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# 202 Physics

By

Shaimaa Abd El-raof

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science,
Princess nora University

Email: shaimaaabdelraof@gmail.com

www.shaimaaabdelraof.blogspot.com

Assessment
 Mid 1 15%
 Mid 2 15%
 Final 40%
 Lab 30%
Electric Fields
Text Books
 College Physics, 8th Eds, Chris Vuille ,Raymond Serway , Jerry
Faughn.

 Physics for Scientists and Engineers 6th Eds, Raymond A.
Serway, John W. Jewett.

Lecture (1) Pages (705:714)
Properties of Electric Charges
 There are two kinds of charges in nature
 Positive charge
 Negative charge
Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790)
 Negative charge is identified by electron
 Positive charge is identified by proton
 Charges of the same sign repel one another
 Charges with opposite signs attract one another
Properties of Electric Charges
Properties of Electric Charges
 Electric charge is always
conserved in an isolated
system.

 For example, when a glass
rod is rubbed with silk, as
in Figure, the silk obtains a
negative charge that is
equal in magnitude to the
positive charge on the glass
rod.

Properties of Electric Charges
 Neutral, uncharged matter contains as many positive
charges (protons within atomic nuclei) as negative
charges (electrons).
 The electric charge q is said to be quantized
 q = Ne, where N is some integer, e is the electron charge.

It is convenient to classify materials in terms
of the ability of electrons to move through
the material:
Charging Objects By Induction
Materials
Electrical conductors
Materials in which some of the electrons are free electrons that are
not bound to atoms and can move relatively freely through the
material
copper, aluminum, silver
Electrical insulators
Materials in which all electrons are bound to atoms and cannot
move freely through the material
Glass, rubber, wood
Semiconductors
Materials in which their electrical properties are somewhere
between those of insulators and those of conductors
Silicon, germanium
Charging Objects By Induction
Charging Objects By Induction
Coulomb’s Law
 Properties of the electric force between two
stationary charged particles
Charles Coulomb (1736–1806)
 Inversely proportional to the square of the separation r
between the particles and directed along the line joining
them
 Proportional to the product of the charges q
1
and q
2
on
the two particles
 Attractive if the charges are of opposite sign and
repulsive if the charges have the same sign
 A conservative force
Coulomb’s Law
2
2 1
r
q q
k F
e e

 q1 is the charge on the first object

 q2 is the charge on the second object

 r is the separation between the two objects

k
e
= 1/(4
o
)
Coulomb constant

= 8.9875 × 10
9
N.m
2
/C
2

o
= 8.8542 × 10
12
C
2
/N.m
2

o
= Permittivity of free space
Coulomb’s Law
Coulomb’s Law
1 2
12
2
ˆ
e
q q
F k r
r

• Force is a vector quantity
•The law expressed in vector form for the
electric force exerted by a charge q1 on a
second charge q2, written F12, is

•where rˆ is a unit vector directed from q1
toward q2, as shown in Figure (a)
•The electric force exerted by q2 on q1 is
equal in magnitude to the force exerted by
q1 on q2 and in the opposite direction; that
is,
F21 = - F12.

1 Example #
The electron and proton of a hydrogen atom are
separated(on the average) by a distance of approximately
5.3 x 10-11 m. Find the magnitude of the electric force.
2 Example #
 Consider three point
charges located at the
corners of a right
triangle as shown in the
figure, where q
1
=q
3
=5.0
C, q
2
=-2.0 C, and
a=0.10 m. Find the
resultant force exerted
on q
3