You are on page 1of 24

aumif;uifbHk aumif;uif wHcg;0rS

vSrf;Munfhvdkufjcif; µ
odkY aojcif;? emjcif;? qmavmifrw G o
f yd jf cif;? pd;k &dryf yl efjcif;?
0rf;enf;jcif;? idka<u;jcif;? zsm;emjcif; r&Sdawmhaom
urÇ m avmu 0rf ; ajrmuf a ysmf & T i f j cif ; om,m

vQyfwjyuf Munf E l ; jcif ; om zH k ; vT r f ; aeaom urÇ m avmu?


þodaYk om urÇmavmursKd ;udk oifawG;xif rSe;f qMunfh
Ed k i f y govm;/ wpf O D ; ES i f h w pf O D ; yl ; aygif ; nD n m
cspfcsif;arwÅm vTrf;NcHKvsuf twlwpfuG vkyfudkif
pdwfESvHk; MunfEl;tm;&apaom aexd k i f M uaom vl Y a bmif t zG J Y t pnf ; qd k o nf r S m
qifjcifpOf;pm;p&mrsm; udk,fydkif tawGYtBuHK rnfonfh t&yfaywnf;/ xdt k &yfum; aumif;uifEikd if H
aywnf;/
taMumif;t&mrsm;? ausmfMum;olrsm;ESihf
ywfoufaom taMumif;t&m tusOf;ESihf aumif ; uif b H k o d k Y vQyf w ysuf pmtk y f o nf
uAsmpmydk'frsm;jzifh wpfzufurf;rS xm0& wrl x l ; jcm;aom oif \ tawG ; tac:tm;
ay:xG e f ; yG m ;rsm; vmapygonf / þpmtk y f w G i f
toufudk azmfnTef;jyoaeaom pmtkyf urÇ m Y t ausmf t armf tcsd K Y E S i f h ygwf o uf a om
wpftkyfjzpfygonf/ taMumif;t&m tusOf;csLyf? qifjcifpOf;pm;p&mrsm;
zD;vpf&SJ0k'f - pDpOfwnf;jzwfonf/ pmayudk;um;csufrsm;ESifh uAsmydk'frsm; yg0ifonfh
aemif w rvG e f b0ü aumif ; uif a &T j ynf w G i f
rmwdum BuH K awG Y & rnf h tH h b G , f & mrsm;tm; azmf x k w f
1/ ed'gef; a&;om;xm;ygonf/ þpmtkyfonf pHkvifvSaom
2/ aumif;uifbHkudk vGrf;qGwfvdkYae ta&;tom; pmayrsm;? pma&;q&m aygif;pHkwdkY\
3/ þb0NyD; aemufb0 rlvvuf&mrsm;udk pkqnf;xm;NyD; oifhtm; þb0ed*Hk;
4/ aEG;axG;vHkNcHKaeap&ef cdkudk;qD;uyfyg csLyfjcif;onf ]]axmifxJrSmaeí eef;awmfodkY oGm;&m
5/ 0rf;enf;&ef rvdkawmhyg xGuaf ygufwpfc}k } om jzpfaMumif;udk od&edS m;vnfapum
6/ cspfjrwfEdk;cJholrsm;ESihf jyefvnfqHkqnf;jcif; uReaf wmfwYkd tvGew f rf;wqE´ jyif;jyaom t&mrsm;udk
7/ uREkfyfwdkY\ aumif;uifbHk udk,fcE¨mrsm; jynfh0pGm cHpm;od&SdcGifh &ayawmhrnf/
8/ oifMum;ae? qnf;yl;ae? rSwfom;ae
9/ yuwdppfrSef aumif;uifEdkifiH
10/ aumif;uif a&TNrdKYawmf
11/ ed*Hk; /
ed'gef;
aumif;uifbEkH iS fh wpfuG aemifwrvGef xm0& touf&iS jf cif;ESifh tBuKH ;0ifaom taMumif;t&mESifh ygwfoufí a&maxG;'G[ d
jzpfapaom ajymqdck pH m;rIrsm;udk jzpfay:vsuf &Syd gonf/ uReaf wmfwYkd trsm;tjym;url aumif;uifbo kH nf tvGex f ;l qef; tHMh obG,&f m
aysmf&Tifcsrf;ajrhbG,f&m aumif;aom ae&mwpfcktjzpf xifjrif,lq Muygonf/ xdkodkY awG;jrifvifhupm; uREfkyfwdkYESihf uREkfyfwdkY
jrwfEdk;cspfcifolrsm;\ toufrsm; aoqHk;rnfudk pdk;&drfaMumifhMuvmaom tcgürl - aemuf&&Sdrnfh toufwmudk ul;ajymif;&mü
aMumufrufzG,f&m raumif;qdk;0g; wpfcktjzpf awG;jrifwwf Muayonf/ xdkodkY awG;jrif pdk;&drfonfESihftrQ aumif;uifbHkonf
MumEdkiforQ Mumatmif a&GYqdkif;a&SmifusOf oifhaom qdk;0g;vSonfh t&yfwpfckuJhodkY xifrSwfMuayonf/
þpmtkyfwGif pkpnf;wifjyxm;aom qifjyifpOf;pm;p&mrsm;? a&;om; az:jycsufrsm;? ausmfapmaom yk*¾dKvfrsm;\
taMumif;csif;&m twdkcsLyfrsm;? uAsmrsm;onf aumif;uifbHkonf tvGefppfrSefaom ae&mtrSef&Sdaom t&yfjzpfNyD; uREkfyfwdkY
wpfOD;csif;onf cRwf,Gif;csuf r&Sdaom cspfcsif;arwÅmudk &&SdEdkifum auseyfrI tjynfht0 &&SdEdkifrnf[laom ,HkMunfcsufudk tm;jznfh
&Sifoef apEdkifygonf/ tem*gwfwGif xm0&aetdrf&&Sdrnf [laom tmrcHcsufonf b0tcuftcJrsm; &ifqdkifjzwfoef;&mü
rsm;pGmBuHhBuHhcdkif Edkifapygonf/ pma&;q&mBuD; &dIwfpyD;,m; ajymonfhtwdkif; ]]vludk aumif;uifbHkodkY a&mufbdouJhodkY
uRefawmfwdkYonfvnf; aumif;uifbHk taMumif;awG;&if; aevsufyif aumif;uifbHkodkY trSefa&mufaeonf[k xifrSwf&ayonf/
xddkuJhodkYaom tmrcHcsuf &Sdjcif;twGuf uREkfyfwdkYonf xdkaemufqHk;c&D;udk tmrcHcsuf &Sdjcif;twGuf uREkfyfwdkYonf xdkaemufqHk;c&D;udk
avQmufvSrf;&mü ,HkMunfolwpfOD; ajymouJhodkY ]]ausmif;pmoifcef;rS uqkefayguf ajy;xGufvmaom ausmif;om;wpfOD;\
aysmf&TifvGwfvyfrIuJhodkY}} tm;tifwdk;yGm; vsuf&Sdapygonf/
pmwnf;
aumifuifbHkudk vGrf;qGwfvdkYae

tJ'D wpfzufurf;rSm odyfvSyom,mwmbJ/


aomrwft,f'Dqif\ aemufqHk;pum;

tar&duef tmumo tpDtpOftm; pwifwDxGif&mwGif ausmfMum; vlodrsm;cJhaom tcef;u@wGif yg0ifcJhol a'gufwm


0*¾emoGefb&Gef;u olonf aoqHk;NyD; aemufaemifb0wpfck&SdaMumif; vdktyfaom odyÜHenf;vrf;qdkif&m tcsuftvufESifh tnD
,HkMunfygaMumif; ajymcJhygonf/
t&mcyfodrf;onf ajc&mvuf&m tpterusef&SdbJ aysmufuG,foGm;í r&aMumif; odyÜHynmu awGY&Sdxm;NyD jzpfygonf/
obm0w&m;u vHk;0 aysmufuG,foGm;jcif; r&SdaMumif; &kyfoGifo@mef ajymif;vJjcif;om &SdaMumif;udk vufcHxm;ygonf/ tu,fí
bk&m;ocifu tajccHusaomrltm; pBumF 0VmtwGi;f tao;rTm;qH;k ESifh ta&;rygaom tpdwt f ydik ;f rsm; qufpyf toH;k csrnfqykd gu
odyÜHynm&yf\ vufcHxm;aom tcsufESihftnD ,lqjcif;twGuf t"dyÜg,f &Sdrnfom jzpfayrnf/ bk&m;ocifonf ol\
ajymifajrmufaom vuf&mjzpfonfh zefqif;jcif;? txl;ojzifh vlom;\ 0dnmOfonfvnf; t&mcyfodrf;uJhodkYyif aysmufuG,fjcif;
r&SdbJ toGiful;ajymif;jcif; oabmudk vufawGY toHk;csygonf/ uREkfyfuvnf; xdktwdkif;jzpfonf[k xifygonf/

tu,fí bk&m;ocifonf -
vSypGm zefqif;xm;cJhaom
þurÇmajrBuD;onf
tjypfESifh aojcif;aygrsm;aeygu
y&wdokbHk jzpfaom EIdif;,SOfí
r&Ekdifaom xdkae&monfum; rnfrQ
vSyom,maeygrnfenf;/
*sdrf;pfargif*dkr,f&D

aumif;uifbHkqdkonfrSm xm0&touf&Sd&m b@mwdkuf wpfckyif jzpfawmhonf/


a0vD,H&SdwfpyD;,m;

cspjf cif;arwÅmonf ppfpcef;udak omfvnf;aumif;? eef;awmfuakd omfvnf;aumif;? opfyiftq


YHk ikd ;f aom awmtkyu
f kd vnf;aumif;?
ydkifpdk;tkyfcsLyfayonf/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf cspfjcif;arwÅmonf aumif;uifbHkjzpfNyD; aumif;uifbHkonfvnf; cspfjcif;arwÅmyif
jzpf\/
avmh'fbdkif&Gef

ao&ufeD;uyfvmaomtcsdefonf umvü *Refe,lwefu


]]uREyfk o
f nf aojcif;w&m;&Sad om Edik if üH yif &Sad eygao;onf/ rMumrD tcsed rf mS bJ uREyfk o
f nf xm0& touf&iS o
f nfh Edik if o
H Ykd a&muf&dS
aeayawmhrnf}} [k a<u;aMumfcJhygonf/

t*Fvdyf odyÜHynm&Sif rdkufu,fz,f&a'; (1791 - 1867) onf atmifjrifrI t&SdqHk;aom prf;oyfavhvmonfh &lyaA'
ynm&Sifrsm;teuf wpfOD;tygt0if jzpfaMumif; owfrSwfcH&onf/ wpfcgwGif aoqHk;NyD;aemufb0 wpfckESifh ywfoufí rdrd\
xifjrifcsuftm; ar;jref;jcif;tay: olu ]]xifjrifcsuf [kwfvm;/ uREfkyftaeeJYawmh xifjrifcsufqdkwm bmrSef;awmifrS rodbl;/
uREkfyfonf pdwfcs,HkMunfrIrsm; tay:üom rSDcdktm;xm;vsuf &Sdygonf/ uREkfyf\ u,fwif&Sifonf touf&Sif aeygonf/
oltouf&Sifaejcif;aMumifh uREkfyfvnf; touf&Sif aernfom jzpfonf}} [k jyefvnf ajzMum;cJhygonf/

aumif;uifbHk
i,fpOfuav;b0u uREkfyfwdkY xifrSwfcJhaom aumif;uifbHkonfum; -
a&Tvrf;rsm;jzifh ykvJwHcg;aygufrsm;&Sdaom
tvGefw&m a0;uGmvSonfhae&m
t0ifwHcg;0rsm;u uREkfyfwdkYudk
tvGeftvSrf;uGmaom aeYrsm;tjzpfom vSpf[wmyg/

odkYaomf - tcsdefa&GUvsm; ESpfrsm;Mumanmif;vmum


b0ed*Hk;usa&mufvmNyD; a<uokef;csdef eD;vmaomf
rsuf&nf jynfhvQrf;aom rsufvHk;rsm;jzifh pdwfESvHk;rSmvnf; aomuzHk;vTrf; Asmyg'<u,fvm
xdktcgü uREkfyfwdkYonf aumif;uifa&Tjynf wHcg;0udk arQmfvifhMunhfvSrf; aomuuif;a0; xdkwdrfwkduf tvGefodkY
cGJcGmpGefYoGm; cspfcifolrsm; xdkae&mü vif;yxdefvif; t&mcyfodrf; aumif;jcif;vGrf;aom xdkae&mü uREkfyfwdkYtm;
apmifharQmfaeonfudk awGYjrifvkduf&ayonf/

aumif;uifbHk0,f t&mtm;vHk;\ txufwGif uREkfyfwdkY\ udk,fydkifaexdkif&modkY ac:aqmifoGm;rnfh bk&m;ocif\


a&TrsufESmawmfudk zl;jrif&ayrnf/
odyf0if;vGef;aom ae&mawmh r[kwfyg/
taMumif;rSm aumif;uifbHkqdkonfrSm ]]tdrf}} omvQif jzpfayonfwum; µ
pl;tdyfcsfrufuvdef;

aumif;uifbHku ukpm;í r&Ekdifaom 0rf;enf;aMuuGJbG,f [lí þavmuwGif wpfckrQ r&Sdyg/


aomrwfpfarm

wpfem&Dqdkaom tcsdefumvonf wpfaeYwm\ tpdwftydkif; wpfckom jzpfaMumif;udk pdwfcsvufcs ,HkNyD; aeygav/


xkdenf;twdkif;yif- avmuü touf&Sifaejcif;onf xm0&touf\ tpdwftydkif; wpfckrQom jzpfaMumif; owd&yg/
pDt,fvft,fvif

[kwyf gw,f/ aumif;uifbEkH iS hf ygwfoufí xifjrifajymqdk Mujcif;twGuf uREyfk w f Ykd rrSm;Muyg/ aumif;uifbEkH iS hf ywfoufí
uREkfyfwwfEdkiforQ &SmazG avhvmaeygonf/ uRefawmf xdkt&yfü tpOftNrJ aexdkifoGm;zdkY arQmfvifhaeygw,f/ þavmuwGif
t&yfa'owpfckckü uREkfyftajccs aexdkifawmhrnf qdkygu xkdaexdkifrnfh ae&ma'o\ &moDOwkESihf aygif;oif;qufqH Mu&rnf/
tdref ;D em;jcif;rsm;\ taMumif;ESihf tajctaetm;vH;k udk trSeo f &d EdS idk &f ef rvGrJ aoG pHpk rf;ar;jref; xm;&ayrnf/ wpfae&modYk tNy;D tydik f
ajymif;a&GY aexdkifrnf qdkygu xdkuJhodkYyif oifod&SdEdkifatmif aqmif&Guf aeayvdrfhrnf/
rSeaf yonf/ rMumrD tcsed u f mvav; twGi;f rSmbJ uREyfk w f [ Ykd m a&TaY jymif;oGm; MuawmhrmS yg/ uREyfk w
f o
Ykd nf xm0& toufwm
b0wpfckjzifh tjcm;urÇmBuD; wpfckü oGm;a&muf aexdkifMurSmyg/ xdkxm0&EkdifiHudk rnfolawG a&mufaeNyDvJ? oGm;&mvrf;ESihf
a&muf&Sd&rnfh enf;vrf;rsm;udk uREkfyfwdkY em;pGifhpHkprf; od&Sdae&ef vdktyfonfrSm trSefyifjzpf\/
'dGuft,fvfrl'D

aumif;uifbHktaMumif; ajymqdkaeMujcif;? aumif;uifbHkESihf ygwfoufí awG;ac:qifjcif oHk;oyfjcif;ESihf aumif;uifbHk


taMumif;t&mrsm;tm; zwf&aI ejcif;rsm;onf trSeaf umif;rGef oifh jrwfvaS yonf/ tb,fah Mumifq
h akd omf uREyfk w
f o
Ykd nf xdak e&modYk
oGm;a&mufNyD; xm0&touf&Sif aexdkifMurnf jzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/ aumif;uifbHkESihf ta&;ygvSaom uREkfyfwdkY\ aexdkifrnfh
uREyfk w
f \
Ykd xm0& aetdryf if jzpfayonf/ xdaYk Mumifh aumif;uifbo
kH nf rnfojYkd zpfvrd rhf nfenf;[k od&v
dS jkd cif;rSm obm0 usvaS yonf/
a';Apfb&efYbwfpf ('DbDbD)

aumif;uifb\ kH aysm&f iTG cf sr;f ajrrh u


I kd uREyfk w
f o
Ykd nf ,ckyif cHpm;&&SEd idk af yonf/ aumif;uifbo
kH Ykd a&mufrnfah eYukd arQmrf eS ;f aejcif;?
xdkae&mtaMumif; pOf;pm;aejcif;? aumif;uifbHktaMumif; zwf&Iaejcif; ESifh MudKwif od&SdvufcHaejcif;rsm;jzifh uREkfyfwdkYa&muf&Sd
oGm;rnfh tcsdefxufyif apmpD;pGm aumif;uifbHk\ okc csrf;omxuf0ufudk ,cküyif cHpm;&&SdEdkifrnf/
'DbDbD
›

aumif;uifbHktaMumif; pOf;pm;aejcif;jzifh uREkfyfwdkYonf aumif;uifbHkom;uJhodkY pdwfrsm;ay:aygufum uREfkyfwdkYtwGuf


tiftm;jznfph nf;Ny;D pdwEf v
S ;kH cGet
f m;vnf; wuf<uvef;qef; apygonf/ 4if;jyif aumif;uifbkH qdo
k nfrmS trSew
f pfu,f&NdS y;D uREyfk w
f Ykd
rvGJraoG oGm;a&mufaexdkif&rnfh ae&mjzpfaMumif;udk od&Sdem;vnf apygonf/
'DbDbD
›

aumif;uifbHk qdkonfrSm ocFsKdif;okóef r&Sdaom


NrdKYwpfNrdKYyif jzpfayonf/
pOf;pm;Munfhyg ............
urf;ay:ajcvSrf;vdkufonfESihf
aumif;uifbHkrSef; jrifodvdkuf&\/
vufwpfzufudk qkyfudkifvdkufonfESifh
bk&m;ocif\ a&TvufawmfrSef; odvdkuf&\/
avopfavaumif;rsm;&I&Iduf&if;
oefY&Sif;jynfh0aomavaumif;udk &&Sdvdkuf\/
cHpm;od&SdrIrsm;udk tiftm;jynfh0apNyD;
aojcif;r&Sd xm0& touf&Sifjcif;udk awGY&\/
avjyif;rkefwdkif;rS rdk;oufrkefwdkif;odkYjzwfausmfum
taESmuft,Suf uif;aom Nidrfoufjcif;odkYa&muf&Sd&m?
tdyf,mrS Edk;aomf aumif;uifbHk
jzpfaeaMumif; od&Sd&avonf/

aumif;uifbHk qdkonfrSm uREkfyfwdkY vG,fulpGm tHhMo pdwfvIyf&Sm;um yDwdjzmNyD; vdkvm;arQmfvifh&mt&yf jzpfayonf/


uav;oli,frsm;twGuf c&pfprwfyGJawmf jzpfouJhodkYyif tBuD;us,fqHk; aysmf&TifbG,f taumif;qHk; c&pörwfyGJ wpfck jzpfayrnf/
'DbDbD
›
avmavmvwfvwf oif\ yuwdrsufpdESifh jrif&ouJhodkY aumif;uifbHkESifh 0dnmOfurÇmwdkYonf ydkrdkppfrSef ydkrdkvSyNyD;
þurÇmavmuxuf Mum&SnfpGm wnfwHhaeayrnf/
'DbDbD
aumif;uifbHkonf vSyom,maom ae&mwpfck jzpfNyD; cspfcifzG,faumif;aom olrsm;ESifhjynfhum om,maysmf&Tif
zG,faumif;aom tcsdefumv wpfckjzpfayonf/
'DbDbD

tjypf'pk &du
k ?f rIcif;? Oya' azgufzsurf ?I aoG;xufo, H rkd ?I a&m*gb,jzpfjcif;? aojcif;? 0rf;enf;jcif;ESihf pdwEf v S ;kH aMuuGjJ cif;rsm;
r&Sad om wdik ;f jynf[íl tb,ft&yfü &Syd goenf;? aumif;uifbkH qdo k nfrmS rnfonfw h idk ;f Edik if w
H iG f rqdk jzpfay:aeMuaom t&mrsm;
yaysmuf vpf[if;aeaom wdik ;f jynfwpfcyk if jzpf\/ tb,fah Mumifq h akd omf bk&m;ocif\ Ekikd if aH wmfwiG f jcm;xm;onfh tumtqD;?
eH&HESihf uefYvefYumrsm; r&Sday/ xdkt&yfü vlrsdK;a&; cGJjcm;rI r&Sdyg/ ppfrufudk wdkufcdkufjcif;rsm; r&SdaomaMumifh ppfom;rsm;vnf;
r&Syd g/ Oya'azgufzsurf ?I jypfru I sL;vGejf cif;rsm; r&Sí
d &Jom;rsm; r&dyS g/ ocsKØ i;f uke;f rsm; r&Sí d vnf; tokbtwGuf pDpOfaqmif&u G rf nfh
olrsm;r&Sdyg/ ul;pufwwfaom a&m*gydk;rTm;rsm; tzsm;temrsm;? yvdyfa&m*gqdk;rsm;? a0'emrsm; rMum;& rjzpfay:wwfaomaMumifh
q&m0efrsm; orm;awmfBu;D rsm;vnf; r&SMd uyg/ arSmifru kd jf cif; r&Sí d olc;kd ol0u
S rf sm;vnf; r&Syd g/ þuJo h aYkd om wkid ;f Ekid if rH sKd ;ü aexdik &f ef
rnfol rwrf;wbJ &SdEdkifrnfenf;/ taMumif;rlum; tdrfaxmifa&; uGJjym; jywfqJjcif;rsm; rdwuGJ zwuGJjzifh MuHK&onfh om;orD;rsm;?
t&ufrl;orm;rsm;? axmifrsm;? aq;&Hkrsm;? olawmif;pm;rsm;? rsufrjrif em;rMum;ol? qGHYtolESifh 'ku©qif;&J twdusa&mufol[lí
r&Sdaom ydkrdk aumif;rGefNyD; aexdkif&ef qE´&Sdaom wdkif;EdkifiHwpfck jzpfjcif;aMumifhaywnf;/ tvGefaumif;rGef qef;us,fwJh Edkif iHygvm;?
aumif;uifbHkudk oifrwrf;w aybl;vm;/
tdyfcsf?avmhum

›
vuf&Sdtajctaexuf omvGefaumif;rGefonfu vGJí aumif;uifbHkonf avmuþb0 toufwm twdkif;yif &Sdaernf/
þurÇmajrBu;D ay:wGif touf&adS eouJo h yYkd if 0rf;ajrmufb,
G &f m? om,mvSyrIEiS fh MunfE;l aysm&f iT rf rI sm; tm;vH;k &Sad eayonf/ odaYk omf
raumif;rI tedXm&Hkrsm; wpfckrQ r&SdbJ ydkifqdkif&,ljcif; om&SdNyD; ay;qyf&ef taMumif;wpfckrQ r&Sdaom b0rsdK; aumif;uifbHkü
MuHKawGY&ayrnf/
'DbDbD
›

oifvdkcsifwm wpfckrusef aumif;uifbHkü &&Sdvdrfhrnf/ aumif;uifbHk qdkonfrSm oif\ vdktifqE´ jynfh0apaom t&yfyif
jzpf\/ odkYaomf aumif;rGefaom vdktyfcsuf t&mrsm; jzpf&ayrnf/ oif\ vkdtyfcsuftm; ,ckyif rSmMum;ygav/
'DbDbD
›

aumif;uifbHkudk wrf;warQmfvifhavav þavmuudk ydkí rESpfNrdKYav jzpfygonf/


'DbDbD
›
aumif;uifbHk taMumif; trSefwpfu,f odem;vnfrnf qdkygu þavmuwGif touf&Sifae&jcif;twGuf raysmfydkufqHk;?
rauseyfqHk; jzpfaeayvdrfhrnf/ þb0wGif uREfkyf rpGrfaqmifEdkifaom t&mrsm;twGuf emusnf;um awmfvSefypfayvdrfhrnf/
aumif;uifbHkudk od&SdawGYjrifygu þavmu\ 0efxkwfrsm;udk xrf;&GufEdkifpGrf; &Sdawmhrnf r[kwfay/ xdkt&yfodkY a&muf&SdoGm;ygu
uREkfyfwdkYonf xdkt&yfrS pGefYcGmzdkY rjzpfEdkifawmhyg/ aumif;uifbHkonf xm0&twGuf jzpfonf/
pDt,f(vf)at
›
aumif;uifbHk0,f 0rf;enf;pdwfysufzG,f ewÅd
aumif;uifbHkü pdwfysuf0rf;enf;bG,f&m r&Sd/
EGrf;vsyifyef;jcif;? aMuuGJ ylaqG;jcif; ESifh
emusifbG,f&m vHk;0r&Sd /
ylaqG;aMuuGJ? emusOf;rkef;wD;pdwfrsm;vnf; r&Sd/
NiD;aiGYbG,f ta&;rygvSonfh taMumif;jcif;&mrsm;vnf;
xyfcgwvnf; Mum;&efr&Sd/

þavmurS arSmifrdkuf wdrfwdkufrsm;onfvnf;


xdkt&yf rdk;ukwfpuf0kdif;ü ay:aernfhr[kwf/
taMumif;rlum; -
&dIufiifidka<u;? oufjyif;oHrsm; wcgrQ r&Sday/tm;vHk;onf ...
om,mMunfEl;? aysmf&Tif jrL;p&mrsm;om jzpfonf/

rdrdaetdrfrsm;twGuf rnfonfhtcgrQ
tdrfiSm;crsm; ay;acs&efr&Sd/
tcGeftaumufrsm;vnf; ay;&efr&Sd/
uREkfyfwdkY 0wfqifonfh t0wftxnfrsm;
a&mfa[mif; aqG;ajrYjcif;odkY ra&muf?
tpOfopfvGif awmufajymifaernfom jzpfonf/
rnfonfhtcgrQ iwfrGwf qmavmifjcif; uREkfyfwdkY r&Sd/

qif;&Jjcif;wGif;rS csdKYwJhp&mvnf; tvsOf;r&Sd/


taMumif;rl aumif;uifbHk\ <u,f0rsm;jym;jcif;rsm;onf - bk&m;ocif\ EdkifiHawmfodkY oGm;Murnfh
bk&m;? om;orD;rsm; a0iSoHk;aqmif Muvdrfhrnfwnf;/
tufzf? trfav;rif;

aumif;uifbHkonf xm0& aexdkif&mtdrfyif .... uREkfyfwdkY\ txkwftydk;rsm;ajzum tpOftNrJ aexkdifaom


ae&mjzpfayonf/ aumif;uifwiG f tdy,
f mrS Ed;k xNy;D rdrt
d rd jf zpfaerSe;f odvu
kd &f onfh pdwu
f ;l rsKd ;rSm tvGeyf if 0rf;ajrmuf tm;wufz,
G &f m
jzpfygawmhonf/
pDt,fvfat

þb0NyD; aemufwpfb0

aojcif;qdkonfrSm tvif;a&mifrD;udk Nidrf;owfvdkufjcif; r[kwfbJ? tm&Hka&mufvmNyD jzpfí rD;tdrf&Sd rD;pmtm;


avQmhcsvdkufjcif;om jzpfrnf/
&mbif'&m ewfw*dk;

toufZD0defcsLyfNidrf; pGefYvTwfjcif;onf tcef;wpfcef;rS wpfcef;odkY ul;oGm;NyD; wHcg;rtm; ydwfvdkufonfESifh wlvSayonf/


'DbDbD

uREykf w
f x
Ykd H aorif;a&muf&dS vmaomtcg (trSeyf gay-vlom;wdik ;f qDoYkd aorif;onf taES;ESifh tjref a&muf&v
dS m ayvdrrhf nf)
aorif;onf rdwfaqGwpfOD;uJhodkY a&muf&SdvmNyD; xm0&aetdrfjzpfaom aumif;uifbHkodkY uREkfyfwdkYtm; cspfcifpGm ydkYaqmifrnf[k
pdwfcsEdkifaom tajctaersdK;&SdaMumif; ,HkMunfMuygpdkYvm;/
pDt,fvfat
›

aojcif;qdkonfrSm axmifxJrSaeí eef;awmfodkY oGm;&m c&D;vrf;ul; wpfckom jzpfayonf/


›
touf&iS f aexdik jf cif;onf aojcif;omjzpfNy;D aooGm;jcif;onf touf&iS jf cif;jzpf\/ ocFsKid ;f *l\ þwpfzufwiG f uREyfk w f o Ykd nf
jynfESif'PfcH&í ajy;vTm;oGm;vm aeaomolrsm;jzpfum ocFsKdif;\ xkdwpfzufwGifrl EdkifiHom;rsm; jzpfayonf/ þavmuwGif
touf&Sif&mwGif uREfkyfwdkYonf rdbrJhrsm;ESihf wlaeNyD; aumif;uifbHkwGifum; rdpHkbpHk om;orD;rsm;ESihf wlayonf/ vlYb0wGif
uREfkyfwdkYonf tusOf;orm;rsm;uJhodkY &SdNyD; xdkzufurf; aumif;uif EkdifiHwGifum; vGwfvyfaom olrsm;yif jzpfonf/
þurÇ m avmuwG i f uREk f y f w d k Y o nf [ef a qmif r I ? rod u sd K ;uRH r I rsm;jzif h BuH K awG Y & apumrl aumif ; uif b H k ü um;
bk&m;ocif\om;rsm; tjzpf az:xkwfaMumfnmjcif;udk cH&ayrnf/
[ife&Dzg'fh'fbD;csm

toufwmb0[k uREkfyfwdkY ac:aomt&mum; aojcif;odkY oGm;onfh c&D;pOfyif jzpfonf/ aojcif;[k ac:aomt&mum;


touf&Sifjcif;\ wHcg;0yif jzpfonf/

uREkfyfonf aojcif;tm; yifyef;'ku©vTrf;aom tdyfjcif;[laom vlYb0rS aysmf&Tif0rf;ajrmufpGm Edk;xvmjcif; jzpfonfudk


xifrwS yf gonf/ xdo
k Ykd tdy&f mrS Ek;d xvmjcif; jzpfonfukd xifrw
S yf gonf/ xdo
k Ykd tdy&f mrS Ed;k xvmjcif;onf vSyaomfvnf; tcsLyftaESmif
&Sdaom þurÇmavmurS vGwfajrmufoGm;jcif;ESifh wlayonf/
vdkifriftufabmh

aoonf qdkjcif;rSm tjcm;tdrf wpftdrfodkY oGm;a&muf aexkdifjcif; yifjzpf\/


pDt,fvfat
uREyfk o
f nf yifv,furf;ajcü rwfwyf&yf&yf Munfah eygonf/ oabFmwpfp;D onf &Gujf zLrsm;vTiu hf m eHeufcif;avajyESit
hf wl
ork'&´ mzufoUkd OD;wnfxu G cf mG oGm;ygonf/ uREyfk o
f nf xdo
k abFm rd;k ukwpf uf0ikd ;f twGi;f uG,af ysmufonftxd Munf&h m - teD;tem;rS
vlwpfa,mufu ]]olaysmufoGm;NyD }} [k ajymoHudk Mum;vdkuf&\/ tJ'D oabFm b,fa&muf b,faysmufoGm;wmvJ [k rdrdudk,frdrd
ar;cGef; xkwfvdkufygonf/ rsufpdtjrifrS aysmufuG,fjcif; r[kwfyg/ tJ'Dtcsdef uav;rSbJ vlwpfa,mufu ]]olaysmufoGm;NyD }} [k
qdkaecsdefrSm xdkoabFmonf tjcm;wpfae&mü ay:xGufvmonfudk vlawG0kdif; MunfhaeMu\/ tjcm;aom toHrsm;rS &TifjyzG,f
atmf[pfxGufay: vmaomtoHonfum; ]]a[m - olvmNyD }} [lí jzpfonf/ xkdjrifuGif;onfum; aojcif;yif jzpfonf/
[ife&Dpaumha[mfvef

þurÇm avmuBuD;onf tdrfwpfvHk;\ qif0ifESifh EIdif;tyfayonf/ eef;awmf\ atmufodkY a&muf&Sdvmrnfh urÇmyifwnf;/


wmvfrwf

a&mbwfba&mif;eif;\ zcifonf tdy, f mxufwiG f aoqH;k cgeD;csed wf iG f touf&pS q


f ,fausmaf vNy/D ol\ aysm&f iT v
f ef;qef;rIukd
olYtm; ukoaeaom q&m0ef awGYjrifaomtcg tHhMordNyD; a&mbwfba&mif;eif;\ orD;tm; toHtkyftkyfuav;jzifh ]]tbdk;BuD;
olaorSmudk od&Jhvm;}} [k ar;vdkuf&mwGif zcifBuD;u Mum;vdkufojzifh NyHK;um - ]] aojcif;udk &efolwpfa,muftjzpf uREfkyf rjrifyg
}} [k ajymqkdvdkufygonf/
Nidrfoufjcif;? Nidrf;csrf;jcif;awGyg
olraoyg - oltdyfraeyg
b0tdrfrufrsm;rS
olEdk;xcJhavNyD/
ygpDbD&SD&S,fvD u oli,fcsif;*Refudwfpd
aoqHk;jcif;ESifh ywfoufí a&;om;jcif;/
›

wrefawmfBuD; &Sifaygvku ]]rsufarSmufü xif&Sm;aom t&mwdkYonf cPom wnfí rxif&Sm;aom t&mwdkYonfum;


tpOf wnfNrJwnfaMumif; a&;om;cJh\/ ( 2aum/ 4;18) jyifcE¨m&kyfonf aoqHk; aysmufuG,foGm;aomfvnf; 0dnmOfrlum; xm0&
wnf&Sdaeayonf/
'DbDbD

b0? b0? 'dkYwawG aexdkifvmonfh 'Db0


csdefMumjrifhpGm - okc 'ku© wlwuG
cHpm;aysmf&Tif &Hcgvnf;bJ aomuiif
cspfcifaygif;oif; jrwfEdk;wG,fwmvmawmh
auGuGif; cGJcGm&ef 0efav; cufcJ &pNrJyif
oJvdIuf&dkufoH rsuf&nfjzef;aygh
aygif;oif;&mrS pGefYcGm&ifaygh
xdkcsdefcg0,f wdwfqdwfjiifom? owdav;awmh
ay;NyD;ygu udk,fBudKufcsdefcg a&G;NyD;
oGm;om oGm;ygayawmh
'gayr,fh tNyD;tydkifEIwfrqufbJ]
om,mvSy ydkrdkxnf0g xdkcsdefcgü
ighudk qD;BudK vufvSrf;ygavOD;
t,fembmabmvf

oifch E¨mud,
k o
f nf ppfreS af om oifr[kwyf g/ oifaexdik &f m &kyo
f iG o
f @mef wpfco
k m jzpfonf/ ppfreS af om oifum; xm0&
touf&Sifaernfh oif\ 0dnOfomvQif jzpfayonf/
'DbDbD

( aorif; ac:aomaeYwGif ) xdkumvü ajrrIefYonf ae&if;ajrodkY vnf;aumif;? 0dnmOfonf t&ifay;awmfrlaom


bk&m;ocifxHodkY vnf;aumif; jyefoGm;&vdrfhrnf/
a'oemusrf; 12;7

oifonf ajrrIefYrSvmí ajrrIefYodkY jyefavmh[k qdk&mwGif 0dnmOfESihf tBuHK;0if ygwfoufjcif; vHk;0r&Sdyg/


tdyfcsf'AvsLavmif;zJvdk;

wcgu umwGef;q&m tmomb&pfbdef;onf claumifwpftkyf ylaqG;vsuf clcGHwpfckudk oN*dKvf&ef o,faqmifoGm;onfh


tjzpfudk awGYjrifvdkufonf/ pdwfysuf0rf;enf;rI zHk;vTrf;aeMuaom claumifrsm;onf teufa&mifrsm; 0wfqifvTrf;NcHKum
idka<u;aeMuonfudk jrif&onfrSm oem;pzG,fyif aumif;awmhonf/ xdktcdkuf clcGHtdrfrS vGwfajrmufvmaom vSyvSonfh
vdyfjymuav;rsm;rSm rdrdwdkYtawmifrsm;udk cgcwfvsuf aysmf&TifpGmjzifh pdwfysuf&GHY&SmzG,faumif;aom avmuBuD;txufü
ysHoef;aeavonf/ 4if;onf avmu\ csLyfaESmifrItcGHrS xm0&vGwfajrmuf aeayonf/
b&pfbdef;onf omreftokb wpfckudk pOf;pm;aeonfudk ajymjy&ef rvdkawmhyg/ olonf uREkfyfwdkY cspfcifolrsm;
aoqH;k oGm;aomtcg <uif;useaf om (cltrd uf o
kd m owd&Ny;D ) &kyt
f avmif;udo
k m tm&Hjk yKNy;D vSyawmufajymifvo
S nfh vdyjf ymaumifukd
arhaejcif;onf vl\ rdkufrSm;jcif;omvQif jzpfaMumif;udk today; ajymMum;jcif;yif jzpfonf/
ighudkrlum; bk&m;ocif odrf;,lawmfrlaomaMumihf igh\0dnmOfudk r&PEdkifiH\ wefcdk;rS a&G;EIwfawmfrl\/
qmvH/ 49;15

›
ppfom;&JbufwpfOD;u ]] uREkfyf aoqHk;oGm;aomtcg uREkfyf\ ocFsKdif;*lay:wGif wD;acgufoHrsm; r&SdapbJ eHeufcif; Edk;x&ef
qifhac:onfh c&moHudkom rIwfyg }} [k ajymcJh\/

bif*srifz&efuvif\ ausmufjym;pm
þcE¨mudk,fonf pmtkyfyHkESdyfol bif*srifz&efuvif\ &kyftavmif;yif jzpfonf/ pmtkyfa[mif; wpftkyf\ tzHk;uJhodkYyif
4if;\ rmwdumrsm;rSm pmvHk;rsm;? tuGyfrsm;rS pkwfNyJvsuf &SdaeNyD; ... odkYaomf ta&;tom; vuf&mtaejzihfum; aysmufysufjcif;
r&Sdyg? tb,fhaMumihfqdkaomf rdrd,HkMunfonfhtwdkif; opfvGifNyD; ydkí opfvGifawmufyaom xkwfa0jzefYcsDonfhtcg wzefjyefvnf
awGYjrif&rnfom/ xdktcgrS pma&;olonf bk&m;ocifu jyKjyifjznfhpGufxm;jcif;udk awGYjrif&ygrnf/

aojcif;qdkonfrSm pdk;&GHYp&m r[kwfbJ arQmfvifhBudKqdk xm;oifhayonf/ odkYaomf uREfkyfwdkYonf aojcif;udk tvQifpvdk


rzdwfac:oifhay/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf tqdk;0g;qHk; qHk;&IH;rIESihf tnHhcH t&IH;ay;jcif;onfum; rdrdudk,frdrd owfao tqHk;pD&ifaom
t&myifjzpfonf/ odkYaomf uREkfyfwdkYonf bk&m;ocif ac:awmfrlonfh tcsdef usa&mufonfh tcsdefwdkifatmif pdwf&SnfoD;cHNyD;
apmifhqdkif;rnfqdkygu udk,fawmf&Sif ac:awmfrlaom aeYtcsdef tcgonf uREkfyfwdkY aus;Zl;txl; wifMurnfholrsm; jzpfygonf/
uREkfyfwdkYonf aumif;uifbHk&Sd uREkfyfwdkY\ aetdrfodkY a&muf&SdoGm;um trSefyif xdkufwefvSonfudk awGY&Sd&ayvdrfhrnf/
'DbDbD

aemufqHk;aom &efolwnf;[laom aorif;onf qHk;&HI;jcif;odkY a&muf&vwÅHY/


1aum 15;26

aojcif;qdkonfrSm þb0wGif twef;(tqifh) wpfckudk atmifjrifNyD;qHk;oGm;jcif;om jzpfygonf/ uREkfyfwdkY\ vGwfajrmuf&m?


uREyfk w
f \
Ykd atmifjrifNy;D qH;k rIEiS fh uREyfk w
f \
Ykd wd;k wufjcif;yif jzpfygonf/ ausmif;Ny;D qH;k avNy/D þtwef;ü ausmif;wufjcif;rS NyD;qH;k Ny;D
tjcm;wpfwef;odkY wufoGm;avNyD/
'DbDbD

þavmuü uREkfyfwdkY touf&Sifp&mtaMumif; rsm;pGm&Sdayonf/ aemifwpfb0wGifum; ,ckxufyif touf&Sifp&m


taMumif;rsm; &Sad eayonf/ aojcif;onf vlwpfO;D tm; touf&iS af ejcif;rS vSnzhf sm;ac:xkwv
f u
kd jf cif; r[kwaf y/ touf&iS jf cif;udk
ydkrdk zGHUNzdK;ap&ef tm;jznfhay;vdkufjcif;om jzpfonf/
pDt,fvfat

uREkfyftm; tdrfawmfodkY jyefoGm;&ef c&pfawmfac:aomtcg uREkfyfwdkYonf pmoifausmif;rS cHkaygufajy;xGufoGm;aom


ausmif;om;uav; wpfa,mufuJhodkYaom aysmf&TifrIjzifh c&pfawmfESihf twl vdkufoGm;ygrnf/
t'dkeD&if*syfqif?jrefrm
EdkifiHodkY yxrqHk;a&muf&SdvmaomomoemjyK

igonf xajrmufjcif;taMumif;? touf&iS jf cif;taMumif; jzpf\/ ighukd ,HMk unfaomolonf aovGeaf omfvnf; &Siv
f rd rhf nf/
ighudk,HkMunfí touf&Sifol &SdorQwkdYonfvnf; aojcif;ESihf tpOfrjywf uif;vGwfMuvdrfhrnf/
a,&I? a,m[ef 11;25-26

wpfcgu {0Ha*vdq&mrl'Donf ol\ wuf<u&Tifjyaom taetwdkif; ]]wpfaeY cifAsm;wdkY oDwif;pmawGxJrSm 'Dt,fvfrl'D


ta&SUaemfzD;vfonf tedpöa&mufoGm;NyDvdkY zwf&Muvdrfhr,f/ 'Dpum;udk r,HkMuygeJY/ tJ'Daow,fvdkY ajymwJhtcsdefrSm uRefawmf[m
,ckxufyifydkí &SifoefvQuf&Sdaeygr,f/ uRefawmfu ydkíjrifhwJh ae&mudk a&mufoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/ uRefawmfu &GYHeJYvkyfxm;wJh
þaetdrfrS xm0&touf&Sif&mtdrfodkY a&muf&SdoGm;NyD; aojcif;u rxd&Jaom cE¨mudk,fjzifh xm0&touf&SifoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f }}
[k qdkxm;onf/

igonf touf&SifaomaMumifh oifwdkYonfvnf; touf&Sif Muvdrfhrnf/


a,&I? a,m[ef 14;19
›

t&Sifbk&m; - þavmuü uREkfyfvkyfudkif&efrsm; ukefqHk;NyD[k jrifodygu -udpörsm;ajrmif þvlYabmifwGif


tiftm;csdeJY EGrf;vsarmyef;pGmjzifh
tcsdefrsm;qGJí ae&cGifhudk ray;ygESihf/
ocifbk&m; - udk,fawmf&Sif\ trdefYwpfcsufjzihf
tdrfawmfodkY jyef&ef rdfefYac:ygu
tuREfkyf aysmf&Tif0rf;ajrmufpGmjzifh
uREkfyf trSef vmygrnf/
trSefwpfu,f aysmf&Tif0rf;ajrmuf
uREkfyf trSefvmygrnf/
*Refatmhpif;[rf;

bk&m;ocifudk rjrif&rcsif; uREkfyf toufr&Sifao;yg/ bk&m;ocifudk jrif&NyD;rSvnf; uREfkyfraoawmhyg/


*Ref'Gef;

,m,DwjJ zpfaom ighwYkd ajrtdro


f nf ysuv
f Qif aumif;uifbükH vlv
Y ufjzifh rvkyb
f J bk&m;ocif zefqif;awmfral om edpx
ö m0&
tdrf&SdaMumif;udk igwdkY odjrifMu\/
2aum/ 5;1

bk&m;ocifonf aoaeaom olwdkY\ bk&m;r[kwf? touf&Sifaeaom olwdkY\ bk&m;jzpfawmfrlonf/


a,&I róJ / 22;32

a,&Iu ]]aumif;uifEkdifiHawmfonf v,füpdkufaom rkefnSif;aphESifh wlonf }} [k rdefYawmfrl\/ (róJ 13;31) taphonf


&SifoefBuD;xGm;jcif;\ tpjzpfouJhodkY þavmu toufwmonfvnf; tprQom jzpfay\/ tqHk;ed*Hk; r[kwfao;yg/ uREkfyfwkdY
cE¨mrsm;rSm uREkfyfwdkY\ 0dnmOfrsm; uRwfvGwfonfESifh uREkfyfwkdY qufvuf touf&SifoGm;ayonf/
pDt,fvfat

a,&Iu - oifonf aep&mt&yfudk jyifqifjcif;iSm igoGm;&\


[k rdefYawmfrl\ (a,m[ef 14;2) uREkfyfwkdYonf aemufwpfb0odkY olkpdrf;rsm;uJhodkY a&muf&Sd&rnf r[kwfyg/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf
uREyfk w
f Ykd xdb
k 0odYk a&muf&v
dS mrnfukd uREyfk w
f t
Ykd wGuf BuKd wifjyifqif xm;&SNd y;D uREyfk w
f t
Ykd m; vdv
k v
kd m;vm; apmifah rQmaf eMuayonf/
pDt,fvfat

›
aEG;axG;vHkNcHK aeap&ef ckdudk;qnf;uyfyg/

vlonf aoqHk;oGm;aomtcg 0dnmOfonf cE¨mudk,f\ emjcif;? EGrf;vsjcif;? zsm;emjcif;rsm;ESifh rpGrf;aqmifEdkifjcif;rsm;rS


uifvGwfoGm;um txGwfjrwfqHk;toufudk pwif&m tcsdefyif jzpfygonf/ jrifhjrwfpGm touf&Sifjcif;twGuf aojcif;u tpysdK;jcif;
jzpfygonf/
pDt,fvfat

aojcif;qdkonfrSm uREkfyfwdkY &Sd&SdorQ aomursm;\ tokbyif jzpfayonf/


'DbDbD

aojcif;qdo k nfrmS taumif;qH;k aom ukojcif; wpfco k m jzpfygonf/ xdaYk Mumifh ao&rnfukd rpd;k &dryf gESi/hf uREyfk w
f Ykd aoqH;k aom
tcsed of nf uREyfk w f tYkd wGuf a&m*ga0'em aemufq;kH ESihf xm0& touf aysmufuif;jcif;aywnf;/ tdrk if;&ifah &mfaeaom uREyfk w f \
Ykd cE¨mrS
uREyfk wf Ykd vGwaf jrmufMuavNy/D tJ'aD emufrmS awmh a&m*ga0'emrsm; 'kuq © if;&Jjcif;rsm; r&Sad wmhyg/ uREyfk w
f o
Ykd nfvnf; 0dnmOfcE¨mjzifh
topfaom yHkpHwGif &Sdaernfjzpfí rnfolYudkrQ 'ku© taESmuft,Suf ay;awmhrnf r[kwfyg/
'DbDbD

›
ta&;taMumif;ESifh BuHKygu qmvH 23 onf tpOfBuD;rm;aom cGeftm;udk &&Sdapygonf/ xdkusrf;csufonf t&Sifocifu
uREkfyfwdkYudk rnfonfhtcgrQ pGefYy,fvdrfhrnf r[kwfaMumif;udk pdwfcsaeapaom usrf;csufrsm; jzpfayonf/ aorif;t&dyf&Sdaom
vQKd ajrmif ajcmufurf;bm;ü uREyfk w f Ykd avQmufomG ;&vifu h pm; ud,
k af wmfonf tuREyfk w
f EYkd iS t
hf wl &Syd grnf[k ajymygonf/ xdt
k csed üf
udk,fawmfonf uREkfyfwdkYESifh&SdNyD; uREkfyfwdkYtm; ESpfodrfhum xm0& touf&Sifaom ae&modkY ydkYaqmifay;ayrnf/
'DbDbD

qmvH - 23
xm0&bk&m;onf ig\ odk;xdef; jzpfawmfrl\/igonf qif;&JrcH&/
pdrf;vef;aom usufpm;&m t&yfü ighudk tdyfapawmfrl\/
om,maom jrpfem;odkY vrf;jyawmfrl\/
igh0dnmOfudk tm;jznfhí emrawmftbfdkY tvdkYiSm? w&m;vrf;xJ
ü aoG;aqmifawmfrl\/
tu,fí aorif;\ t&dyfvTrf;rdk;aom csdKifhxJodkY a&mufoGm;&aomfvnf; ab;tEÅ&m,fudk raMumufyg/
taMumif;rlum; udk,fawmfonf tuREkfyfESifh twl &Sdawmfrlonf jzpfí tuREkfyfudk csrf;omapyg\/
tuREkfyf\ &efolwdkYa&SYrSm tuREkfyftbdkY pm;yGJudkcif;awmfrl\/
tuREkfyfacgif;udk qDESifh vdrf;awmfrl\/ tuREkfyfcGufzvm;onf vQHvsuf&Sdyg\/
tu,fpifppf tuREyfk o f nf aus;Zl;ESihf u&kPmudk wpfoufv;kH cHpm;í xm0&bk&m;\ tdraf wmfrmS tpOftNrJ ae&ygvdrrhf nf/

tdk r&PmEdkifiH? oif\ atmifjcif;onf tb,frSm &Sdoenf;/


1aum/ 15;55

›
0rf;enf;aMuuGJ&ef rvdkawmhyg/

aojcif;? emusijf cif;? qmavmifjcif;? aMumuf&jYHG cif;? ylaqG;jcif;? idak <u;jcif;? zsm;emjcif;? a&m*ga0'em jzpfymG ;jcif;rsm; r&Sad wmhbJ
t&mcyfodrf;onf 0rf;ajrmuf&Tifvef;zG,f om,mqGwfarmzG,fjzifhom zHk;vTrf;aeaom avmuBuD; wpfckudk oifrSef;q
awG;jrifEkdifygovm;/ xdkavmuBuD;onfum; o[Zmw tjynfht0&SdNyD; cspfjcif;arwÅmtm;jzifh aygif;pnf;aexdkifaom
vlYabmiftzGJYtpnf; jzpfayonf/ xdkavmuBuD;onfum; aumif;uifbHkyif jzpfawmhonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHk &Sdjcif;twGuf bk&m;ocifudk aus;Zl;awmf csD;rGrf;yg/ aumif;uifbkHü t&mcyfodrf;onf tqifajy acsmarGYum


rSefuefaumif;rGefvsuf &Sdayonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHka&mufaomf avmuü tb,fhaMumifh uREkfyfwdkY a0'emrsm; cHpm;cJh&onfudk oabmayguf em;vnf;ayrnf/


wrefawmfBu;D &Siaf ygvku ]],ckwiG f igwdo
Yk nf rSet
f m;jzifh &dyrf v
d suo
f m aeMu\/ xdt
k cgrlum;? rsuaf rSmufxifxif jrif&Muvdrrhf nf/
,ckwGif
igtodtjrif rpHkvifjzpf\/ xdktcgrlum;? olwpfyg;onf ighudk odouJhodkY igod&vdrfhrnf/
'DbDbD
›

aumif;uifbEkH iS hf ywfoufí a&;om;azmfjycsurf sm;wGif Asm'dwu


f sr;f tcef;Bu;D 21? tcef;i,f 4 onfvnf; or®musr;f pmwGif
ESpfoufzG,f&m taumif;qHk; usrf;ydk'frsm;wGif wpfcktygt0if jzpfygonf/ &Sifa,m[efu ]]bk&m;ocifonf olwdkY\ rsufpdü
rsuf&nf&SdorQwdkYudk okwfawmfrlrnf/ aemufwzef aoab;r&Sd&/ pdwfrom nnf;wGm;jcif;? atmf[pfjcif;? yifyef;jcif;vnf; r&Sd&/
taMumif;rlum; a&S;jzpfzl;aom t&mwdkYonf a&GYoGm;MuNyD}} [k rdefYMum;cJhygonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHk qdkonfrSm vlom;\ tjypf'kp&dkufaMumifh aygufyGm;vmaom emusifjcif;? aojcif;wnf;[laom a0'emrsm;


oufom aysmufuif;oGm;&m ae&mXmeyif jzpfonf/ xdaYk Mumihyf if bk&m;ocifu aumif;uifbükH qif;&Ja0'em? emusijf cif; aojcif;ESifh
idka<u;jcif;rsm; &Sdawmhrnf r[kwfaMumif; rdefYMum;ygonf/
'DbDbD

aojcif;udkvnf; epfrGef;qHk;&HI; apawmfrlvdrfhrnf/ t&Sifxm0& bk&m;onfvnf; cyfodrf;aom rsufESmwdkYrS rsuf&nfudk


okwfawmfrlvdrfhrnf/
a[&Sm, tem*wÅdusr;f 25;8

olwdkYonf aemufwzefa&udk riwfrrGwf&/ aea&mifjcnf tvsif;rxd&/ tb,ftyludkrQ rcH&Mu/ taMumif;rlum;


yv’ifawmftwGif;ü &Sdaom odk;oli,fonf olwdkUudk vkyfauR;í toufprf;a&wGif;odkY vrf;jyvdrfhrnf/ bk&m;ocifonfvnf; olwdkY
rsufpdü rsuf&nf&SdorQwdkYudk okwfawmfrlrnf[k qdkav\/
Asm'dwf 7;16-17
›

aumif;uifbHk a&mufaomtcg idka<u;rsuf&nf usp&m taMumif;rsm; &SdayOD;rnf/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf bk&m;ocifu


vlw\ Ykd rsu&f nfrsm;udk okwyf pfay;&ef &Sad omaMumihf jzpfonf/ uREyfk w
f Ykd awmfawmfrsm;rsm;onf aumif;uifbo kH Ykd pa&mufaomtcgü
uREkfyfwdkY\ rsm;pGmaom rSm;,Gif;rIrsm;aMumifh jzpfay:cJh&aom tzdk;tcrsm;ESihf qHk;&HI;rIudk od&SdvmaomaMumifh idka<u;MuOD;rnfrSm
,Hrk mS ;oHo& &Spd &m taMumif;r&Sad y/ odaYk omf bk&m;ocifonf uREyfk wf \ Ykd 0rf;enf; idak <u;jcif;rsm;udk aysmufuif;apNy;D ? tem*wftwGuf
pdwcf eG t f m;udk ay;vsu&f ydS gonf/ aumif;uifbükH rsu&f nfrsm; usaeOD;rnf/ odaYk omf bk&m;ocifonf rdr0d rf;ajrmuf &Tiv f ef;jcif;jzifh
idka<u;jcif;udk aysmufuif;apygrnf/ xdkYaemuf rsuf&nfrsm; rusawmhouJhodkY ESpf&ufumvrsm;vnf;? r&SdawmhbJ xm0&
aysmf&Tifjcif;omvQif jzpfay:aeayrnf/
'DbDbD

pdwfysuf 0rf;enf;jcif;rsm;? NydKvJoGm;aom tdrfrsm;ESifh cg;oD;aom tawGYtBuHKrsm;onf tdyfrufqkd; wpfckuJhodkY rMumrD


arhavsmh aysmufysuf oGm;ayvdrfhrnf/ xdktcsdefü aumif;uif EdkifiHawmf\ bkef;tmEkabmfESifh jynfhpHkaom tm&Hkusa&mufvmayrnf/
'DbDbD

›
xdkt&yfü vlqdk;wdkYonf aemufwzef raESmuf,Suf&/ yifyef;aom olwdkYonf csrf;om&Mu\/
a,mb 3;1

a&m*ga0'emrsm; vHk;0 aysmufuif;Edkifaom wpfckwnf;aom ae&mum; aumif;uifbHkyif jzpfayonf/


'DbDbD

ab;tEÅ&m,f? ysufpD;qHk;&HI;rIESifh npfax;rIrsm;jzpfonfh qif;&Jaomu a0'emrsm;pGmudk avmuü touf&SifpOf umvuJhodkY


vnf;aumif;? aumif;uifbkH a&mufaomtcgü awGBY uKH &awmhrnf r[kwyf g/ tb,fah Mumifq h akd omf aumif;uifbükH t&mcyford ;f onf
bk&m;ocif urÇmajrBuD;udk pwifzefqif;onfh tcsdefouJhodkYyif yuwd vSyom,maejcif;aMumifh jzpfygonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHk tzGJYtpnf;wGif w&m;rQwrI tjynfht0ESifh aumif;jrwfpGmjzifh tkyfcsLyfjcif;jzifh ppfrSefaom vGwfvyfrI?


Nidrfoufjcif;ESifh tm;vHk;twGuf ajrmufrsm;pGmaom aysmf&Tifjcif;rsm; &&SdcHpm;Edkifayrnf/ xdkacwftcsdefumvu a[&Sm, Asm'dwfrSm
]]xm0&bk&m;onf vlrsdK;wdkYwGif w&m;pD&ifí rsm;jym;aom olwdkYudk qHk;rawmfrlojzifh olwdkYxm;onfh vufeufrsm;udk
xGefoGm;jzpfapjcif;iSm vnf;aumif;? vHSrsm;udk wHpOf jzpfapjcif;iSm vnf;aumif;? xkvkyfMuvdrfhrnf/ wpfjynfudk wpfjynf ppfrwdkuf?
ppftwwfudkfvnf; aemufwzef roif&Mu/ (a,&Sm,/ 2;4)
'DbDbD
›

,aeYurÇmay:wGif BuHKawGYae&aom xdwfvefYzG,f wdkufcdkufjcif;rsm;? owfjzwfjcif;rsm;ESifh ppfrufa&;&mtwGuf


vufeufu&d,mrsm; xkwfvkyfpkaqmif;jcif;rsdK;rsm; &Sdawmhvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg/ awmfrSefajzmifhrwfaom tkyfcsLyfolESifh rSefuefpGm
tkycf sLyfaom tpd;k &tzGo
YJ m aemufq;kH rS &Sad yvdrrhf nf/ tvGo
J ;kH pm;jyKjcif;? qd;k oGr;f ,kwrf mjcif;? 'kp&du
k f jyKvyk jf cif;ESihf vm'fpm;jcif;rsm;aomf
vnf;aumif;? uvdrfuuspf EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;vnf; &Sdrnfr[kwfbJ? ajzmifhrwfaom tkyfcsLyfa&;jzifh tm;vHk;udk ppfrSefaom
w&m;rQwrIrsdK; &&Sdapvdrfhrnf/
'DbDbD

bk&m;ocifonf qif;&JErG ;f yg;aom om;orD;rsm;udk u,froem;Ny;D zdEydS &f ufpuforl sm;udk tpdwpf wd f trTmrTm NzKd ciG ;f vdu
k af yrnf/
qmvHq&mu - xkrd if;onf ud, k af wmf\ vlww Ykd iG f qif;&Jom;wdu
Yk kd w&m;pD&ifvQuf iwfrw
G af om olw\ Ykd om;orD;rsm;udk u,frí
nSO;f qJaom oluvkd nf; ESyd pf ufygvdrrhf nf/ taMumif;rlum; iwfrw G af omol? atmf[pfaomtcg xdo k u
l v
kd nf;aumif;? ud;k uG,&f mr&Sí d
qif;&Jaom oludkvnf;aumif; ? csrf;om ay;awmfrlvdrfhrnf/
qmvH 72;4?12

wefcdk;tmPm BuD;rm;ol aomfvnf;aumif;? zdESdyfcsLyfcs,fjcif; cH&aom qif;&Jom; aomfvnf;aumif;? &Sdvdrfhrnf r[kwfbJ?


ajzmifrh eS jf cif;ESihf w&m;rQwrI&NdS y;D tm;vH;k onf xm0& aysm&f iT f Muayvdrrhf nf/ xkaYd Mumifh oifonf csKd ,
Y iG ;f csuu
f if;Ny;D jynfph akH omEdik if ?H
cRwf,Gif;csufuif;aom tpdk;&ESifh EdkifiHom;rsm; aexdkifvQuf&Sdaom EdkifiHudk &SmazGaeygu aemufxyf enf;enf;om apmifhayOD;awmh/
rMumrD a&mufvmygawmhrnf/
'DbDbD

cspfjrwfEdk;cJholrsm;ESifh jyefvnfqHkqnf;jcif;

aumif;uifbHkESifh ywfoufaom taumif;qHk; t&mrsm;teuf avmuwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhMuaom cspfjrwfEdk;&olrsm;ESihf


jyefvnfaygif;zuf qHkqnf;&cGifhonfvnf; wpfcktygt0if jzpfonf/ uREfkyf cspfjrwfEdk;cJh&olrsm;? aqGrsdK;rdwfoCF[rsm;?
bdk;bGm;bDbifrsm;ESifh wpfae&mwnf;? wpfcsdefwnf;ü &Tifvrf;0rf;ajrmufpGm jyefvnfaygif; zufcGifh&aom tBuD;us,fqHk; rdom;pk
jyefvnfqHkqnf;&aom yGJBuD; wpfckyif jzpfonf/ aemufqHk;ü tm;vHk; twlwuG aexdkif&awmhonf/
'DbDbD

rMumrMum vlrsm;onf uREkfyfxHodkY a&mufvmNyD; ]] rpöwm rl'D uREkfyfwdkY aoqHk;NyD;aemuf? aumif;uifbHkodkY a&mufMuwJhtcg
wpfa,mufeYJ wpfa,muf odMuyghrvm; }} [k ar;wwfMuygonf/ xdo k Ykd ar;wwforl sm;rSm &ifEpS o f nf;csm cspv f pS mG aom om;uav;
qHk;&HI;vdkuf&NyD; om;i,ftm; jyefvnfawGYqHkvdkvSonfh rdcifwpfOD; jzpfwwfovdk tar (odkY) taz uG,fvGefoGm;&Smaom om;i,fu
rdbrsm;tm; aumif;uifbükH jyefvnfqakH omtcg rSwrf v d o
kd rl sm; jzpfygonf/ þar;cGe;f udk tajzay;aom usr;fcsuu f m; ]]uREyfk rf u
l m;
ajzmifrh wfí rsuEf mS awmfukd zl;jrif&ygvdrrhf nf/ Ed;k aomtcg yHo k @mefawmftm;jzifh uREyfk t f vdjk ynfph kH &ygvdrrhf nf}} uREyfk f odvokd nfrmS
þtcsufyif jzpfygonf/ raeYwaeYu txufbHkodkY a&mufoGm;NyDjzpfaom nDtpfudktm; uREfkyfjyefawGY&ayrnf/ aumif;uifbHkü
a&muf&adS eaom olrsm;udk þavmuü touf&iS pf Ofu cspcf ifcyhJ gu xdak e&mü uREykf w f Ykd jyefqakH omtcg tqaygif; wpfaxmifausmf
cspfcifcGifh &ayrnf/
'dGKuft,fvfrl'D

aoqH;k Ny;D aemuf0,f uREykf w


f \
Ykd 0dnmOfrsm;onf uGjJ ym;í raeawmhyg/ bk&m;ocif\ qef;us,af om zefqif;rI wpfae&mwGif
acwÅcGJcGmcJh&aom cspfjrwfEdk;&olrsm;ESifh jyefvnfqHkqnf;cGifh &ayrnf/
pDt,fvfat

]]cspfjcif;arwÅm [lorQonf bk&m;ocifxHü &Sdayonf}} [k wrefawmf a,m[efu uREfkyfwdkYtm; owday;aeygonf/


cspfjcif;arwÅmonf vlaoacgif;wGif;ü xnfhí oN*dKvfvdkufí r&yg/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf þavmuü om,mvSyaomfvnf;
xm0&r&Sb d J cGcJ mG oGm;&aom aygif;oif;qufqjH cif;rsm;onf txufaumif;uifbkH crnf;awmf\ aetdrüf jyefvnfí pEdik af omaMumifh
jzpfonf/ bcrnf;awmf\ aetdrfü uREfkyfwdkYonf jynfhpHkppfrSefaom rdwfo[m,jzifh rdom;pkwpfckwnf;ü aexdkif&ayrnf/
tdyf(csf)avmh(cf),m
›

uG,fvGefoGm;aom nDjzpfol *Ref\ ZeD;xHodkY 1756ckESpf? azz0g&Dv (22)&ufaeYu bifz&efYuvif ay;ydkYaom pmrS
aumufEIwfcsuf/

nDrav; -
rif;eJY twlxyfwl xyfrQ aMuuG0J rf;enf; rdygw,f/ 'd[ Yk m tcsp&f qH;k wefb;kd rjzwfEikd w
f hJ aqGrsKd ;wpfa,mufukd qH;k &I;H &ygw,f/
'gayrJh - 'g[m bk&m;ocif&Jh tvdkawmfygbJvdkY vufcHMu&rSmbJ/ aemufNyD; obm0w&m; t&bJ aorsdK;&Jh cE¨mudk,fudk pGefYNyD;
nDav;*Ref&Jh 0dnmOf[m ppfrSefaom xm0&toufudk &&SdbdkYtwGuf oaE ¨jyefwnfw,fvdkYbJ vufcHoabmayguf&rSmyg/
wu,fawmh vlwpfa,muf[m raorcsif; vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; arG;zGGm;w,fvdkY rqdkEdkifygbl;/ 'gaMumifh raoawmhwJh b0xJudk
topfpufpuf uav;i,fav; wpfa,mufarG;zGm; vmjcif;twGuf 'dkYubmaMumifh ylaqG;ae&rSmvJ? wpfu,fawmh aysmf&TifwJh
todkif;t0dkif;xJudk tzGJY0ifopfwpfOD; a&muf&SdoGm;wmbJ jzpfygw,f/
uREfkyfwdkY cE¨mudk,frsm;udk acwÅ iSm;&r;fay;xm;jcif;twGuf bk&m;ocifonf oem;Muifemí aumif;rI wpfckay;jcif;om
jzpfonf[k ,lq&ayrnf/ udk,fawmf&Sifbk&m;\ tvdkawmfESifh rnDawmhbJ uREkfyfwdkYtm; om,mokc rcHpm;&bJ 'ku©a0'emrsm;om
jzpfay:apjcif;? olwpfyg;udk ulnDaxmufyHh&rnfhtpm;? 'ku©a0'emESifh 0efxkyf0efydk;om jzpfapum bk&m;ocif\ rlv &nf&G,fcsufudk
tusKd ;wpfcrk Q rjyKawmhjcif;twGuf þcE¨mud, k t
f m; pGev
Yf w
T yf pf&ef enf;vrf;udk ay;jcif;twGuv f nf; bk&m;ocifonf uREykf w f t
Ykd ay:
Muifemvsuf aumif;jrwfvSaMumif;udk oabmayguf &ayrnf/
aojcif;w&m;qdkonfrSm 'Dtwdkif;ygbJ/ 'gaMumifh bmvdkYidka<u; ylaqG;ae&rSmvJ/ rMumcif 'dkUwawGvnf; nDav;aemuf
vdkufMuNyD; olb,frSm&SdovJqdkwm odaeMuwmbJ/

aoqHk;NyD; aemufwpfb0
uREkfyftwGufawmh teD;av;vdkygbJ/
aemifb0qdkwJh xl;qef;vSwJhEdkifiH vufwpfvSrf;
wpfbufurf;üom jzpfygw,ff/
odkYaomf- uREkfyf ESpfoufcspfcifvSolrsm;\
aeom;Muaeaom Xmaeom jzpfí
uREfkyftwGufrl - a0;vHaom wdkif;jynfrsm;rSm rdwfaqGrsm;
c&D;oGm;vmí wdkif;EdkifiHrsm; eD;uyfaeouJhodkY
xdkwdkif;EkdifiHonf uREkfyf &if;ESD;cifrifNyD; vQufyg/

'gaMumifh uREkfyftbdkY aojcif;twGuf


emusifpl;&S&ef taMumif;r&Sdyg/ aojcif;udk atmifjrifEdkifayNyD/
trSefawmh aojcif;qdkonfrSm
yifv,fauGY ajrSmifuav; wpfckudk ul;jzwfpOf
touf&I &yfem;oGm;um rsufESmjzLavsmf wnfaejcif; omjzpfNyD;- wpfzufurf;ü cspfcif&olrsm;
apmifhpm;aeonfudk awGYjrif&NyD;
,cifuxuf ydkívSy? ydkíwefbdk;BuD;vSaom
tcsdefomvQif jzpfayonf/
t,fvm0SD;vm? 0D;vfaumh

aumif;uifbHkodkY a&mufaeaom oifcspfcif&oludk awGYjrif&ef wrf;waeygu pdwfrysufygESifh/ oifjyefawGY&rSmyg/


oifMum;vdak om toHukd jyefMum;&rSmyg/ avmurSm touf&iS pf Ofu &kyo
f @meftwkid ;f oifcspcf if&oltm; aumif;uifü jrifjrifjcif;
oifrSwfrdrSmyg/ tJ'Dvdk aumif;uifrSm qHkMu&ifawmh? aemifb,faomtcgrQ rcGJMu&awmhygbl;/ oifcspfcif&aom olonf
oifESifhwcPcGJcGm aysmufqHk;&jcif;om jzpfygonf/
tdyfcsf - avmh,m

aumif; uifbHkü ]] cGJcGmjcif; }} qdkonfh a0g[m& r&Sdyg/

›
uREfkyfonf cspfcifwwfaom toJESvHk; ydkif&Sifrsm;tm; rmaMumaom ajrBuD;xJwGif jrSyfESHoN*dKvfvdkuf&onftxd tnHhcH
vufavsmhwwfol r[kwfyg/
tJhwem?pdefAifhpifh?rDav;

uREfkyfpdwful;Munfhrdaom aumif;uifEdkifiH
aumif;uifbHk[m bmvJqdkwm uREkfyfrodyg/ odkYaomf c&rf;a&mif awmifukef;rsm; rysufaom tvSESifh zl;yGifhonfh yef;yifrsm;
aygufum awmufyaom v,fuGif;rsm;? &,farmoHrsm; vTrf;NcHKaeaom prf;acsmif;rsm;? aw;oHomrsm; Nidrfhanmif;aeaom jrpfrsm;ESifh
xm0& cspfjcif;arwÅmjzifh jynfh0aeaom eef;awmfrsm; &SdMuonf[k tuREfkyf tcsdeftawmfMumuwnf;uyif pdwful;ayguf
a&mufcJhygonf/ wzef aumif;uifbHkwGif aMumifausmufESihf aqmufwnfxm;aom arQmfpifrsm;? awmufajymifaeonfh trdk;0kdif;ESihf
taqmuftODBuD; rsm;vnf; &Sdaeonf[k uREkfyfpdwful; rdygao;onf/ odkYaomf ykvJjzifh aqmufvkyfxm;aom wHcg;0rsm;ESifh
a&Tjzifhcif;xm;aom vrf;rsm;udk uRefawmf pdwfr0ifpm;yg/ uREfkfyfawGYjrifvdkonfrSm þavmuwGif touf&SifpOfu uREkfyfudk
aumif;csD;rsm;pGm ay;cJhonfh bkef;yGifhvef;aeaom taz? tarESifh aoqHk;oGm;aom nDav;wdkYom jzpfayonf/ Mu,fyGifhrsm;jzifh
rGef;rHxm;aom pdefo&zlESihf a&Tapmif;wdkYudk uREkfyf *&krjyKbJ? uREkfyfrdbESifh nDav;wdkYESihf twl NyHK;&Tifaeaom u,fwif&Sif
bk&m;ESifhtpOftNrJom &Sdygawmhonf/
abmhawvm

uREfkyfwdkY\ aumif;uifbHk udk,fcE¨mrsm;

wpfOD;csif; aumif;uifbHkodkY a&mufaomf rnfodkY &Sdaernfudk OD;pGmrodrjcif; aumif;uifbHkonf rnfrQ qef;us,fvSonfudk


uREfkyfwdkY em;vnfEdkifrnf r[kwf/
'DbDbD

þavmuESihf oufqikd af eaom uREyfk w f \


Ykd cE¨mud,
k o
f nf vIy&f mS ;rIrsm;ü aES;auG;av;vefv
f Quf &Syd gonf/ ai;armawGa0Ny;D
vIyf&Sm;oGm;vm&jcif;rsm;aMumifh EGrf;e,foGm;ayonf/ odkYaomf aumif;uifbHk&Sd uREkfyfwdkY\ cE¨mudk,frsm;onf rD;uJhodkY vsifjrefNyD;
uREfkyfwdkY\ tawG;rsm;uJhodkY jrefqefayghyg; oGufvufvQuf &Sdayonf/
*Ref0ufpav

oifonf oif\ yuwd&kyftwdkif;om &SdNyD;? onftoGif o@mef twdkif;om &Sdsaeayrnf/ ydkíaumif;jrwfjcif;om


xl;jcm;aeayrnf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHkü uREfkyfwdkY\ cE¨mudk,frsm;onf ,cktwdkif;yif &SdaeMuayrnf/ ydkí aumif;jrwfjcif;onf xl;jcm;oGm;ayrnf/


uREkfyfwdkY\ ,ckyHkyef; o@meftwdkif; &SdaeNyD;? wpfOD;udk wpfOD; rSwfrdum aumif;pGm ajymqdk az:jyEdkifayrnf/ ,ck tusifhp&dkuf
yHkpHrsm;twdkif;vnf; qufvuf&Sdaernfom jzpfygonf/
'DbDbD

›
aumif;uifbükH uREykf w
f \
Ykd cE¨mud,
k rf sm;onf ,ckjzpfay: aeonft
h wdik ;f &Srd nf/ odaYk omf yHpk t
H opf jzpfaernf/ tdrk if;&ifah &mf
aqG;ajrYa<uysufaeaom þyuwd &kyfuvyfonf ajrBuD;odkY jyefoGm;ayrnf/ vHk;0opfvGifaom aumif;uifcE¨mudk,fESihf vJvS,f
ajymif;,loGm; &ayrnf/
'DbDbD

aojcif;rS jyefvnfa&muf&Sdvmaom a,&Ionf rdrfd\ ,cif&kyfoGiftwdkif; jrifawGY&NyD; a,&Ionf rdrd\ ,cifcHpm;


awGxY &d onft h wdik ;f cHpm;wwfayonf/ a,&Ionf tpm;tpmudv k nf; pm;aomufEikd Nf y;D ? a&vnf; aomufo;kH um csuNf yKwpf m;aomuf
aexdik Mf uonfrmS ,cifajrBu;D ay:ü touf&iS o f nft
h wdik ;f jzpfygonf/ a,&Ionf rdr\ d wynfah wmfrsm;tm; ]]igvufukd MunfMh uavmh/
ighu,kd yf if jzpf\/ ighuMkd unh&f I prf;oyfMuavmh/ igonf oifwjYkd rifonft h wkid ;f t&d;k tom;ESihf jynfph \
kH / wap rnfonfum; þuJo h Ykd
rjynfhpHk[k rdefYawmfrl\/ wynfhawmfrsm;onf a,&Iudk trSefxdawGYudkifwG,f jrifawGYEdkifMuayonf/ odkYaomf a,&I\ cE¨mudk,fonf
ao&mrS jyefvnfxajrmufonfh tHhbG,fol&Jwefcdk; 'Gdyg'fESifh jynfhpHkaeayonf/
a,&I\ cE¨mudk,f topfonf &kyfydkif;qdkif&m taumiftxnf az:jywwfouJhodkY ikwfvQdK;aysmufuG,f oGm;atmifvnf;
jyKvyk ef ikd af yonf/ jrifuiG ;f wpfcrk S wpfco
k Ykd ausmv
f mT ;Ny;D ay:vGiwf wfouJo h Ykd xlxaJ om tkwef &H rH sm;? aomhcwfxm;aom wHcg;rsm;udk
azgufxGif;oGm;Edkifayonf/ (a,m[ef 20; 19? 26)
'DbDbD

uREykf wf oYkd nf c&pfawmf jyefvnfxajrmuf &Sio f efvmNy;D &Sad om cE¨mud, k t


f wdik ;f cE¨mud,
k rf sm;udk ydik q
f ikd &f Muvdrrhf nf/ uREyfk w
f Ykd
wpfOD;csif; wpfa,mufcsif;onf rysufrpD; xm0&wnfNrJNyD; aus;Zl;awmf csD;rGr;faom opfvGifonfh cE¨mrsm; &&SdMuvdrfhrnf/
,ckwnf&o dS uJo
h Ykd xdck E¨mud,
k rf sm;onf taoG;tom;ESifh t&d;k ppfppfjzifh wHpOfaqmuf aeayvdrrhf nf/ odaYk omf xm0& tom;ta&ESifh
t&dk;rsm;om jzpfayrnf/ ysufpD;jcif;? aoaMujcif;rS uif;a0;ayrnf/ xdkcE¨mudk,frsm;onf &kyfoGif@mefrsm;jzihf ppfrSefaeNyD; od&SdEd kif?
jrifawGYEdkif? xdawGYcHpm;Edkif aom cE¨mudk,frsm; jzpfayrnf/ (a,m[ef 3;2)
'DbDbD

rsufarSmufb0wGif awGY&SdcHpm;&aom om,maysmf&TifrIrsm; tm;vHk;onf aemifwrvGef b0odkYwdkifatmif qufvufjzpfay:


oGm;ayrnf/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf vuf&Sdudk,fcE¨mrsm;ESihf qifwl&Sdaernfh cE¨mudk,frsm;onf uREkfyfwdkY &&SdMuayrnf/ odkYaomf
bkef;usufoa&ESihf wuG xl;qef;um raz:jywwfavmufatmif ydkrkdqef;us,f aeayrnf/ uREfkyfwdkYonf emusifrI? zsm;emrI?
armyef;EGrf;e,f jcif;rsm;twGuf aomfvnf;aumif;? aojcif;twGufaomf vnf;aumif;? cHpm;ylyifp&m r&SdbJ? aysmf&Tif0rf;ajrmufpGm
pm;aomufaexkdif EdkifMuayrnf/
'DbDbD

pu©Ktm&Hkrsm;t&vnf;aumif;? xkwfazmfjyorI &&Sdjcif;rsm;aMumifh vnf;aumif;? aumif;uifbHkudk vQyfwysuf awGY&Sd?


a&muf&SdcJholrsm;\ tawGYtBuHKrsm;t& - aumif;uifbHkodkY a&muf&SdoGm;aomtcg uREkfyfwdkYonf &ifhusufvmouJhodkY &Sd\/
Eke,fi,f&G,folrsm; taejzifh &ifhusufvmMuum oufBuD;&G,ftdkrsm; rS t&G,fvwfrsm;uJhodkY &SdNyD; oefrmum t&G,faumif;rsm;uJhodkY
ay:vGifaeayonf/
'DbDbD

oifMum;ae? qnf;yl;ae?
rSwfom;ae µ

aumif;uifbHkü uREkfyfwdkYonf qufvufíyif oifMum;ae& OD;rnfom jzpfayonf/ uREkfyfwdkYonf qufvufzGHYNzdK;aom


todnmPfrsm; xGef;um;vmayrnf/ odkYaomf vHk;0jynfhpHk<u,f0aom todynmrsm; &&SdOD;rnf r[kwfay/ tem*wf qdkonfrSm
þodkYom jzpfonf/ oifMum;rI vrf;aMumif;ESihf vkyfxHk;vkyf&yfrsm;udk avmurSm tpjyKcJhonfhtwdkif; qufvufí oifMum;oGm;&ef
jzpfonf/ uREkfyfwdkY oif,lrSwfom;&ef rsm;pGm&SdaeayOD;rnf/
'DbDbD

þb0ü roifMum; rod&SdcJhonfrsm; &Sdaeao;í aumif;uifbHkü bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwdkYtm; oifMum;jyo&ef rsm;pGm


&Sdaeayonf/
'DbDbD

trsm;u odaeMuaom ,HMk unfcsuEf iS hf qefu Y siuf m uREyfk wf o Ykd nf aumif;uifbo


kH Ykd a&muf&o
dS nfEiS hf csucf si;f yif t&m&mudk
od&SdEdkifrnf r[kwfyg/ xdkodkYom od&SdEdkifrnfqdkygu uREkfyfwdkY udk,fwdkif t&m&m tm;vHk;udk odjrifwwfaom bk&m;yif jzpfacsayrnf/
rod&Sdaom t&mrsm;udk avhvmoifMum; Edkifap&eftwGuf bk&m;ocifonf tcsdefxm;&Sday;um þb0rS aemifwrvGefb0odkY
a&muf&Sdaomf xm0& toufwmtwGuf vkyfaqmif&efrsm;udk aqmif&GufapayOD;rnf/ twdwfu jzpf&yfrsm;ESihf ,if;wdkY jzpfcJh&jcif;
taMumif;w&m;rsm;udk uREkfyfwdkY avhvm od&SdEdkifayrnf/ 4if;tjyif bk&m;ocif\ rSefuefpGm qifjcifwHkw&m;ESifh udk,fawmf&Sif\
&nf&G,fcsufESifh tvdkawmf rnfodkY&Sdonfudk avhvmod&SdEdkifayrnf/
'DbDbD

xm0&b0wGif tpOfwpdkuf avhvmoifMum;&rnfh vkyfpOfvkyf&yfrsm; &Sdaeayonf/ xdkb0ü tqifhwpfck ajcvSrf;wpfck


&SdvmrnfjzpfNyD; ,cifu jyKvkyf&ef ysufuGufcJhonfrsm; roifMum;vdkuf&aom t&mrsm;udk jyKvkyfoifMum;&ef tcGifhtvrf;rsm;
&Sdvmayrnf/ xm0&b0twGuf bk&m;ocifudk aus;Zl;awmf csD;rGrf;&rnfom/ raumif;aom tusifhp&dkufrsm;tm; jyKjyifoGm;&efESihf
ysufuGuf qHk;&HI;rIrsm;tm; jyefvnfzmax; jyKvkyf&ef rsm;pGm&Sdaeayrnf/ bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwdkYjypfrSm; apmfum;cJholrsm;tm;
jyefvnf qHpk nf;cGihf jyKaumif;jyKayrnf/ xdo
k Ykd qHpk nf;&jcif;twGuf t&mtm;vH;k udk jyefvnfnESd iId ;f aumif;rGeo
f mG ;apNy;D uREyfk jf ypfrmS ;
cJholrsm;tm; cGifhvTwf&ef awmif;yefcGifh &&Sdaumif; &&SdEdkifayrnf/
'DbDbD

(wdarmao Mo0g'pmyXrapmif 6;7) wGif &Sifaygvku ]]igwdkYonf avmuxJodkY tb,ft&mrQ rygbJ vmonfjzpfí
xGuo f mG ;vQiv
f nf; tb,ft&mudrk Q ,lí roGm;Edik [f k xif&mS ;vsuf &S\
d }} [k &IjrifajymMum;cJ\
h / &Siaf ygvku ypön;f Opöm"e csr;f omudk
&nfnTef;jcif; jzpfayonf/ uREkfyfwdkY þb0ydkifqdkifrIrsm;teuf ypönf; Opömudk ao&mygatmif ro,faqmif oGm;Edkifaomfvnf;
uREkfyfwdkY\ todynm tawGYtBuHKESihf avhusifh wwfuRrf;rIrsm;ukdrl wrvGef b0odkYwdkif ,laqmifoGm;Murnf jzpfygonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHk a&muf&Sdaom tcgü bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwdkY avmuü &SdpOfu zHk;uG,fcJhonfrsm;udk jyefvnfzGifhvSpf


xkwfazmfjyo rnf jzpfayonf/

aumif;uifbHkü t&mawmfawmf rsm;rsm;onf jcm;em; uGJjym;vsuf &Sdayrnf/ odkYaomf t&mcyfrsm;rsm;uvnf; twlwlyif


&SdaeaMumif;udk awGY&Sd&ayrnf/ rnfrQwlaeonfudk uREkfyfwdkY &&SdcJhaom todynm? uRrf;usifrI? t&nftcsif;ESihf tawGYtBuHKrsm;udk
qufvuftoH;k cs oGm;&rnfom jzpfayonf/ uREyfk w f Ykd &&Sx
d m;aom wwfajrmufrI tzHzk u
kH kd aumif;uifbükH bk&m;ocifu tcsn;f ES;D
rxm;yg/
'DbDbD

þb0 toufwmonf avhvmoifMum;rI NyD;qHk;oGm;ygu aemufxufoif bmvkyf&rnfudk oifMum;jyo aejcif;om


jzpfygonf/
›

uREkfyfwdkYonf jrifhjrwfqef;us,fvSaom vuf&Sdtoufwmü tcgtm;avsmfpGm a&SYodkYwdk;ívnf;aumif;? aemufodkYqkwfí


vnf;aumif;? bmjzpfvmrnfukd Munfah e&if; avhvmaexdik f oGm;Edik af yonf/ uREyfk w f oYkd nf twdwu f jzpf&yfrsm;tm;? 4if;wdYk yuwd
jzpfay:cJhonfhtwdkif; jrifawGY? Mum;od? cHpm;? awGYBuHK ae&ayrnf/
'DbDbD
ar;cGe;f rsm; xkw&f efEiS fh odvo
kd nfrsm;udk od&v
dS m&eftwGuf bk&m;ocifu uREyfk w f t
Ykd m; tcGithf a&; ay;wef&m\/ þvlaY bmif
ordik ;f wavQmuf touf&iS f xif&mS ;cJo h rl sm;tm; aumif;uifbükH trSeq
f akH wGNY y;D pum;ajymcGihf &&Srd nfh tcGit hf a&;rsm;tm; awG;awmum
aejcif;jzifhvnf; tHhbG,f&m jzpfaeayonf r[kwfygvm;/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifEkdifiHonf tqHk;owf ed*Hk;csLyf&m t&yfr[kwf? tpysdK; ed'gef;ponfh t&yfom jzpfayonf/


'DbDbD

yuwdppfrSef aumif;uifEdkifiH

vltrsm;u aumif;uifEdkifiHqdkonfrSm wpfaeYvHk;wdrfwdkufrsm; ay:wGif xdkifaeNyD;? apmif;udk nifompGm wD;cwfaeum


tcsed u
f ek of mG ;apjcif; jzpfonf[k xifrw
S Mf uayonf/ aumif;uifbo
kH m; wdo
Yk nfvnf; bmrQvyk u f ikd f p&mr&Sb d ?J oef&Y iS ;f pifMu,forl sm;
oufoufomvQif jzpfMuonf[k xifjrifaeMu&m þuJhodkY xifjrifMuolrsm;uyif aumif;uifEkdifiHtm; ESpfNrdKYbG,f&m t&yftjzpf
rjrifEikd v
f aS wmhay/ bk&m;ociftm; aus;Zl;wif&ef aumif;vSonfrmS aumif;uifEidk if H qdo
k nfrmS - xko d Ykd awG;xif ,lqMuonft h wdik ;f
r[kwfjcif;yif jzpfonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHk qdkonfrSm tajctae wpf&yfaomfvnf;aumif;? jzpfay:vmrI jcif;&mtaMumif;&yf wpfckaomf vnf;aumif;?


r[kwfay/ aumif;uifbHk qdkonfrSm yuwd pifppftrSefwpfu,f &Sdaom ae&mt&yf wpfckjzpfayonf/ c&pfawmfu ]]oifwdkYtwGuf
igoGm;í ae&mjyifqifay;rnf}} [k uwdawmf &Sdygonf/ qufvufí c&pfawmfuyif ]]ighcrnf;awmf\ tdrfawmfü tcef;aygif;
rsm;pGm &Sdonf}}
[k rdefYawmfrl\/ (a,m[ef 14;2)
pDt,fvfat

aumif;uifbHkonf yuwd ppfrSefNyD; vufawGYjzpfay: vkyfudkifaerIrsm;&Sdum - omrmef todjzifhyif od&SdEdkifaom ppfrSefonfh


ae&mjzpfayonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbo
kH nf vuf&adS vmuwGif awGUBuKH jzpfay: aerIrsm;ESifh vGepf mG uGmjcm;vSjcif; r&Syd g/ xdo
k aYkd &muf&adS omf oabmayguf
em;vnf&ef cufcJvGef;vSonf r[kwfyg/ aumif;uifbHkESifh þavmuonf vGefpGmjcm;em;aeygu uREkfyfwdkY xdkae&modkY
a&muf&SdoGm;aomtcg xdktajctaersm;udk vHk;0oabmayguf od&SdEdkifrnf r[kwfawmhbJ? aumif;uifbHkESihf qufpyfEdkifp&m
taMumif;vnf; &Sdawmhrnf r[kwfay/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHkü jzpfay:vQuf&Sdaom taMumif;jcif;&mrsm;onf þavmurSmuJhodkYyif jzpfay:wnf&SdaeNyD; vGefpGmrS


rxl;jcm;vSaMumif;udk awGYjrifMu&aomtcg uREkfyfwdkY tHhMordMuayrnf/ rSefayonf/ aumif;uifbHk\ xl;jcm;rIrSm þavmuxuf
t&m&monf ydkrdkaumif;rGefjcif;? ydkrdkvSyjcif; ESihf xl;qef;tHhbG,f&mrsm; pHkvifaejcif;yif jzpfonf/ xdkae&mü 'ku©qif;&Jjcif;?
pHkprf;aESmuf,Sufjcif;? jyif;jyaom a0'emrsm; cHpm;&jcif;? epfemqHk;&HI;rIESihf idka<u;jcif;rsm;onfum; þavmurSmuJhodkY awGY&Sd&rnf
r[kwfay/ odkYaomf uREkfyfwdkYonf þavmurSmuJhodkY ajymif;vJrIrsm;udk cHEdkif&nf&Sd oGm;ayrnf/ odkYaomf aumif;uifbHkü
wkefvIyfoGm;onftxd þavmurSmuJhodkY vlrIa&;&m pdk;&drfbG,f&mrsm; awGY&SdcHpm;&rnf r[kwfay/ ,ck uREkfyfwdkY touf&Sifae&m
avmuESihf aumif;uifbHkom; b0rS vGefpGmrSyif wlaeayonf/ ysufuGufcsdK;,Gif;rI tjzpfum; raumif;rI? qdk;oGrf;rIrsm;tm;
þavmurSmuJhodkY awGY&rnfr[kwf/
'DbDbD
aumif;uifbHk qdkonfrSm tpOfojzihf em;ae&mr[kwf? xm0& touf&Sif&m t&yfomvQif jzpfayonf/
pDt,fvfat

uG,fvGefoGm;Muaom cspfcifolrsm;onf aumif;uifbHkodkY a&muf&SdMuNyD; olwdkYonf rnfonfhtvkyfudkrQ rvkyfudkifMu&bJ


ayghyg;vGwv
f yfpmG tem;,laeMujcif; oufoufomvQif jzpfMuonf[k uREyfk t f m; ajzmifjh zajymqdv
k m&ef rBuKd ;pm;ygavESi/fh xdo
k aYdk om
tajctaersdK;om qdkygvQif aumif;uifbHk r[kwfawmhbJ? i&Jo@mefomvQif ay:aygufaeygrnf/
uif;bJvfarmf*if

aumif;uifbHkü oefY&Sif;olrsm;onf xm0&tpOfojzifh tm;vyfaeMuonf[laom tpOftvm awG;ac:xifjrif,lqjcif;rS


uREfkyfwdkYonf a&SmifusOfoifhayonf/ xdkoefY&Sif;olrsm;onf vkyfudkifp&mwpfckrQ r&SdMubJ? apmif;rsm; wD;aeum tcgrvyf
oDcsif;oDqdkaeMuonf [lívnf; rxifjrifoifhawmhyg/
tdyfcsfavmuf,m

uREk f y f w d k Y aexd k i f & m pBuF m 0VmBuD ; onf tao;rT m ;qH k ; aom tD v uf & G e f a v;txd a&G Y v sm;vI y f & S m ;vQuf ae\/
aumif;uifbHkonfvnf; tvGeftvkyfrsm;jym;um t&mtm;vHk;rSm a&G;vsm;vIyf&Sm;vQuf &Sdaeonfudk oHo& &Sd&efrvkdyg/ aeESifh
N*dK[frsm;onf pBuFm0VmtwGif; tvGefvsifjrefaom EIef;rsm;jzifh jzwfoef;oGm;vmvsuf &Sdayonf/ aumif;uifbHk;om;wdkYonf
vkyu f ikd pf &m bmwpfcrk Qr&Sb d ?J Zdrjf zifh vJavsmif;um Ni;D aiGyY si;f &db, G f &yfwefaY eaom b0rsKd ;ü touf&iS af eMuonf[k awG;xifjcif;rSm
a[mif;EGr;f aom tawG;tac:omvQif jzpfayonf/ þa[mif;EGr;f aom awG;xifrrI sKd ;xuf trSew f &m;uif;a0;aom tawG;tjrifrsKd ;
r&Sdawmhay/ aumif;uifbHkom;wdkYonf opfyif&dyfrsm;ü vJavsmif; xdkifaeMuNyD; toufprf;acsmif; urf;eHyg;ay:wGif BudK;wpfacsmif;
wpfaxmifyg&Sad om apmif;aumufrsm;yif wD;aeMuum- tvkyv f yk pf &m r&Sad om urÇmwGif xm0&aexdik f oGm;Muavownf; [lívnf;
tajctjrpf r&Sdaom rSef;qawG;awmrIrsdK; rjyKvkyfoifhay/ bk&m;ocifonf rdrdxHa&muf&Sdvm olrsm;tm; jyefvnfopfvGifvdkufNyD;
bkef;wefcdk; jznfhpGrf;xm;onfh pdwfESifhcE¨mudk,f ydkif&Sifrsm;tm; bmrQ rvkyfudkifapbJ aeapjcif;twGuf - aumif;uifbHkodkY
ydkYaqmifjcif;onf t"dyÜg,fjynfh0aprnf r[kwfaMumif; uREkfyfwdkY awG;awm qifjcifoifhygonf/
vD0ifbD0DvsH

aumif;uifbükH uREykf w
f o
Ykd nf rdrw
d Ykd vkyu
f ikd &f rnfh tvkyrf sm;tm; rvkyrf udik b
f J &yfem;vdu
k í
f r&ay/ odaYk omf cufcyJ ifyef;aom
tvkyfrsm; vkyfudkif&rnf r[kwfyg/ yifyef;Mum&SnfpGm vkyfudkif&rnfh tvkyfrsm; r&SdouJhodkY vkyfief;cGiftwGif; emusifxdcdkufrI?
armyef;EGrf;e,frIrsm;onfvnf; r&Sdyg/
'DbDbD

›
xdak e&mü uREykf w f o
Ykd nf vkyu f ikd pf &mrsm;pGm &Sad vonf/ odaYk omf ,ckurÇmavmu ae&may:wGif vkyu f ikd &f onfxuf rsm;pGm
vG,fuloufom aeayrnf/ xdkae&mü 0rf;enf; aMuuGJjcif;? a&m*ga0'emjzpfjcif;? emusifudkufcJjcif;? armyef;EGrf;vsjcif;? aojcif;?
rsu&f nfusiakd <u;jcif;rsm; r&Sad wmhyg/ uREyfk w f o
Ykd nf rdrt
d vkyrf S tem;,lonfeh nf;wl aumif;uifbükH vnf; xdek nf;wl tem;,l&ayrnf/
vkyfp&mtrsm;tjym; &Sdaeayrnf/ xddkodkYr[kwfygu vkyfudkifp&m r&Sdaejcif;twGuf aemufqHk;ü uREkfyfwdkYonf raysmfydkufEdkifbJ
&Sdacsawmhrnf/
'DbDbD
›

xm0& tem;,ljcif; qdo k nfrmS pOf;pm;Munhrf nf qdyk gu Ni;D aiGb


Y ,
G &f mawmh aumif;ayonf/ uREykf w f o Ykd nf bmrQ vkypf &mr&Sb
d J
wm0ef 0wÅ&m;rsm;vnf; wpfpw kH pf&mrQ r&Syd gu touf&iS jf cif; qdo k nfrmS Ni;D aiGb
Y ,
G &f m 0efxyk 0f efy;kd wpfco
k mvQif jz0fayawmhrnf/
yg&mok w d b H k q d k o nf r S m - vS y om,maecsif p bG , f t&yf w pf c k o mvQif jzpf o nf / tb,f a Mumif h q d k a omf xd k t &yf o nf
&SifoefBuD;xGm;wdk;wuf aeaom t&yfjzpfaejcif;aMumifh aywnf;/
pDt,fvfat

xdt k em*gwf toufwmb0udk uREyfk cf pH m; Munfrh o d nf/ xdt k cg uREykf o


f nf rD;avmifNy;D jymusomG ;aom opfawmfwpfct k vm;
- &GufEkrsm;? tjrpfEkrsm;? tpdkYrsm;jzifh &Sifoefvef;qef; vmouJhodkU rdrdudk,fudk cHpm;od&Sd rdayonf/ aocsmaygufyif uREkfyfonf
aumif;uifb&kH &dS modYk OD;armhum vSr;f wufomG ;ayrnf/ vuf&b dS 0\ ed*;kH usa&mufcsed o f nf eD;vmavav- aorif;\ wD;rIwzf w d af c:
oHrsm;onf uREfkyftwGuf &dk;vmavavjzpfaeawmhonf/ &mpkESpf0uf umvtwGif; uREkfyfonf rdrd\awG;ac: xifjrifcsufrsm;tm;
uAsm? vuFg? pum;ajy? ordkif;? 'óedu? uZmwf? jyZmwf?tvGrf;? pGefYpm;tcspfZmwfvrf;? *E¨0iftpOftvm? pmajymif? bGJYuAsmESihf
aw;oDcsi;f rsm; toGio f Ykd jyefqckd pH m;Munh&f ef BuKd ;yrf;cJyh gonf/ odaYk omf uREyfk \
f cE¨mESihf pdwt f m&Ht
k wGi;f &Sd &maxmifaygif; rsm;pGmaom
tpdwt f ydik ;f rsm;udk jyefvnf od&cdS pH m;wwf&ef >rwf[ajymqdEk ikd pf rG ;f r&So d nfukd uREyfk o
f &d ydS gonf/ ocsKØ i;f *loYkd a&muf&v
dS aJ vsmif;aom
tcgü trsm;enf;wl uREfkyfonfvnf; ]]avmu\ tvkyfwm0efrsm; NyD;qHk;ygNyD}} [k ajymqdkEdkifayrnf/ odkYaomf ]]uREkfyf\ toufwm
ukeq f ;kH Ny}D } [líum; ajymqdEk ikd rf nf r[kw/f rEd;k awmhaom tdyaf ysmjf cif;wGif tdyaf ysmaf eNyD jzpfaomfvnf; aemufwpfreuf eHeufcif;wGif
uREkfyf\ tvkyf0wÅ&m;rsm; jyefp&ayawmhrnf/ ocsØKif;qdkonfrSm xGufaygufr&Sdaom ae&mr[kwf/ ESpfzufpvHk; xGuf&ef vrf;rsm;
yGifhaeygonf/ qnf;qmtcsdefü vrf;r&Sd? vrf;ydwfvsuf &Sdapumrl tm&Hkusa&muf vmonfESihf vrf;yGifhoGm;awmh\/
Apfwm[,l;*dk;

aojcif;qdo k nfrmS tem;,ljcif;\ qefuY sib


f uf jzpfayonf/ þb0wGif opöm&Sad om olrsm;tm; a,&Iu þuJo h Ykd *wdpum;
ajymMum;cJyh gonf/ ]]om"k? opöm&Sad om i,fom;aumif;? oifonf trItcGiu
hf kd oifüigay;tyfrnf/ oif\ ocifEiS t
fh wl pnf;pdruf kd
0ifpm;avmh}} [k rdefYawmfrl\/ (róJ/ 5;23) aojcif;qdkonfrSm rdrd\ 0dnmOftm; ydkrdk BuD;rm;aom wm0efvkyfudkif&eftwGuf
vTwfajrmuf ul;ajymif; ay;apjcif;jzpfonf/
pDt,fvfat

tem*gwf toufwmb0 qdo k nfrmS - uREyfk w f Ykd taejzif?h þpBumF 0Vm wpfcjk zpfay:vmEdik af &;twGuf yg0ifunl D aqmif&uG &f ef
jzpfonf/ xdkodkY jynfhpHk <u,f0aom pMum0Vmwpfck jzpfvma&;onf bk&m;ocif\ tNyD;owf &nfrSef;csufyif jzpfygonf/
ydrk adk umif;rGeaf om aumif;uifEikd if üH tcsed wf ikd ;f wGif vlwpfO;D csi;f rSm tvkyrf sm;jym;vsuf &Sad ernf/ ygwf0ef;usif wpfcv
k ;kH onfvnf;
bk&m;ocifu csrSwfwm0ef ay;xm;jcif;rsm; &Sdaeí cRwf,Gif;csufrsm; uif;a0;um om,maumif;rGefvsuf &Sdayonf/
t,f'Gif;rwf[rf;
aumif;uifa&TNrdKYawmf

tdrfBuD;tdrfaumif; Adrmefrsm;? uav;oli,frsm; wl&d,m aw;*DwESihf cspfpzG,f vufoyfarG; wd&pämefrsm; tm;vHk;jynfhpHk


aevdkYygvm;/
uREykf w f t Ykd wGuf bk&m;ocif jyifqifxm;aom pnf;pdr&f &dS m qef;us,v f o
S nfh aumif;uifa&TNrKd aY wmftaMumif;udk bk&m;ocif\
oefY&Sif;aom or®musrf;pmü Asm'dwfusrf;\ aemufqHk;tcef; ESpfcef;wGif &Sifa,m[efu Asm'dwfedrdwfjzifh azmfjyxm;ygonf/
xd k a umif ; uif a&T N rd K Y a wmf o nf u m; tvG e f qef ; us,f N yD ; touf & I r S m ;avmuf a tmif &if o yf & I a rm vS y om,mNyD ;
razmfjywwfavmufatmif qef;us,f wifhw,fvSayonf/
xdkNrdKYonfum; wnfaqmufNyD;orQ NrdKYrsm;teuf tBuD;us,fqHk; jzpfNyD; bk&m;ocif udk,fawmfwdkif wnfaqmufcJhjcif;
jzpfayonf/ xdNk rKd o Y nf rdik 1f 500 us,Nf y;D rdik 1f 500 jrifyh gonf/ ,if;a&Ty,if; zefom;tvStyrS a&T0ga&mifwef;rsm;jzifh awmufyum
oifESihf uREkfyftwGuf tygt0if a&Tjzifh wnfaqmufxm;aom Adrmeftdrf,mrsm; &Sdaeygonf/
vrf;rsm;onf a&Tom;ppfppfjzifh wnfaqmufxm;Ny;D rD;yGm;rsm; jzmxGuaf eonf[k xif&avmufatmif tzdwzf w d f ta&mifvuf
awmufajymifvsuf &Sdayonf/ xdkNrdKYudk tvGefjrifhrm;aom eH&Hjzifh um&Hxm;NyD; ykvJjzifh aqmufvkyfxm;aom wHcg;rBuD; (12) ck
&Sad yonf/ xdo k Ydk eH&u H m&Hxm;jcif;rSm aumif;uifa&TNrKd aY wmfoYkd 0if&ef tcsed rf wefao;aom olrsm;tm; wm;qD;[efw Y m;&efyif jzpfonf/
awmufajymifaeaom wHcg;rBu;D rsm; twGi;f üum; bk&m;ocif pHjref;&m yg&m'dob k BkH u;D wnf&adS vonf/ xdAk rd mefawmfBu;D tm;
xm0& oufprf;acsmif;onf pdrf;pdkaom yef;O,smOfrsm;udk tvGefusufoa& &SdpGmjzifh a0hywfpD;qif;vsuf &Sdayonf/ acsmif;ab;
0J,mwGiu f m; uav;rsm;onf odraf rGaY om wd&pämefrsm;ESifh &,farmaysm&f iT pf mG upm;aeMuonf/ xdak e&mü uREyfk w f uYkd kd pGecYf mG oGm;cJah om
cspfcif&olrsm;rSm uREkfyfwdkY\ tvmudk apmifharQmfvsuf &SdMuonf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHkü uREfkyfwdkY wpfa,mufpDtwGuf aexdkif&m oD;oefY ae&mrsm; &&Sdayrnf/ þavmurS rpGefYcGmrD a,&Iu
ol\ aemufvdkuf wynfhawmfrsm;ESifh olYtm; ,HkMunfolrsm;udk ]]ightz\ tdrfawmfü aep&mtcef; trsm;&Sdonf/ odkYr[kwfvQif
r[kwfaMumif;udk oifwdkYtm; igrajymbJrae/ oifwdkY ae&mt&yfudk jyifqifjcif;iSm igoGm;&\/ igonf oGm;í oifwdkYaep&m
t&yfudkjyifqifNyD;rS wpfzefvmjyefí ig&Sd&mt&yfü oifwkdY &Sdapjcif;iSm oifwdkYudk ighxHodkY odrf;qnf;rnf}} [k rdefYrSmcJhonf/ rMumrD
umvtwGif; uREfkyfwkdYonf aiGaMu;vHk;0 rukefus&bJ aep&mAdrmefudk &&Sdydkifqdkif Muayawmhrnf/ xdkAdrmeftwGuf ukefusp&defESifh
xdef;odrf;p&dwfrsm; uscH&ef rvdktyfyg/
'DbDbD

uav;oli,frsm; r&Sad om aumif;uifb[


kH í
l pOf;pm;rSe;f q&ef cufcv
J o
S nf/ aumif;uifbrkH mS uav;r&S&d if b,fjzpfEikd yf ghrvJ/
aumif;uifbHk r[kwfawmhbl;aygh/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHkü uav;oli,frsm; r&Sd&if tawmfNiD;aiGYbG,f aumif;ayrnf/ tJ'Dvdkomqdk&if uREkfyfwdkY bmvkyfMurvJ/


tm;vH;k tdrk if; oGm;Murvm;/ aemufNy;D touft&G,af wG &yfwefo
Y mG ;Ny/D tJ'v
D b
kd J tqH;k owf oGm;MurSmvm;/ wpfu,fvYkd arG;zGm;Ny;D
olawGu BuD;&ifhvmNyD; rsdK;qufopf uav;oli,frsm; ysufokef;cRwf,Gif; aeouJhodkY rnfodkY &Sdaernfenf;/ tu,fírsm;
uav;oli,frsm; r&Sdygu toufrJh vlYtzGJYtpnf; wpfckom jzpfayawmhrnf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHkonf uav;oli,frsm;tm; jyKpkysdK;axmif&ef taumif;qHk;ae&myif jzpfonf/ tppt&m&monf rlvu


&nfrSef;xm;onf twdkif;jzpfvmayrnf/ tvGefaumif;rGefaom ygwf0ef;usifwGif emusifjcif;ESifh ab;tEÅ&m,f uif;a0;um
xdcdkuf'Pf&m &&Sdjcif;? aojcif;ESifh þurÇmavmuü awGYBuHK&aom qdk;oGrf;rI ab;'ku©rsm; uif;a0;aeayrnf/ uav;oli,frsm;
idpk &m taMumif; vH;k 0r&Syd g/ 4if;wdYk vdt
k yfwm[lorQ &&Sad yvdrrhf nf/ olw&Ykd YJ vdt
k yfcsuu
f kd uREyfk w
f Ykd tvG,w
f ul od&EdS ikd Nf y;D olwaYkd v;awG
bmvdktyfaewmvJ [lívnf; awG;awm pOf;pm;p&m rvdkyg/ aumif;uifbHkü uav;oli,frsm;udk jyKpkysdK;axmif&rnfh
tusdK;cHpm;&rIrsm;udk pOf;pm;Munfhayawmh/ wpfu,fhudk ppfrSefaom om,maysmf&GifrIyif jzpfayrnf/
'DbDbD

uav;oli,frsm;tm; arG;zGm;NyD; BuD;jyif;vmatmif jyKpk ysdK;axmifay;jcif;jzifh aumif;uifbHkü &nf&G,fcsuf topfomru


b0opfudkyg jzpfay:&&Sdapayrnf/ t&mcyfodrf;\ ed*Hk;rjzpfbJ ed'gef;ysdK;jcif;om jzpfayonf/
'DbDbD

›
aumif;uifbq kH o
kd nfrmS pdr;f vJv
h chJ sKH yw
k if ,frsm;ESihf wpfuG jrufcif;pdr;f pdr;f av;rsm;tay: uav;oli,frsm; vrf;avQmufae\/
usef;rmoefpGrf;apaom opfoD;rsm; cl;pm;um toufprf;acsmif;rS tat;jrqHk; a&udk aomuf&m\/ us,fjyefYaom jrufcif;rsm;ü
udk,fvuf qefYwef; vl;vSdrfhvl;um aysmf&TifpGm a&csdK;jcif;? ckefaygufjcif;? ajy;vTm;jcif;rsm;udk jyKvkyfum bmbJvkyfaevkyfae
c&pfawmfbk&m;\ rsufvHk;rsm;udk qHkpnf;awGY&SdEdkifaom ae&maywum;/
aomrwfpfarm

aw;*Dwonf uREkfyfwdkY\ ta&;ygvSaom ygwf0ef;usifwpfck jzpfaeayOD;rnf/ or®musrf;pmu aumif;uifwrefrsm;


aumif;uifbHkü oHpOf aw;oDcsif;rsm; oDqdkxm;jcif;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf/ uREkfyfwdkYonf aumif;uifbHkü tom,m tNidrfhanmif;qHk;
wl&d,m wD;0dkif;rsm;vnf; &Sdaejcif;aMumifh þurÇmavmuwGif rMum;bl;? rwD;rIwfao;bl;onfh aw;*DwoHrsm;udk Mum;&ayrnf/
aumif;uifbükH Mum;&rnfh aw;*DwrSm ,ckcsed x f d þurÇmwGif EdiI ;f ,SOaf zmfjyjcif;yif r&Sad o;yg/ þavmuü vl\vufjzifh jyKvyk af om
wl&d,mrsm;jzifh om,mNidrfhanmif;aom aw;oDcsif;rsm; wD;rIwfEdkifrnf qdkygu bk&m;ocifonf tHhzG,fol&Jjzpfaom vkyf&yfrsm;
vkyfEdkifonfudkom oifpOf;pm;Munhfygavmh/
'DbDbD

aw;*Dw ynm&Sirf sm;onf taumif;qH;k aw;rsm;wD;rIwf wwfaom aw;*Dwynm&Sif topfrsm;udk arQmv


f ifBh uKd qkd Edik af yrnf/
rdrdwdkY udk,fydkifwD;0kdif;udkyif xlaxmifEdkifMuayrnf/
'DbDbD

aumif;uifbHkü wd&pämefrsm;vnf; &Sdayvdrfhrnf/ ya&mbuf a,&Sm,u ]]awmacG;onf odk;oi,fESifh twlaevdrfhrnf/


usm;opfonf od;k oi,fEiS t hf wl tdyv f rd rhf nf/ EGm;oi,f? jcaoFo
h i,f wdu
Yk o
hJ Ykd qlatmifauR;aom taumifwo Ykd nf twlomG ;vmMuí
vloil ,fonf olwu Ykd kd ydaYk qmifvrd rhf nf/ EGm;rESihf 0Hronf twlusupf m;í olwo Ykd m;i,frsm;onf twltyd Mf uvdrrhf nf/ jcaoFo
h nfvnf;
EGm;uJhodkY jrufudkpm;vdrfhrnf}} [k erdwfzwf a[mMum;cJhygonf/ (a[&S, 11; 6-9)
'DbDbD

þavmuü uREkfyfwdkYESifh uav;oli,frsm;twGuf bk&m;ocifu wd&pämefrsdK;pHkudk zefqif;ay;tyf xm;ygonf/ uav;rsm;


vufoyfarG;jrL cspcf if&efEiS hf uav;rsm;ESit
fh wl upm;rnfh wd&pämefrsm; ? uREyfk w
f t
Ykd wGuf tazmfrw
d af qGrsm; jzpf&efvnf; wd&pämefr sm;udk
zefqif;ay; xm;yg\/ þwd&pämefrsm; tm;vHk;udk aumif;uifbHküvnf; uREkfyfwdkY jyefvnfaygif;oif; cspfcif&ayOD;rnf/
'DbDbD

bk&m;ocifu uREkfyfwdkYtwGuf aumif;uifbHkü jyifqifxm;&Sd onfrsm;udk odjrifaomtcg uREkfyfwdkYonf &SifaygvkESihf


pdwof abmxm; wlnv D mrnf jzpfygonf/ &Siaf ygvku ]]usr;f pmvmonfEiS t
fh nD bk&m;ocifukd cspaf om olwUdk tzdYk tvdiYk mS bk&m;ocif
jyifqifawmfrlaom t&mwdkYudk vlrsufpdjzifh rjrif? em;jzifh rMum; pdwfESvHk;jzifh rBuHpnfao;}} (1aum/ 2;9) [k a&;om;xm;onf/
uREkfyfwdkY pdwful;jcif;yif rjyKaom t&mrsm;onf tvGefvSy qef;us,fvsuf &Sdayonf/
'DbDbD
ed*Hk;
aumif;uifbHkESifh ywfoufí &Ia'gifhtrsdK;rsdK;jzifh þpmtkyfi,fwGif az:jyxm;NyD; jzpfygonf/ odkYaomf tajz r&&Sdao;aom
ya[Vd ykpämrsm; usef&Sdaeay\/ tjzpfEdkifqHk; ar;cGef;onfum; uREkfyfaumif;uifbHkodkY oGm;&rnfudk aocsmayguf rnfodkY
od&SdEdkifygrnfenf;/ uREkfyfwdkY tawmfrsm;rsm;onf aumif;uifbHkodkY oGm;vdkygonf/ odkYaomf qef;ppfMunfhaomtcg uREfkyfwdkYonf
trSefyif aumif;uifEdkifiHESifh xdkufwefoifh awmfolrsm; [kwfr[kwf uREkfyfwdkY raorcsm jzpfMuawmhonf/
uREfkyfwdkYtm; vlom;tjzpf zefqif;onftxd cspfawmfrlNyD; þb0 þpBuFm0Vm wpfckvHk;ESifh ,ckav;yif zwfMum;
od&Sdvdkuf&aom aumif;uifbHkESihf uREkfyfwdkYtwGuf ae&mxkdifcif; jyifqifxm;NyD; jzpfaMumif;udk uREkfyfwdkY pdwfcsrI &Sdap&ef vG,fulpGm
od&Sdapygonf/ taumif;qHk;ESifh t&Sif;qHk; NcHKNyD;ajymygu - or®musef;pmrS tvGefta&;ygonfh atmufygusrf;csufonf t"duus
vSayonf/

bk&m;ocif\ om;awmfudk ,HkMunfaom oltaygif;wdkYonf


ysufpD;jcif;odkY ra&muf? xm0& toufudk &apjcif;iSm bk&m;ocifonf rdrdü
wpfyg;wnf;aom om;awmfudk pGefYawmfrlonfhwdkifatmif avmuDom;wdkYudk
cspfawmfrl\/
a,&I? a,m[ef 3;16

bk&m;ocifonf uREkfyfwdkY wpfOD;pDudk xl;jcm;pGm cspfESpfoufayonf/ uREfkyfwdkY trSefwpfu,f aysmf&TifNyD; wpfOD;csif;\


vdktyfcsufudk jynfhaeap&ef wpfckwnf;aom vrf;rSm udk,fawmf&Sif bk&m;ESifhtwl aumif;uifEdkifiHü twlwpfuG tpOftNrJ
aexdkifoGm;jcif;yif jzpfonf/ xdkodkY jzpfEdkifap&eftwGuf bk&m;ocifonf om;awmfa,&Itm; rnfodkYtouf&Sif&rnf? cspfcif&rnfudk
jyoapNy;D uREykf w
f tYkd wGuf om;awmftm; taocH apawmfryl gonf/ a,&Ionf þb0ESihf aumif;uifEikd if t H Mum; aygif;ul;qufpyf
ay;olyif jzpfonf/
wpfzef oifonf aumif;uifbHkodkY oGm;a&muf&ef qdk;oGrf;vSonf[k rdrdudk,fudk rxifvdkufygavESifh/ bk&m;ocifonf
oifjyKvkyfcJhorQ pdwful;? awG;xifcJhorQaom t&mtm;vHk;udk od&SdawmfrlNyD; oifhtm; cRif;csufr&Sd ESpfoufawmfrl\/
aumif;uifEikd if oH nf tjypfom;rsm;ESihf jynfv
h Qu&f \
dS / raumif;rI tjypf'pk &du
k rf sm;udk jyKvyk Nf y;D tjypfom;rsm;ESihf jynfv
h Qu&f \
dS /
qdkvdkonfrSm raumif;rI 'kp&dkufrsm;udk jyKvkyfNyD; bk&m;ocifxH tjypfrsm;rS cGifhvTwfyg&ef awmif;avQmufcJh Muolrsm;yif jzpfygonf/
bk&m;ocif vdkcsifaom wpfckwnf;aom t&monfum; udk,fawmf&Siftm; oifrSm;,Gif;cJhí aemifw&um 0rf;enf;rdaMumif;ESihf
ukd,fawmf&Siftm; oif\toufwmtwGif; 0ifa&mufvmyg&ef zdwfac:&efom jzpfygonf/
oifonf aumif;uifbHkodkY trSefyif a&muf&SdrnfjzpfaMumif;udk od&Sdvdkygovm;/ oifodvdkygu þqkawmif;csufuav;
twdkif;om &dk;om;pGm qkawmif;yg/

]] a,&Ic&pfawmf? uREkfyfonf oifhtm;od&SdvdkNyD; oifESifhtwl aumif;uifbHkü


xm0&tpOf aevdkyg\/ uREkfyfonf trSm;rsm;pGm jyKvkyfNyD; raumif;rIrsm;pGm
jyKvkyfcJhaomaMumifh uREkfyf0rf;enf;aMuuGJ rdygonf/ udk,fawmf&Sif\ arwÅmawmfESifh
uREyfk rf xduk w
f efyg/ okaYd omf ud,
k af wmf&iS \
f arwÅmawmfukd uREyfk t
f m; ay;oem;yg&efEiS hf
aumif;uifbHkü udk,fawmfESihftwlwpfuG aexdkifEdkifcGifhudk ay;oem;awmfrlyg&ef
uREkfyftoem;cH awmif;avQmufyg\/ uREkfyf\ toufwmwGif;odkY 0ifa&mufNyD;
uREkfyftm; u,froem;awmfrl\/ Nidrfoufjcif;udkvnf; ay;oem;awmf rlygbk&m; }}

bk&m;ocifonf oif\ qkawmif;oHtm; ay;oem;rnf[k uwd&Sdygonf/ xdkYaMumifhoifonf ,ckyif aumif;uifbHkü


aep&mtdrf &SdaeayNyD/ bk&m;ocifonf oifhtm; tHhMoqef;us,fbG,f jynfh0aom xm0&touftm; aumif;csD;ay; oem;awmfrlNyD/
xdkae&mrSm qHkMuygpdkY/