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Lucille G.

Aramburo
C213Eng Literary Criticism

1. Analyze the Richard Cory using the New Criticism/Formalism.

The poem Richard Cory was written by Edwin Arlington Robinson who was educated at
Harvard.
The first two lines suggest Richard Cory's distinction, his separation from ordinary folk.
The second two tell what it is in his natural appearance that sets him off. The next two mention
the habitual demeanor that elevates him still more in men's regard: his apparent lack of vanity,
his rejection of the eminence that his fellows would accord him. At the beginning of the third
stanza, "rich" might seem to be an anticlimaxbut not in the eyes of ordinary individual;
though, as the second line indicates, they would not like to have it thought that in their eyes
wealth is everything. The last two lines of the stanza record a total impression of a life that
perfectly realizes the dream that most men have of an ideal existence; while the first two lines of
the last stanza bring us back with bitter emphasis to the poem's beginning, and the impassable
gulf, for most peoplebut not, they think, for Richard Corybetween dream and fact. Thus the
first fourteen lines are a painstaking preparation for the last two, with their stunning overturn of
the popular belief.
The structure of the poem itself plays into the saga of Richard Cory. There are four
stanzas, each consisting of four lines (a quatrain), with each line containing 10 syllables.
Everything appears to be formal and organized, until we reach the last line of the poem. The
suddenness of death serves as both an example and a metaphor: an outer faade of perfection,
thought to stand the rigors of time, but a foundation which is crumbling. The shock and surprise
of a suicide turns this tale into a horrific outcome.
Each stanza is similarly written in terms of mechanics (one sentence with a colon after
the second line), and each stanza seems to contribute a specific purpose. The first stanza
introduces Cory, and establishes his status. The second stanza focuses on humanizing Cory, as
Robinson tells us that Richard was always human when he talked. Yet Robinson maintains
Corys royal aura, amplified through but he still fluttered pulses. Some may look at this as an
indictment towards Corys own nervousness around others, portraying his personality not as a
people-person. This stanza takes on the feeling of understatement, telling us that Cory was
always quietly arrayed, using Richards downplayed wardrobe as an example. We get the sense
that Cory is a humble man, despite being a model of envy. The third stanza completes our insight
into Cory, externally speaking.

2. What sort of Irony does Robinson use in his poem?

The irony in Richard Cory is that he is a man who seems to have everything he could
possibly want, but in the end of the poem he commits suicide. Which shows us that money
doesnt buy us happiness and that appearance can be deceiving.
Richard Cory is a narrative poem illustrating how we, as individuals, should cherish
that which we have, because the truly important things in life can be lost if our attention strays to
envy. By being thankful, this would lead to a greater sense of fulfillment, thus negating the
natural human urge to want what we do not, and cannot, have. Another point expressed by
Robinson, to steal a basic literature reference, is not to judge a book by its cover.
As a whole, Robinson uses irony as a foundation for the context of the poem.
Specifically, the poem takes on a sense of tragic irony. Richard Corys only accomplishment the
reader has knowledge of is to commit suicide. Although Cory appears to have everything a man
could desire (status, riches, charm, looks, etc.), he mentally collapses and all previous intentions
are lost.

3. What does it mean when he says that Richard Cory glittered when he walked?

Cory, rich, perfectly schooled in all the amenities, the most admired man in his town. It
sketches his gentlemanliness and his wealth. A wealthy man, admired and envied by those who
consider themselves less fortunate, a gentleman from sole to crown, richer than a king. He is an
individual set apart from ordinary mortals. He is clean favored and slim; he is quietly arrayed;
he is human when he talked; he is rich in material possession; he is schooled in every grace or
manner. Glittered emphasizes the aura of regality and wealth and also suggests the speciousness
of Cory.

4. Memorable images from lines 5, 7 and 14 and Explain.

a. And he was always quietly arrayed
Memorable image: he seems at times like a king.
He was educated at Harvard, a wealthy man who is admired and envied by those who
consider themselves less fortunate.

b. But still he fluttered pulses when he said,
Memorable image: misconception or the collective fault of the people.
There is a collective fault of the people, because while they see Cory on his adorable
appearance, still he is human, something else inside compelled us to blow up his
proportions.

c. And went without the meat, and cursed the bread.
Memorable image: A case of regicide.
There was inner emptiness or an absolute commitment to despair or because he was sick,
he committed a case of regicide. Cory pulls the trigger and killed himself.

II. Analyze the fictional character of Emily using the psychological approach.

A Rose for Emily, is certainly strange by any average readers standards and a
character analysis of Emily could go in any number of directions. It is nearly impossible not to
examine her in a psychological as well as contextual light. Miss Emilys erratic and idiosyncratic
behavior becomes outright bizarre, and the reader is left wondering how to explain the fact that
Miss Emily has spent years living and sleeping with the corpse of Homer Barron. The
townspeople did not say she was crazy, she was never evaluated, diagnosed, or treated by a
mental health professional. Miss Emilys character and behavior hinted at the possibility of a
mental illness, even if the town wanted to deny this fact and leave her intact as a social idol. It is
reasonable to propose that Miss Emily developed this mental illness as a response to the
demanding conditions in which she was living as a Southern woman from an aristocratic family.
Miss Emily decompensated because she was unable to develop healthy and adaptive coping and
defense mechanisms. While most people can handle the kinds of stressors Miss Emily faced,
those who cannot develop psychotic symptoms in response to their situation.

Miss Emily was from a family of great stature and wealth in their small Southern
community, and Miss Emily had always been burdened with the great expectations that others
had of her. Her community viewed her as having a hereditary obligation to maintain certain
traditions, traditions that had been established generations before her. Her father, charged with
transmitting these traditions and values to Miss Emily, was rigid in reinforcing these
expectations, her father was a man who had thwarted her womans life so many times. Just one
example of his behavior was that he drove all of Miss Emilys suitors away because none were
perceived as good enough for her. As a result, she never married.
Despite his oppressiveness, it is when her father dies that her mental decline condition
accelerated. Miss Emily was sick for a long time, and begins to avoid contact with others and
other psychotic symptoms become evident. Immediately after the death of her father, the ladies
of the town come to Miss Emilys home to offer their condolences, and they observe that she had
no trace of grief on her face. The inability to either feel or demonstrate appropriate affect, or
emotion, that is congruent to a particular situation is one of the classic symptoms of
schizophrenia. Miss Emily insisted to the visitors that her father was not dead. For this reason,
she would not permit his body to be removed until she broke down and the townspeople
removed the body quickly before she could protest.
Despite this and other evidence that Miss Emily is not emotionally or mentally well, the
townspeople persist in enabling her to maintain her delusions. In fact, their denial is almost as
pathological as Miss Emilys own symptoms. The townspeople avoid confronting Miss Emily
about any important concerns, such as the terrible smell that is emanating from her home, which
itself is becoming more detached, superseded, and forbidding every day.
Miss Emily has retreated entirely into a world of delusion and fantasy. At first, Miss
Emily has few callers, and those townspeople who dare to visit her were not received. Then,
there is a period where she withdraws from society altogether, and From that time on her front
door remained closed. The changes the townspeople having observed the time the they next
saw Miss Emily also hint at symptoms of advanced psychosis. Miss Emily had grown fat and
her hair was turning gray. This failure to attend to her personal appearance and to perform what
mental health practitioners call the tasks of daily livingsuch as hygiene and groomingalso
demonstrate severe deficits in the area of social/occupational functioning, which is one of the
criteria for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. At this point, Miss Emily is totally unable to relate to
other people in an appropriate manner. Although her contact with others is limited, when she is
forced to interact socially she is irrational and inappropriate, yet another symptom of
schizophrenia.
Faulkners A Rose for Emily is a short story that is, at its heart, a tale about the
pressures of society and the ways in which they can wear people down. Miss Emily lacked
adaptive coping skills to help her manage substantial stressors, and for this reason, she was
vulnerable to the onset of mental illness.

A. Why do you think Faulkner chose this title?

The rose in the title can be interpreted as a tribute of respect for Miss Emily who has lived a
life dominated by her controlling father, the social requirements of the South and circumstances
beyond her control. The rose in the title is a way of expressing both respect and remorse for
Miss Emily's life, a life dominated by death, loss and loneliness.

b. What does rose traditionally symbolize?

The rose is most often thought of as a symbol for love in which case Homer is the "rose" or
love for Emily. Her father thought no man was good enough for her or for the Grierson
family. Therefore she was never able to experience passion or the rose of love until she met
Homer.
Rose is used as a sign of silence or secrecy. A rose was hung from the ceiling at a meeting of
secret societies indicating a demand for discretion. The rose in the title of the story could
therefore stand for Emily's secret; that is Homer her "rose" whom she cherished, loved and kept
to herself even after his body was corrupted by the decay of time.

d. How is the meaning ironically twisted by the situation and characters in the story?

Emilys life is over in the same way that plantation life becomes a memory. She lives, but
has no life. She becomes enamored of the dead which is first depicted when she resists burying
her father. Her attempt of grasping at life through her relationship with Homer Barron also
results in death. She would rather kill him than allow him to leave her. She then lives with death
by sleeping next to the corpse of Homer Barron for many years. Her life is defined by death, she
fades from real life, although continuing to physically exist, and everything that mattered to
Emily has passed away.

III. Explain the piece MEDEA in the light of the mythological approach.

Medea derives primarily from Euripides play. Its new introduction provides a number of
surprises. Here they will meet several different Medeas. The one who killed her children is, to be
sure, featured prominently but other, less murderous versions of Medea also appear. The witch
there is Medea the young, vulnerable girl overwhelmed by love. One Medea attempted to kill
Theseus but another was a healer and Achilles wife in the afterlife.

Medea has nine chapters divided into three parts: Why Medea, Key Themes, and
After Greece and Rome. Chapter 1, Introducing Medea, describes the aims of the book: to
provide background information on Medea and explore the myth and the source of its power.
The
Key Themes, Origins, Folktale and Structuralism take up major issues related to the
Medea myth or important approaches to its understanding. It looks at both general theories on the
nature of myth and specific attempts to explain the development of the Medea myth.
In Witchcraft, Children and Divinity, looks at the most notorious aspects of the Medea
myth. The strongest image of Medea in the ancient world was undoubtedly that of the witch
but rightly observes that the term witch is rather problematic. It is argued that the witch lies
at the intersection between two powerful discourses: concern about the divine, and concern
about the position of women . This is what makes Medea so hard to categorize. She can be
either killer or victim, mortal or divine and, indeed, seems to exist outside the boundaries of
classical Greek religion.
The Ethnicity, Gender and Philosophy seeks to examine fundamental issues of self-
image within Greek society, extending into a more philosophical consideration of what it is to be
human. The figure of the witch continues to receive attention here as witches have traditionally
been linked with places or ethnicities different from the dominant culture and discusses the
meaning of the Greek term gos. A complex Medea figure unites "the opposing concepts of
self and other, as she veers between desirable and undesirable behavior, between Greek and
foreigner; it also allows to raise the disturbing possibility of otherness lurking within self -- the
possibility that the 'normal' carry within themselves the potential for abnormal behavior, that the
boundaries expected to keep our world safe are not impermeable". The juxtaposition of self and
other serves as the theoretical background against which Johnston contrasts the twelve essays of
this collection.
Medea implicitly demonstrates how the outsider, the other, is a threat to the inside, to the
self". Medeais identified as being "connected with a whole line of narratives that clearly are
associated with initiation rites". We can understand Medea as "initiatrix" when she helps Jason to
overcome the dangers he must undergo in his "initiation ritual" to acquire the fleece and claim
the throne back home.