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Verbs Adjectives Suffices (jodôshi)

yo-dan kami-1 kami-2 shimo-1 shimo-2 ra-hen ka-hen sa-hen na-hen shiku– ku–
Copula
A AA B C D E F G H I
Mizenkei

shikara kara
(zu) zara — shime se sase re rare (ma) mase Ni + ari
zu zari — shime se sase re rare — — nara
zu (zari) ji shimu su sasu ru raru mu mashi
yom-a mi ok-i ke uk-e a-ra ko se shi-na
shiku ku nu zaru ji shimuru suru sasuru ruru raruru mu mashi
nari / ni
ne zare (ji) shimure sure sasure rure rarure me mashike nari
— zare — shime(yo) se(yo) sase(yo) re(yo) rare(yo) — — naru
K L M N O P Q nare
nare
Ren’yôkei

na te tara (se) kera (kema) takara


shikari kari ni te tari — — — taku +
yom-i mi ok-i ke uk-e a-ri ki shi shi-ni nu tsu tari ki keri kemu tashi To + ari
nuru tsuru taru shi keru kemu taki +
shiku ku
nure tsure tare shika kere keme takere
tara
ne te(yo) tare — — — — tari / to
tari
R RR S T U V VV Y taru
Shushikei

(beku) bekara — — — (majiku) majikara /mahoshi/


beku bekari meri — — majiku majikari (lik shiku
tare
beshi beshi meri ramu rashi maji maji adjectives) tare
yom-u mi-ru ok-u ke-ru uk-u a-ri ku su shi-nu shi shi
beki bekaru meru ramu rashi majiki majikaru
bekere bekere mere rame rashi majikare majikare
— — — — — — —

W
Rentaikei

nara A = negative N = past


shikara kara nari / ni AA = negative O = past emotional
yom-u mi-ru ok-uru ke-re uk-uru a-ru ku-ru su-ru shi-nuru nari
shiku ku naru B = neg. future P = conjectural
nare C = causative Q = desiderative
nare
D = causative R = obligatory/probability
E = causative RR = obligat. / prob.
F = passive / potential S = probability
Izenkei

yom-e mi-re ok-ure ke-re uk-ure a-re ku-re su-re shi-nure shikere kere G = passive / potential T = conjectural
H = future conjecture U = conjectural
I = hypothetical V = neg. hypothetical
X K = perfective VV = neg. hypothetical
L = perfective / assertive W = copula
Meireikei

ra
ri M = perfective X = perf. / contin.
yom-e mi-(yo) oki-(yo) ke-(yo) uk-e a-re ko-(yo) se-(yo) shi-ne shikare kare ri
ru Y = desiderative
re
re

Most Fifteen Many Only one Many Only five: The only Only two Only two Mod. J. Mod. J.
Izenkei + ba = “since —”
numerous verbs verbs verb: keru verbs ari,ori,
haberi,
verb: ku verbs: su, verbs: inu, –shii end –i end Mizenkei + ba = “If —”
only owasu shinu (okashii) (takai)
imasukari