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Guidance and Counseling in Schools

by Linda Ambida-Cinco, Ph.D.

Prepared by:
Ma. Teresa C. Sarenas
Guidance Services

 A group of services to individuals to

assist them in securing knowledge

and skills needed in making plans and
services and in interpreting life.
I. Individual Inventory Service

 A service that provides a synthesis of information

about individuals which can be used to gain
understanding of themselves as persons – their
potentials and liabilities, abilities, interests, and

 Covers the collection, organization, interpretation
and use of data about pupils or students.


1. The collection of data about the learners should be

started from the time they begin schooling.

3. Records should grow with the learners as they
progress in their studies.

5. Records should be cumulative and inclusive.

4. Records should be unbiased, objective,

and unopinionated.


6. The data contained in the inventory

should be properly interpreted, well-

synthesized, and carefully used for

the benefit of the child.

6. Only the proper tools, techniques, and
instruments should be used in the
gathering of the necessary information.

8. Records should be systematically kept and
conveniently filed and should be
accessible to the guidance counselor, the
principal, and to the teachers who may,
from time to time, make good use of the
information found therein.
Information about the learner that
are included in the inventory:
1.Individual identification data
2.The cumulative records
3.Test records

a. Mental Ability Tests

b. Achievement Tests
 Readiness or progressive tests
 Diagnostic achievement tests

c. Aptitude Tests
 Interest Inventories
 Personality inventories

Non-Test Techniques or Self-Evaluation

 Autobiographies

 Rating Scales

 Pupil-data questionnaires

 Interview
II. The Information Service

 This service makes available to

learners certain kinds of
information not ordinarily provided
through the instructional program
or during the regular period of
Classification of Information Available
to the Learners in a program of
Guidance Services

A.Educational Information
B.Social Information
C.Occupational Information
A. Educational Information

 This is a valid and usable data about all

types of present and probable future
educational or training opportunities
and requirements, including curricular
and co-curricular offerings,
requirements for entrance, and
conditions and problems of
pupil/student life.
Educational Information Needs of

1.Information about the school

2.Information about co-curricular


3.Other information
Purposes of Educational Information

 It should help the children to adjust to

the new world of school.

 Even during the elementary grades, the

child should begin to learn about the
whole complicated cultural pattern
of one’s education.

 At the early level, the personnel services

office may become involved with the

parents as well as children in the
discussion of information regarding the
operation of the school.

 In grade 6, the children should be given

a picture of what lies ahead in the high

school, if they go into one.

 At the high school level, the internal type of

info will deal more with the various extra-
curricular activities of the school, and
some students may experience for the 1st
time the bitterness of not getting into
what they want.

 At the high school level, the major form of

educational information will be that which
deals with the post high school education
B. Social Information

 It is the valid and usable data about the

opportunities and influences of the

human being which will help learners
to understand themselves better and
to improve their relations with others.
Purposes of Social Information

 To simply help the learners develop a

greater understanding of themselves

and their relations with others. It is
the psychological aspect of their
educational experience.
C. Occupational Information

 Valid and usable data about positions,

jobs, and occupations, including
duties, requirements for entrance ,
conditions for work, rewards offered,
advancement pattern, existing and
predicted supply of and demand for
workers, and sources for further
Purposes of Occupational Information

 It will be an important part of the learners’

education and will help them develop a general
understanding about the world of work.

 Education is concerned with the development of

attitudes, and an important part of one’s set of

attitudes are those relating to occupations, and
the people who hold them.

 The learners can be helped if they

come to understand that there are

many reasons for working, and that
money is only one of them.

 During these early years, the learners

can be presented with ideas which

suggest that there are certain
common factors that make a job well
done or poorly done.

 The learners can be made to
understand that among tens of
thousands of occupations, there are
scores that can be equated with an
individual’s education, intelligence,
and interests. Individuals must be
able to relate their occupation to
their total self.

III. The Placement Service

 Placement- the satisfactory

adjustment of the individual to the
next situation whether in school or
on the job. (John Ryan & Franklin
Basic Underlying Principles:
1. Placement is an important and integral part of
the counseling program.
3. Every student should receive the maximum
education suitable to his/her interest and
abilities before full time occupational
placement is considered.
5. Service to the students according to their
individual needs should be the principal
criterion for placement.
7. Placement made in accordance with the
students’ interests and abilities often lead
Kinds of Placement

1.Educational placement in college

2.Vocational Placement

IV. The Follow-Up Service

 Intended to secure information about

former students, and to provide

continuing services for students
after they leave school.
Benefits of Follow-Up:
A.In-school follow-up
 Helps students make good adjustments.
 It diminishes the number of drop-outs.

B.Out-of-school follow-up
 It will help administrators & curriculum
makers to better adjust instructional
offerings to the needs of the students.

 It will serve to encourage students by letting
them know that their school is following
their careers and is concerned with their
success in their chosen life work.
V. The Counseling Service


- is the core of the guidance program

- a form of intervention that leads to a

more effective behavior.