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greta CantlaZe

baskuri somaturi leqsikis izomorful tipebad daKofis cdisaTvis


(qarTuli dialeqturi masalis fonze)
baskuri leqsikuri fondis uZvelesi nawilia somaturi leqsika, romlis izomor-
ful tipebad daKofis cdaa warmodgenili am statiaSi. Cven SevecadeT moxmobili ma-
sala tipologiuri TvalsazrisiT Segveswavla qarTuli dialeqtebis Sesabamisi masa-
lis fonze. amisaTvis gamoviKeneT prof. aleqsandre Glontis, revaz ZnelaZis, oTar
gaCeCilaZis mier mopovebuli da gamocemuli qarTuli dialeqturi masala, nawilob-
riv gamoviKeneT Cven mier studentobis dros Segrovili dasavluri dialeqtebis ma-
sala (farnaoz erTeliSvilis xelmZGvanelobiT). baskuri dialeqturi masala Cven
TviTon movipoveT safrangeTis baskeTsa da espaneTis baskeTSi Catarebuli savele sa-
muSaoebis dros. masala aGebulia sxvadasxva asakis informatorebisgan. gamoviKeneT
agreTve ramor de askues, muxikas, mendisabalis, luis miCelenas, rene lafonis mier
gamocemuli dialeqturi leqsikonebidan mopovebuli korporaluri, anu somaturi
leqsikuri erTeulebi.
rac Seexeba baskuri dialeqtebis klasifikacias, unda aGiniSnos, rom baskologTa
mier SemoTavazebuli ori klasifikaciidan Cven ZiriTadad veKrdnobiT ramor de as-
kues klasifikacias, romlisTvisac 7 baskur provinciaSi arsebobs Svidi dialeqti:
espaneTis baskurSi _ biskaiuri, gipuskouri, zemo navaruli, rogorc cnobilia ala-
vaSi gaqra alavuri dialeqti da dGes iq biskaiur dialeqtze metKveleben. safrange-
Tis baskeTSi gavrcelebulia laburduli, suluri, qvemo navaruli da ronkaluri (es
ukanasknelic ukve gaqrobis winaSe dgas), ronkalis xeobaSi sul 18 sofelia, sadac
nel-nela fexs ikidebs laburduli dialeqti. aqve movixmobT meore klasifikacias,
romelic ekuTvnis lui-lusien bonaparts, igi baskurSi gamoKofs 8 dialeqts. zemo
da qvemo navarul dialeqtebs or-or nawilad hKofs. Crdilo zemonavaruli samxrul
zemonavaruli, aGmosavleT qvemonavaruli da dasavlur qvemonavaruli. Cven veKrdno-
biT askueseul klasifikacias, romelic baskurSi gamoKofs 7 dialeqts.
baskuri somaturi leqsika Zalze danawevrebulia aramcTu indoevropul enebTan
SedarebiT, aramed qarTulTanac, romelic baskuris msgavsad mTagorian reliefSi
aris gavrcelebuli. baskuri leqsika Zalze ganicdis variacias dialeqtebis mixedviT.
amis sailustraciod SeiZleba movixmoT `mTvaris" da `muxis" magaliTi. baskuris Svi-
dsave dialeqtSi gvaqvs mTvaris aGmniSvneli rva leqsikuri erTeuli ilargi, goiko,
argizari, ilberri, ilzar, irazgi, ilzaar, il. il saerToa Kvela dialeqtisaTvis. SedarebisTvis movi-
tanoT `mTvare" indoevropuli enebidan, sadac TiTqmis erTi da igive Ziria. magali-
Tad, slavuri enebisaTvis sol Ziria, ce sufiqsi, franguli la lune, germanuli zoone
(`mze" `mnaTobi~), laTinuri luna. `muxis" 13 leqsikuri erTeuli gvaqvs baskurSi: artz,
aritz, arizkando, tapaz, uraritz, xinitza, ipinibar, tarte, ametz, sarats, arizketa, ezkanda, arixkanda, amaT-
gan umravlesoba Zalze Zvelia. gansakuTrebiT ki artz, aritz am sitKvis ZirSi unda idos
(h)ari `qva". niko mari aritz-s udarebs somxur toponims `arica-vanq"-s, sadac _
(`aric") unda iKos `muxa", xolo `vanq" monasteri, e.i. `muxis monasteri". muxis
GvTaeba, mogexsenebaT, Zalze gavrcelebulia baskur samKaroSi. baskeTSi gavrcelebu-
lia cnobili baski poetis iparagires leqsi `gernikis muxa", romelic himnia baski
xalxisa. swored aq aris laparaki imaze, rom bask xalxs aqvs uZvelesi muxa, igi dgas
espaneTisa da safrangeTis sazGvarze. oTxi toti espaneTSi aqvs, sami ki safrangeTSi.
(`oTxs plus sami, udris erTs.").
`muxis" da `mTvaris" terminTa mravalferovnebis miuxedavad istoriulad mainc
baskuri leqsika ufro izomorfuli Cans, vidre alomorfuli. somaturi leqsikis Se-
swavlisa da gaanalizebis Sedegad irkveva, rom aGniSnuli tipis leqsikis alomorfu-
loba ufro zedapirulia, meoreuli Cans imave leqsikis izomorfulobasTan Sedare-
biT. bunebrivia, izomorfuli leqsika sxvadasxva leqsikur sferoSi sxvadasxvaa.
somaturi leqsika erT-erTi Kvelaze gamZle enobrivi Jgufia, romelic naklebad
ganicdis sxva enaTa gavlenas. amitom enaTa naTesaobis dadgenisTvis am Jgufis leqsi-
kasac mimarTaven (Tumca Cven am statiaSi naTesaobaze ara gvaqvs msJeloba).
somaturi leqsikis analizis Sedegad baskurSi gamovKofT 6 ZiriTad qveJgufs,
anu tips:
1. sruli izomorfuli tipi. magaliTisTvis movixmobT ramdenime leqsikur erTe-
uls. mag. buru `Tavi", am erTeuls muxikasa da askues leqsikonSi frCxilebSi miTiTe-
buli aqvs (c), rac niSnavs comon-s `saerTo~, e.i. igi Kvela dialeqtisTvis saerToa.
aseve: esko `xeli", sabel `muceli", biotz `guli", bular `mkerdi", gibel `GviZli", oin `fe-
xi", beso `mklavi", da a.S. rogorc vxedavT aq ramdenime leqsemis Tavkidur poziciaSi
gvaqvs `b" (b), ulenbekis azriT, SesaZlebelia es iKos klaskategoriis niSani (albaT
nivTis klasisa). imave leqsemebis qarTul variantSi gvaqvs `m" Tavkidur poziciaSi:
`mkerdi", `mklavi", `muceli", `mxari", `mKesi", `muxli", `menJi", SesaZlebelia masac moe-
Zebnos axsna.
2. fonetikuri izomorfuli tipisaTvis. movixmobT Semdeg leqsemebs: ezur `Zva-
li". AN, BN1 hezur BN,L,S, esur S, azun B, aq mcireodeni fonetikuri saxecvlilebiT
aris warmodgenili `Zvali", safrangeTis baskur dialeqtebSi ezur-s emateba Tavkidur
poziciaSi h, romelic albaT frangulis gavleniT unda avxsnaT. es munJi h frangu-
lSi ar gamoiTqmis, baskurSi gamoiTqmis. sulurSi ezur warmodgenilia ü-Ti. isic al-
baT frangulis gavlena unda iKos, frangul enas swored suluri da laburduli
dialeqtebi esazGvrebian. biskaiurSi e-s nacvlad a gvaqvs Tavkidur poziciaSi.
3. leqsikuri izomorfuli tipis sailustraciod warmovadgenT Semdeg somatur
masalas: lepo AN, BN, G.S, `kiseri", sama gvxvdeba biskaiursa da gipuskourSi warmodge-
nilia zakel, xolo sulurSi gvaqvs frangulidan nasesxebi estomaka, igi epenTezisiT
gadmodis baskurSi e-s momatebiT. baskurSi espanuridanac aseTive gziT xdeba sesxeba.
magaliTad, rosa niSnavs `vards" espanurad, baskurSi igi gadmodis a-s momatebiT Tav-
kidur poziciaSi da ormagdeba arrosa, rector, `reqtori" baskurSi gadmodis erretor for-
miT.
4. fonetikur-leqsikuri izomorfuli tipi. am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs foneti-
kur saxecvlilebasTan, amave dros ama Tu im dialeqtSi gvaqvs gansxvavebuli leqsiku-
ri erTeulic. es tipi ganvixiloT `filtvis" magaliTze. birika gvxvdeba AN., B., BN.,
G., R. biriki dadasturebulia B,-Si auspo gvaqvs AN,B.G. hauspo S aslar (R.).
5. zeizomorfuli tipi, rodesac sruli izomorfizmis gverdiT gvaqvs parale-
luri formebi ama Tu im dialeqtSi. mag. oil `fexi" saerToa Kvela dialeqtisTvis,
magram mis gverdiT gvxvdeba anka AN,B.G., zango gvxvdeba AN,B.L.
6. etimologiuri izomorfuli tipi _ aseT tips gvaZlevs ZiriTadad kompozi-
tebi, roca erT-erTi komponenti srul izomorfizms gviCvenebs, xolo meore alomor-
fulia, aviGoT magaliTad aosapai `sasa". aq aoºaho `piria". igi saerToa Kvela dialeq-
tisTvis. sapai, sabai niSnavs `sxvens", `zeda nawils", e.i. `sasa" niSnavs piris zeda na-
wils anu `sxvens". meore magaliTi besagain aris `mxari", sadac besa niSnavs `mklavs"
igi aris saerTo Kvela dialeqtisTvis, xolo gain niSnavs `wvers", e.i. `zeda mxares"
`mklavis wveri", anu mklavis zeda mxare aris `mxari".
rogorc CvenTvis cnobilia, dGemde baskuri dialeqturi leqsika aravis Seuswav-
lia izomorfuli da alomorfuli analizis TvalsazrisiT, zemoT dasaxelebuli av-
torebi sxva meTodiT agrovebdnen dialeqtur masalebs. isini axdendnen Segrovili
masalis kartografirebas, leqsikuri izoglosebis safuZvelze akeTebdnen daskvnebs
ama Tu im sitKvis istoriaze. ramor de askues leqsikonSi Canasaxis saxiT Cans sruli
izomorfizmi, roca man saerTo leqsikur erTeulebs miuwera (c) comon. askues sxva
Sromebis gacnobisas gairkva, rom mas arcki ucdia baskuri dialeqturi leqsikis izo-
morful tipebad daKofa. dialeqturi leqsikis aseTi analizis moSveliebiT SeiZleba
miviGoT iseTi Sedegebi, romlebsac ver mogvcems imave masalis detaluri kartogra-
fireba. SesaZlebelia, Cvens mier gamoKofili tipebis mixedviT leqsikis aGweris Se-
degebi miaxloebiTi iKos, magram Cveni aseTi analizis Semdeg SeiZleba gadavwKvitoT
zogierTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxi: somaturi leqsikuri masalidan romelia ufro me-
tad izomorfuli da romeli alomorfuli, ratom mainc da mainc buru `Tavi", esko
`xeli", sabel `muceli" da sxvebi gviCvenebs srul izomorfizms da ara romelime begi
`Tvali"? ratom aris `saxis", `warbis", `loKis", `wamwamis", `TiTis" aGmniSvneli leqse-
mebi alomorfuli? ramdenad gamarTlebuli iqneba aseTi analizi mivuKenoT baskuri
leqsikis sxva sferos, an kidev sxva enebs, kerZod qarTul enas, sadac baskurTan Seda-
rebiT leqsikur erTeulTa variacia SedarebiT naklebia dialeqtebis mixedviT. roca
ama Tu im sitKvis saxesxvaoba metia dialeqtebis mixedviT, maSin leqsikologiuri ana-
lizi ufro efeqtur Sedegs iZleva, xolo roca naklebia, maSin mimarTaven kartogra-
fiul meTodebs.

1
baskuri dialeqtebis aGmniSvnel terminebs SemoklebiT ase aGvniSnavT: biskaiuri _ B., gipuskouri _ G., zemo-
navaruli AN, laburduli _ L.., suluri _ S. qvemonavaruli BN., ronkaluri R. (Semoklebani miGebulia baskuri
enis akademiis mier).
rac Seexeba qarTul dialeqtur leqsikas, SeiZleba iTqvas Semdegi, Cven qarTuli
dialeqtebis mixedviT moviZieT somaturi leqsika da vcadeT gagveanalizebina is. mo-
vipoveT sul 102 erTeuli, romelSic gavaerTianeT agreTve adamianis fiziologias-
Tan dakavSirebuli leqsikac, radgan somaturi leqsika sul 52 erTeuliT aris
warmodgenili qarTulSi. imisTvis, rom naTeli warmodgena gvqondes, Tu rogor vari-
rebs leqsikuri erTeulebi qarTul dialeqtebSi, movixmobT somatur leqsikasTan
dakavSirebul sitKvebs. magaliTad, `koyli". igi 15 erTeuliT aris warmodgenili
sxvadasxva dialeqtSi.
1. `koyli", `kvanyla", `yalibuxa", `koyintara", `fauxa", `duxuca", `fexa", `fexko-
tita", `TarKauSi", `Codari", `Caruxa", `xaxuna", `Claxuna", `keloba", `CiTaxo", rac See-
xeba am ukanasknels me-19 saukunis dasawKisSi TbilisSi cxovrobda cnobili mewarme
CiTaxovi, romelic koyli Kofila, es gvari Semdgom sazogado saxelad iqca `koylis"
aGsaniSnavad.
qarTuli somaturi leqsika ufro metad alomorfulia, izomorfulia calkeuli
SemTxvevebi. magaliTisTvis moviKvanoT `kefa". sxvadasxva dialeqtSi gvaqvs `kinwi", `ke-
fa", `kinkrixo", `saqoCre", `kortoxi", `kvinixi", `qeCo", `kosro", `Jidao" (ufro metad
itKvian cxenebze, magram gurulebi gaburZgnuli kacis kefaze amboben Jidaos).
2. `cremli", `kurcxali", `Tval-wKali", `mduGare" (`mduGare wamouvida Tvalebi-
dan"!).
3. `saxe", `piri", `cxvir-piri", `pir-saxe", `xati", `Tol-piri", `sifaTi".
3. `Tavi", `gogra", `kokoSi", `baSka" (es rusulidan Semosuli barbarizmia).
4. `loKa", `Gawvi", `Kba", `Kvrimali".
5. `TeZo", `menJi", `poyoyiki", `tabusis Tavi", `isqio" (sabas ganmartebiT, igi ger-
manulidanaa Semosuli).
6. `kudusuni", `kuCabi", `sakaykaye", `kudis riki".
7. `saSo", `saSvile", `wiaGi", `bude".
8. `terfi", `fexis guli", `naxyi" (am ukanasknels niko mari somxuridan momdina-
red Tvlis).
9. `koyi", `komuxi", `xomi", `vegi".
10. `muwuki", `kvintili", `marguli".
11. `Tma", `bewvi", `buwuwi", `JenJi" (naparsi Tma), `kowoli", `dalali".
fiziologiuri movlenebidan izomorfulia Semdegi leqsemebi:
1. `Cirqi", 13 erTeuli, `Cxrameli", `balGami", `mwikvli", `jujGi", `baKli", `wu-
Txi", `Salali", `baraki", `wala", `faqli", `mjGovani", `wirpli" (Tvalis Cirqi).
2. nerwKvis 8 forma davZebneT. `nerwKvi", `dorbli", `duji", `sinsili" (pirutKvis
dorblia, magram dasavlur dialeqtebSi adamianzec amboben), `lopi", `lipri" (Txeli
dorbli), `lizka" (bnedis dorbli), `loSqari".
3. `kuyis aSla", `anTila", `alaxi", `Kvana", `sataGi", `mucelkveTiloba", `sisxa",
`faGaraTi".
aris dialeqtebi, romlebSic or-ori formis meti ar dadasturebula. vTqvaT, an
`kopi" gvaqvs ama Tu im dialeqtSi an `kojri". `cingli" an `wvintli", `kuyi" an `sto-
maqi" (es ukanaskneli germanulia), `saxsari", an `sadruki", `mJiGi" an `muSti".
rogorc davinaxeT, moxmobili qarTuli somaturi leqsikidan zogi ZirZveli qar-
Tuli sitKvaa, nawili monaTesave enebidan aris nasesxebi. ufro mcire nawili ki te-
ritoriulad da genetikurad gansxvavebuli enebidan aris nasesxebi enis ganviTarebis
sxvadasxva diaqroniul yrilSi. adamianis agebulebasa da mis fiziologiur proceseb-
Tan dakavSirebuli leqsikdan ufro metad izomorfulia fiziologiuri leqsika, so-
maturi leqsika naklebad izomorfulia, ufro didi nawili alomorfulia. rac See-
xeba Cvens mier gamoKofil baskur somatur leqsikas, izomorfuli tipebi SeiZleba
mivusadagoT qarTul dialeqtur somatur leqsikas met-naklebi sizustiT, am SemTxve-
vaSic aseTi analizis Sedegebi iqneba miaxloebiTi, aproqsimatiuli.
aseTi gaxlavT baskuri somaturi leqsikis izomorfuli analizi qarTuli dia-
leqturi masalis fonze. Cven vfiqrobT SeviswavloT somaturi leqsika qarTvelur
enebSi da movaxdinoT baskuris Sesabamis leqsikur erTeulebTan misi Sedareba-Sepi-
rispireba, amis Semdgom mogaxsenebT ramdenad gamodgeba Cvens mier gamoKofili izo-
morful tipebad daKofa qarTveluri enebis dialeqturi leqsikisaTvis
G. Chantladze
An Attemp of Division the Basque Somatic Vocabulary
Summary

Somatic vocabulary is the less changeble part of the Basque lexical fund. It has been modified very
much in the dialects. We tried to divide the somatic vocabulary into izomorphc types. We distinguished
six types with the help of which we shall describe dialectal vocabulary of the Basque language. The
results might be approximate but such analysis give us the possibility to know which unit is izomorphc
and which is allomorphic in this part of the vocabulary. We have distinguished such types in the dialects
of the Georgian language too.