You are on page 1of 66

 GOOD DAY!

WELCOME TO MY PRESENTATION

ON
6. TEACHING STRATEGY
7. TEACHING BEHAVIOR
8. TECHNICAL SKILLS OF
TEACHING
9. TEACHING TECHNIQUES
10. THE SYSTEM APPROACH
11. INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS
12. TEACHING-LEARNING
SEQUENCE
13. MASTERY LEARNING
14. ACTIVE TEACHING
RESEARCH SHOWS CLEARLY THAT A PERSON MUST BE ENGAGED TO
LEARN.


People learn by actively participating
in observing, speaking, writing,
listening, thinking, drawing, and
doing.

•Learning is enhanced when a


person sees potential implications,
applications, and benefits to others.

WHAT IS LEARNING?

Learning is not a spectator sport --


it is an active, not a passive,
enterprise. Accordingly, a learning
environment must invite, even
demand, the active engagement of
the student. - D. Blocher


LEARNING STYLES

 useful to factor in to assignment


 and activity design.

If everyone learned the same way,


it would be easy to choose teaching
strategies to optimize learning.

How does this influence teaching?


Goal (LEARN)
As you enter a classroom ask yourself this question: "If there were no students
in the room, could I do what I am planning to do?" If your answer to the
question is yes, don't do it.
METHODOLOGY – It’s a concern of all
Teachers

•  Teaching method - is an organized


and systematic procedure
employed by a teacher in making
students learn.
•  
• Premise “A person may be
knowledgeable but it doesn’t mean
that he can impart his knowledge
well to others,
• Teaching will become effective and
proper if teaching method is
3 Categories of Teaching
Method

1.Approaches
2.Methods
3.Strategies/Techniques
1. Approaches- is so called “ the

philosophy in life”.
• It’s subjective if it comes from the
thoughts; therefore, it should be
objective.
• It’s objective, enlightened and
universal.
• It’s every teacher’s viewpoint in life.

Some Approaches

• Discovery approach – It refers to the cognitive aspect


of a learner.
• It based on the concept, theories, principles and
content.
 

• Conceptual Approach- It’s about choosing and


defining the concept of a certain discipline.
• It’s also cognitive from simple to complex.
 

• Process Approach – before it’s a science instruction


but now it is for all skilled-oriented subjects
• This concerns on “how to learn” concept not “what to
learn”.
• It’s functional and not theoretical.
• It’s a human consideration.
• The knowledge is used to develop a learner
• Inquiry Approach – is search-based
than knowledge-based.
• Unified Approach – is the result from
the previous concept – to – new
concept – to – another new source
of interrelating among these
concepts.

Teaching Technique/Strategy

• is implementational and that which


actually takes place in a classroom.
A p p ro a ch M e th o d T e ch n iq u e
It is a xio m a tic It is p ro ce d u ra l It is
( Having the quality ( Consisting of a im p le m e n ta tio n a l
o f a g e n e ra lly se rie s o f a ctio n s ( having an
a cce p te d p rin cip le s a rra n g e d lo g ica lly im m e d ia te
o r ru le u se d a s a fo r th e sm o o th a p p lica b ility in th e
b a sis fo r th e w h o le o p e ra tio n o f a cla ssro o m o w n in g
p ro ce ss o f p a rticu la r te a ch in g to its sp e cificity ,
te a ch in g ) ta sk ). fe a sib ility , a n d
co n ve n ie n ce o f th e
te a ch e r in u sin g it.
Explo
ring te
strate aching
gies
6. W hat is Teaching
Strategy?
• Willard B. Spalding (1958) –used the
term “Strategy” in his writings and
lectures, states that the curriculum
is the strategy by which the schools
attempt to fulfill the goals of
education.
Assess students' prior
knowledge

ORGANIZERS ( some of which are also ca lle d co n ce p t m a p s, e

pictorial way of constructing knowledge and organizing infor


 Help the pupils/students:
USES OF GRAPHIC
 ORGANIZERS

q Brainstorm ideas
q
q

qDevelop, organize and


communicate ideas
q
q
qSee connections, patterns
and relationships
q Assess and share prior
 knowledge

qDevelop vocabulary

qOutline for writing process activities

qHighlight important ideas

qClassify or categorize concepts, ideas and information


q

qComprehend the events in a story or book

qImprove social interactions and facilitate group work


q

qGuide review and study

qImprove reading comprehension skills and strategies

qFacilitate recall and retention


BRAINSTORMING

"Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." -- Thomas Alva
Edison

 The pre-class assignments


 ("WarmUps, "Pre-flight checks“)
• 
Brainstorming is a process used for developing or
generating many creative ideas.
Remember:


• Quantity not Quality
•  Be free-wheeling, anything goes
• Hitch-hiking on other’s ideas is to be encouraged
•  No criticism is allowed
• Teacher must write as said – no paraphrasing.


---The KWL chart can also KWL
be used to:
remind students of their
questions
correct prior
misconceptions
enable them to compare What you
you learned
Whathave
Want to knowknow

previous levels of
understanding with newly
acquired information
PHOTOGRAPHS/PI
CTURES

It can be used as

visual prompts in
the classroom
q
q aid in the child’s development of visual
discrimination and eye-hand coordination.
PUZZLES

q Stimulate learning and creative thinking


while teaching concentration .


Crossword Puzzle
MAZE PUZZLE
W E R H U Y A M
L S M F P S L E Searchword
E R L O E G U D
PUZZLE
A E V N C R S A
V W O Z G S K N
E O E S A G O J
S L E R T X B Q
H F G U I T V I
THINKING MAPS

n o va tive Le a rn in g G ro u p ) in te g ra te th in kin g skills a n d m a p p i

o u se th e se stra te g ie s h e lp s stu d e n ts d e ve lo p g o o d w ritin g s


§ These techniques also help students
become better learners as they develop
life-long skills that help them to study.

in vo lve d in p e rce ivin g , p ro ce ssin g a n d e va lu a tin g in fo rm a tio


e xt
C ont
in
i ng
D efin
For Circle Map

Circle Maps are tools


used to help define a


thing or idea.

It is u se d to b ra in sto rm id e a s a n d fo r sh o w in g p r
Another example
made by grade 1
pupils
Tree Map

Tree Maps are good for


organizing the agenda of a


meeting or showing the
structure of an organization.

Things or ideas are sorted into


categories or groups.
Sometimes new categories are
created.

Tre e M a p s a re g o o d fo r stu d yin g fo r te sts. U se th is m a p to ca te g o rize sp e llin g w

g
o u pin
gr
a nd
f y ing
si
C l as
For
s
tive
je c
h Ad
wit
rib
in g Bubble Map
e sc
rD
Fo

Bubble Maps are used to


describe qualities using


adjectives ("sparkle words")
and adjective phrases.

A s a w ritin g to o l it e n rich e s stu d e n ts'a b ilitie s to id e n tify q u a litie


Another Example of
bubble map
tin g
Co ntras
ga nd
o mparin
For C

Double Bubble Map

This is similar in concept to a


Venn Diagram

Two items being compared


are written in the two


center circles.
Flow Map

Flow Maps sequence and order


a process

They identify the relationships


between stages and substages


of an event (or order or
numbers, operations, steps,
etc.)
T h e y ca n b e u se d to exp la in th e o rd e r o f e
Another example of
flow map
Multi-Flow
Map

It is a process of

sequencing that looks at


what caused an event and
the results/effects of the
event.

It helps students analyze a situation by looking at the cause and effect - th

For Analyzing Causes and Effects


Brace Map

Brace Maps help learners


understand the relationship
between a whole physical
object and its parts. They
are used to analyze the
structure of an item. It's
like 'directing' on paper.

T h e y a re u se d to a n a lyze th e stru ctu re o f a n ite m . It's like

For Identifying Part/Whole Relationships


Bridge Map

Seeing analogies is the


process of identifying
similarities between
relationships.

B rid g e M a p s g ive stu d e n ts a to o lfo r a p p lyin g th e p ro ce


TO SUMMARIZE
Circle Map - Tree Map -
for identifying part/ whole for classifying and grouping
relationships

Bubble Map - Double Bubble Map -


for identifying part/ whole for describing with adjectives
relationships

Flow Map - Multi - Flow Map -


for sequencing and ordering for analyzing causes and effects

Brace Map - Bridge Map -


for identifying part/whole relationships for seeing analogies
Ot h e r
te a c h
strate ing
g i es
E D U C A T IO N A L
G A M ES

Are games that have been specifically designed


to teach children about a certain subject, expand
concept, reinforce development, or consist them
in learning an historical event or culture, or
consist them in learning a skill as they play.


Games are a means of passing on knowledge,

skills as well as attitudes in a manner that


entertains and keeps learners motivated. In
this way, learning is made more effective and
permanent. There are a number of games that
may be used in different topics and situations.
Many games can be adapted from regular
games and changed to suit the topic under
discussion.

BINGO

Uses a visual
presentation using
number, pictures and
other things to be
learned in the topic.
LOTTO

Also like a bingo. Instead


of number, words and


picturse can be done

NUMBER BINGO

Uses a visual
presentation using
number, pictures and
other things to be
learned in the topic.
WORD COUNTING

A worksheet type

activity used as
assignment or
homework
MATH CARD

A fun activity which


can be done in a
short period of time.
CHARTS/
DIAGRAMS
STORY STAR
Read the story below and answer the questions that

follow. CASE STUDY


Mwawa is a quite young man who lives in a Village.


His friends are insisting that he should go drinking


with them but he refuses. One day his friends tell
him that if he refuses to go with them they will beat
him up. But he still refuses because his mother once
told him that people get infected with HIV/AIDS at
drinking places.

 1.) Is Mwawa’s decision good? Why?


 2.) Is Mwawa’s mother correct in saying
 that people get HIV at drinking
 places? Explain.
 3.) What advice would you give to
 Mwawa and his friends?

DEVIL’S ADVOCATE

Devil’s advocate is a form of role play in


which one person tries as hard as possible


to convince a friend to give in to
temptation. The other person has to
respond to all the devil’s temptations by
giving the reasons why he or she does not
want to give in to the temptation.

USE A COMBINATION OF QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES , INSTRUCTIONAL
PRACTICES AND ONGOING ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
 EXAMPLE

T E A C H E R : ARE THERE ANY WAYS IN NATURE THAT YOU HAVE SEEN ROCKS GET
SM O O TH ?

P U P IL : IF YOU PUT ROCKS UNDER WATER FOR A LITTLE WHILE THEY'LL GET SMOOTH .
S O M E R O C K S C O M E FR O M M O U N TA IN S A N D T H E S T R E A M C O M E S D O W N A N D TA K E S
T H E M W IT H T H E M A N D T H E Y G E T S M O O T H . YO U C O U LD PU T A R O C K A N D SO M E W ATER
IN A B U C K E T A N D S H A K E IT U P FO R W H ILE A N D T H E N O PE N IT A N D T H E R O C K W ILL
C O M E O U T S M O O T H A N D IT W ILL B E S M A LLE R .

T E A C H E R : IT WILL BE SMALLER? WHY?

PUPIL : BECAUSE YOU SHOOK THE WATER UP WHEN THE ROCK WAS IN THERE AND IT'S
JU S T …

TEACHER: HOW DID IT BECOME SMALLER?

PUPIL : B E C A U S E O F T H E FR IC T IO N .

TEACHER: WHAT DID THE FRICTION DO?

PUPIL : IT SHOOK EVERYTHING UP .

TEACHER: AND WHAT HAPPENED TO IT ( THE ROCK ) ?

PUPIL : IT G O T S M A LLE R A N D B E C A M E S M O O T H E R .
7. Teaching Behavior

• Flanders (1970) – as acts by the teacher that


occur in the context of classroom interaction.

• The classroom activities of teaching behavior of


teachers are classified into:
1. Linguistic Behavior
2.Expressive Behavior
3.Performatory Behavior

Linguistic Behavior
• Includes what teachers say to a considerable
extent, done through speech.
a) Teachers make assignments
b)Give directions
c) Explain
d)Narrate
e) Elaborate
f) Ask questions
g)Comment on responses
h)Encourage
i) Praise
j) Sometimes exhort and scold

Expressive Behavior

• Accompanies all speeches and a part of


communication.
a) Tone voice
b) Facial expression
c) Movements of hands, arms, eyes, head, or other part of
the body.

 Its Various Uses are:


1) To emphasize certain words
2) To indicate humor, seriousness, irritation, approval,
disapproval and so on.

 Its importance lies in the fact that pupils learn to read its
various manifestations to know what mood the teacher
has and to determine whether the teacher really means
what he says.
1)
Performatory Behavior

• Includes all physical activities


1) writing on the board


2)Operate projectors and record players
3)Manipulating models
4)Using lab equipment, tools, machines
and other instructional materials

1)

8. Technical Skills of Teaching

• Identified by Gage (1968)


1. Establishing set or the establishment of cognitive
rapport between students and teachers to obtain
immediate involvement in the lesson.
2. Establishing appropriate frames of reference or points
of view.
3. Achieving a closure or putting major points, linking
old and new knowledge at appropriate points
within teaching episode as well as the end.
4. Using questions in such a way as to elicit the kinds of
thought processes and behaviors desired such as
simple recall, concept formation or evaluation.
What they say about…!
• "My approach has always • "Inquiry is not
been a hands-on
approach, but it's more exclusively for our
than hands-on now...It's most talented
about letting kids generate students. Inquiry
the questions instead of science, in fact, is of
me generating the
questions. And then I most benefit to our
explore, figure out how students who are
they are going to test their having difficulties
ideas, how they are going
to explore answers to their with school."
questions. And then -Garnetta Chain,
I...help them make SCIENCELINE Video
connections to their lives Teacher,
and make sense of what
they have found out."


Whether you are a new teacher or a seasoned
professional

 T h e re is stilla n e e d to le a rn d iffe re n t
stra te g ie s in te a ch in g . Te a ch e r w o u ld
a lw a ys re m a in a n d vie w
o u rse lve so u rse lve s a s a n “A C T IV E
S O C IA LIZ A T IO N A G E N T S ” ca p a b le o f
stim u la tin g … stu d e n t m o tiva tio n to le a rn “
( Brophy 1987 )

• Truly effective teaching strategies that can


make teaching more fun and enjoyable both
for yourself and your students.
I like a teacher who gives
you something to take
home to think about
besides homework.

-Lily Tomlin
WASSALAM
and SUKRAN!