father of modern soil mechanics
a) terzaghi
b) peck
c) cassagrande
d) atterberg
e) none of these
2) the densification of soil by removal of air which requires
mechanical energy is called
a) densification
b) compaction
c) consolidation
d) liquefaction
e) none of these
3) deep groundwater deposits where underground water
are available for water supply and irrigation is known as
a) water table
b) water wells
c) aquifers
d) saturated zone
e) none of these
4) in fluid flow, if the fluids travels parallel to the adjacent
layers and the paths of individual particles do not cross
the flow is said to be
a) laminar
b) turbulent
c) critical
d) dynamic
e) none of these
1) A soil sample has a natural water content of 22.5% and it
is known to have a sp. gr. of 2.6. in order to determine
the moist density of the soil, a portion of soil weighing
224 g is put in a 500 cm
3
container. It is filled with 382
cm
3
of water to fill the container.
A. Determine the moist unit of the soil.
B. Determine the dry unit of soil.
C. Determine the void ratio.
2) The total weight of soil when saturated 1526 g and
weight of the soil after drying is 1053 g. If the sp. gr. of
soil is 2.84
A. Compute the moisture content
B. Compute the void ratio
C. Compute the porosity
3) The field unit wt of the soil sample is 1960 kg/m
3
and the
unit wt of the soil particle is 2700 kg/m
3
. If the e
max
=
0.69 and e
min
=.44
A. Compute the dry unit wt in KN/M
3
if the
water content is 11%.
B. Compute the void ratio of the solid sample
C. Compute the relative density of the soil
sample.
4) The field wt of soil sample is 1900 kg/m
3
and the unit wt
of the soil particle is 2660 kg/m
3
.
A. Compute the dry unit weight if the moisture
content is 11.5%.
B. Compute the void ratio.
C. Compute the degree of saturation.

5) A soil sample has a mass of 1830 g taken from the field
having a volume of 1. x 10
-3
M
3
g taken from the field
having a volume of 1.x10
3
M
3
. it has specific gravity of
2.60 and water content of 10%. Values of e
max
= .63 and
e
min
= .44
A. Compute the dry unit weight.
B. Compute the void ratio.
C. Compute the relative density.

6) A soil sample has a natural water content of 22.5% and it
is known to have a specific gravity of 2.6. in order to
determine the moist density of the soil, a portion of soil
weighing 224 g is put in a 500 cm
3
. It is filled with 382
cm
3
of water to fill the container.
A. Compute the porosity of the soil.
B. Compute the degree of saturation.
C. Compute the bulk of sp. gravity.
7) A dry soil mixed with 17% by mass with water and
compacted. Volume of wet soil is 0.001 m
3
and has a ass
of 1.6 kg. If the specific gravity of soil is 2.70.
A. Compute the dry unit weight of soil.
B. Compute the void ratio.
C. Compute the degree of saturation.
8) A dry soil is mixed with 13.5% by mass with water and
compacted . volume of wet soil is 1x10
-3
m
3
and has a
mass of 1.6kg. if the specific gravity of soil is 2.61
a) compute the dry density
b) compute the void ratio
c) compute the degree of saturation
9) the field unit wt of soil sample is 1900kg/m
3
and the unit
wt of the soil particle is 2600 kg/m
3

a) compute the dry unit wt if the water content is 12%
b) compute the void ratio
c) compute the degree of saturation
10) you are an earthwork construction control inspector and
you are checking the field compaction of a layer of soil.
the laboratory compaction curve gives a maximum dry
density of 1.482g/cc and optimum water content of
16.9%. specifications call for the compacted density to be
at least 95% of the max laboratory value and within +-2%
of the optimum water content. when you did the sand
cone test, the following data are as follows.
volume of soil excavated from the hole=.001337m
3
weight of soil from the hole when wet=2200 g
wt of dry soil=1890g
a) determine the field unit wt of soil
b) what is the insitu water content of soil
c) determine the relative compaction of the soil
11) given the different layer of soil with their respective
coefficient of permeability:






hydraulics and geotechnical engineering
2003-2012
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a) what is the equation in determining the equivalent
horizontal coefficient of permeability
b) what is the equivalent horizontal coefficient of
permeability if each soil layer is 3mm thick
c) what is the total flow if i=.70?
d)
12) a confined aquifer underlies an unconfined aquifer as
shown in the figure






a) compute the equivalent horizontal coefficient of
permeability
b) compute the hydraulic gradient
c) compute the flow rate from one stream to another
per meter width
13) a reservoir with a 3400m
2
area is underlain by layers of
stratified soils as depicted in the figure







a) compute the average coefficient of permeability in
m/hr
b) compute the interstitial velocity of water moving
through the soil if it has a void ratio of .60 express in
cm/.sec
c) compute the water loss from the reservoir in one yr
in cu.m assuming that pore water pressure is zero
14) the soil under a dam has four layers of soil with different
coefficients of permeability
Layer Depth Coefficient of
permeability
1 4 5 cm/hr
2 8 3
3 12 2
4 3 1

a) compute the average vertical coefficient of
permeability in meters/day
b) compute the transmissibility of the soil when the
water table is at the ground surface in m
2
/day
c) compute the interstitial velocity of water moving
through the soil if it has e=.6 and i=.0018cm/hr
15) a test is set up as shown in the figure below.









a) determine the total flow of water
b) fins the equivalent value of K for both annular and
inner ring
c) determine the volume of water which percolate
after 30 mins in cm
3


16) the laboratory apparatus shown in the figure maintains a
constant head in both the upper and lower reservoirs.
the soil sample is a silty sand wih a hydraulic conductivity
k=5x10
-3
cm/sec and a moisture content of 18.5%. sp.
gr=2.70






a) compute the seepage velocity in cm/sec
b) determine the time required for the plug of colored
water to pass through the soil.
c) compute the discharge of water
17) a confined aquifer has a source of recharge as shown in
the figure. the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is
40m/day and its porosity is .25. the piezometric head in
the two well 1325m apart is 65m and 60m from a
common data. the average thickness of the aquifer is
25m. and the average width is 4km






a) compute the rate of flow through the aquifer in
m
3
/day
b) compute the seepage velocity
c) compute the time of travel from the head of the
aquifer to a point 4km downstream in days
18) a dense silt layer has the following properties:
voidratio=.30
effective diametr D10=10m
capillary constant=.20cm
2

a) find the height of the capillary rise in the silt
b) find the vertical effective stress in kPa at 5m depth.
assume s=26.5kN/m
3
and that the soil above the
capillary action rise and ground surface is partially
saturated at 50%
c) find the vertical effective stress in kPa at 10m depth.
assume s=26.5kN/m3 and that the soil above the
capillary action rise and ground surface is partially
saturated at 50%
19) a saturated clay having a thickness of 20m has a void
ratio of .68 and sg of 2.7
a) compute the density of clay
hydraulics and geotechnical engineering
2003-2012
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b) compute the total vertical stress at the bottom
c) compute the effective stress at the bottom
20) a thick layer of clay underlies a sand formation having a
thickness of 4.5 m. the groundwater is located 2n below
the ground surface. sp.gr. of sand and clay is 2.65 with
sand having an average void ratio of .52. the clay has
water content of 42% degree of saturation above the
water table is .37
a) compute the unit wt of sand above the water table
b) compute the total stress at a depth of 10m below
the ground surface
c) compute the effective stress at a depth 10m below
the ground surface
21) a saturated clay layer has a thickness of 10m with water
content of 51% and sg=2.72
a) compute the unit wt of the clay
b) compute the ottal stress at the bottom
c) compute the effective stress at the bottom
22) a given soil layer has a dry unit wt of 14.72 kn/m3 and a
saturated unit wt of 20.12 kn/m3 . the ground water
table is located 2m below the ground surface
a) what is the total stress at point A 4.5 m below the
ground surface
b) what is the pore pressure at point A 4.5 m below the
ground surface
c) what is the effective stress at point A 4.5 m below
the ground surface
23) a uniform soil deposit has a dry unit wt of 15.6 Kn/m3
and a saturated unit wt of 17.2 Kn/m3. the ground water
table is at a distance of 4m below the the ground surface.
point A is at a depth 6 m below the ground surface
a) compute the effective stress at A
b) if the water table goes up by 3.5 m, compute the
effective stress at A
c) in comparison to question 1 and 2, what will happen
to the effective stress at A if the ground water level
will rise up to the ground surface
24) from the given soil profile shown, the ground surface is
subjected to a uniform increase in vertical pressure of
12n/cm
2







a) compute the buoyant unit wt of clay
b) compute the overburden pressure at the mid-height
of the clay
c) compute the total settlement due to primary
consolidation
25) a tank shown in the figure has an inside diameter of 8m
and a height of 6m. it is used as a storage of oil with
sg=.80. the combined wt of the empty tank and the
footing is 2800 KN






a) determine the depth of the footing
b) determine the increase in pressure in the soil when
the tank is filled with oil
c) determine the settlement of the clay layer. assume
that the swell index is equal to 1/5 of the comp.
index
26) two footings rest in a layer of sand 2.7m thick. thr
bottom of the footings are .90m below the ground
surface. beneath the sand layer is a 1.8 m clay layer.
beneath the clay layer is hard pan. the water table is at a
depth of 1.8m below the ground surface. void ratio of
clay is 1.03








a) compute the stress increase in the center of the clay
layer,assume that the pressure beneath the footing
is spread at an angle of 2 vertical 1 horizontal
b) determine the size of footing B so that the
settlement in the clay layer is the same beneath
footings A and B. footing a is 1.5m
c) determine the settlement beneath footing A
27) a square footing 3mx3m carries a column load of 3500 kn
resting on a sand layer as shown on the figure. unit wt of
sand above the water table is 17.31 kN/m
3
and has a
saturated unit wt of 18.10 kn/m
3
below the water table.
the sand overlies a clay layer 1.2m thick having a
saturated unit wt of 16.50 kn/m
3
and a void ration of 1.7
compression index:Cs=.07, Cc=.35
assume a vertical stress distribution of 2v:1h






a) compute the preconsolidation pressure Pc if
OCR=2.0
b) compute the total effective stress at the center of
the clay layer
c) calculate the settlement due to the consolidation of
the clay layer when it is overconsolidated
28) a retaining wall 8m high is supporting a horizontal backfill
having a dry unit wt of 1600 kg/m
3
. the cohesionless soil
has an angle of friction of 33
a) compute the rankine active force on the wall
hydraulics and geotechnical engineering
2003-2012
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b) compute the rankine active force on the wall if the
water table is located at a depth of 3.5m below the
ground surface. the sat unit wt is 18.7 kn/m
3

c) compute the location of the resultant active force
from the bottom for the second condition
29) a vertical retaining wall 6m high retains a horizontal
backfill having the following properties:
void ratio=.60
sG=2.6
water content=24%
Angle of internal friction=25
a) compute the magnitude of the active force acting on
the wall if the water table is on the ground surface
which is on level with the top of the wall
b) compute the magnitude of the active force acting on
the wall if the water table is located at a depth of 3m
from the ground surface
c) compute the magnitude of the active force if the
water table is at the bottom of the wall.
30) a consolidated drained triaxial test was conducted on a
normally consolidated clay. the results were as follows
chamber confining pressure=138kpa
deviator stress=258kpa
a) compute the friction angle of the soil
b) compute the normal stress at failure
c) compute the shear stress at failure
31) a cohesionless soil has a friction angle of 30 and a
deviator stress of failure of 400kpa
a) find the angle that the failure plane makes with the
major principal plane
b) find the confining pressure
c) finds the shear stress at the point on the failure
plane
32) a cohesive soil specimen has a shearing resistance equal
to 28 and a cohesion of 30kpa. if the max shearing stress
of the soil is equal to 70kpa
a) compute the lateral pressure in the cell for a failure
to occur
b) compute the maximum principal stress to cause
failure
c) compute the normal stress at the point of max.
shear
33) in a triaxial test fpr normally consolidated soil, the
normal stress at failure is equal to 465kpa and the shear
stress at failure is equal to 350kpa
a) compute the angle of friction
b) compute the angle of the failure plane with the
major principal axis
c) compute the max principal stress at failure
34) in the triaxial test for normally consolidated soil, the
deviator stress is equal to 340 kpa and the angle of the
failure plane makes with the major principal plane is
equal to 60
a) compute the shearing stress at the plane of failure
b) compute the normal stress
c) compute teh value of teh confining pressure
35) a soil specimen is subjected to a triaxial test. the soil
specimen is cohesionless. if the shear stress that causes
failure is 300kpa and the normal stress at failure is only
375 kpa
a) determine the angle of shearing resistance
b) determine the angle that the failure plane measured
from the major principal plane
c) determine the total axial stress at which failure is
expected to occur
36) the max stress that causes failure of a cohesive soil
specimen in a triaxial test is equal to 220 kpa. the angle
of friction is equal to 25. if the deviator stress at failure
is equal to 140kpa
a) compute the confining chamber pressure
b) compute the cohesion of soil
c) compute the shearing stress at the point of the
failure plane
37) the following data were obtained from a triaxial test of a
normally consolidated soil, deviator stress at
failure=800kpa, angle to failure plane from the major
principal plane=63
a) compute the shearing stress at the plane of failure
b) compute the normal stress at the plane of failure
c) compute the value of the confining pressure
38) a .36 m square prestressed concrete pile is to be driven
in a clayey soil as shown in the figure. the design capacity
of the pile is 360KN, with FS=2








a) compute the end bearing capacity of pile
b) compute the skin friction expected to develop along
the shaft of the pile
c) compute the length of pile if =.76
39) a .30mx.30m concrete pile 22m long is driven in a clayey
soil having an unconfined compressive strength of 110
kn/m
2
. the unit wt of the clayey soil is 18kn/m
3
. frictional
constant is .76 due to skin friction. assume FS=2 and
Nc=9
a) compute the capacity of the pile due to skin friction
only
b) compute the end bearing capacity
c) compute the design capacity of the pile
40) a .3m square concrete pile is to be driven at a site where
soil conditions are as indicated in the figure. if a
penetration of 14m is assumed






hydraulics and geotechnical engineering
2003-2012
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a) what total skin friction is expected to develop along
the embedded length of the pile
b) compute the total end bearing capacity of the pile if
Nc=9
c) what is the design capacity of the pile if it has a
factor of safety of 2
41) a pile group consists of 12 piles with a diameter f .3 m
and a pile length of 12 m is shown in the figure. the piles
are spaced in a 3pile by 4 pile rectangular configuration
with a pile spacing of .6m center to center of piles. the
piles are driven into the clay that has the given
characteristics. the piles penetrate a soft clay(c=20kpa)
medium dense clay(c=56kpa) and stiff clay(c=95 kpa), use
=1 for soft and medium dense clay and .5 for stiff clay.









a) determine the capacity of the pile group based on
the single pile failure mode
b) determine the capacity of the pile group based on
block failure mode
c) determine the minimum center to center spacing of
piles to achieve 100% efficiency
42) a nine pile group consists of .30 m diameter friction
concrete piles 12m long. the piles are driven into clay
having a cohesion of 50 kn/m
2
and the unit wt of clay is
19.2. the spacing of piles is .75m center to center.
assuming Nc=9 and =1
a) find the allowable group pile capacity based on
individual pile failure using FS=3
b) find the block capacity of pile group using FS=3
c) find the minimum spacing in order to achive 100%
efficiency
43) a group of friction piles is shown in the figure. the total
load on the pile less the weight of the soil displayed by
the foundation is 1800kn. thickness of silt is 2m and that
of clay is 16m
a) determine the effective overburden pressure at
midheight of the consolidating clay
b) determine the compression index of the clay layer
c) determine the settlement of the pile foundation
44) a soil sample was determined in the laboratory to have a
liquid limit of 41% and a plastic limit of 21.1%. if the
water content is 30%, determine the following
a) plasticity index
b) liquidity indez
c) characteristic of the soil
45) given the LL of soil=58% and its PL=8%
a) what are these properties of soil
b) determine the plasticity index
c) what is the liquidity index if w=30%
46) From the given table shows the LL and PL of soil x and y
Soil Liquid limit Plastic limt
X 47 22
Y 70 38
a) find the PI of soil x
b) find the PI of soil y
c) what is the purpose of the test
47) a 300 mm diameter test well penetrates 27m below the
static water table. after 24 hours of pumping at 69l/sec
the water level in the observation well at a distance of 95
m from the test well is lowered .5m and the other
observation well at a distance of 35m from the testwell,
the drawdown is 1.1m
a) what is the rate of flow in m
3
/day
b) compute the coefficient of permeability of the
aquifer in m/day
c) compute the transmissibility of the aquifer in m
2
/day
48) a 7m deep braced cut in sand is shown. in the plan, the
struts are placed at a spacing of 2m center to center.
using pecks empirical pressure diagram, compute the
following








a) strut load at level A
b) strut load at level C
c) strut load at level B
49) the hydraulic gradient for quicksand condition is equal to
1.13 with a void ratio of .50. the moist unit wt of soil is
19.04kn/m
3

a) compute the SG of the soil
b) compute the dry unit wt of the soil
c) compute the water content of the soil
50) the results of a constant head permeability test for a fine
sand and sample having a diameter of 150mm and a
length of 150mm are as follows
constant head difference=40cm
time of collection of water=83sec
weight of water collected=39 g
a) find the hydraulic conductivity
51) from a constant laboratory permeability test on a fine
sand the following are given
length of specimen=17cm
diameter of specimen=5.5cm
constant head difference=40cm
weight of water collected=50g
duration=12sec
a) find the hydraulic conductivity
hydraulics and geotechnical engineering
2003-2012
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52) an anchored sheet pile supports a mass of soil 7.3m high
with a horizontal surface. the angle of friction of the soil
is 31 with a unit wt of 1.96g/cm
3
. the total height of the
sheet pile is 10.5 m which is supported by an anchor bolt
placed 1.2 m below the ground surface which has a
spacing of 3m center to center
a) compute the active force
b) compute the fraction of the theoretical-maximum
passive resistance of the total embedded length
which must be mobilized for equilibrium
c) compute the tension in the anchor bolt
53) a cantilever sheet pile is 8,2 m long with a depth of
embedment of 3.2m. angle of friction of the soil
supported by the sheet pile is 34 and has a unit weight
of 1.91g/cc. there is water table below the base of the
sheet pile
a) compute the active force acting on the sheet pile
b) compute the max passive force acting on the sheet
pile
c) compute the theoretical passive force that must be
mobilized to ensure stability
54) from the figure sown, the soil has a unt wt of 18kn/m
3

and undrained shear strength cu=20kN/m
2
. the slopes
makes an angle of 60 with the horizontal, assume a
stability number m=.185




a) compute the stability factor
b) compute the maximum depth up to which the cut
could be made
c) compute the angle that the failure plane makes with
the horizontal if BC=8m
55) a piece of metal weighs 350N in air and when it is
submerged completely in water, it weighs 240N
a) find the volume of the metal
b) find the specific wt of the metal
c) find the specific gravity of the metal
56) a wooden storage vat full of oil sp. gr=.80 is in the form
of frustum of a cone 2m diameter at the top and 4m
diameter at the bottom and 3 m high. it is provided with
2 steel hoops one at the top and one at the bottom
a) compute the hydrostatic force on the side op the
container
b) how high is the said force above the bottom
c) compute the force on the bottom hoop
57) a vat holding paint(SG+.8) is 8m long and 4 m deep and
has a trapezoidal cross section 3m wide at the bottom
and 5m wide at the top
a) compute the weight of the paint
b) compute the force on the bottom of the vat
c) compute the force on the trapezoidal end panel
58) from the figure shown, the clay is normally consolidated.
a laboratory consolidation test on the clay gave the
following results
Pressure(kPa) Void ratio, e
100 .905
200 .815







a) calculate the average effective stress on the
midheight of clay layer
i) 60.74kPa
ii) 42.24
iii) 36.36
iv) 69.23
v) 78.95
b) determine the compression index cc
i) .213
ii) .452
iii) .374
iv) .465
v) .299
c) if the average effective stress on the clay layer is
increased(Po+P) to 115kPa, what would be the
total consolidation settlement?
i) 123.65mm
ii) 104.6
iii) 158.74
iv) 116.35
v) 92.56
59) a tube having a cross sectional area of 100 sq.cm
contains three layers of soil having given hydraulic
conductivities as shown in the tabulation. the rate of
water supplied to maintain a constant head of 400mm is
291.21cm
3
/hr. if the value of Ha=300mm and Kb=4x10
-
3
cm.sec
a) compute the value of Ka
b) compute the value of Hb
c) compute the value of Kc
60) a wooden buoy of sg=.75 floats in a liquid with sg=85
a) what is the percentage of the volume above the
liquid surface to the total volume of the buoy
i) 13.6
ii) 14.1
iii) 15.6
iv) 12.3
v) 11.8
b) if the volume above the liquid surface is .0145m
3

what is the weight of the wooden buoy?
i) .698kN
ii) 957
iii) .905
iv) .789
v) .821
c) what load that will cause the buoy to be fully
submerged?
i) .121kN
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2003-2012
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ii) .151
iii) .216
iv) .178
v) .236
61) the reading of a Toyota 6x-2003 fuel gage is proportional
to the gage pressure at the bottom of the tank as shown
on the figure. the tank is 32m deep. unit wt of gasoline is
6670N/m
3
and that of air is 11.8N/m
3
. unit weight of
water is 9790 N/m
3

a) determine the gage reading when the tank is full of
gasoline
i) 2231.2kPa
ii) 2056.7
iii) 2365.8
iv) 2134.4
v) 2518.6
b) how many cm of air remains at the top when the
gage indicates full if the tank is 32 m deep and is
contaminated with 3cm of water
i) 2.15cm
ii) 1.87
iii) 1.41
iv) .26
v) 1.12
c) if the tank is .5m
2
, find the volume of the gasoline to
fill up the tank
i) 60liters
ii) 70
iii) 90
iv) 80
v) 50
62) a tank with vertical sides is 1.2 m square, 3.0 m deep and
is filled to a depth of 2.7m with water. a cube of wood
having a specific gravity of .5 measuring 60 cm on the
edge is placed in the water so that it will float
a) find the weight of volume of water displaced
i) 2.36
ii) 1.75
iii) .26
iv) 3.85
v) 1.0
b) determine the depth that the water will rise inside
the tank from its original water level
i) .025m
ii) .015
iii) .075
iv) .123
v) .042
c) what will be the change in pressure on one side of
the tank?
i) 1.451
ii) 2.875kN
iii) 2.417
iv) 3.052
v) .051
63) a square plate having one of its side equal to 3m is
immersed in a water surface in a vertical position such
that the two edges of the square would be horizontal in
order that the center of pressure shall be 8cm from the
center of gravity.
a) how far below the water surface should the upper
plate be submerged?
i) 5.258
ii) 7.875
iii) 6.154m
iv) 8.715
v) 9.875
b) what is the distance of the center of pressure from
the water surface
i) 10.365
ii) 6.271
iii) 8.784
iv) 7.265
v) 9.455
c) determine the hydrostatic force acting on the plate
at this position
i) 748.59
ii) 827.27kN
iii) 936.65
iv) 615.48
v) 889.99
64) an open cylindrical vessel 1 m in diameter contains water
at a depth of 3.56m.
a) if it is rotated at a speed of 80rpm about its vertical
axis determine the least depth of the vessel so that
no water will be spilled out
i) 4
ii) 3
iii) 5
iv) 6
v) 2
b) if the vessel is rotated at 120rpm, how much water
will be spilled out?
i) 425
ii) 486
iii) 465
iv) 405
v) 444
c) if the vessel is rotated at 140 rpm, what would be
the pressure at the center bottom of the tank?
i) 12.36kPa
ii) 10.35
iii) 15.72
iv) 18.18
v) 22.36
65) from the figure shown, the gate is 1m wide and is hinged
at the bottom of the gate






a) compute the hydrostatic force acting on the gate
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2003-2012
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b) compute the location of the center of the pressure
of the gate to the hinged
c) Determine the minimum volume of concrete
(=23.6kN/m
3
) needed to keep the gate in a closed
position.
66) a vertical plate shown is submerged in vinegar having a
sg=.80. assume w=9.79kN/m
3







a) find the depth of the center of pressure of section A
from the liquid surface
b) find the magnitude of the hydrostatic force on one
side of the plate
c) find the depth of the center of pressure of the whole
section from LS
67) a vertical rectangular gate as shown is 2m wide, 6 m high
is hinged at the top has oil sg=.84 standing 7m deep on
one side, the LS being under pressure of -18.46kPa






a) compute the hydrostatic force acting on the gate
b) how far is the force acting below the hinge
c) how much horizontal force applied at the bottom is
needed to open the gate
68) the tank in the figure is 3m wide into the paper.
neglecting atmospheric pressure. compute the following.
use w=9.79kN/m
3

a) vertical force on the quarter circle panel BC
b) horizontal force on the quarter circle
c) resultant force on the quarter circle panel BC
d) angle that the resultant makes with the horizontal
69) a square plate having one of its side equal to 3m is
immersed in a water surface in a vertical position such
that the two edges of the square would be horizontal in
order that the center of pressusre shall be 10 cm from
the center of gravity
a) how far below the water surface should the upper
plate be submerged
b) what is the distance of the center of the pressure
from the water surface
c) determine the hydrostatic force acting on the plate
70) two open cylindrical tanks are connected by an orifice
having a cross sectional area of .004m
2
. tank A is 8m in
diameter and its water level is 10 m above that of B
whose diameter is 5m. if the coefficient of discharge is
.60
a) find the discharge flowing in the orifice
b) how long will it be before the water surface are at
the same level
c) how soon after will the water surface be 4m apart?
71) an orifice having an area of .00785m
2
is attached to a
vertical side of a cylindrical tank having a diameter of 4m.
the weight of the water discharged in 1 min and 40 sec is
22563N under a constant head of 1.2m. the jet strikes a
point 1.92m horizontally from the vena contracta and
.80m vertically below the orifice
a) find the coefficient of velocity
b) find the coefficient of discharge
c) compute the coefficient of contraction
72) two closed compartments A and B are connected by an
orifice having a diameter of 140mm diameter at its sides.
at compartment A, it contains water at a depth of 3m
above the orifice and a pressure on top of it equal to
50kPa. on the other compartment, it contains water at a
depth of 2m above the orifice and a pressure of 15kPa on
top of the water surface. c=.86 Cv=.92






a) compute the discharge thru the orifice
b) compute the headloss
c) compute the power loss in watts
73) a trapezoidal channel has a bottom width of 6m and side
slopes of 2 horizontal and 1 vertical. when the depth of
flow is 1.2m, the flow is 30.40 m
3
/s
a) compute the specific energy
b) compute the slope of the channel if n=.014
c) compute the average shearing stress at the
boundary
74) the cross section of a right triangular channel is shown
with a coefficient of roughness n=.012. if the rate of flow
is 4m
3
/s
a) det. the critical depth
b) det. the critical velocity
c) determine the critical slope
75) a rectangular channel 6m wide has a constant specific
energy of 2.2
a) calc the critical depth
b) cal the critical velocity
c) cal the critical slope if n=.012
76) a rectangular channel carries a discharge of 17.6m
3
/s
when flowing 1.2 m depth. if the width of the canal is
10m
a) compute the min specific energy
b) compute the normal slope if n=.014
c) compute the average shearing stress of the
boundary
77) water flows through an almost level channel 3.0 m wide
at 12m
3
/s. the depth gradually increase from 1.0m to
1.1m for a length of flow of 5m
a) what is the HL
b) what is the slope
c) compute for n
hydraulics and geotechnical engineering
2003-2012
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78) a pump draws water from reservoir A and lifts it to a
reservoir B as shown. the loss of head from A to 1 is 3
times the velocity head in the 150mm pipe and the loss
of head from 2 to B is 20 times the velocity head in the
100mm pipe. when the discharge is 20L/sec






a) compute the horse power output of the pump
b) compute the pressure head at 1 compute the
pressure head at 2
79) two reservoirs A and B have elevatons of 250m and 100m
respectively. it is connected by a pipe having a diameter
of 250mm and a length of 100m. a turbine is installed at
a point in between the reservoirs A and B. if c=120,
compute the ff if the discharge flowing in the pipe is
150liters/sec







a) headloss of pipe due to friction
b) head extracted by the turbine
c) power generated by turbine
80) a rectangular channel 5.4m wide by 1.2 m deep is lined
with a smooth stone well and has a hydraulic slope of
.001. using n=.012
a) what is the capacity of the channel in m
3
/s
b) what savings in earth excavation could have been
offered by using more favourable proportional but
adhering to the same delivery and slope
c) what savings in lining per meter length could have
been offered by using more favourable proportional
but adhering to the same delivery and slope
81) a trapezoidal canal has a base width equal to 6m which
carries water flowing at velocity of .8m/s
a) compute the discharge in the canal if the side are
sloping at an angle of 45 such that it will have a
minimum seepage
b) compute the discharge in the canal for MES
c) compute the discharge if the depth of the canal is
only 2/3 of the base width and has side slopes of 1:1
82) water from a reservoir flowing througha non rigid
600mm pipe with a velocity of 2m/s is completely
stopped by a closure of a valve situated 150 m from the
reservoir. assume that the pressure increases at a
uniform rate and that there is no damping of the
pressure wave. the pipe has a thickness of 20mm. bulk
modulus of water is 2.2x10
9
mPa and modulus of
elasticity of steel is 1.4x10
11
mPa
a) compte the velocity of sound of water
b) find the water hammer pressure for instant closure
c) how much time should be allowed for closing the
valve to avoid water hamer?
83) the error in the measured head in a channel is equal to
0.018m. if the discharge flowing the channel is .6m
3
/s.
compute the following
a) %error if a suppressed rectangular weir is used with
length of weir is equal to 4.2m
b) % of error if a cipolletti weir having a length of weir
of 4.6m
c) % of error if a right triangular weir is used#
84) a 600mm diameter steel pipe, 10mm thick carries water
under a head of 325m
a) determine the actual stress in kN per meter length of
pipe
b) if the head is increased to 500m, what is the actual
stress on the wall in Mpa
c) if the head is increased to 500m, what thickness is
required assuming an allowable tensile stress of
113mPa and efficiency of the connection is 80%
85) the velocity of oil flowing thru a 30mm diameter pipe is
equal to 2m/s. oil has kinetic viscosity of 5x10
-5
m
2
/s. if
the pipe has a length of 120m
a) compute the Reynolds number
b) compute the friction factor
c) compute the headloss of the pipe
86) a liquid having a Reynolds number of 1900 flow thru a
200 mm diameter pipe 150m long. the headloss of the
pipe due to friction is 22m
a) compute the friction factor
b) compute the kinematic viscosity
c) compute the rate of flow in l/sec
87) a closed cylindrical tank having a radius of .6m and a
height of 4m is full of water under a pressure of 196.2
kPa. the metal side is 3mm thick. if the vessel is rotated
at 200rpm
a) compute the total pressure on the side of the wall
b) compute the total pressure against the top
c) compute the maximum intensity of the hoop on
tensile side
88) a footing 6m square carries a total load, including its own
weight of 10000 KN. the base of the footing is at a depth
of 3m below the ground surface. the soil strata at the site
consists of a layer of stiff fully saturated clay 27.5m thick
overlying dense sand. the average bulk density of the clay
is 1920kg/m
3
and its average shear strength determined
from undrained triaxial test is 130kN/m
2
.
from the table,
a) determine the gross foundation pressure
b) determine the net foundation pressure
c) calculate the factor of safety of the foundation
against the complete shear failure under the
undrained condition. side cohesion on the
foundation may be neglected
89) a square footing has a dimension of 1.2m by 1.2m and
has its bottom 1m below the ground surface

hydraulics and geotechnical engineering
2003-2012
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a) if the ground water table is located at a depth of
1.2m below the ground surface. compute the
allowable load that the footing could carry if it has a
factor of safety of 3
b) find the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil if the
ground water table is at the bottom of the footing
c) find the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil if the
ground water table is .5m above the bottom of the
footing
90)