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The Propaganda movement

The unjust execution of the three Filipino priests
Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto
Zamora was a turning point in the Philippine
History, for it ushered a new era, the reform
The Propaganda Movement was a cultural
organization formed in 1872 by Filipino
expatriates in Europe. Composed of the Filipino
elite called "ilustrados", exiled liberals and
students attending Europe's universities
gravitated to the movement.
The Propaganda Movement was aimed at the
Spanish who were then the rulers of the
Philippines. It was meant to encourage the
Spanish to be more aware of the problems and
needs of the Philippines and to propagate (which
is where the name comes from) a better
relationship between the colony and the "mother
In existence for 25 years (1872-1896), the
Propaganda Movement began with the death of
the GomBurZa martyrs and ended with the
execution of Rizal.
The Propagandists
The Members
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Jos P. Rizal - author of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, wrote for La
Solidaridad under the name "Laon Laan
Marcelo H. del Pilar - the editor and co-publisher of the La Solidaridad and
wrote under the name "Plaridel
Antonio Luna - wrote for La Solidaridad under the name "Taga-Ilog
Mariano Ponce - wrote for La Solidaridad under the name "Tikbalang
Jose Maria Panganiban - wrote for La Solidaridad under the name "Jomapa
Graciano Lpez Jaena - publisher of La Solidaridad
Juan Luna - painter and sculptor
Pedro Paterno
Anastacio Carpio
Eduardo de Lete -
Miguel Moran
Antonio Maria Regidor
Isabelo delos Reyes
Jos Alejandrino
Aims of the movement

Representation of the Philippines in the Cortes
Generales, the Spanish parliament;
Secularization of the clergy;
Legalization of Spanish and Filipino equality;
Creation of public school system independent of
Catholic friars;
Abolition of the polo y servicios (labor service) and
vandala (forced sale of local products to the
Guarantee of basic freedoms;
Equal opportunity for Filipinos and Spanish to enter
government service;

To make the Philippines a Province of Spain.
There was no desire for independence.
Believed that it would be better for Filipinos to
become Spanish and enjoy all the rights and
privileges equally.
Sought for a slot for a representative in the
Spanish Cortes.
Absolutely for Assimilation.

They are Filipino men of wealth and intellect.
They are situated in Spain.
Considered reformists, not revolutionists.
Resorted to peaceful means to convince the
authorities in Spain to introduce beneficent
reforms in the administration of the Philippines.

Not all of the wealthy Filipinos who went to Spain
in the second half of the nineteenth century were
in the propaganda movement.
Only a few of them were connected with the
They were serious-minded young men whose
faith in their country was boundless, whose
idealism in a corrupt age made them think of the
welfare of their country first and their personal
welfare last.
To this group of young Filipinos belonged
Graciano Lopez Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Jose
Rizal, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose M.
Panganiban, Eduardo Lete, and a few others
whose role in the reform movement was more or
less passive.
Born in Jaro, Iloilo, on December 17, 1856.
Son of Placido Lopez and Maria Jacobo Jaena.
Studied at the seminary of Jaro operated by the
Paulists, but it seemed that his study of religion
and the atmosphere of the seminary did not in the
least affect his inborn qualities as a rebel.
Wrote a tale entitled Fray Botod.
The Friars were badly affected by the insults in
this tale and wanted Jaena punished for this.
Because of the situation, he secretly left for spain.
Enrolled in medicine at the university of Valencia.
He later transferred to Madrid, because of the feel
and atmosphere of the environment there.
He was a great orator in the social and political
clubs, his pieces however, are mostly about the
sad condition of the Philippines.
He stood against Fr. Ramon Martinez Vigil, in an
oratorical occasion, where in the later is delivering
his speech about how benevolent the Friars are
in the Philippines.
He is the political analyst of the Filipino colony in
Was born in barrio Kupang, Bulakan Bulakan, on
August 30, 1850.
Son of Julian H. del Pilar and Blasa Gatmaitan.
His father was a poet and Marcelo inherited his
love for arts from him.
Studied at the College of San Jose and later in
the University of Santo Tomas, where he finished
his law course in 1880.

In 1878, he married his first cousin, Mariciana del
He had several children with only Anita and Sofia
He began as his countrys evangelist in 1880.
Made plazas and the cockpits his platform for
preaching the gospel of work, self-respect, and
He wanted to bring the masses to consciousness
by making them unified.
In 1882, he founded the nationalistic newspaper
Diariong Tagalog.
He wrote of patriotism and sad state of the
The year 1888 was significant to del Pilar, for it
was in that year that he gave his life wholly to the
propagation of uncommon, at lest in the
Philippines, ideas.
He wrote pamphlets ridiculing friar sovereignty
and exposing injustices committed almost daily
against Filipinos.
He also wrote dalasan at toksohan a parody of
the prayer book.
He also wrote amain namin a parody of our
He also Parodied the Ten commandments to
ridicule the Friars.
Because of his works, the Spanish authorities
ordered his arrest.
Marcelo, thus, Skipped the country and left for
Spain in October 1888.
In December 1889, he took over the editorship of
the Sol and became the moving spirit behind the
reform movement.

The most cultured reformist.
Was born in Kalamba, Laguna, on June 19, 1861.
Son of Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonzo.
Was alleged to have written a tagalog poem at
the age of eight entitled sa aking mga kabata.
Secured his preliminary education under a private
tutor in Binyang, Rizal was sen to Manila to
continue his studies.
Enrolled at AteneoMunicipal, operated by the
His mother became a victim of gross injustice and
was imprisoned.
This sad event deeply affected Rizal, he
determined to work for the welfare of his country.
When he was eighteen, his a la juventud filipina
won first place in a literary contest.
His el consejo de los dioses later was adjudged
as the best entry in a contest, but not awarded as
first prize simply because he was a Filipino.
He studied for a time at University of Santo
Later in 1882, he left for Spain, at the age of
twenty one.
He finished one of his famous work, the noli me
tangere, which means do not touch me. at the
age of twenty six.
In 1891, he finished his second novel, el
filibusterismo, which was published in the same
year with the help of Valentin Ventura, who lent
money to publish the book.
Rizal returned to the Philippines for the second
time the first was in 1887- early in 1892 and was
promptly arrested and thrown into Fort Santiago.
On July 7, 1892, his banishment to Dapitan was
announced officially.
He remained in Dapitan for four years, where he
helped his less fortunate countrymen, and did
other things like beautifying the Plaza.
He asked permission from the governor-general
to go to Cuba to enlist as a military doctor.
His request was granted and soon he was on a
ship to Manila. It was a critical moment that the
revolution flared up.
Rizal not wanting to be involved in the revolt,
stayed on the ship to await the arrival of the next
steamer for Spain.
Before the ship could dock at Barcelona, he was
placed under arrest and returned to the
Charged with treason and complicity in the
revolution, he was sentenced to die by musketry
on the early morning of December 30, 1896.
On February 15, 1889, the first number of La
Solidaridad came out in Barcelona.
The paper was a fortnightly dedicated to the
exposition of conditions in the Philippines.
The defense of the Filipinos to the malicious and
slanderous attacks of the friars, and the publication of
studies about the Philippines and the Filipinos.
Its first editor was Lopez Jaena, but he turned over its
management to del Pilar in December 1889.
The news of the birth of the Sol reached Philippines
within two months and by then, the nationalists
started contributing.
In writing in the Sol, the Filipino reformists used
pen names for obvious reasons.
Rizal used Dimas Alang and Laong Laan.
Mariano Ponce used Tikbalang, Naning, and
Antonio Luna used Taga-Ilog.
Marcelo H. del Pilar used Plaridel.
Jose Ma. Panganiban used Jo-Mapa.

Having played its role creditably, the newspaper
bowed out of existence in Madrid with its last
number dated November 15, 1895.
Concieved as early as july 1888, was inaugurated
on January 12, 1889 in Madrid.
It was composed of Spaniards and Filipinos who
favored the granting of reforms in the colony.
Prominent among the spanish members were
Miguel Morayta, profesor of history at the
Universidad central de Madrid, and Felipe de la
Corte, author of several works on the Philippines.
Morayta was elected as president of the society.
To make the propaganda work effective, the
society was divided into three sections: the
political section under Marcelo H. del Pilar; the
literay section under Mariano Ponce; and the
sports section under Tomas Arejola.
It was this society which urged no less than fifty-
two spanish towns to petition the cortes to favor
parliamentary representation of the philippines.
The patition was presented to the Cortes by
representative Emilio Junoy on February 21,
1895, but nothing came out of it.
Disgusted with the role of the friars in the
Philippines, the Filipino propagandists in Spain
affiliated with Masonic lodges in Spain.
Lopez Jaena thought of bringin all Filipino
Masons into one lodge. Consequently he
established the lodge Revolucion in Barcelona,
which was exclusively by and for the Filipinos.
A year later lodge La Solidaridad was founded in
They established lodge Nilad in the Philippines on
January 6, 1891. Pedro Serrano Laktaw and
Antonio Luna carried this out. In march 10, 1892,
a year later, it was recognized by the gran oriente
Their platform presented how they wanted a good
government, how they wanted to be represented
in the cortes, how they wanted reforms.
At the outbreak of revolution, masonry was
already deeply entrenched in the Philippines.
Though not directly responsible for revolution-
Andres Bonifacio, however, was a Mason- it
served as a pattern for the methods and
organization of the radical Katipunan.
Almost simultaneously with the introduction of
Masonry in the Philippines, a Civic society called
La Propaganda was Established.
Its members, composed mostly, if not exclusively,
of the middle class.
They contributed money to defray the expenses
of the Filipino reformers in Spain who were
waging a campaign to obtain political
concessions from the Mother country.
The funds collected were forwarded to Hispano-
Filipino Association. Sometimes their collections
were malversed and the la Propaganda passed
out of existence.
Rizal then stepped into the picture and proposed the
founding of another civic society.
He prepared a constitution for this society while at
Hongkong and now he thought that the time had
come for concrete action.
On the night of July 3, 1892, at the house in Tondo,
Rizal founded and inaugurated La Liga Filipina.
The aims of the Liga were to be carried out through
the creation of a governing body composed of the
supreme council, the provincial council, and the
popular council.
The members were each to pay ten centavos as
monthly dues.
Innocent as the society was, the Sapnish
authorities considered it dangerous and on the
night of July 6, 1892, Rizal was secretly arrested.
The Liga languished for a while, but some
members continued to support it.
The aims remained the same, but it was agreed
that all should contribute toward the support of La
Solidaridad in Spain.
The Liga was First active, but later on its
members tired of paying their dues, alleging that
Spanish government did not heed La Solidaridad.
The society lasted only a few months.
Its death led to a conflict among its members.
The middle-class members of the society believed
that something could still be done by La Solidaridad in
its campaign reforms.
The poor members led by Andres Bonifacio thought
that there was no hope of reforms.
This conflict led to the formation of cuerpo de
compromisarios by the middle class. It later died after
a few months for its mambers were too passive and
too conservative to make the society an effective
medium for propaganda.
Bonifacio, however, has already founded his
Result of the propaganda
It achieved only minor reforms during its time such as the
abolition of the tobacco monopoly; the replacement of the
tribute with the cedula tax; and the reduction of forced
labor from 40 days to 15 days in a year. However, the
propagandists failed to convince the Spanish hierarchy to
carry out major reforms in the Philippines. Instead, the
members of the movement were arrested, prompting them
to flee the country and escape persecution. Meanwhile, the
Filipinos were prohibited from reading Rizal's two novels,
as well as the published essays or articles written by other
reformists. The curtailment of the freedom press and
assembly were also strictly enforced.
The intensive campaign of La Solidaridad for
reforms did not yield any tangible result in the
form of changes on the administration of the
It is true that is brought to the attention of the
peninsular Spaniards the so-called Philippine
problem, but the mother country was too
preoccupied with its own internal problems.
Also, the friars were too powerful even in Spain to
be sidetracked by the Spanish authorities.
The societies established in the Philippines
whose purpose was to campaign for reforms did
not have sufficient means with which to carry out
their aims.
There was a difficulty in collecting funds for the
continued production of the sol.
The propagandists were divided against
themselves by petty jealousies. The result was
the weakening of the ties that bond them
Reasons for the Failure
The Propaganda Movement was a FAILURE
because of various reasons.
First and foremost, the leaders were ambitious
and somewhat greedy. They did do some reforms
but those reforms were only for their own interest.
Another reason was the lack of fund to support
the movement. Internal Conflicts was also
present between propagandists Rizal and del
Pillar which led to del Pillar's backing out from the

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