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CONTROL SYSTEMS - LAB OBSERVATION

NAME :
R.NO :
COURSE :

Name: Roll. No:
LAB OBSERVATION
CONTROL SYSTEMS LAB
List of experiments to be done by
III year B.Tech EEE I Semester, R-10 Regulation (Academic year 2013-14)
List of Experiments as per JNTU KAKINADA curriculum:
S.No Name of the Experiment
1 Time Response of Second Order System & Verification using MATLAB
2 Characteristics of Synchros
3
Programmable logic controller Study and verification of truth tables of logic gates,
simple Boolean expressions and application of speed control of motor.
4 Effect of feedback on DC servo motor.
5 Effect of P, PD, PI, PID Controller on a second order systems.
6 Lag and lead compensation Magnitude and phase plot.
7 Transfer function of DC Motor.
8. Temperature controller using PID.
9 Characteristics of magnetic amplifiers
10 Characteristics of AC servo motor

Additional Experiments:
S.No Name of the Experiment
11 Verification of Frequency domain specifications of the system using MATLAB
12 Time Response of the Electrical System using MATLAB

1-378, ADB Road, Surampalem 533 437, Near Peddapuram, E.G.Dist., A.P.
Ph: (08852) 252233, 252234, 252235 Fax: (08852) 252232
,
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
INDEX
S.No Experiment Name Date Page No. Marks Sign








































1-378, ADB Road, Surampalem 533 437, Near Peddapuram, E.G.Dist., A.P.
Ph: (08852) 252233, 252234, 252235 Fax: (08852) 252232
,
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
S.No Experiment Name Date Page No. Marks Sign



































Average:

Faculty Incharge HOD-EEE
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TIME RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM & VERIFICATION USING
MATLAB

AIM: To obtain the time domain specifications of a RLC series circuit (Second order system)
and also to verify the time domain specifications using MATLAB.

APPARATUS: 1. CRO
2. Second Order unit
3. CRO Probe
4. Multimeter
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:








Fig (a) RLC Series Circuit

THEORY:
The transfer function of a second order control system is in the form given below
2
n
2
2
s
2
n

T(s)

s
n



The transient response for a step input exhibits damped oscillation before reaching steady
state. The following are the transient response specifications.

1. Delay Time: It is the time taken by the response to reach 50%of its final value.
2. Rise time: It is the time taken by the response to rise from 0 to 100 %( for undamped
system for 10 to 90% for over damped system) of final value.
3. Peak time: The time required to reach peak of first over shoot.
4. Maximum over shoot: The normalized difference between first peak and steady state
value.
5. Settling time: The time required for the response to lie with in a tolerable band.

THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS:







Date:
Exp. No.
Step Input
5V
R=1.5K
L = 2H
C=0.32F
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
























For second order system the closed loop transfer function is given by
The response of the system is given by
)]

2
1
(
1
tan t
2
1
n
Sin[
2
1
t
n
-
e
- 1 C(t)


Delay time
2
1
n

0.7 1
t
d


Rise time
2
1
n

2
1
(
1 -
tan -

r
t



Peak Time
2
1
n



p
t

t

Time constant =
n

1

Settling time: For 2% tolerance band
n

4
s
t
For 5% tolerance band
n

3
s
t
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
MATLAB PROGRAM:

>>num=[0 0 1562500];
>>den=[1 750 1562500];
>>step(num,den)


PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the supply and apply the 5V step input from the potentiometer by using
multimeter.
3. Observe the output response on CRO screen.
4. Measure the delay time, rise time, maximum overshoot, settling time and peak time.
5. Tabulate the results and compare with the theoretical values.
6. The time domain specifications can also be determined by using MATLAB.
7. To open the MATLAB, Click on MATLAB icon .
8. Enter the commands to obtain the time response of RLC circuit when subjected to step
input.
9. Measure the delay time, rise time, maximum overshoot, settling time and peak time from
the graph.
10. Tabulate the results and compare with the theoretical values.


TABULAR FORM:


























Time Domain
Specifications

Theoretical Values Practical Values Using MATLAB

Delay time


Rise Time


Peak time


Settling time


Peak over shoot



Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
MODEL GRAPHS:



P
M

1.0

0.5



t
d
t
r


t
p


t
s




RESULT:








QUIZ :

1. What is the closed loop transfer function of a second order system?
2. What is the characteristic equation of a second Order system?
3. Write down the expression for Damped Frequency?
4. What is damping ratio?
5. What is the response of II order system for step input under different damping cases?
C(t)
Time (sec)
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:

CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNCHROS

AIM: To study the performance of a synchro pair and to obtain its characteristics.

APPARATUS: 1.Synchro transmitter and receiver kit.
2. Patch cords
3. Multimeter.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

1. a) STUDY OF SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER:
















,
THEORY:
A synchro is an electromagnetic transducer, which is used to convert an angular
position of a shaft into an electrical signal. Its construction is similar to that of a three-
phase alternator. The stator is of laminated silicon steel and is slotted for accommodating
a balanced three phase winding, which is concentric coil type and is star connected. The
rotor is of dumb-bell construction and is wound with a concentric coil.

When ever an ac voltage is applied to the rotor of transmitter, by transformer action,
emfs are induced in the stator coils. These emfs are function of rotor angular positions.
The output of transmitter is applied to the stator winding of receiver called Control
transformer. Again by transformer action an error voltage will be induced in rotor
winding and it is a proportional to cosine of the angular displacement of shaft.
e(t)=K
1
V sin
c
tcos
V
S1
=KV
r
sin
r
t cos(+120)
V
S2
=K V
r
sin
c
t cos
V
S3
=KV
r
sin
c
tcos(+240)
Date:
Exp. No.
S
1

S
2
S
3

Ph
AC Line
N
Stator winding of
Transmitter
Rotor winding of
Transmitter
V
S1S2
V
S3S1
V
S2S3
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
1. b) STUDY OF SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER PAIR:


















Synchro is essentially a transformer, in which the coupling between the windings may
be varied by rotating one winding. The fixed winding is wound in the iron slots of the
laminated iron stack called stator, while the rotating winding is wound on a laminated iron
stack, mounted on a shaft, forming the rotor. A Synchro transmitter consists of a single phase
rotor magnetically coupled to a 3-phase Y-connected stator. When an ac voltage is applied to
the rotor, voltages are induced in each of the stator phases.
These induced voltages vary directly, as the sine of the angle between the actual rotor
position and a zero reference position. When the three stator leads of the transmitter A are
connected to the Y-connected stator of a second synchro B, these voltages produce a
resultant stator field in the second synchro, having the same angular orientation with respect
to its zero reference as the transmitter rotor. When the second synchro, B has its single
phase rotor winding connected to the same power supply that energizes the transmitter rotor,
the rotor aligns itself to the same angle as the transmitter rotor. The synchro, B is called a
receiver. The transmitter and receiver are generally identical in construction.
When the rotor of transmitter is rotated through an angle , the rotor of control
transformer is rotated through an angle .The net angular displacement =90-(+).

e(t)=K
1
Vsin(- )sin
c
t

Thus the synchro pair acts as an error detector.





Ph
AC Line
N
Stator winding of
Transmitter
Stator winding of
Receiver
Rotor winding of
Transmitter
Rotor winding of
Receiver
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
1
1
S
2
1
S
3
1
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROCEDURE:

SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER:
1. Connect the mains supply to the system with the help of cable provided. Do not
interconnect S1, S2, and S3 terminals to the S1, S2, and S3.
2. Switch on the mains supply for the unit and transmitter rotor supply.
3. Starting from Zero position, note down the voltage between stator winding terminals
i.e. V
S1S2
, V
S2S3
, V
S3S1
in a sequential manner. Enter the readings in tabular forms and
plot the graph of angular position Vs rotor voltages for all three phases.
4. Note that zero position of the stator rotor coincide with V
S3S1
voltage equal to zero
voltage. Do not disturb this condition.

STUDY OF SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER PAIR:
1. Connect the mains supply to the cable.
2. Connect S1, S2, and S3 terminals of transmitter to the S1, S2, and S3 of receiver by
patch cords provided respectively
3. Switch on the Rotor supply of both transmitter and receiver and also switch on the
mains supply.
4. Move the pointer i.e. rotor position of synchro transmitter insteps of 30
0
and observe
the new rotor position. Observe that whenever transmitter rotor is rotated, the
Receiver rotor follows it for both the directions and their positions are in good agreement.
5. Enter the input angular position and output angular position in the tabular form and plot
a graph.

TABULAR FORMS:

SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER:
S. No Rotor Position ()
Stator terminal voltages
V
S1
V
S2
V
S2
V
S3
V
S3
V
S1

1 0
o

2 30
o

3 60
o

4 90
o

5 120
o

6 150
o

7 180
o

8 210
o

9 240
o

10 270
o

11 300
o

12 330
o

Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
SYNCHRO TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER PAIR:




























MODEL GRAPHS:













S.NO


TRANSMITTER
ANGULAR POSITION

RECEIVER
ANGULAR POSITION




















V
S

V
S1S3

V
S2S3
V
S1S2

Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:










RESULT:








QUIZ QUESTIONS:

1. What is synchro?
2. What is the principle of synchro?
3. What is a synchro pair?
4. What are the trade names of synchros?
5. What are the applications of synchro?

2

Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
X
0
X
1
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER

AIM: To study and verify the truth tables of logic gates using Programmable logic controller kit.

APPARATUS: 1. Programmable logic controller kit.
2. Patch Cords

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: LOGIC GATES

AND GATE:










OR GATE:










NAND GATE:


















X
0
X
1
Y
0

X
0
X
1
Y
0

X
0
X
1
Y
0

Date:
Exp. No.

Y0
END
X
1
END

Y
0

X
0
X
1
END
Y
0
X
0
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
X
0
DC MOTOR CONTROL:










DC MOTOR CONTROL USING TIMER:






































M
1
X
2
M
0
T
0
M
1
X
2
M
0
TMR T0 K100

M0
SET M1
TMR T1 K100
RST M1

Y0
X
0 X
1
M
0
T
1
M
1
X
0
M
0
X
2
X
1

Y0
END
END
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
THEORY:
Programmable logic controller simply PLC is electronic equipment the reads
external input signal such as the status of keypad, Sensor switch, and pulse. Then using a
Microprocessor it executes the calculations of logic, sequence timer, Counter and formulae
according to the status and the value of the Input signal and program saved inner to get the
corresponding output Signal, such as open or close of relay operation of controller machine
or procedure to control automatic machine or procedure of manufacture. PLC can also be
used to maintain and adjust of production program by editing or modifying panel. The
common program language of PLC is Ladder diagram. There are stronger functions in PLC
with the development application requirements of electronic technology such as Position
Control network etc.

LADDER DIAGRAM:
At first it just has basic components such as A contact (normally open), B
contact (normally closed) output coil, timer counter and etc. It has more functions.
Differential contact, latched coil and the application commands add, minus, multiply, and
divide calculations that its additional power panel cant make since PLC developed.

PROCEDURE:
1. Open WPL provided on the desktop.
2. Double click on the Document. It opens a window.
3. Design AND, OR, NOT gates.
4. Connect programmable logic controller kit to the CPU.
5. Save it, compile it and verify the outputs.
6. And design DC motor control with and without timer and verify the outputs.



RESULT:








QUIZ:

1. What is a PLC?

2. What is meant by ZRST?

3. What are the applications of PLC?

4. What is the advantage of PLC?

5. What is the output equation of EX-NOR gate?

Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
EFFECT OF FEEDBACK ON DC SERVOMOTOR

AIM: To study the performance of effect of feedback on dc servomotor.

APPARATUS: 1.DC servo motor kit
2. Patch cords
3. Weights.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

1. a) Proportional feedback Controller











b) Proportional plus Integral feedback Controller












c) Proportional plus Derivative feedback Controller










Date:
Exp. No.
Set Speed

i
AA
A
Speed Sensor
FF
F
I
f
constant


Amplifier

V
a
P Controller
Set Speed

i
AA
A
Speed Sensor
FF
F
I
f
constant


Amplifier

V
a
PI Controller
Set Speed

i
AA
A
Speed Sensor
FF
F
I
f
constant


Amplifier

V
a
PD Controller
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
THEORY:
The motors that are used in servo systems are called as DC Servomotors. In these
motors the rotors inertia is made small in order to get good torque to weight ratio. DC
servomotors with relatively smaller power rating is used in instruments and disc drives tape
drives printers and word processors. Large rated dc servomotors are used in robot systems
and numerically operated milling machine. The DC servomotors are either field controlled
or armature controlled. The time constant of field controlled DC servomotors are large
when compared to armature controlled dc servomotors. Also the maintenance of constant
armature current is difficult so armature controlled dc servomotors are preferred.

The objective of the system is control the position of Mechanical Load in accordance
with the reference position .A pair of Potentiometers act as error detecting device. They
convert the input and output Positions into proportional electrical signals. The difference
between the input and output Angular positions is the error signal given by e= r - c.

The potential difference
v c r
e e e is the error voltage and is amplified by the error
amplifier. Then this voltage is applied to the armature of the circuit of dc motor. A fixed dc
voltage is applied to the field Winding. If an Error exists then the motor rotates and develops
a torque in such a way that the error is reduced to zero.

Now the transfer function in the feed forward path of the system is

3 2 0 0
2 1
0
) )( [( ) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
K K b s J R s L s
n K K K
s E
s E
s E
s
s
s C
s G
a a
v
v



La is usually small and can be neglected.


s
Ra
K K
b s J
R
n
K K K
K K b s J R s
n K K K
s G
a
a
) (
] ) ( [
) (
3 2
0
2
0
2 1 0
3 2 0 0
2 1 0



If
0
J and
a
R
K K
b
3 2
0
are multiplied by
2
n , they are expressed in terms of Output shaft.
Then
2
0
n
J
J , B=
2 3 2
0
/ ] [b n
R
k K
a
n R K K K K
a
/
2 1 0


) 1 (
) (
2

s T s
K
Bs Js
K
s G
m
m
Where
B
K
K
m
,
B
J
T
m


PID CONTROLLER

The PID trainer is to study the characteristics of the feedback control system. The
speed of the DC motor is controlled by the PID (proportional, Integral and Derivative)
controller method. The output of the controller then adjusts the value of each variable in the
control system until it is equal to predetermined value called a set point. The system
controller must maintain each variable as close as possible to its set point value and it must
compensate as quickly and accurately as possible for any change in the variable caused by
the motor.




Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROPORTIONAL FEEDBACK (P GAIN):
Amplifier produces simple DC feedback proportional to the difference between the
set point and the potential divider output. This is exactly the effect as the voltage divider
output. This is proportional feedback. It will correct for most of the effect of the increased
load, but, there will always some residual error.

INTEGRAL FEEDBACK (I GAIN):

The cure for residual error is to use some integral feedback. Amplifier in the above
figure provides this type of feedback. This circuit produces a ramp on its output whenever a
voltage is applied to its input. For example here the integral will ramp up or down as there
is any error signal present on its input. By ramping up and down just tiny bit about the set
point, the integrator can eliminate most of the residual error. Too much integral feedback,
however, will cause the output to oscillate up and down. Also, feedback slowly affects the
output because the error signal must be present for some time before the integral has much
output.

DERIVATIVE FEEDBACK (D GAIN):

To improve the response time of the system, the above figure supplies a third type of
feedback called derivative feedback. Derivative feedback is a signal proportional to the rate
of change of error signal. If the load is on the system is suddenly changed. The derivative
amplifier circuit will give quick shot of feed back to try to correct the error. When the error
signal is first applied to the differentiator circuit, the capacitor in series with input is not
charged, so it acts like a short circuit. This initially lets a large current flow, so the amplifier
has suitable output. As the capacitor charged the current decreases, so the feedback from
differentiator decreases. The differentiator essentially gives the amplifier a quick pulse of
feedback can cause the system to help correct for the increased load. Too much derivative
feedback can cause the system to overshoot and oscillate.

The point here is that by using a combination of some or all of these types feedback, a
given feedback controlled system can adjusted from optimum response to change in load or
set point. Process control loop that use all three types of feedback are called proportional
integral derivative or PID control loops. Amplifier #5 is summing amplifier adds all the
three controllers.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the speed sensor to the socket provided.
2. Connect the motor to the corresponding terminals.

Without FEEDBACK
3. Set the load to 250 grams on the loading arrangement.
4. Vary the speed in steps of 50rpm by using SET RPM knob.
5. Observe the speed of the motor (RUN RPM) and take the readings.
WITH FEEDBACK:
6. Switch ON P controller. Set suitable gain (say maximum).
7. Repeat 3 to 5 steps (for P controller)
8. Now switch ON P & I controllers. Set suitable gain (say maximum).
9. Repeat step 3 to 5. (for PI controller)
10. Now switch ON P, I & D controllers. Set suitable gain (say maximum).
11. Repeat step 3 to 5. (for PID controller).
12. Calculate the error and draw the graph for
1
/
2
for different controllers.
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TABULAR FORMS:

Without feedback: With P-controller Feedback


S. NO

1

2


2 1




S.NO

1

2


2 1


















































With PI-controller feedback With PID- controller Feedback


S. NO

1

2


2 1




S.NO

1

2


2 1


















































Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:

MODEL GRAPH:



2













1



RESULT:






QUIZ:

1. What are the applications of D.C servomotor?

2. What is meant by feed back?

3. What is meant by positive and negative feedback?

4. What is meant by degenerative feed back?

5. What is meant by regenerative feed back?
Without feedback
With PID feedback
With PI feedback


k
With P feedback
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
EFFECT OF P, PI, PID CONTROLLERS OF A
SECOND ORDER SYSTEM

AIM: To study the effect of P, PI, PID controller of a second order system.

APPARATUS: 1. PID Controller Kit
2. Multimeter
3. CRO
4. CRO probe

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:








.


















THEORY:
P Controller:
In proportional control, the output is proportional to the actuating error signal
i.e., u(t)=K
p
e(t).Usually a proportional controller is an amplifier with adjustable gain.








TRIANGLE
DISPLAY

P



I



D
Integrator
Time
constant
Second
order system
ystem

First order
System
+
LEVEL
FREQUENCY
AMPLITUDE
SQUARE
DC
V
i
V
e
V
f
V
o
Date:
Exp. No.
U(s)
K
p
G(s)
R(s) E(s) C(s)
B(s)
H(s)
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PD Controller:
In derivative control the o/p is proportional to the rate of change of actuating
error signal. It produces a significant correction before the magnitude of the actuating error
signal becomes too large, thus tends to increase the stability of the system.
U(t)=e(t)+K
d
e(t)
dt
d
. The actuating signal for derivative control action consists of
proportional error signal added with derivative of error signal.










G(s) =
(

+ ) 2 s(s

n
2
n
e
, H(s) = 1

2
n d
2
n n
2
2
n d
n
2
n
d
n
2
n
d
)s T (2 s
] sT [1
) 2 s(s

] sT [1 1
) 2 s(s

] sT [1
R(s)
C(s)
+ + +
+
=
(

+
+ +
(

+
+
=
e
e
e

the characteristic equation for the system is,
0 )s T (2 s
2
n d
2
n n
2
= + + + e
In this condition maximum overshoot is reduced.

PI Controller:

In integral control the output is proportional to the integral of actuating error
signal i.e., u(t)=e(t)+K
i
e(t). In this control the output varies at rate proportional to the error
signal. If e(t) is doubled then u(t) varies twice as fast. For zero disturbance e(t) =0, the output
remains stationary.










U(s)
1

G(s)
R(s) E(s) C(s)
B(s)
H(s)
s K
d

U(s)
1

G(s)
R(s) E(s) C(s)
B(s)
H(s)
K
i
/s
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
The actuating signal consists of proportional error signal added with integral of
the error signal for integral control action. Actuating signal is given by,


s
E(s)
K E(s) U(s)
e(t)dt K e(t) u(t)
i
i
+ =
+ =
}


2
n i
2
n
2
n
3
2
n i
n
2
n i
n
2
n i
K s s 2 s
] K [s
) 2 s(s

s
K
1 1
) 2 s(s

s
K
1
R(s)
C(s)
+ + +
+
=
(
(

+
(

+ +
(
(

+
(

+
=


The characteristic equation of a system with integral control is,

0 K s s 2 s
2
n i
2
n
2
n
3
= + + +
The steady state error is reduced. A proportional plus integral controller incorporates both
proportional and integral controls. In PI control, steady state error is eliminated but the
system order is increased by making it more susceptible to instability. It also introduces a
zero into the forward path so that peak overshoot to step input cannot be easily determined.

PID Controller:
In PID control incorporates proportional, integral and derivative control actions.

e(t)
dt
d
K e(t)dt K e(t) K u(t)
d
t
0
p
+ + =
}
i










the transfer function is,

) sK
s
K
(1 K
E(s)
U(s)
d
i
p
+ + =







U(s)
1

G(s)
R(s) E(s) C(s)
B(s)
H(s)
K
i
/s
s K
d

Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit to P controller with some gain as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply 5 V DC input to the system.
3. Observe the output voltage, feedback voltage and error voltage using multimeter.
4. Tabulate the readings by varying the gain of the P controller.
5. Repeat the same steps by connecting the PD, PI and PID controllers.
6. Tabulate the readings by varying the gain of the PD, PI and PID controller.
7. Connect the circuit to PID controller with some gain value by giving a square wave
input.
8. Connect PID controller in time constant block.
9. By giving supply and adjust amplitude of the signal to some value.
10. Connect CRO in X-Y mode. Connect X-input to triangle waveform and Y-input to
feed back input w.r.t. ground.
11. Observe the waveform in CRO and tabulate the rise time, peak time, settling time,
delay time, peak overshoot.
12. For different gains of PID controller calculate rise time, peak time, settling time,
delay time, peak overshoot.

TABULAR FORMS:

P Controller:

PD Controller:

S. No. Gain Vi (V) Vf (V) Ve (V) Vo (V)











S. No.
Gain
Vi (V) Vf (V) Ve (V) Vo (V)
P D












Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PI Controller:



PID Controller:


PID Controller:


S. No.
Gain
Vi (V) Vf (V) Ve (V) Vo (V)
P I












S. No.
Gain
Vi (V) Vf (V) Ve (V) Vo (V)
P I D












S. No.
Gain
X Y
100 * Mp
X
X Y
=

P I D












Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
CALCULATIONS:

Delay time
2
n
d
1
7 . 0 1
t

+
=


Rise time,
2
n
2
1
r
1

1
tan
t

[
=



Peak time,
2
n
p
1
t

[
=

Time Constant,
n

1
= t

Settling time For 2% tolerance band,
n
s

4
t =

For 5% tolerance band,
n
s

3
t =


























Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:


















































Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
RESULT:












QUIZ:

1. What is the drawback in P-controller?
2. What is integral control action?
3. What is the transfer function of P, PI, PD, and PID controllers?
4. What is the advantage and disadvantage of integral controller?
5. Which controllers are used to improve the Transient Response?

S.
No.
Gain
Mp
T
d
T
r
T
p

T
s
P I D 2% 5%












Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
STUDY OF LEAD AND LAG COMPENSATION NETWORKS

AIM: To study the lead and lag compensation network and to obtain the magnitude and
phase plot of each.

APPARATUS:
1. Function generator
2. Phase angle meter
3. AC voltmeter
4. Component expo board
5. Multimeter
6. Lead and Lag Network boards.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Lead Compensator: Lag Compensator:












THEORY:

Every control system is designed for a specific application has to meet certain
performance specification setting the gain is the first step in adjusting the system for
satisfactory performance. In many practical cases, however the adjustment of the gain alone
may not provide sufficient alteration of the system behavior to meet the given performance.
As is the frequently the case, increasing the gain value will improve the steady state behavior
but result in poor stability or instability. It is then necessary to redesign the system in order to
alter the overall behavior so that the system will behave as desired.
As additional device is inserted in the system for such purpose is called a
COMPENSATOR. This device compensates for deficient performance of the original system.
If the components G(s) is placed in series with the unaltered transfer function G(s). Then the
compensation is called series compensation. If the compensator is placed in feedback
compensation. In general series compensation may be simple than feedback compensation.
However the series compensation frequently requires additional amplifier to increase the gain
or provide isolation. Numerous physical devices are used as compensators. Among the many
compensators the widely used series compensators are the so called lead compensators, lag
compensators, and lead lag compensators. This system is designed to make a detailed study
of these types of compensators. They are usually electrical and consist of R-C networks and
amplifiers. We shall study compensating networks in the form of electrical R-C networks.
This proposed study of compensators will be done in the following fashion.
Simple phase lead and phase lag networks.
V
i
C = 0.2F
R1= 10K
R2= 10K
V
0

V
i

C = 0.2F
R1= 10K
R2= 10K
V
0

Date:
Exp. No.
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
CALCULATIONS:

















































Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:


















































Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROCEDURE:
LEAD COMPENSATOR:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. We must provide small Lead compensator PCBs provided to you in the 22-pin edge
connector mounted on the expo board. We must ensure that the component side of the
active filter is facing you.
3. Switch on the supply and adjust the excitation voltage 3V rms in the AC voltmeter by
applying the sinusoidal input.
4. Check the calibration of the phase angle meter, by keeping sw2 in calibration position
and adjust it to 180
0
indication.
5. Keep sw3 in lead position. Now change the oscillator frequency in the range of 20 to
1000HZ and get the reading of phase angle.
6. Tabulate the results.
7. Plot the graphs between (i) |M (j)| vs.
(ii) () vs.
LAG COMPENSATOR:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. We must plug small Lag compensator PCBs provided to you in the 22-pin edge
connector mounted on the expo board. We must ensure that the component side of the
active filter is facing you.
3. Switch on the supply and adjust the excitation voltage 3V rms in the voltmeter by
applying the sinusoidal input.
4. Check the calibration of phase angle meter, by keeping sw2 in calibration position and
adjust it to 180
0
indication.
5. Keep sw3 in lag position. Now change the oscillator frequency in the range of 20 to
1000HZ and get the reading of phase angle.
6. Tabulate the results.
7. Plot the graphs between (i) |M(j)| vs.
(ii) () vs.
TABULAR FORMS:
Lead Compensator:
S.No Frequency(Hz)

(rad/sec)
V
i
(v) V
0
(v)
()
Theoritical Practical

















Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
Lag Compensator:

S.No Frequency(Hz) V
i
(v) V
0
(v)
()
Theoritical Practical


















MODEL GRAPHS:
Lead Compensator:
















Slope = 20dB/dec
M(j)
(j)
Slope = 0dB/dec
Slope = 0dB/dec
Slope = 20dB/dec
Slope = -20dB/dec
0.1

1

10

100

1000

c1

c2

m

Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
Lag Compensator:















RESULT:




QUIZ:
1. What is meant by Compensator?
2. Correlate between the controllers and compensator?
3. What is the difference between lead and lag compensator?
4. What is the dominating root of lead compensator?
5. What are the applications of lead and lag compensators?



Slope = 20dB/dec
M(j)
(j)
Slope = 0dB/dec
Slope = 0dB/dec
Slope = -20dB/dec
Slope = -20dB/dec
0.1

1

10

100

1000

c1

c2

m
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TRANSFER FUNCTION OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

AIM: To obtain the transfer function of dc shunt motor experimentally.

APPARATUS:

S. No. Name of the Equipment Range Type Quantity
1. Ammeter 0-10A MC 1 No.
2. Ammeter 0-1A MC 1 No.
3. Voltmeter 0-300V MC 1 No.
4. Rheostat 300/1.5A Wirewound 1 No.
5. Voltmeter 0-300V MI 1 No.
6. Ammeter 0-1A MI 1 No.
7. DC Motor 220V, 12A, 3HP Shunt 1 No.
8. Tachometer 0-3000rpm Digital 1 No.
9. Single Phase Dimmerstat 0-230V/270V 1 No.


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:


To find K
t
:






















Date:
Exp. No.
Fuse
AA
300 /1.5A
S1 S2

3 Point Starter
F
A L
-
(0-300V)MC
-
+
-
+
(0-1A)
MC
ZZ
Z
A
M

-
+
DPST
Switch
220V
DC
Supply
A
V
A
+
(0-10A) MC
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
To find K
b
:



















To find R
a
:















To find L
a
:













(0-30V)MC
-
+
-
A
M

-
+
DPST
Switch
30V
DC
Supply
A
V
+
(0-1A) MC
AA
300/1.5A
Fuse
(0-30V)MI
A
M

N
Ph
230V,
50Hz,
1 AC
Supply
A
V
(0-1A) MI
AA
300/1.5A
1 Variac, 0-230/270V
-
+
-
+
(0-150V)MC
(0-10A)MC
300 /1.5A
300 /1.5A
Fuse
3 Point Starter
ZZ
Z
F A L
A
AA
M

-
+
DPST
Switch
220V
DC
Supply
A
V
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
THEORY:

The transfer function of a system is simply the ratio of lap lace transform of
input variables. Any physical system can be modeled mathematically using D.E s by solving
these Des the TF is obtained. First let us model the DC motor which is armature controlled.
The field current is kept constant.
Now
A
ZNP
E
b
60


N K e
b b
Where
A
ZP
K
b
60

is called back emf constant


And
dt
d
N

there fore
dt
d
k e
b b

-----I
Applying KVL to the armature ckt, we get


b
a
a a a
e
dt
di
L R i e

dt
di
L R i e e
a
a a a b a
---------------------II

Torque, ] tan [ t iscons as I K I K
a
T
a


Also
dt
d
B
dt
d
J


2
2
----------------------III

Where J=Moment of Inertia of the motor
B=viscous friction
Taking Lap lace transform to Equations I, II, III we get

) ( ) ( s s K s E
b b


) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( s
b
E s
a
E s
a
I
a
R s
a
L
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
s I K s T s Bs Js
a

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( S K s E s I R sL
b a a a a



a a
b a
a
R sL
s E s E
s I

) ( ) (
) (

s L R
s K s E K
s Bs Js s
a a
b a T


) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2




T b a T a a
K s K s E K R s L s Bs Js ). ( ) ( ] )[ ( ) (
2



b T a a
T
a
K K R s L B Js s
K
s E
s

) )( ( ) (
) (


Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROCEDURE:
To find K
t
:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the rheostat in minimum position connected in the circuit diagram.
3. Switch on the supply and apply the 220V DC supply, start the motor with 3 point
starter.
4. Set the motor speed to 1500rpm by using field rheostat.
5. Note down the readings of line current, armature voltage, speed and field current at no
load condition.
6. Now Apply the load on the motor by using spring balances.
7. Note down the readings of line current, armature voltage, speed, loads and field
current at different load condition.
8. Tabulate the readings in the tabular form.
To find K
b
:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the rheostats in minimum position connected in the circuit diagram.
3. Switch on the supply and apply the 220V DC supply, start the motor with 3 point
starter.
4. Set the motor speed to 1500rpm by using field rheostat.
5. Now vary the rheostat which is connected to armature to run the motor in below the
rated speeds.
6. Tabulate the readings of line current, field current and voltage across the rheostat in
the tabular form.
To find R
a
:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the rheostat in maximum position connected in the circuit diagram.
3. Switch on the supply and apply the 30V DC Supply to the armature of the motor.
4. Tabulate the readings of the voltage, current by varying the rheostat.
To find L
a
:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the rheostat in maximum position connected in the circuit diagram.
3. Switch on the supply and apply the 230V AC Supply to the armature of the motor.
4. Tabulate the readings of the voltage, current by varying the rheostat.
5. Determine impedance using the formula
a
a
a
I
V
Z
.
6. Armature Inductance:
f
R Z
a
a a
L
2
(
2 2

.













Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TABULAR FORMS:

To find R
a
: To find L
a
:

S. No. Voltage (V) Current (A) Resistance() S. No. Voltage (V) Current (A) Impedance()













To find K
t
:

S. No.
Voltage
(V)
Line current
(A)
Field
Current (A)
Speed
(rpm)
S
1

(kg)
S
2
(kg)
S
1
~S
2

(kg)
Force
(N)
Torque
(N-m)















































Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
To find K
b
:

S. No.
Voltage
(V)
Armature
current (A)
Back emf
(V)
Speed
(rpm)



















MODEL GRAPHS:
Eb
T








N Ia

RESULT:




QUIZ :

1. How can we do the speed control of D.C shunt motor?
2. What do Kb and Kt mean?
3. What are J and B?
4. What are the applications of D.c shunt motor?
5. In traction which type of motors are used?
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TEMPARATURE CONTROL USING PID CONTROLLER

AIM: To study temperature control using PID controller.

APPARATUS: Temperature control using PID controller kit & Oven.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:



SET TEMP

RUN TEMP





THEORY:
The function of the controllers is to increase the gain without decreasing the
damping ratio. Controllers can be introduced in feedback or forward path to control the
steady state error and transient performance. The PID trainer is to study the characteristics of
the feedback control circuit. A PID controller consists of a P controller, I controller & a D
controller in one unit. The temperature of the process is controlled by the PID (proportional,
Integral and Derivative) controller method. The output of the controller then adjusts the value
of each variable in the control system until it is equal to predetermined value called a set
point. The system controller must maintain each variable as close as possible to its set point
value and it must compensate as quickly and accurately as possible for any change in the
variable caused by the process.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the temperature sensor from oven to the socket provided at the PID controller.
2. Connect the oven to the socket provided at the PID connector.
3. Switch on the Power supply
4. Set required temperature say 50
0
C using the knob.
5. Keep all the controller switches in OFF position (i.e without feedback).
6. Switch on input AC to the Thyristor (TRIAC) & Oven circuit.
7. Record the temperature of the oven for every 5
0
C raise in temperature till the system reach
steady state.
8. Switch off the AC and switch on the fan. Let the oven be cooled.
9. Do the experiment for P+I, P+D, P+I+D controller individually.
10. Plot the graph of time vs temperature.
Date:
Exp. No.
P
D
D
I

PID
ADDER
THYRISTORS

OVEN
AC ON
SENSOR
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TABULAR FORMS:

S.NO
Set
Temp
Run
Temp
Time (Sec)
Without
Controller
With
P
With
P+I
With
P+I+D

















RESULT:









QUIZ QUESTIONS:

1. What is derivative error compensation?
2. What is integral error compensation?
3. Where PID is used?
4. What time response specifications are required to be met by the control system?



Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
CHARACTERISTICS OF MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER

AIM: To study the magnetic amplifier circuits

APPARATUS: 1. Patch cords

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

SELF SATURATED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER:



SERIES CONNECTED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER:



PARALLEL CONNECTED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER:


Date:
Exp. No.
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
THEORY:
A magnetic amplifier is a device for obtaining power amplification. It is, just like the
rotating amplifiers is rugged and do not require any heater powder (for cathode). Its added
advantage is that it has no moving parts. But its power handling capacity is generally less.
Magnetic amplifiers are used to amplify dc or very low frequency signals.


Magnetic amplifier is based on the electromagnetic induction and no active element like
vacuum tube, transistor or FET is used in this amplifier. The advantage of magnetic amplifier is a
long life and can operate for years together without using any maintaince requirements. The basic
principle of operation of magnetic amplifier is that the increment permeability of magnetic
material can be controlled by the application of steady (DC) magnetic field. The primary is
usually called the dc or control winding and the secondary is referred to as the o/p winding. The
ac output may be rectified so that it may now be regarded as a dc amplifier.

The simple saturable reactor consists of two electric circuits connected by magnetic
circuit, so that the operating characteristics of any one circuit effect the operation of all the
interconnected circuits. In figure d-c current in the control loop flows through windings N
1
which
establish the d-c flux in one direction in the magnetic circuit loop. Since an a-c source connected
in the load loop, a-c current flows through winding N
2
, establishing the flux in the magnetic
circuit loop is constantly changing in magnitude and direction.

Within the magnetic core there now exist two types of flux:
(1) d-c, the flux created by dc current which is constant in magnitude and constant in direction.
This means the field builds up and remains steady-state.
(2) a-c, the flux created by a-c current which is changing in magnitude and changing in direction.
This means the field builds up to a maximum in the opposite direction.

The a-c flux tends to saturate and then desaturate the core because of its cyclical
operation. This results in changing inductive reactance in the load winding. The d-c flux in its
saturable or desaturable effects in the core. Hence, the d-c flux tends to control the a-c flux
controlling the reactor of the load winding. The use of separate winding on a single core has
distinct advantages. Load windings N
2
consists of comparatively few turns of heavy wire because
of large current requirements of different loads. Control winding N
1
consists of many turns of
fine wire. Since mmf depends upon the number of ampere- turns, a small current in control
winding produces a mmf equal to that of the load winding.
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROCEDURE:

SELF SATURATED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER:

1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit.
2. Keeping the DC supply at minimum position switch on the circuit.
3. Now slowly increase the DC supply by keeping R
C
at minimum position, note the readings of
I
C
and I
L.


TABULAR FORM:

S. No I
C
(mA) I
L
(mA)








SERIES CONNECTED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER:

1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit.
2. Keeping the DC supply at minimum position switch on the circuit.
3. Now slowly increase the DC supply by keeping R
C
at minimum position, note the readings of
I
C
and I
L.


TABULAR FORM:

S. No I
C
(mA) I
L
(mA)









PARALLEL CONNECTED MAGNETIC AMPLIFIER:

1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit.
2. Keeping the DC supply at minimum position switch on the circuit. Now slowly increase the
DC supply by keeping R
C
at minimum position, note the readings of I
C
and I
L.




Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TABULAR FORM:

S. No I
C
(mA) I
L
(mA)








MODEL GRAPHS:
















RESULT:







QUIZ:

1. What is amplification?
2. What is magnetic amplifier?
3. On what principle magnetic amplifier works?
4. How self saturation is achieved in magnetic amplifier?
5. Which winding has more number of turns: Control winding or load winding?



Parallel Connected Magnetic Amplifier
Self Saturated Magnetic Amplifier
Series Connected Magnetic Amplifier
Control Current (I
c
) mA
L
o
a
d

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
I
L
)

m
A

Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AC SERVOMOTOR

AIM: To draw the characteristics of ac servomotor.

APPARATUS: 1. AC Servomotor Kit
2. Multimeter

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
































THEORY:
AC servomotor is basically a two phase induction motor and consists of two stator
windings oriented 90degrees apart both in time and space when voltages of equal rms
magnitude and 90 degrees phase difference are applied a synchronously rotating magnetic
field of constant magnitude is Set up in the stator. The two Windings are called as reference
and control windings.
The direction of rotating magnetic field depends upon the phase relationship between
the control voltage and reference voltage. As the field sweeps over the rotor, emfs are
induced Producing current in the rotor circuit. The interaction between rotating magnetic
field and the induced currents produce torque, causing the motor to rotate in the direction of
field. In normal induction motors X/R ratio is generally kept high so as to obtain the
Date:
Exp. No.
AC
230V
110V
10K/3W
1F C
0V
P
1
Reference
Winding






ACSM
-
+
Photo
Pickup
Light
Source
Rectifier
and
Regulator

PCB
1
PCB
2



TE
3


M1
M2
Rotating Disc
Signal
Processing
PCB
3

Speed Calibration
Load Control
500/3W
TP
3

PR
1
E
+
-
+
-
VR
TP
2

Control
Winding
To lamp
+
- E
TP
1

DCM
Ph
N
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.
maximum torque close to operating range in which is usually Around 5% slips. But in AC
servomotor the resistance is made high to achieve linearity of torque speed characteristic.
The voltages applied to the stator windings are seldom balanced. The reference phase I
exited by a constant voltage and control phase is By a voltage, which is 90degrees out of
phase w.r.t. The voltage of the Reference phase. The direction of rotation of Motor reverses
as the polarity Of the control winding voltage is changed.

PROCEDURE:
1. Keep SW3 in load off position indicating that the armature circuit of dc machine is
not connected to auxiliary supply (12 volts)
2. Keep SW2 in off position.
3. Ensure P1 and P2 are in fully anticlock wise position.
4. Now switch on SW1 and SW2.
5. With SW3 in OFF position vary the speed of AC servomotor by moving P1 in
clockwise direction.
6. Tabulate the EMF Eb generated by dc machine and speed of ac servomotor. Eb is
measured by multimeter at TP1 indicates port and speed on front panel display.
7. Draw the graph of Eb vs. speed.

TABULAR FORMS:

Without Load: With Load:

S. No
Speed
(rpm)
Back EMF
(V)

S.
No
Control
Voltage (V)
I
a
(A)
Speed
(rpm)
E
b
(V)
Power
(W)
Torque
(gm-cm)














































VC
1










VC
2










































cm gm


N 2
10 1.109 P
T
9

a b
I E P Watts
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.
MODEL GRAPHS:


N
Eb

VC
2
VC
1




T N



RESULT:












QUIZ:

1. What is the construction of A.C servomotor?
2. How the two-stator windings are placed?
3. How can we reverse the direction of rotation?
4. Differentiate between A.C servomotor and Induction Motor?
5. Where we use these motors?
6. What are the characteristics of A.c Servomotor?
7. How can we reduce the inertia of rotor?
8. On what direction the motor rotates?



Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
VERIFICATION OF FREQUENCY DOMIAN SPECIFICATIONS OF
THE SYSTEM USING MATLAB

AIM: To verify the frequency domain specifications of a second order system and to obtain
the frequency response of it using MATLAB.
APPARATUS:
PC-1
MATLAB software
THEORY:
MATLAB is a high performance language for technical Computing. It integrates
Computation, visualization and Programming in an easy to use environment where Problems
and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical Notation. Mat lab is an Interactive
system whose basic data Element is an array that does not require Dimensioning. The
MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. IN industry MATLAB is the tool of choice for high
productivity research development and analysis. MATLAB provides an interactive
environment with hundreds of reliable and accurate built in mathematical functions. These
functions provide solutions of broad range of mathematical problems including matrix
algebra, complex, arithmetic and linear systems.
The transfer function of second order control system is in the form given below

2
n
2
2
s
2
n

T(s)

s
n


The frequency response of a sinusoidal input exhibit both magnitude and phase angle of
system.
Resonant Peak: The maximum value of magnitude is known as a resonant peak. The
magnitude of the resonant peak gives the information about the relative stability of system.
Resonant Frequency : The frequency at which magnitude the maximum value is known as
Resonant Frequency.
Bandwidth : It is defined as the range of frequencies in which the magnitude of closed loop
does not drop -3dB.
THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

2
n
2
2
s
2
n

T(s)

s
n


00 1 54 . 6
2
s
100
T(s)

s


Resonant Peak =
2
1 2
1


Resonant Frequency =
2
2 1
n

Bandwidth =
3 2 2
4 4 2 2 1
n

Date:
Exp. No.
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROCEDURE :
To find out specifications of the given transfer function
1. Double click on MATLAB prompt. This creates a command window.
2. Enter the program and get the step response of the transfer function.
3. Verify the obtained time domain specifications in the program with theoretical values.
4. Tabulate the results.
PROGRAM :
num=[0 0 100];
den=[1 6.54 100];
sys=tf(num,den);
w=logspace(-1,3);
bode(sys,w)
[mag phase w]=bode(sys,w);
[mp,k]=max(mag);
Resonant peak=20*log10(mp)
Resonant frequency=w(k)
n=1;
While 20*log(mag(n))>=-3;n=n+1;end;
Bandwidth=w(n);

TABULAR FORM :















Specifications Theoretical values Practical Values

1. Resonant Peak

2. Resonant frequency

3. Bandwidth








Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
MODEL GRAPHS:











RESULT :



QUIZ:
1. What are the frequency domain specifications?
2. How the resonant peak varies with respect to damping ratio?
3. What is meant by normalized frequency?
4. Define the Gain margin & Phase margin.
5. Define the minimum phase system & Non minimum phase system.
M(jw)
in dB
(jw)
in rad/sec
in rad/sec
Magnitude Plot
Phase Plot
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
TIME RESPONSE OF THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM USING MATLAB


AIM: To determine the i(t) and v(t) of an RLC circuit over a range of 0<t <15 sec and to
obtain a plot of current and Capacitor voltage.

APPARATUS:
PC-1
MATLAB software

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:











THEORY:
MATLAB is a high performance language for technical Computing. It integrates
Computation, visualization and Programming in an easy to use environment where Problems
and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical Notation. Mat lab is an Interactive
system whose basic data Element is an array that does not require Dimensioning. The
MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. IN industry MATLAB is the tool of choice for high
productivity research development and analysis. MATLAB provides an interactive
environment with hundreds of reliable and accurate built in mathematical functions. These
functions provide solutions of broad range of mathematical problems including matrix
algebra, complex, arithmetic and linear systems.

MATLAB is also capable of executing sequence of commands that are stored in files,
known as script files or M-files. By opening new blank file opens the edit window. A
program can be written and saved in the ASCII format with a file name having the extension
.m in the directory where MATLAB runs.
To run the program, click on the command window and file name without .m extenxion at the
MATLAB command>>. We can view the text edit window, another type of M file is a
function file. A function provides a convienent way to encapsulate some computation, which
can be used without worrying about its implementation.



Date:
Exp. No.
Unit Step
Input

5V
R=1.4
L = 2H
C=0.32F
Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
PROCEDURE :
1. Double click on MATLAB, a command window is opened with prompt.
2. Go to file and click on the blank M file and editor window is opened.
3. Enter the program and get the step response of the transfer function.
4. Plot the results of v(t) and i(t).

PROGRAM :
function xdot=elect sys(t,x)
v=1;
R=1.4;L=2;C=0.32;
xdot=[x(2)/C;1/L*(v-x(1)-R*x(2))];
tspan=[0,15];
x0=[0.5,0];
[t,x]=ode23(electsys,tspan,x0);
subplot(2,1,1),plot(t,x)
title(Time response of an RLC series circuit);
xlabel(t,sec)
text(8,1.05,capacitor voltage),text(8,0.5,current)
vc=x(:,1);i=x(:2);
subplot(2,1,2),plot(vc,i)
title(current verses capacitor voltage)
xlabel(capacitor voltage,),ylabel(current)






















Control Systems Lab
Pragati Engineering College, EEE Dept. Page No.:
MODEL GRAPHS:

Voltage and Current waveforms w.r.t. time:











Voltage Vs Current waveform:












RESULT:







QUIZ:

1. What is meant by MATLAB?
2. What is meant by m-file?
3. What are the difference between the transfer function and state model?
4. What are the applications of state model?
5. Define the state variables.


Time (sec)
Capacitor Voltage
Current
Voltage (V)
Current(A)