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End Products besides Heat

Nutrient Chemical Composition When Completely Used for Energy

. s-r^ IT . ,-, /-/^ f-, ,
COOH Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Alpha -^"" R, L R - n R2 Water (H2O)

Carbon »_^_.
N-Terminal Peptide Many Peptide Carboxyl Ammonia (NH,), which
Amino Bond Amino Bond Amino is converted to urea
Acid Acids Acid (H 2 N— CO — NH2)
in the liver and ex-
R = different chemical groups and thus different amino acids. creted by the kidney.

Carbohydrate HCO 2 Monosaccharides = 1 Disaccharide Carbon dioxide (CO2)

! e.g., glucose + glucose = maltose
(HCOH),., \- glucose -t- fructose = sucrose Water (H2O)
1 (table sugar)
H2COH glucose + galactose = lactose
(milk sugar).

et^ucosr^' I "y Mo^saccharides = Poly-
(dextrose), )*" saccharides, e.g., starch, glycogen,
fructose, and and fiber are many glucose molecules
glactose 1 connected by alpha bonds or, for fiber,
beta bonds.

Carbon dioxide (CO-,)

1 16-20
Water (H2O)
I 16-20
^ ^ ^ 16-20 ^

Glycerol 3 Fatty acids


Fig. 1-3. Energy-supplying nutrients: Chemical composition and end products of metabolism.30