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Rome Overview

Rome Overview

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Published by Victoria Monacelli

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Published by: Victoria Monacelli on Dec 10, 2009
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Ancient Rome

World History Mr. K

• Middle of the Mediterranean • Larger and more arable land than Greecemts north and south • River valleys- Po in the North, Tiber in middle of boot • Rome - inland accessible by boatdefensible,on “Seven Hills”

Origins of Rome
• Legend: Romulus and Remus raised by shewolf 733bce traced boundaries with plow • Later: Virgil’s Aeneus, hero of Troy, roams the Med looking for a home
• Reality: Etruscans • unsure of origin • used iron, bronze and silver • Rome and Latins under rule of king • beginning fear of kings, rebelled • invaded by Gaul 390 BCE

Steps to Unification
• Etruscans and Gauls squeezed out by Latins • 290- conquered central Italy then Samnites in South • 265 took over Greek city states • key- staying power of army, won over conquered people- become Roman citizens

Meanwhile, back in Rome, the importance of citizenship
• gradual struggle between the patrician and plebeian classes • 2 consuls and Senate made up of patricians • popular assemblies established with a representative tribune- veto power • 450 BCE 12 Tables Roman Law codified • Result- increase of privileges for plebes

The Punic Wars 264-146 BCE
• Major rival in Med- Phoenician Carthage • 3 Punic (another name for Carthage) Wars • Third- Rome wins for the final time
– Result= Rome now the POWER in the Mediterranean

8 Struggles Continue in the Republic
• Graft, corruption, struggle between patrician and plebeians • Gracchi Brothers Tiberias and Gaius • Marius consul 6 x • Sulla- general seized Rome in 82 BCE restored power to Senate
– set precedent

Republic’s Last Gasp
• First Triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus • Julius Caesar challenges the Senate crosses the Rubicon • 47 BCE virtual ruler, increased Senate to 900 • 44 BCE assassinated, Second Triumvirate
– Octavius, Marc Antony, Lepidus – Battle of Actium, O defeats MA in 31 BCE End of an Republic, beginning of EMPIRE

The Roman Empire
• Caesar Augustus- purpose “to restore the republic” • 27 BC Augustus become “First Citizen” Princeps • ended strife- beginning of Pax Romanae • tried to impact life- morality, building • sculpture- deified him, literature as well • Consolidation- of power/ Senate limited

The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire – 14 CE

The Roman World
• • • • Ever expandingPolitically - emperor/ dictatorship Extended Roman citizenship as they spread The Roman family- gradual less influence for fathers
– family strong unit- run like the state – women become more independent- socially and ownership – politically active as wives of emperors- Livia, wife of CA

The Roman World (cont)
• Golden Age- literature Horace, Virgil, Ovid and Livy • Religion- state religion, Roman gods reflected Greek
• emperor became “divine” connection to gods – tolerant of other religions Mithras, Persian god of light – Christianity-”And there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus” – persecutions not as many as thought- made stronger – sometimes combined with others- e.g. Celtic gods

Slavery in the Roman World
• • • • Important to building projects and way of life Conquests supplied slaves so came from all over Not related to ethnicity or skin color Rebellions like Sparticus 73BCE occurred- Crassius
– put down, crucified slaves and held a 10 day party for Rome – Slaves gradually won freedom and numbers decreased

The Roman Builders- All over the Empire
• Amazing accomplishments- Roads that still last • Aqueducts- bringing water to every important city • Temples for the gods- copied Greek stylemassive • Forum- public area of the city- center- oration etc. • Theaters- for entertainment- drama • Coliseums- more fun, fights, gladiators, animals • Baths- public places- series of rooms dif temps

Imperial Roman Road System

The Roman Emperors- the Good, Bad and Ugly
• Good- Marcus Aurelius-phil “citizen of the world” • Calm and unified- Trajan, Hadrian, walls and rebels • Bad- Caligula- named horse “consul”, Commodus, fought gladiators with blunted weapons, Nero, mass murder- inc his mother, pregnant wife, brother • Many later emperors were generals- most powerful could become emperor

The Roman legacy- writing and the law
• alphabet- should look familiar to us
• Romans wrote down everything- very literate, passed on to use use every day, alma mater, alter ego, per capita, vice versa, a.m/, p.m., RIP ,list goes on ad infinitum • some consider the statutes and case law most important legacy- took idea that a written law can protect one person from another- put it into practice- Because it’s the laws means something to us- not necessarily in other cultures. • tried to appeal to people through argument- idea of people deciding • magistrates important in Rome- e.g. of Apostle Paul

The Roman Provinces- still impacted
• Gaul- France today- many roads, aqueducts, theaters • The Rhine- no border- Trier and Wiesbaden • Britain- difficult place, Bath and Hadrian’s wall • Palestine- Masada- rebellion and magnificent cities like Baalbek • Africa- riches of Egypt and the granary of the Empire

Christianity and Rome
• Helped Christianity spread- communication • Appeal- unrest, questioning of polytheism
– explained spiritual aspects, Christ’s teachings – emphasis of eternal life – community exclusive (mystery religion)

• Persecution- under Nero, blamed for fire
– mostly tolerant, Christians refused to worship state

• Effect- spread slowly- letters formed NT
– officially tolerated 313 Edict of Milan

The Rise of Christianity

The Spread of Christianity

Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two: 294 CE

The Empire in Crisis: 3c

Why a Roman “Fall”
• Instability caused by no real plan of succession • Trouble on the borders • Morally bankrupt? • Division of Empire- Diocletian • Later Constantine- new capitolConstantinople-

The Barbarians at the Gates
• Pressure from Germanic tribes looking for safety • Huns pressured the Visogoths-410- ran into the empire • Vandals- 455- sacked Rome • Series of invasions- physical damage, but also intellectual
– established German kingdoms in Westilliterate,look at art

• The East survives- becomes Byzantium- keeps the learning from the ancient world

Barbarian Invasions: 4c-5c

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