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Nowadays, drop out students are increasing due to many factors at home,
school, community, etc. Department of Education (DepEd) in basic education level is
reforming the programs to cater the pupils/students and to encourage them to be in
school for the betterment of an individual.
The program is introduced as foreseen to be effective in the system in reducing
the number of dropout pupils/students is the Dropout Reduction Program (DROP). It is
an intervention program to reduce the high dropout rate and improve learning outcomes
in public and private schools of the country, using formal, non-formal and information
This also aims to facilitate access of every Filipino to quality basic education,
which equips him with the basic literacy tools and content that are essential for his
growth and development as a person and as a citizen of a democratic society. To achieve
this aim, DORP has the following specific objectives:
1. Reduce, if not eliminate school dropout;
2. Increase retention rate;
3. Increase significantly the achievement level of the Students-at-Risk of
Dropping Out (SARDO);
4. Retrieve learners who are out of school;
5. Increase the capability of schools to establish, implement, monitor, evaluate
and continuously improve the DORP;
6. Design and continuously improve DORP practices and learning materials;
7. Benchmark the best DORP practices.
DORP responds to the EFA goal to make every Filipino functionally literate in
2015 and as also being stipulated in Education Act of 1982.

Students are indeed like gems to be treasured, soon they will sparkle the world of
the future. But there are still many of them who can not realize it. Absenteeism,
tardiness, family problems, etc. are triggering to be the caused of dropping out from the

Department of Education (DepEd) is implementing the Dropout Reduction

Program (DORP) as an alternative delivery program of the Bureau of Secondary
education. There are many alternative strategies in this program: Effective Alternative
Secondary Education (EASE) is applied to short-term and seasonal SARDO; Open High
School Program (OHSP) is recommended for SARDOs whose ‘permanently’ cannot
attend regular classes; School-Initiated Interventions (SII) is utilized according to the felt
needs of the SARDO and to the existing available school resources.

The main objective in the implementation of DORP is to facilitate access of every

Filipino to quality basic education which equips him with the basic literacy tools and
content that are essential for his growth and development as a person and as a citizen
of a democratic society.

DORP had been based from the Article XIV of the Philippine Constitution, RA
9155, The Education Act of 1982, United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
and Education For All (EFA).

Through this program, the teachers and managers are convinced that student will
be improved and strengthened his capabilities and finish his studies independently.

The program will be considered beneficial if:

1. Other agencies both public and private such as the TESDA and the business
market will tie knot to protect these children and provide a source of livelihood
after graduation; and
2. Measure carefully the attendance and achievement of these students.



Teachers define teacher in the same way. The goals of teacher view in the same
manner. The vision and mission of the institutions where these teachers are teaching
are likewise the same with those teachers who are not in that institution..that is the
quality and excellence are in the eyes and hearts of different teachers. The discussion
went on 1) Values Education, Women and the Teachers 2) The Teacher and the State
3) The Teacher and the Medium of Instruction.
This topic focused on teacher and its value in the state. Are teachers lucky
enough to be called teachers? Are they given the recognition by the state? But why are
we still craving for quality education?

Teaching is a profession with a long and cherished tradition. It is universally
acknowledged as a respected and highly esteemed career. Its lifelong mission consists
of a relentless pursuit of knowledge, development of skills and proficiency in work
dimensions and inculcation of values and attitudes of all practitioners. It is embraced by
a characteristic culture of committed service to children, adults, community and the

The first subtopic is the values education, women and the teachers. Actually, in
the Philippines, access to education seems to favor women in terms of enrolment ratio
and completion rates in the basic education level. Even enrolment in the tertiary level
during the 2003-2004 school year yielded 55% female population of college students.
But in technical-vocational courses, as expected, men registered 50.6% enrolment in
the same year. NCRFW observes that lower enrolment in vocational institutions.
Women licensed professionals accounted for 65% of total passers in government
sanctioned professional board examinations. What are the indicators for these results?
Well, the answer is simple. Since women are not totally well recognized in public
positions, then more men are being placed in the highest position both in public and
private offices because of their characteristics in handling the situation. Look at our
present officials. Women are usually located in the middle management than in top

management position in the educational institutions. These are only some of the
examples of women and the issues they faced with.

Most teachers said that there is no more essential aspect of a person than his
character. Character is made up of those principles and values that give life direction,
meaning and depth. Some people wonder if our inner values count much. Many have
not come to believe that the only things we need for success are faith, talent, energy
and personality.

With a value system based solely on skill and personality as what teachers are
doing inside the classroom, we find heroes in athletes, musicians, and in powerful
business executives. But despite the admiration we feel for these achievers, we
shouldn’t necessarily look upon then as role models. While skill is certainly needed for
success, it can never guarantee happiness and fulfillment. This comes from developing
character as quoted by Stephen Covey, 1999. Who must inculcate these values to
students? Aside from parents, we teachers are also responsible since we played as the
second parents to them. Whatever she says, students followed. Values must be the
integral part of teaching.

The teachers are recognized by the state. We are given the right of taking the
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET), the Pre-service education teachers (PSET),
the In-service Education Teachers (INSET), etc. We even recognized with a highest
subsidy from the national government budget because we know that education played a
vital role in the society. We build the society and people.

But the debates, forums, and surveys go on with the teacher and the medium of
instruction. Mr. David, a social studies teacher in one of the universities in the
Philippines said that he took that course is because Araling Panlipunan subject is
delivered in class in Filipino because he is not really good in speaking English in his
class. He added that as long as his students really understood him in Filipino, he can’t
ask anything more. Learning for him is very important. He even stressed out that he
usually used a bilingual as medium of instruction-English and Filipino while teaching.

But he still worried because he knew that English is a universal language and students
need it in working abroad. He asked then, what is important, learning the skills,
knowledge and concepts of the subject matter or learning to speak English with less
knowledge, skills and concepts in their own field of specialization? David said that his
students can easily participate, discuss and share in the class if they used Filipino

Our government issued memoranda to maintain to use English as medium of

instruction in teaching English, Science, and Mathematics while Filipino in Filipino,
T.L.E. Araling Panlipunan, and Edukasyong Pagpapahalaga (Values Education). This
implies that teacher must identify her interest first before taking the Education courses.
Teacher must be fluent in English and Filipino at the same time. According to Former
President Fidel V. Ramos as quoted in the Philippine Journal of Education “The
Teacher must be a generalist first before she can be a specialist”.

The following are possible techniques and strategies to strengthen parent and
school teamwork and understanding:

For Values Education, Women and the Teacher:

1. The school may initiate through the PTA a formal present education program
and publications on gender fair parenting;
2. Assign local persons among parents who may serve as gender fair parent
3. Established a regular and formal communication system among parents (e-
groups, webpage, blogpage, etc.) that can be a space for discussion and
dissemination of issues and concerns;
4. Integrate gender fair by concepts in all family school activities;
5. Conduct regular parent training through seminar-workshops with teachers
and the school community;

6. Disseminate newsletter for parents and students providing for gender fair
practices to nurture non-sexist individuals;
7. Conduct consultation process with parents to avoid or lessen conflict of
perspectives in socialization in school and at home; and
8. Explore programs that will include teachers and parents in in-service
sessions (teacher-parent outreach activities).

For The Teacher and The State:

1. The state must prioritize teachers in trainings, salary increase and other
professional development for quality teaching and quality life; and
2. The teachers must be committed and dedicated to serve the country and
the people.
3. The state shall implement the monitoring system in the country to
response to the weaknesses and strengths of the teachers.

For the Teacher and the Medium of Instruction:

1. Provide books and other instructional materials or resources;

2. Submit oneself for professional development such as trainings, seminars,
workshops, education, and other means to be well-knowledge and skillful;
3. Hire teachers who are qualified to teach.




Basic education responds to the needs of the pupils/students to let them learn…
to know, explore, discover and value everything they have. But problems come such as
accessibility, equity and quality. Now, Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM)
came to save Philippines especially in Mindanao with the support from the Australian
Government and coordinated by the Philippines.
There were four (4) components established by the BEAM which is separately
but continuously implemented. These are: 1) Human Resource Development 2)
Materials Development 3) Increasing Access 4) Project Management, Monitoring and
The said program was started 2004 and ended 2008. The Philippine Government
and other concerned agencies (DepED, CHED, TEIs, PRC) are now continuing it to
maintain good leaders, managers, teachers and students in our country.

The BEAM project is a bilateral development in a systematic approach focusing
on establishing capacity building trainings, providing livelihood sources and
strengthening and improving quality and accessibility of basic education in Southern
Mindanao through quality management training to communities in Region XI, XII and
the ARMM.

This project is a five-year (5) and divided into two (2) phases. The first phase
started in January 2002-January 2004 while the second phase was in 2004-2007. The
first phase has four (4) main components: Firstly, the Management Capacity Building
and Program Development or simply as the Human Resource Development, which aims
to strengthen the education sector’s human resource (managers, planners and
evaluators) working to facilitate quality student learning. This is achieved through
General Management Training conducted to the DepEd Regional, Divisional and District
personnel and school managers utilizing appropriate learning systems. To obtain this
goal they conducted the Training Development Needs Analysis (TDNA) from the
respondents who are in management positions in regional, division, and district through
interview, site observations focused group discussion, forced field analysis and one-on-

one assessment The weaknesses in the initial findings were then analyze for proper

Secondly, the Materials Development was successfully established. In here, the

materials and resources that complement and support its various training and
development initiatives are established. It is done in Region XI, XII and the ARMM that
equips with the latest state-of-the-art technology. It was represented by the different
groups in the society to link and coordinate their potentials, skills and talents in the
realization of the project.

Thirdly, the Increasing Access was successfully established particularly in

Mindanao. They build classrooms, provides livelihood opportunities and trainings for
parents who serve as models to their children. These parents were granted with an
adult literacy training and livelihood program to keep their children in school by
empowering their families and communities. They also established center for
Indigenous People/s (IPs) education which is stipulated in the Education Act of 1982
and Education For All (EFA). This would result to increase support to strengthening the
Madaris system and its teachers. The aims are to identify and develop programs and
initiatives to increase the access to basic education and nonformal education of
indigenous people, Muslim groups and multicultural community. A madrasah had been
surveyed as bases in expanding support to Muslim Education.

Lastly, the Project Management, Monitoring and Evaluation. It aims to manage

by a range of personnel from the DepEd and AusAIDS managing contractor, Sinclair
Knight Merz (SKM). They implements the project’s initiatives, increases the monitoring
of project and outputs and evaluation of project outcomes and reports to stakeholder.
Transparency and accountability are the purposes in implementing this component to
make individual personnel systematically aware on their functions and responsibilities to
their people and community.

BEAM envisioned that those trained individual will then be the informed and
skilled catalyst and change agents in the achievement of the goals of the RA 9155

(Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001) and the universal Education For All (EFA)

The following must be given consideration so that the BEAM project would then
be fully realized:
1. The policy governance in the regional, division and district levels must aim to
promote quality and accessibility to basic education;
2. The curriculum must cater the needs and interests of the people in Southern
Mindanao. It must not be monopolized by the people in Luzon and Visayas.
Only some experts will be invited to participate for proper coordination and
linkages. The school must promote awareness for self-development of the
students. Not just only that the implementation of the college courses in
Arabic Language and Islamic Values in SUCs must start by next year;
3. The Professional Development of the Asatidz must be enhanced. More
training on teacher professionalization and graduate education must be
4. The Philippine government must continuously and fairly finance the Madaris
for maintenance purposes; and
5. The Accreditation and Equivalency must be studied and recognized in the
Madaris for quality management and learning.


The competencies of every teacher are very crucial in the teaching and learning
processes. It may lead to a healthy classroom environment or not but that depends on
the teacher, administrator and even school. To teach is to learn many things around us.
Teacher must bring with her the competencies that she needs to be an effective one.
The Department of Education (DepEd) came up with the National Competency-Based
Teachers Standards (NCBTS) as an instrument to fairly assess her/himself for

improvement. The seven (7) domains, twenty-three (23) strands, and eighty (80)
performance indicators make up the NCBTS competency standards of DepEd.

The Teacher Strengths and Needs Assessment (TSNA) is a tool in assessing

her/his Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSA’s) in consonant with the NCBTS. This
serve to improve the performance of the teacher and send for training if needed.

Most people received very little feedback about their current level of skill
competency. Most organizations provide some kind of semestral evaluation, such as
Performance Appraisal __ (PAST), but this evaluation is almost always infrequent and
narrow in scope, and it fails to assess performance in most critical skill area. To help a
person understands what skills to improve and why, therefore, an assessment activity
must be part of the model in school.

The DepEd conducted many programs to link the gap between learners and
teachers. The pre-service education teachers (PBET) and the in-service education
teachers (INSET) have been effective since its implementation. The DepEd even
collaborated with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Teacher Education
Institutions (TEIs), Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) and Civil Service
Commission (CSC) to strengthen its commitment to quality education. The Teacher
Education Development Program (TEDP) has been conceived as effective in promoting
teacher competencies. The Program that is implemented now is the National
Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS).

Mrs. Renee Vieve Vecina-Kanindot had mentioned in her report that the NCBTS
is a self-assessment instrument for development but not for evaluating the behavior
which is a hindrance in developing once profession. Assessment involves the evaluation
of teacher progress in her teaching profession in various stages of the teaching

She also stressed out a program that provides quality professional development
that is aligned with the needs of the clientele is the Teacher Strengths and Needs
Assessment (TSNA). This enables teacher to assess her performance that is useful for
training her weaknesses for better improvement. There is a need to ask these questions
for self-evaluation purposes: what ought to be? And what is? In other words, it is the
expected and the observed competencies. It is the teacher herself to answer as what
she perceived. The current competencies of teachers are compared to the NCBTS
standards for effective teaching. The objective of the TSNA is to identify the difference
between the expected and the current teacher’s competencies in terms of Knowledge,
Skills, and Attitudes (KSA’s) and other characteristics that actually define the domains,
strands, and competency indicators of the NCBTS. It will be useful also in reflecting on
their responses to this instrument and be able to find solutions to the needs, strengths,
and weaknesses in the KSA’s.
The set of competencies is incorporated in a Teacher Performance and
Development Framework (TPDF) that is based upon the core values of Filipino
teachers and on the principles of effective teaching and learning. The framework is
divided into seven (7) domains that represent the desired features of the teaching and
learning process. These domains incorporate a series of (23) strands of the desired
teaching performance statements, which identify observable (80) indicators of a quality
teacher’s performance. The seven domains are the following:

1. Social Regard for Learning

(SRFL) 1. Planning, Assessing Reporting
2. Learning Environment (LE) (PAR)
3. Diversity of Learners (DOL) 2. Community Linkages (CL)
4. Curriculum (Curr.) 3. Personal Growth & Professional
Development (PGPD)

What should the administrators or head teachers do with this? A better

understanding with the NCBTS-TSNA is very crucial in their daily activities so that they
would be able to pick or select whose teacher is performing well or not and a measure

would be undertaken. There would also be an expected output from this program in the
management of the school heads in terms of the individual, school and division levels.

In addition, most people find change rather uncomfortable and therefore avoid
taking the risk to develop new behavior patterns. An assessment activity in the learning
model helps encourage these people to change by illuminating their strengths and
weaknesses. People then know where weaknesses lie and what things need to be
improved to meet the goal of teaching-learning process. Assessment activities generally
take the form of self-evaluation instruments, case studies, or problems that help
highlight personal strengths and weaknesses in a particular skill area.

Why is there a need to assess each one of us? The target for this is simply to
assess current level of skill competence and knowledge; create readiness to change. To
effectively obtain this objective, the method below must be given consideration:
Skills Indicators
1. Assessment survey, role play
2. Learning written test
3. Analysis exposition to cases
4. Practice exercises, role plays, simulation,

5. Application assignments
Furthermore, the skills to be developed can be done in different ways in any
organization. An expectation would be realized such as learning, analysis, practice and
application skills if the assessment is properly implemented in each school. Start doing
what is supposedly be done now before it is too late.

To further achieve the effective skills and knowledge development, the following
are strongly recommended:

1. The teachers to be assessed must be informed the objective of the
assessment and how to do it.
2. A fair judgment must be practice to avoid biases.
3. The strengths and weaknesses must be the one to be assessed but not the
behavior of a person.

(Report from the PTFE)
Measures to Improve Quality Higher Education


Tertiary education is facing more challenges on how to improve quality education

as performed by the different top officials. Students from high school have different
abilities and interests which affect their academic or scholastic performance in their
college years. In this respect, officials of CHED, TESDA and DepEd came up with a
solution to the problems-perennial problems- such as quality education, mismatch of
courses with the local market needs. The issues were tackled and summarized into the
Issue Number 1: Reintegration of the three education agencies (CHED,
DepEd, and TESDA) for a more responsive, efficient and
effective system of education.
Issue Number 2: Amend the CHED Law to include Local Colleges and
Universities within its supervisional jurisdiction.
Issue Number 3: Increase Enforcement Powers/Limit Judicial Review of
education agencies.
Issue Number 4: Publish relevant information on performance indicators of
schools, colleges, polytechnic schools and universities.
Issue Number 5: Review Qualifications/Disqualifications for education agency
heads and other officials.
Issue Number 6: Adopt a Unified Management Information System or
Knowledge Management System for all public and private
education institutions.

The proposed reforms on an overhaul of our educational system in tertiary level
by the Presidential Task Force on Education (PTFE) on the reintegration of the three
education agencies (CHED, DepEd, and TESDA) for a more responsive, efficient and
effective system of education is a step to improve quality education that the educators
are wishing for in line with their coordination and linkages as they perform their own
functions and accountabilities. Since the basic education was not approved to have an
additional 2 years due to many reasons from the parents and national government,
particularly, the financial support, now an alternative solution to this problem -quality
education- is the coordination and linkages between the said 3 agencies. This objective
of minimizing or avoiding dropped out of students going to college is possible.
According to Valisno, the Presidential Adviser of PTFE, that there is no need to add a
mandatory grade 7 or 5th year high school to raise the quality of Filipino graduates as
showed in the PTFE’s review of the country’s education system. While Philippines is
one of a very few countries that has 10 years of basic education, the PTFE discovered
the deficiency was addressed by the longer professional degree programs of local
colleges and universities. The reintegration would be the answer.

The question for this reform is what would be the benefits of the students in this
reform? For me, there are many possible outputs: Firstly, the said students should be
well assesses who would undergo the “pre-specialization courses” for two years in
TESDA program and later would qualify to take either a three year or four for
professional degree courses such as Engineering and Architecture; or three years of
Accounting, Pharmacy, and Physical Therapy, or two years of Bachelor of Arts or
Bachelor of Science programs. Secondly, students should prepare themselves in taking
the course in holistic point of view.

What then is the primary objective of this reform? Accordingly, is to raise the
standard/benchmark of higher education especially in the first two years, making sure
that it is up to international standards like the US, Canada, Singapore and the others so
we can be sure that it is really international standard. The PTFE presidential adviser
would like to have an international recognition and accreditation of our graduates so that
we could guarantee to the world that the quality of higher education is of international

In second issue, the local colleges and universities must be under CHED’s
supervisional jurisdiction. The local government units must not interfere in the SUC’s
operation to educate citizens.

Another issue as explained by the reporter, ES Froilan M. Menez, is an increase

enforcement powers/limit judicial review of education agencies. This means that
education agencies must have their grant exemption from the court’s judicial review
power and must have their limit in the court of appeals. Educators are doing what they
know is best for the citizens to be well-productive individuals.

The next issue was to publish relevant information on performance indicators of

schools, colleges, polytechnic schools and universities. In the report of Mrs. Ivy, she
said that assessment is vital only if the school head tell the purpose so that everyone
will cooperate and accept it as part of their mirror of performance. When I surfed in the
internet, I found out that the CHED and PRC assessed the performance of the SUCs in
the Philippines and stated the Top 20. The indicator is the number of examinees
passed. There are still other indicators that the CHED and PRC must focus such as the
number of graduates and get the job in the market.

Many education agency heads and other officials are not qualified to lead and
manage the school. This is the 5th issue discussed in our class. Accordingly, a review on
the qualifications of these officials must be enforced as stipulated in the RA 7722 and
the career executive service rules. Our team shared that politicians must not be

recycled to head the schools. Credentials and other qualifications must show an
evidence of a well-qualified heads.

The last issue was about the adoption of a unified management information
system or knowledge management system for all public and private education
institutions for networking and collaboration purposes of the cross-stakeholders so that
information will be practiced regarding the performance of the learning environment.

During our discussion as presented by ES Menez, I still found the topic very
interesting as he discussed the CHED Framework and Directions 2008 onwards
because the challenges he did mentioned were all important in our present situation.
This dealt with the measurement to improve quality higher education in the Philippines.
When I have seen the figure, the education has its life cycle. It started from the family
who lets the child enter into the basic education and later to tertiary education. But
some pupils/students were dropping out in basic education. When they reach tertiary,
and luckily graduated, will later find job or not which then formed family of their own.

In this case, the higher education as a sector is undergoing significant changes

globally. Presently, there are many diverse types of institutions not only in terms of
quality, but also in terms of goals, organizational features and programs. Changes are
evidenced in terms of curriculum, assessment methods, programs, technological
information, etc. But they are challenging the basic education to revisit their student’s
knowledge and skills so that they would be able to take up professional degree courses
needed in the labor market.

Therefore, a necessity for educational reform has made popular the application
of business principles to managing and leading schools just what happen in our present
situation, particularly, in DepEd, where our Sec. Jesli Lapus came from a business
sector which found to be effective as leader and manager of the educational system in
the Philippines. According to Sec. Lapus in Educator, Magazine for Teachers, Special
Edition, as I quote “However, leading and managing schools is quite difficult since the
future depends on me”. This is quite true as Milagros Du Lagrosa, a Program Director

Education Management at the Asian Institute Management said once in the Philippine
Journal of Education Vol. 3, March Issue. In an article Making Universities Better,
Professor Roger S. Smith, Associate VP of the University of Alberta, recognized that
managing a university is one of the most challenging management jobs, but it must be
done well.

Therefore, in our wish to make the quality of the educational system in tertiary
level improve, the following are recommendations to educational leaders and managers:
1. A school must have strong collaboration among its stakeholders, who must give
their optimum contribution towards the improvement of our schools and our
2. Educational managers and leaders must conduct a consultation from top-bottom
or vice versa regarding the benefits and issues to be undertaken;
3. Local resources must be considered for further use and benefits of the teachers
and students before implementing the program;
4. A connection between parents-teachers must be encouraged to improve
management and better educational outcomes;
5. Re-evaluate assessment in basic education regarding the grading system,
system for assessing student learning, training teachers;
6. Curriculum, pedagogy and assessment need to be aligned with the more
complex basic knowledge.




With the notion that the teacher education, which consists of the pre-service
education of teachers (PET) and the In-service education of teachers (INSET), has
been unable to bridge the growing gap between the needs and expectations of learners,
and the knowledge and skill levels of both new and existing teachers, the Teacher
Education and Development Program (TEDP) was conceived. It has been initiated to
advocate a greater format partnership between the Commission on Higher education
(CHED), Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs), Philippine Regulatory Commission (PRC),
Department of Education (DepEd) and the Civil Service Commission (CSC) for the
improvement of both pre-service and in-service education.
This Department is committed to providing a quality system of public education. It
provides schools with teachers who are able to help students develop their abilities,
attitudes and skills for them to function effectively in an environment that is changing
rapidly in many different ways. It has commenced the implementation of a TEDP that
seeks to conceptualize a teacher’s career path as a continuum that starts with entry to a

teacher education program and concludes when a teacher reaches retirement from
formal service. The TEDP will address each stage of this continuum as an integrated
part that is linked closely to preceding and ensuing elements. One key element in the
Program is the establishment of a set on Competency–Based Standards for Teacher
Performance so that teachers, pupils and parents are able to appreciate the complex
set of behaviors, attitudes and skills that each teacher must possess, in order to carry
out a satisfactory performance of their roles and responsibilities.

The set of competencies is incorporated in a Teacher Performance and Development

Framework (TPDF) that is based upon the core values of Filipino teachers and on the principles of
effective teaching and learning. The framework is divided into seven (7) domains that represent the
desired features of the teaching and learning process. These domains incorporate a series of strands of the
desired teaching performance statements, which identify observable indicators of a quality teacher’s
The seven domains are the following:
1. Social Regard for Learning (SRFL) 1. Planning, Assessing Reporting (PAR)
2. Learning Environment (LE) 2. Community Linkages (CL)
3. Diversity of Learners (DOL) 3. Personal Growth & Professional
4. Curriculum (Curr.) Development (PGPD)

Each of these domains will be expanded below as part of a Set of Competency-based Teacher
Standards that will lead to a National Teacher Performance & Development Framework. This framework
will allow teachers to self-assess their own performance against the Competency Standards in order to
identify areas of strength as well as areas that need to be developed further in order for them to function
more effectively as facilitators of learning.
Statement of Principle
Teachers in all Philippines public schools are committed and accountable for
providing classroom instruction with results that are manifested in high
performance levels in terms of student learning outcomes. Teachers are dedicated
to the well-being of the students and communities they serve, taking into account
their cultural diversity, group aspirations and what is valued in education.
Domain 1. Social Regard for Learning (SRFL)
The SRFL domain focuses on the ideal that teachers serve as positive and powerful role models of the
value in the pursuit of different efforts to learn. The teacher’s action, statements, and different types of
social interactions with students exemplify this ideal.
Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators
Performance The teacher .. .

1.1 Teacher’s actions demonstrate value 1.1.1 implements school policies and procedures;
for learning. 1.1.2 demonstrates punctuality;
1.1.3 maintains appropriate appearance; and

1.1.4 is careful about the effect of one’s behavior on

Domain 2. Learning Environment (LE)

This domain focuses on importance of providing a social, psychological and physical environment within
which all students, regardless of their individual differences in learning, can engage in the different learning
activities and work towards attaining high standards of learning.
Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators
Performance The teacher .. .
2.1 The teacher creates an
environment that promotes 2.1.1 maintains a learning environment of courtesy and respect for
fairness. different learners’ abilities, culture, & gender;
2.1.2 provides gender-fair opportunities for learning; and
2.1.3 recognizes that every learner has strengths.

2.2 The teacher makes the

classroom environment safe 2.2.1 maintains a safe, clean and orderly classroom free from distractions;
and conducive to learning. and
2.2.2 arranges challenging activities given the physical environment.

2.3 The teacher communicates

higher learning expectations to 2.3.1 uses individual and cooperative learning activities to improve
each learner. capacities of learner’s for higher learning;
2.3.2 encourages learners to ask questions; and
2.3.3 provides learners with a variety of learning experiences.

2.4 The teacher establishes and

maintain consistent standards 2.3.4 handles behavior problems quickly and with due respect to children’s
of learners’ nights;
behavior. 2.3.5 gives timely feedback to reinforce appropriate to learners’ behavior;
2.3.6 guides individual learner requiring development of appropriate social
and learning behavior; and
2.3.7 communicates school policies and procedures for classroom behavior
and see to it that they are followed.

Domain 3. Diversity of Learners (DOL)

The DOL domain emphasizes the ideal that teachers can facilitate the learning process even with diverse
learners, by recognizing and respecting individual differences and by using knowledge about their
differences to design diverse sets of learning activities to ensure that all learners can attain the desired
learning goals.
Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators
Performance The teacher .. .

3.1 The teacher is familiar with 3.1.1 uses information on the learning styles and needs of the
learners’ background knowledge and learners to design and select learning experiences;
experiences. 3.1.2 establishes goals that define appropriate expectations for all
3.1.3 paces lessons appropriate to needs and/or abilities of learners;

3.1.4 provides differentiated activities for learners;
3.1.5 initiates other learning approaches for learners whose needs
have not been met by usual approaches; and
3.1.6 shows sensitivity to multi-cultural background of the learners.

Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators

Performance The teacher .. .
3.2 The teacher demonstrates 3.2.1 sets clear, challenging and achievable expectations on the holistic
concern for holistic development of development of all learners;
learners. 3.2.2 identifies learning gaps and takes action to enable learners to
catch up;
3.2.3 employs integrative and interactive strategies for meaningful
and holistic development of learners;
3.2.4 is sensitive to unusual behavior of learners and takes
appropriate action; and
3.2.5 provides opportunities to enhance learners growth in all

Domain 4. Curriculum (Curr.)

The curriculum domain refers to all elements of the teaching-learning process that work in convergence to
help students understand the curricular goals and objectives, and to attain high standards of learning
defined in the curriculum. These elements include the teacher’s knowledge of subject matter and the
learning process, teaching-learning approaches and activities, instructional materials and learning
Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators
Performance The Teacher . . .
4.1 The teacher demonstrates
mastery of the subject. 4.11 delivers accurate and updated content knowledge using
appropriate methodologies, approaches and strategies;
4.12 integrates language, literacy and quantitative skill development
and values in his/her subject area;
4.13 explains learning goal, instructional procedures and content
clearly and accurately to learners;
4.14 links the current content with past and future lessons;
4.15 aligns lesson objectives with the teaching methods, learning
activities and instructional materials or resources appropriate to
4.16 creates situations that encourage learners to use high order
thinking skills;
4.17 engages and sustains learners’ interest in the subject by making
content meaningful and relevant to them;
4.18 integrates relevant scholarly works and ideas to enrich the
lesson as needed; and
4.19 integrates content of subject area with other disciplines.

4.21 sets appropriate learning goals;

4.2 The teacher communications 4.22 makes the learners understand the learning goals; and
4.23 link the goals set with the expectations for every learner.
clear learning goals for the lessons
that are appropriate for learners.

4.3 The teacher makes good use of
allotted instructional time. 4.31 establishes routines and procedures to maximize instructional
time; and
4.32 plans lessons to fit within available instructional time.

Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Performance Indicators

The teacher .. .
4.4 The teacher selects teaching methods,
learning activities and instructional 4.41 translates learning competencies to instructional
materials or resources appropriate to objectives;
learners and aligned to objectives of 4.42 selects, prepares and utilizes instructional materials
the lesson. appropriate to the learners and to the learning objectives;
4.43 provides activities and uses materials which fit the
learners’ learning styles, goals and culture;
4.44 uses a variety of teaching approaches and techniques
appropriate to the subject matter and the learners; utilizes
information derived from assessment to improve teaching and
learning; and
4.45 provides activities and uses materials which involve
students in meaningful learning.

Domain 5. Planning, Assessing & Reporting (PAR)

This domain refers to the alignment of assessment and planning activities. In particular, the PAR focuses
on the (1) use of assessment data to plan and revise teaching-learning plans;
(2) integration of assessment procedures in the plan and implementation of teaching-learning activities,
and (3) reporting of the learners’ actual achievement and behavior.
Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators
Performance The Teacher . . .

5.1 The teacher communicates 5.11 conducts regular meetings with learners and parents to
promptly and clearly the learners’ report learners’ progress; and
progress to parents, superiors and to 5.12 involves parents in school activities that promote learning.
learners themselves.

5.2 The teacher develops and uses a 5.21 prepares formative and summative tests;
variety of appropriate assessment 5.22 employs non-traditional assessment techniques (portfolio,
strategies to monitor and evaluate authentic performance, journals, rubrics, etc.);
learning. 5.23 interprets and uses assessment results to improve teaching
and learning; and
5.24 identifies teaching-learning difficulties and their possible
causes to address gaps.

5.3 The teacher monitors regularly and 5.31 provides timely and accurate feedback to learners to
provides feedback on learners’ encourage them to reflect on and monitor their own learning
understanding of content. growth; and
keeps accurate records of grades with performance levels of

Domain 6. Community Linkages (CL)
The LC domain refers to the ideal that classroom activities are meaningfully linked to the
experiences and aspirations of the learners in their homes and communities. Thus, this domain
focuses on teachers’ efforts directed at strengthening the links between schools and communities
to help in the attainment of the curricular goals.
Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators
Performance The teacher . . .
6.1 The teacher establishes learning
environments that respond to the 6.11 involves community in sharing accountability for
aspirations of the community. the learners’ achievement;
6.12 use community human and materials resources to
support learning;
6.13 uses the community as a laboratory for learning;
6.14 participates in community activities that promote
learning; and
6.15 uses community networks to publicize school
events and achievements.

Domain 7. Personal Growth & Professional Development (PGPD)

The PGPD domain emphasizes the ideal that teachers value having a high personal regard for the
teaching profession, concern for professional development, and continuous improvement as
Strands of Desired Teaching Performance Indicators
Performance The teacher . . .
7.1 The teacher takes pride in the nobility of
teaching as a profession. maintains stature and behavior that upholds the dignity of
allocates time for personal and professional development
through :

(a) participation in educational seminars and workshops,

(b) enrolment in short-term courses and post graduate programs,
(c) reading educational materials regularly, and
(e) engaging in educational research.
7.13 manifests personal qualities such as enthusiasm, flexibility
and caring; and
7.14 articulates and demonstrates one’s personal philosophy of

7.2 The teacher builds professional 7.21 participates actively in professional teacher
link with colleagues to enrich organizations; and
teaching practice. 7.22 keeps abreast with recent developments in education.

.3 The teacher reflects on the extent of the

attainment of students’ learning goals 7.31 reflects on the quality of his/her own teaching;
7.32 receives favorable rating from students, peers and
7.33 accepts personal accountability for learners’
achievement; and
7.34 uses self-evaluation to recognize and correct