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Prof.dr.Abd El com

Prof.dr.Abd El com

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Published by: Mans Fans on Dec 10, 2009
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07/17/2013

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•Definition : barrier between maternal blood
& fetal blood.
•Structure : 4 layers of 3ry villi :
•Syncitiotrophoblast.
•Cytotrophoblast.
•Core of mesoderm.
•Blood vessels.
•Functions : explain functions of placenta.

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Placenta at Term

•Shape : discoid.
•Diameter : 15 – 20 cm.
•Thickness : 1.5 – 3.0 cm.
•Weight : 500 – 600 gm.
•Surfaces :

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Placenta at Term

•Maternal surface : contains 15 – 20
cotyledons ( bulging villous area ) separated
by decidual septa.
•fetal surface : covered by amniotic membrane
(smooth), containing blood vessels from
umbilical cord that attached near centre.
•Intervillous spaces : containing maternal
blood.

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Anomalies of Placenta

•Anomalies of site : Lower part of body of
Lower part of body of

uterus

uterus , near internal os (placenta previa
placenta previa).

•Anomalies of attachment to uterus:
placental adhesion ( simple adhesion ,
placenta accreta).
•Anomalies of attachment of cord :
•Eccentric attachment : away from center.
•Marginal attachment : to margin.

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Anomalies of Placenta

•Velamentous attachment : to fetal
membranes , where vessels traverse to
placenta.
•Anomalies in shape :
•Bilobed (Bipartite) placenta : 2 lobes.
•Trilobed ( tripartite) placenta: 3 lobes.
•Irregular ( not circular ) placenta.
•Membranous placenta :

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Anomalies of Placenta

•Placenta succentorita : small accessory
lobe + main placenta.
•Anomalies in size & weight: e.g. large
placenta in erythroblastosis fetalis &
diabetes , syphilis.

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Functions of Placenta

Gas exchange : between mother and fetus
through placental barrier: fetal Hb. has
greater affinity to O2 than maternal adult Hb.).
Simple diffusion.
Nutrition of fetus : through placental barrier
by simple diffusion , facilitated diffusion
,active transport, endocytosis.
Excretion of fetus : waste pr through
placental barrier products to amniotic fluid.

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Functions of Placenta

Hormone production : syncitiotrophoblast
steroid hormones (estrogen& progestrone) &
protein hormones ( human chorionic
gonadotrophic , human placental lactogen.
Decidua & membranes secrete prolactin &
relaxin.

Protein production :pregnancy associated
associated plasma protein(PAPP).
Enzyme production : oxytinase ,insulinase , ..

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Functions of Placenta

Hemoglobin production : Fetal Hb.
Placental barrier action : allow passage
of small molecule e.g. IgG ,some viruses
( e.g. rubella) ,some bacteria (e.g.
treponema). some parasites(e.g.
toxoplasma gondi). Not allow passage of
large molecules (e.g. heparin & insulin).

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