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DISCUSSION MATERIALS

OF
GENRE
For
SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS
Disusun oleh
Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd
GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students Modul of English
DAFTAR ISI
I. Understandin T!"es o# Te$t......................................................%
&. Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition Te$t..........................................................%
What is Analytical Exposition?......................................................................5
Example of Analytical Exposition..................................................................6
A. Is Smoking Good fo !s?......................................................................6
". #ppotunity in the Glo$al %inancial &isis............................................'
C. Laptop as Students' Friend..................................................................'
D. &aee in (anslation............................................................................ )
E. Witing is a Geat fo *oney #nline.....................................................+
). Ane(dote Te$t...........................................................................*
What is Anecdote?...................................................................................... ,-
Example of Anecdote.................................................................................. ,-
A. "lessing $ehind (agedy....................................................................,-
+. Des(ri"tion Te$t......................................................................&)
What is Descipti.e (ext?............................................................................ ,/
Example of Desciption............................................................................... ,0
A. *y %iend1s 2e3 Shoes.......................................................................,0
". "oo$udu (emple..............................................................................,0
4. Narrati,e Te$t.........................................................................&4
What is 2aati.e?....................................................................................... ,4
Example of 2aati.e.................................................................................... ,5
A. 5ueen of Aa$ia and (hee Sheiks.....................................................,5
". (he Smatest 6aot...........................................................................,6
&. (he 7egend of (o$a 7ake....................................................................,'
D. &indeella ,........................................................................................ ,)
E. (he Smatest Animal..........................................................................,+
%. Pro(ed-re Te$t........................................................................).
What is 6ocedue?..................................................................................... /-
Example of 6ocedue................................................................................. /,
A. 6lanting &hilies.................................................................................. /,
". Witing %o "usiness.........................................................................../,
&. 8o3 to *ake a &heese #melet..........................................................//
/. Ne0s Ite1 Te$t........................................................................))
What is 2e3s Item?..................................................................................... //
Example of 6ocedue................................................................................. /0
A. *alaysian Women Suggested to &ay &ondoms.............................../0
". Indonesian *aid in 89 &out afte 8a.ing Sex.................................../4
&. Indonesian *aid $eheaded................................................................/5
2. Dis(-ssion Te$t.......................................................................)%
What is Discussion?.................................................................................... /5
Example of Discussion (ext......................................................................... /6
A. Example of Discussion (ext on 2uclea 6o3e.................................../6
". 8unting %ox........................................................................................ /)
3. E$"'anation Te$t......................................................................)3
What is Explanation?................................................................................... /)
Example of Explanation (ext......................................................................./+
SMA Students Modul of English
A. (sunami.............................................................................................. /+
". 8o3 Day and 2ight 8appen.............................................................../+
&. Why Summe Daylight is 7ongge than Winte Daylight....................0-
*. Hortator! E$"osition Te$t........................................................+.
What is 8otatoy Exposition?.....................................................................0-
Example of 8otatoy Exposition.................................................................0,
A. Watch you 9ids While Watching (:...................................................0,
". *oe Dust "ins is &leane; example of hotatoy...............................0/
&. Whee should $e afte 8igh School?; a hotatoy text.......................00
D. *illions fom 6opety *aket; a hotatoy exposition text................04
&.. Re"ort Te$t.............................................................................+4
What is <epot?........................................................................................... 04
Example of <epot (ext............................................................................... 05
A. 6latypus; a epot text.......................................................................05
&&. S"oo# Te$t...............................................................................+/
What is Spoof?............................................................................................ 06
Example of Spoof text................................................................................. 0'
A. =(hat 6hone is #>?............................................................................ 0'
". Sa.ed $y Stilts................................................................................... 0)
&. 6i.ate &on.esation.......................................................................... 0+
D. 2aseddin@s &oat................................................................................ 0+
E. 6enguin in the 6ak............................................................................ 4-
&). Re(o-nt Te$t...........................................................................4&
What is <ecount?........................................................................................ 4,
Example of <ecount text............................................................................. 4,
A. :acation to 7ondon............................................................................ 4,
". "et3een <ecount and 2aati.e........................................................4/
&. :isiting "ali........................................................................................ 4/
D. *y 8oi$le Expeience......................................................................40
E. *y Gandpa@s %uneal in (oaAa..........................................................44
&+. Re,ie0 Te$t.............................................................................4%
Example of <e.ie3 text............................................................................... 46
A. Benni #ptical; a site fo eyeglasses...................................................46
". Good (anslation................................................................................ 4'
&. <ecoding *ommy Couney................................................................4'
D. Good Doung *othe............................................................................ 4)
E. <ecommended Soft3ae Applications................................................4)
&4. Si1i'arities and di4erenties.....................................................43
A. (he Di>eences $et3een <epot and Descipti.e (ext.......................4)
". "et3een Explanation and 6ocedue (ext..........................................4+
&. "et3een <ecount and 2aati.e........................................................4+
D. "et3een Explanation and 6ocedue (ext..........................................5-
&%. A Co1"'ete O,er,ie0 O# Te$ T!"es...........................................%.
&/. Bent-5 Soa' Readin...............................................................%4
II. FUNCTIONAL SKILL..................................................................%/
SMA Students Modul of English
,. #>eing 8elp o (hings Emena3akan $antuan F mena3akan sesuatuG
Error6 Boo51ar5 not de7ned.
/. Intoducing EmempekenalkanG..........................................................5'
0. Geeting Emem$ei salamG.................................................................5)
4. In.iting EmengundangFmengaAakG......................................................5+
5. Expessing (hanks EteimakasihG.......................................................6-
6. &ongatulations Eucapan selamatG.....................................................6,
'. Sympathy Emenyatakan asa simpatiG...............................................6/
). 6leasueH Displeasue Esenang I tidak senangG.................................60
+. SatisfactionH Dissatisfaction E kepuasanH ketidakpuasanG...................64
,-. Asking I Gi.ing #pinion Ememinta I mem$ei pendapatG................65
,,. AgeementFappo.alH DisageementFdisappo.al EsetuAuH tidak setuAuG65
,/. %eaH Anciety Eungkapan ketakutanH kegelisahanG..............................66
,0. 6ainH <elief Eungkapan kesakitanH kelegaanG......................................6'
,4. 7ikeF7o.e I DislikeF8ate EsukaFcinta I tidak sukaF$enciG...................6'
,5. Em$aassment I Annoyance E!ngkapan asa maluH keAengkelanG...6)
,6. <eJuest EpemintaanG........................................................................ 6+
,'. &omplaintH "lame EkeluhanHmenyalahkanG........................................'-
,). <egetH Apology EpenyesalanH meminta maafG...................................',
,+. 6ossi$ility I Impossi$ility Ekemungkinan I ketidakmungkinanG.........'/
III. LANGUAGE USAGE...................................................................2+
A. (E2SES.............................................................................................. '0
". DI<E&( K I2DI<E&( E<epoted SpeechG...............................................')
&. 6ASSI:E :#I&E Ekalimat pasifG...........................................................)0
D. DEG<EES #% &#*6A<IS#2 Etingkat pe$andinganG...........................)6
E. 5!ES(I#2 (AGS................................................................................. )'
%. &#2DI(I#2A7 SE2(E2&ES Ekalimat pengandaianG............................))
G. <E7A(I:E 6<#2#!2S Ekata ganti penghu$ungG.................................)+
8. S!"C!2&(I:E WIS8............................................................................+-
I. &A!SA(I:E 8A:EFGE(........................................................................+-
C. GE<!2D............................................................................................. +,
9. 6<E%E<E2&ES EpilihanFkesukaanG......................................................+/
7. &#22E&(#<S E9ata 6enghu$ungG.....................................................+/
*. &#2C!2&(I#2S E9ata Sam$ungG........................................................+0
2. E77I6(I& &#2S(<!&(I#2...................................................................+4
SMA Students Modul of English
I. Understandin T!"es o# Te$t
(ext can $e classiLed into se.eal types. (he tem of 1type1 is
sometime stated as 1gene1. (hese types of text ae;
,. Analytical Exposition
/. Anecdote
0. Descipti.e
4. 2aati.e
5. 6ocedue
6. 2e3s Items
'. Discussion
). Explanation
+. 8otatoy Exposition
,-. <epot
,,. Spoof
,/. <ecount
,0. <e.ie3
(hese classiLcation on type of text ae $ased on analysis of thee
main elements of text. (hese elements of text aeM
(he pupose of the text; 3hy is the text made?H 3hat is text made fo
$y its 3ite
(he geneic stuctue of the text; analyNing the used stuctue in
composing the textH in 3hat 3ay is the text constucted $y its 3ite.
(he language featue; taking a look at the linguistic chaacteiNations
of the textH 3hat kind of language featue is used to $uild the text $y
its 3ite.
&. Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition Te$t
89at is Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition:
&. De7nition o# Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition
Exposition is a text that ela$oates the 3iteOs idea a$out the
phenomenon suounding. Its social function is to pesuade the
eade that the idea is impotant matte.
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition
(hesisM Intoducing the topic and indicating the 3ite@s position
Agument ,M Explaining the agument to suppot the 3ite@s
position
Agument /M Explaining the othe aguments suppot the 3ite@s
position moe
<eiteationM <estating the 3ite@s position
+. Lan-ae Feat-res o# Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition
!sing elational pocess
!sing intenal conAunction
!sing causal conAunction
!sing Simple 6esent (ense
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Cars s9o-'d ;e ;anned in t9e (it!
SMA Students Modul of English
Thesis &as should $e $anned in the city. As 3e all kno3H
cas ceate pollutionH and cause a lot of oad deaths and
othe accidents.
Argument
s
%istlyH carsH as 3e all kno3H conti$ute to most of the
pollution in the 3old.
&as emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as
$onchitisH lung canceH and Otigges@ o> asthma. Some
of these illnesses ae so $ad that people can die fom
them.
SecondlyH the city is .ey $usy. 6edestians 3ande
e.ey3hee and cas commonly hit pedestians in the
cityH 3hich causes them to die. &as today ae ou oads
$iggest killes.
(hidlyH cas ae .ey noisy. If you li.e in the cityH you
may Lnd it had to sleep at nightH o concentate on you
home3okH and especially talk to someone.
Reiteratio
n
In conclusionH cas should $e $anned fom the city fo
the easons listed.
E$a1"'e o# Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition
A. Is S1o5in Good #or Us:
"efoe 3e ae going to smokeH it is $ette to look at the fact.
A$out 5- thousands people die e.ey yea in "itain as diect
esult of smoking. (his is se.en times as many as die in oad
accidents. 2ealy a Juate of smokes die $ecause of diseases
caused $y smoking.
2inety pecent of lung cances ae caused $y smoking. If 3e
smoke L.e cigaettes a dayH 3e ae six times moe likely to die of
lung cance than a non smoke. If 3e smoke t3enty cigaettes a
dayH the isk is nineteen geate. 2inety L.e pecent of people
3ho su>e of $onchitis ae people 3ho ae smoking. Smokes ae
t3o and half times moe likely to die of heat disease than non
smokes.
AdditionallyH childen of smoke ae moe likely to de.elop
$onchitis and pneumonia. In one hou in smoky oomH non
smoke $eathes as much as su$stance causing cance as if he
had smoked Lfteen cigaettes.
Smoking is eally good fo to$acco companies $ecause they
do make much money fom smoking ha$it. Smoking ho3e.e is
not good fo e.ey $ody else.
Notes on t9e eneri( str-(t-re<
%om the geneic stuctueH 3hat make $ig di>eent is that
analytical exposition ends 3ith paagaph to stengthen the thesis
3hile hotatoy makes a ecommendation fo eades.
SMA Students Modul of English
T9esisM (his peKconclusi.e paagaph states the 3ite@s point of
.ie3 a$out the topic discussed. Wite has sho3 himself in clea
position of the discussed topic. 6aagaph , is the thesis of this
analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the .ey fatal
impact of the smoking ha$it. &lealy the 3ite 3ants to say that
smoking is not a good ha$it.
Ar-1entsM 6esenting aguments in analytical exposition text is
as impotant as gi.ing conPict plot in naati.e text. (he seies of
agument 3ill stengthen the thesis stated $efoe. In this example
of analytical exposition textH paagaph / and 0 ae the detail
aguments pesented in a epoting fact to suppot that smoking
is not good e.en fo smokes themsel.es. %uthemoeH people
3ho do not smoke $ut they ae in smoky aea ha.e the $ad e>ect
too fom the smoking ha$it.
ReiterationM (his end paagaph actually is estating the thesis. It
is something like conclusi.e paagaph fom the pe.ious
aguments. (he last paagaph of this example of analytical
exposition points again that smoking is not good fo smokes and
people aound smokes. 8o3e.e smoking is .ey good fo
&igaette &ompanies
B. O""ort-nit! in t9e G'o;a' Finan(ia' Crisis
!S Lnancial cisis and its contagion to Euope and the est of
the 3old could also ceate ne3 oppotunity fo Indonesia in tem
of foeign diec in.estment and the de.elopment of $asic
infastuctue.
As the !SH Lnancial cisis has no3 spead to EuopeH the oilK
ich counties such as Saudi Aa$iaH 9u3ait and Aa$ Emiate
3hich ha.e accumulated hundeds of $illion of Dollas in thei
foeign ese.eH ae no3 e.ie3ing thei holding o in.estment
.ehicle. (hey ae looking fo moe di.esiLed in.estment outside
the !S and Euope.
"ecause of unfa.oa$le political de.elopments in (hailand
and *alaysia o.e the past fe3 monthsH Indonesia 3hich has
lagely *uslim population could $ecome one of these oilKich
counties1 fa.oite place fo foeign diect in.estment. (hat 3il $e
tue if the conditionsH legal and maket infastuctues ae
conduci.e fo Islamic Lnancial instuments.
(he go.enment had impo.ed the legal fame3ok 3ith the
ecent actment of la3s on shaia $anking and $onds. (he long
tem natue of Islamic $onds could make them the most suita$le
in.estment instument fo IndonesiaH as these $onds gant an
in.esto a shae in an asset along 3ith the cash Po3s and isks
commensuate 3ith such o3neship.
(he Lnancial cisis that has gipped the glo$e and 3eakening
economic go3th in the est of the 3old 3ill se.e to the
SMA Students Modul of English
go.enment to acceleate the in.estment efom measues in
ode to ga$ the hidden oppotunity in the glo$al cisis.
ESimpliLed fom the Aakatapos.com on #ct +G
NOTES ON Generi( Str-(t-re<
6aagaph , is THESIS. It intoduces the topic of the text 3hich
state the potential oppotunity $ehind the glogal Lnancial
cisis.
6aagaphes / and 0 ae the
AR!ME"TS 3hich suppot to the
opinios stated in the a$o.e thesis.
6aagaph 4 is REITERATI#" 3hich
estates the thesis in anothe
phrases to point the $riter'opinion.
&. Laptop as Students' Friend
Con%entionall&' students need
(oo)' pen' eraser' dra$ing $ookH ule
and such othe stu>. AdditionallyH in
this multimedia eaH students need
moe to each thei pogessi.e
de.elopment. Students need mo$ile
key$oads to ecod e.ey pesented
su$Aect easily. #f couse it 3ill need
moe cost $ut it 3ill dese.e fo its
function.
%istH moden schools tend to
apply fast tansfeing kno3ledge
$ecause the school needs to catch the
taget of cuiculum. E.ey su$Aect 3ill
tend to $e gi.en in demonstati.e
method. &onseJuently students need
exta media co.e the su$Aect. Since
thee is a laptop on e.ey student@s
deskH this method 3ill help student to
get $ette undestanding.
SecondlyH Lnding an appopiate
laptop is not diQcult as it 3as.
<ecently thee is an online shop 3hich
po.ides compehensi.e infomation.
(he $est is that the shop has se.ice of
online shopping. (he students Aust
need to $o3s that online shopH decide
3hich compute o laptop they needH and then complete the
SMA Students Modul of English
Small Notes
Ana'!ti(a' E$"osition
=E5s"osisi Ana'itis>
Ciri Umum:
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi
audience (pendengar atau
pembaca) bahwa ada masalah
yang tentunya perlu mendapat
perhatian.
(b) Struktur Teks!eneric structure
Thesis" #ernyataan pendapat
$rgument" terdiri atas
%point& yang dikemukakan
dan %elaborasi&"
'eiteration " #enguatan
pernyataan.
(c) (iri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
General nouns) misalnya car)
pollution, leaded petrol car, dsb.
Abstract nouns) misalnya policy)
government, dsb.
Technical verbs) misalnya
species of animals) dsb.
Relating verbs) misalnya It is
important, dsb.
Action verbs) misalnya She must
save) dsb.
Thinking verbs) misalnya Many
people believe) dsb
Modal verbs) misalnya e must
preserve) dsb.
Modal adverbs) misalnya
certainly, e, dsb.
!onnectives, misalnya firstly,
secondly)dsb.
*ahasa e+aluatif) misalnya
important, valuable, trustorthy,
dsb.
Kalimat pasif
tansaction. Afte that the laptop 3ill $e deli.eed to the students1
houses. (hat is eally easy and sa.e time and money.
%om all of thatH ha.ing mo$ile compute is a$solutely useful
fo students 3ho 3ant to catch the $est esult fo thei study.
"uying laptop online is ad.isa$le $ecause it 3ill cut the pice. (his
online 3ay is ecommended since online shop also po.ides
se.eal laptop types. Students Aust need to decide 3hich type
they eally need.
D. Career in Trans'ation
%unctionallyH tanslation is tansfeing the message o the
meaning and not the 3od. Accoding to 2idaH such tanslation is
called dynamic eJui.alence tanslation. It ties to $ing the
pecise message in di>eent language.
*any people like to 3atch 8olly3ood mo.ie $ut many get
tou$le in undestanding to the actos1 dialogue. So the 3ay they
get the undestanding a$out the mo.ie is eading the tanslating
text unning. If 8indi tanslation is po.idedH it 3ill $ing the $ette
undestanding fo Indian mo.iegoe. 8olly3ood mo.ie spead o.e
othe Asia counties. (heefoeH Aa$ic tanslationH Indonesian
tanslation and %asi tanslation ae 3idely needed and that is a
$ig chance fo English maste in that counties.
India is likely $eing an English speaking county. India
tanslation 3ill go3 $ette and. It seems IndonesiaH *alaysia and
%ilipina 3ill each that mak too soon. (anslation Ao$ 3ill $e geat
in amount and that is good de.elopment fo tanslating Ao$
seekes.
E. 8ritin is a Great #or Mone! On'ine
(he emegence of the intenet has gi.en intenet
entepeneus many 3ays to make money. Wites ae one goup
that ha.e $eneLted fom thei talents as a esult in the ise of
intenet $ased Ao$s.
"log 3iting is an inceasingly popula 3ay to ean money
online detemined $y the o3ne of the $log. (hey ae .ey popula
$ecause of t"logs ae usually 3itten on a cetain su$Aect aea $ut
can .ay as its content is hei simplicity to get up and unning.
(hee ae many fee 3e$sites out thee that 3ill help you set up
you o3n $log if you choose to go that oute $ecause $log plus
ad.etisement is a potential money
Aticle 3iting is also good money to ean money online. *ake
sue to gea you aticles to pomote and ad.etise you o3n
$usiness .entues. (hese aticles ae a fee 3ay to maket the
poducts and se.ices you o>e fo fee. (he most e>ecti.e
ad.etising 3ith these aticles comes fom the dialogue $ox that
is inseted at the end of each aticle. (hese dialogue $oxes
SMA Students Modul of English
contain links to $asically any 3e$site you 3ould like to di.e
taQc to. %o instanceH you might ha.e one link in you dialogue
$ox to a poduct you ae selling and one to a $log 3hee you ae
pomoting a discussing othe poducts.
Witing takes some time to gain cedi$ility though $ut once
it1s done1 eaning potential can $ecome .ey po3eful.
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
(hesis; Witing is good in making money online
Agument ,; $log is a potentially eaning money
Agumant /; 3iting aticles is good in eaning money
&onclusion; cedi$le 3ite is po3eful to make money online
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
Simple pesent tense; "log 3iting is an inceasingly popula
3ay to ean money onlineH Witing takes some time to gain
cedi$ilityH etc
&ausal conAunction ; $ecauseH etc
). Ane(dote Te$t
89at is Ane(dote:
&. De7nition and So(ia' F-n(tion o# Ane(dote
Anecdote is a text 3hich etells funny and unusual incidents in fact o
imagination. Its pupose is to entetain the eades.
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Ane(dote
,. A$stact
/. #ientation
0. &isis
4. Incident.
+. Lan-ae Feat-re o# Ane(dote
,. !sing exclamation 3ods; it1s a3fulRH it1s 3ondefulRH etc
/. !sing impeati.e; listen to this
0. !sing hetoic Juestion; do you kno3 3hat?
4. !sing action .e$; goH 3iteH etc
5. !sing conAunction of time; thenH afte3ad
6. !sing simple past tense
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Sna5e in t9e Bat9
A(stract 8o3 3ould you like to Lnd a snake in you $ath? A
nasty one tooR
#rientation We had Aust *o%ed into a ne3 houseH 3hich had $een
SMA Students Modul of English ,-
empty fo so long that e.eything 3as in a tei$le mess.
Anna and I decided 3e $ould clean the $ath LstH so 3e
set toH and turned on the tap.
Crisis Suddenly to my hooH a snake@s head appeared in
the plugKhole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin
(od&. He t$isted and tuned on the slippey $ottom of the
$athH spitting and hissing at us.
Incident %o an instant I stood thee ?-ite paalysed. (hen I
yelled fo my hus$andH 3ho luckily ca*e running and
)illed the snake 3ith the handle of a $oom. AnnaH 3ho
3as only thee at the timeH 3as ?-ite inteested in the
3hole $usiness. Indeed I had to pull he out of the 3ay o
she@d po$a$ly ha%e leant o%er the $ath to get a $ette
lookR
Coda E.e since then I@%e al3ays put the plug in Lmly
$efoe running the $ath 3ate.
E$a1"'e o# Ane(dote
A. B'essin ;e9ind Traed!
(hee 3as a $lack family in Scotland
yeas ago. (hey 3ee &lak family 3ith
nine childen. (hey had a deam to go to
Ameica. (he family 3oked and sa.ed.
(hey 3ee making plan to ta.el 3ith
thei childen to Ameica. It had taken
se.eal yeas $ut Lnally they had sa.ed
enough money. (hey had gotten
passpot. (hey had $ooked seats fo the
3hole family mem$e in a ne3 line to Ameica.
(he entie family 3as full of anticipation and excitement 3ith
thei ne3 life in Ameica. 8o3e.e fe3 days $efoe thei
depatueH the youngest son 3as $itten $y a dog. (he docto
se3ed up the $oy. "ecause of the possi$ility of getting a$iesH
thee 3ee $eing Juaantined fo long days. (hey 3ee in
Juaantine 3hen the depatue time came. (he family deams
3ee dashed. (hey could not make the tip to Ameica as they had
planned.
(he fathe 3as full of disappointed and ange. 8e stomped
the dock to 3atch the ship lea.ed 3ithout him and his family. 8e
shed teas of disappointment. 8e cused $oth his son and God fo
the misfotune.
%i.e days latteH the tagic ne3s spead thoughout Scotland.
(he shipH the mighty (itanicH had shank. It took hundeds of
passenge and ce3 3ith it. (itanic 3hich had $een called the
unsinka$le ship had sunk. It 3as un$elie.a$le $ut it 3as.
SMA Students Modul of English ,,
Small Notes
). Ane(dote =Cerita L-(->
Ciri Umum:
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Menceritakan kejadianperistiwa lucu
berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa
nyata yang bertujuan menghibur.
(b) Struktur Teks!eneric structure
$bstrak ($bstract)
#engenalan (,rientation)
Krisis ((risis)
Tindakan (-ncident)
Koda ((oda)
(c) (iri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
seruankata seru) pertanyaan retorik
dan kata.kata seperti /isten to this0
$nd do you kno hat" It#s aful,
isn#t it" dsb.
action verbs) misalnya go, rite)
dsb.
conjunctions yang berhubungan
dengan aktu, seperti then,
afterards, dsb.
(he &lak family should ha.e $een on that shipH $ut $ecause
of the $itten son $y a dogH they 3ee left $ehind. When the fathe
head the ne3sH he hugged the son and thanked him fo sa.ing
the family. 8e thanked God fo sa.ing thei li.es. It 3as a $lessing
$ehind a tagedy. EAdapted fom 7ook Ahead /G
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
A;stra(tM E.ey$ody has a deam. Dou ha.e and so do I. When the
deam 3ill come tueH thee is something 3ong last minute $efoe
it. What 3ill 3e feel? What 3ill 3e do?
OrientationM the &lak family li.ed in Scotland. (hey had deam to
ta.el to Ameica. (hey pepaed 3ell fo thei plan
CrisisM fe3 days $efoe they 3ent to AmeicaH his youngest son 3as
$itten $y a dog. It made they 3ee $eing Juaantined. (hey had to
foget thei plan.
In(identM the family 3as full of disappointment and ange. (he
fathe 3as angy 3ith his son and God. (he family failed to ta.el to
Ameica and the fathe could not accept it.
CodaM the fathe thank to his son 3hen he hea the ship sank. 8e
thank to God $ecause of sa.ing the family fom sinking. 8e thought
lea.ing $ehind the ship 3as not a tagedy $ut a $lessing.
+. Des(ri"tion Te$t
89at is Des(ri"ti,e Te$t:
&. T9e De7nition and P-r"ose o# Des(ri"ti,e Te$t
Descipti.e text is a text 3hich says 3hat a peson o a thing is like.
Its pupose is to desci$e and e.eal a paticula pesonH placeH o
thing.
). T9e Generi( Str-(t-re o# Des(ri"ti,e Te$t
Descipti.e text has stuctue as $elo3M
IdentiLcation; identifying the phenomenon to $e desci$ed.
Desciption; desci$ing the phenomenon in patsH JualitiesH oFand
chaacteistics.
+. T9e Lan-ae Feat-re o# Des(ri"ti,e Te$t
!sing atti$uti.e and identifying pocess.
!sing adAecti.e and classiLes in nominal goup.
!sing simple pesent tense
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Ma(@-arie Uni,ersit!
Identifcati
on
*acJuaie !ni.esity is one of the lagest uni.esities
in Austalia. (his yeaH in /--4H it cele$ates its 4-
th
SMA Students Modul of English ,/
anni.esay.
Description (he uni.esity is located at the 2oth <yde Geen$eltH
SydneyH 3hee the 2e3 South Wales go.enment sets
aside ,05 hectaes fo the institution. In ,+64H *acJuaie
aea 3as a ual eteat on the city fingeH $ut today the
campus and its suoundings ha.e e.ol.ed $eyond
ecognition. (he 2oth <yde Distict has go3n into a
distict of intensi.e occupation anchoed $y a .i$ant and
go3ing uni.esity.
"lessed 3ith a fotunate location and oom to $eatheH
*acJuaie can $e poud of that caeful planning that
etains and enich the uni.esity@s most attacti.e natual
featues. A pleasing $alance $et3een $uildings and
plating is e.ident acoss the campus. (his emphasis on
the impotance of landscape has ceated images of
*acJuaie as a place that mem$es of the uni.esity ae
most likely to pleasua$ly ecollect.
#ne of the highlights of the landscape is the *as
&eek None. It compises landscaped ceek sides and
.alley PooH a gass amphitheateH and atiLcial lakeS
suounded $y ocks and pe$$lesH nati.e plants and
eucalypts.
(odayH a ail3ay station is unde constuction. In thee
yeas, timeH *acJuaie 3ill $e the only uni.esity in
Austalia 3ith a ail3ay station on site. *acJuaie is
poised to $e the most eadily accessi$le in Sydney egion
$y ail and moto3ayH yet etaining its $eautiful site.
E$a1"'e o# Des(ri"tion
A. M! FriendAs Ne0 S9oes
I ha%e a close Friend. She is (eautiful' attracti%e and trend&.
She al$a&s $ant to (e a trend setter of the da&. She al$a&s pa&s
*uch attention on her appearance. Recentl&' she (ought a ne$
st&list foot legs fro* (lo$+sh shoes products. This shoes reall&
*atches on her.
Her ne$ (lo$+sh $o*en's shoes are $onderful. ,hen she
are $al)ing on that shoes' all her friends' including *e $atch and
ad*ire that she has the *ost suita(le shoes on her ph&sical
appearance. The st&le' (right color' and (rand represent her as a
s*art $o*an of the da&. She reall& ha%e perfect appearance.
She is reall& *ad on that shoes. She said that the products
co%ered all genders. The (lo$+sh *en's shoes are as elegant as
she has. The products pro%ide %arieties of choice. -allet' casual'
(oot athletic shoes are designed in attracti%e $a&. The products
are international trader *ar) and (eco*e the hottest trend.
SMA Students Modul of English ,0
B. Boro;-d-r Te1"'e
-oro(udur is Hindu . -udhist te*ple. It $as
(uild in the nineth centur& under Sailendra
d&nast& of ancient Matara* )ingdo*. -oro(udur
is located in Magelang' Central /a%a' Indonesia.
-oro(udur is $ell.)no$n all o%er the $orld. Its
construction is in0uenced (& the upta
architecture of India. The te*ple is constructed
on a hill 12 * high and consist of eight step li)e
stone terrace. The +rst +%e terrace are s3uare
and surrounded (& $alls adorned $ith -udist
sculpture in (as.relief. The upper three are
circular. Each of the* is $ith a circle of (ell
shape.stupa. The entire adi+ce is cro$ned (& a
large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top
circle. The $a& to the su**it e4tends through
so*e 1.5 )* of passage and star$a&s. The
design of (oro(udur $hich s&*(oli6es the
structure of uni%erse in0uences te*ples at
Ang)or' Ca*(odia.
-oro(udur te*ple $hich is rededicated as an
Indonesian *onu*ent in 7859 is a %alua(le
treasure for Indonesian people.
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
IdentiLcation; identifying the phenomenon to $e desci$ed in
geneal; "oo$udu temple
Desciption; desci$ing the "oo$udu temple in pats; eight
teaces of "oo$udu temple and its chaacteistics
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
!sing adAecti.e and classiLes; .alua$le
!sing simple pesent tense; "oo$udu is 3ellKkno3nH(he temple
is constuctedH etc
SMA Students Modul of English ,4
4. Narrati,e Te$t
89at is Narrati,e:
&. De7nition o# Narrati,e
2aati.e is a text focusing speciLc
paticipants. Its social function is to tell
stoies o past e.ents and entetain the
eades.
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Narrati,e
A naati.e text consists of the follo3ing
stuctueM
,. #ientationM Intoducing the
paticipants and infoming the time
and the place
/. &omplicationM Desci$ing the ising
cises 3hich the paticipants ha.e to
do 3ith
0. <esolutionM Sho3ing the 3ay of
paticipant to sol.e the cisesH $ette
o 3ose
+. Lan-ae Feat-res o# Narrati,e
!sing pocesses .e$s
!sing tempoal conAunction
!sing Simple 6ast (ense
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Sno0 89ite
#rientation #nce upon a time thee li%ed a 'itt'e ir' na1ed
Sno0 89ite. S9e li%ed 3ith 9er A-nt and Un('e
$ecause 9er "arents were dead.
Co*plication 7 #ne day s9e heard 9er Un('e and A-nt tal)ing
a$out lea.ing Sno0 89ite in the castle $ecause t9e!
$oth $anted to go to Ameica and t9e! didnt have
enough money to take Sno0 89ite.
Resolution 7 Sno0 89ite did not $ant 9er Un('e and A-nt
to do this so s9e decided it would be $est if s9e ran
a$a&. (he next moning s9e ran a$a& fom home
3hen 9er A-nt and Un('e 3ee ha%ing $eakfast.
S9e ran a$a& into the 3oods.
Co*plication : (hen s9e sa$ this little cottage. S9e )noc)ed $ut
no one ans$ered so she $ent inside and fell asleep.
SMA Students Modul of English ,5
Small Notes
Des(ri"tion =Des5ri"si>
Ciri U1-1<
EaG(uAuan 9omunikatif (eksM
*endeskipsikan ciiKcii seseoangH
$enda atau tempat tetentu secaa
spesiLk.
E$GStuktu (eksFGeneic stuctue
IdentiLcation; IdentiLkasi tentang
topik yang akan dideskipsikanH
*isalnyaM I ha.e many petsH $ut
my fa.ouite one is a cat.
Desciption; $eisi deskipsi
tentang $agianK$agiannya.
*isalnya tampilan Lsik Ephysical
appeaanceGH kualitasH peilaku
umumH sifatKsifat EchaacteisticG.
EcG&ii 9e$ahasaanM
*enggunakanM
nouns tetentuH misalnya teacher'
houseH*& cat' ds$.
si*ple present tense.
detailed noun phrase untuk
mem$eikan infomasi tentang
su$AekH misalnya It $as a large
open ro$(oatH a s$eet &oung lad&'
ds$.
$e$agai macam ad;ecti%esH yang
$esifat descri(ing' nu*(ering'
classif&ing' misalnyaH t$o strong
legs' sharp $hite fangs' ds$.
relating %er(s untu) *e*(eri)an
infor*asi tentang su(;e)' *isaln&a'
M& *u* is real& cool' It has %er&
thic) fur' ds(.
thin)ing %er(s dan feeling %er(s
untu) *engung)ap)an pandangan
pri(adi penulis tentang su(;e)'
*isaln&a <olice (elie%e the suspect
is ar*ed' I thin) it is a cle%er
ani*al' ds(.
action %er(s' *isaln&a #ur ne$
pupp& (ites our shoes' ds(.
a(%er(ials untu) *e*(eri)an
infor*asi ta*(ahan tentang
perila)u terse(ut' *isaln&a fast' at
the tree house' ds(.
Resolution : *ean3hileH t9e se,en d0ar#s $ere co*ing
home fom 3ok. T9e! $ent inside. (hee t9e! found
Sno0 89ite sleeping. (hen Sno0 89ite $o)e up.
S9e sa3 t9e d0ar#s. (he d3afs saidH =3hat is you
name?? Sno0 89ite said' =*y name is Sno0
89ite.?
Do(B one o# t9e d0ar#sB saidH =If you 3ishH you
*a& li%e hee 3ith us.? Sno0 89ite saidH =#h could I?
(hank you.? Then Sno0 89ite told t9e d0ar#s the
3hole stoy and Sno0 89ite and the 2 d0ar#s li%ed
happily e.e afte.
E$a1"'e o# Narati,e
A. @-een o# Ara;ia and T9ree S9ei5s
*auaH 3ho like to $e thought of as the most $eautiful and po3eful
Jueen of Aa$iaH had many suitos. #ne $y one she discaded themH
until he list 3as educed to Aust thee sheiks. (he thee sheiks 3ee all
eJually young and handsome. (hey 3ee also ich and stong. It 3as
.ey had to decide 3ho 3ould $e the $est of them.
#ne e.eningH *aua disguised heself and 3ent to the camp of the
thee sheiks. As they 3ee a$out to ha.e dinneH *aua asked them fo
something to eat. (he Lst ga.e he some left o.e food. (he second
Sheik ga.e he some unappetiNing camel@s tail. (he thid sheikH 3ho 3as
called 8akimH o>eed he some of the most tende and tasty meat. Afte
dinneH the disguised Jueen left the sheik@s camp.
(he follo3ing dayH the Jueen in.ited the thee sheiks to dinne at
he palace. She odeed he se.ant to gi.e each one exactly 3hat they
had gi.en he the e.ening $efoe. 8akimH 3ho ecei.ed a plate of
delicious meatH efused to eat it if the othe t3o sheiks could not shae it
3ith him.
(his Sheik 8akim@s act Lnally con.inced 5ueen *aua that he 3as
the man fo he. =Without JuestionH 8akim is the most geneous of you?
she announced he choice to the sheiks. =So it is 8akim I 3ill may?.
Narrati,e Co1"'i(ation in Generi( Str-(t-re
As it is said many times thatH the heat of naati.e text is the
existence of the complication. It 3ill di.e the plot of the stoy to
keep amusing. (he existence of conPict inside the 5ueen *aua
is 3hat $uilds the stoy keep unning. (he psychological conPict
inside *auaH 3hich she stikes against heselfH is aousing the
eade@s attention to continue eading the stoy. (hey 3ant to
kno3 3hat next 3ill happenH 3ho 3ill $e chosen $y 5ueen *aua;
in 3hat 3ay she 3ill decide 3ho the $est is. 9eeping kno3ing
SMA Students Modul of English ,6
them eally entetaining as 3ell inceasing the moal .alue
added.
OrientationM the text intoduces the 5ueen *aua and thee
sheiks in Aa$ia once time.
Co1"'i(ation< 5ueen *aua Lnds
out that it 3as .ey diQcult to
choose one as the $est among them
Reso'-tion< Lnally 5ueen *aua
has a con.incing 3ay to choose one
and he is Sheik 8akim
B. T9e S1artest Parrot
#nce upon timeH a man had a
3ondeful paot. (hee 3as no othe
paot like it. (he paot could say e.ey
3odH except one 3od. (he paot 3ould
not say the name of the place 3hee it 3as
$on. (he name of the place 3as &atano.
(he man felt excited ha.ing the
smatest paot $ut he could not
undestand 3hy the paot 3ould not say
&atano. (he man tied to teach the $id to
say &atano ho3e.e the $id kept not
saying the 3od.
At the LstH the man 3as .ey nice to
the $id $ut then he got .ey angy. =Dou
stupid $idR? pointed the man to the paot.
=Why can@t you say the 3od? Say &atanoR
# I 3ill kill you? the man said angily.
Although he tied had to teachH the paot
3ould not say it. (hen the man got so
angy and shouted to the $id o.e and
o.e; =Say &atano o I@ll kill you?. (he $id
kept not to say the 3od of &atano.
#ne day afte he had $een tying so
many times to make the $id say &atanoH
the man eally got .ey angy. 8e could not
$ea it. 8e picked the paot and the3 it
into the chicken house. (hee 3ee fou old
chickens fo next dinne =Dou ae as stupid
as the chickens. Cust stay 3ith them? Said
the man angily. (hen he continued to
hum$le; =Dou kno3H I 3ill cut the chicken
SMA Students Modul of English ,'
Small Notes
Narrati,e =Narati#B donen>
Ciri U1-1<
(a) (uAuan 9omunikatif (eksM
*enghi$u pendenga atau
pem$aca Eyang $etalian dengan
pengalaman nyataH khayal atau
peisti3a pelik yang mengaah ke
suatu kisisH yang pada akhinya
menemukan suatu penyelesaianG.
(b) Stuktu (eksFGeneic stuctue
#ientation; 6engenalan tokohH
3aktuH dan tempat teAadinya
peisti3a.
&omplication; *asalahH konPik
dalam ceita.
<esolution; 6enyelesaian
masalah.
9odaM peu$ahan yang teAadi
pada tokoh dan pelaAaan yang
dapat dipetik dai ceita.
(c) &ii 9e$ahasaanM
*enggunakanM
nouns tetentu se$agai kata ganti
oangH he3an dan $enda tetentu
dalam ceitaH misalnyaH stepsistersH
house$or)' ds$.
ad;ecti%es yang mem$entuk noun
phraseH misalnyaH long (lac) hair'
t$o red apples' ds$.
ti*e connecti%es dan con;unctions
untuk menguutkan keAadianK
keAadianH misalnya thenH (efore
that' soon' ds$.
ad%er(s dan ad%er(ial phrases
untuk menunAukkan lokasi keAadian
atau peisti3aH misalnya hereH in
the *ountain' happil& e%er
after'ds$.
action %er(s dalam past tense;
sta&ed' cli*(ed' ds$.
sa&ing %er(s yang menandai
fo my meal. 2ext it 3ill $e you tunH I 3ill eat you tooH stupid paot?.
Afte that he left the chicken house.
(he next dayH the man came $ack to the chicken house. 8e opened
the doo and 3as .ey supised. 8e could not $elie.e 3hat he sa3 at
the chicken house. (hee 3ee thee death chickens on the Poo. At the
momentH the paot 3as standing poudly and sceaming at the last old
chicken; =Say &atano o I@ll kill you?.
Ana'!sis t9e Generi( Str-(t-re
OrientationM It sets the scene and intoduces the
paticipantsFchaactes. In that paot stoyH the Lst paagaph is
the oientation 3hee eade Lnds time and place set up and also
the paticipant as the $ackgound of the stoy. A man and his
paot took place once time.
Co1"'i(ationM It exploes the conPict in the stoy. It 3ill sho3
the cisisH ising cisis and climax of the stoy. In the paot stoyH
paagaph /H 0H 4 ae desci$ing the complication. <eades 3ill
Lnd that the man face a po$lem of 3hy the paot can not say
&atano. (o Lx this po$lemH the man attempted to teach the $id.
8o3 had he tied to teach the $id is the excitement element of
the complication.
Reso'-tionM It sho3s the situation 3hich the po$lems ha.e
$een esol.ed. It must $e ou note that =esol.ed? means
accomplished 3hethe succeed o fail. In the last paagaph of
the smatest paot stoyH eades see the po$lem is Lnished.
(he paot could talk the 3od 3hich the man 3anted. (he paot
said the 3od 3ith highe degee than the man taught the 3od
to it. (hat 3as the smatest paot.
C. T9e Leend o# To;a La5e
#nce upon timeH thee 3as a handsome man. 8is name 3as "ataa
Guu Sahala. 8e liked Lshing. #ne dayH he caught a Lsh. 8e 3as
supised to Lnd out that the Lsh could talk. (he Lsh $egged him to set
it fee.
"ataa Guu could not $ea it. 8e made the Lsh fee. As soon as it
3as feeH the Lsh changed into a .ey $eautiful 3oman. She attacted
"ataa Guu so much. 8e felt in lo.e 3ith that LshK3oman. (he 3oman
3anted to may 3ith him and said that "ataa Guu had to keep the
secet 3hich she had $een a Lsh. "ataa Guu aggeed and pomised
that he 3ould ne.e tell any$ody a$out it.
(hey 3ee maied happily. (hey had t3o daughtes. #ne day
"ataa Guu got .ey angy 3ith his daughte. 8e could not contol his
mad. 8e shouted angily and got the 3od of Lsh to his daugtes. (he
daughtes 3ee cying. (hey found thei mothe and talked he a$out it.
SMA Students Modul of English ,)
(he mothe 3as .ey annoyed. "ataa Guu $oke his pomise. (he
mothe 3as shouting angily. (hen the eath $egan to shake. :olcanoes
stated to eupt. (he eath fomed a .ey $ig hole. 6eople $elie.ed that
the $ig hole $ecame a lake. (hen this lake is kno3n as (o$a 7ake.
D. Cindere''a &
#nce upon a timeH thee 3as a young gil named &indeella. She
li.ed 3ith he step mothe and t3o step sistes.
(he step mothe and sistes 3ee conceited and $ad tempeed.
(hey teated &indeella .ey $adly. 8e step mothe made &indeella do
the hadest 3oks in the house; such as scu$$ing the PooH cleaning
the pot and pan and pepaing the food fo the family. (he t3o step
sistesH on the othe handH did not 3ok a$out the house. (hei mothe
ga.e them many handsome desses to 3ea.
#ne dayH the t3o step siste ecei.ed an in.itation to the $all that
the king@s son 3as going to gi.e at the palace. (hey 3ee excited a$out
this and spent so much time choosing the desses they 3ould 3ea. At
lastH the day of the $all cameH and a3ay 3ent the sistes to it. &indeella
could not help cying afte they had left.
=Why ae cyingH &indeella?? a .oice asked. She looked up and sa3
he faiy godmothe standing $eside heH =$ecause I 3ant so much to go
to the $all? said &indeella. =Well? said the godmotheH?you@.e $een
such a cheefulH had3okingH uncomplaining gil that I am going to see
that you do go to the $all?.
*agicallyH the faiy godmothe changed a pumpkin into a Lne coach
and mice into a coachman and t3o footmen. 8e godmothe tapped
&indeella@s aged dess 3ith he 3andH and it $ecame a $eautiful $all
go3n. (hen she ga.e he a pai of petty glass slippes. =2o3H
&indeella?H she said; =Dou must lea.e $efoe midnight?. (hen a3ay she
do.e in he $eautiful coach.
&indeella 3as ha.ing a 3ondefully good time. She danced again and
again 3ith the king@s son. Suddenly the clock $egan to stike t3el.eH
she an to3ad the doo as Juickly as she could. In he huyH one of he
glass slippe 3as left $ehind.
A fe3 days lateH the king@ son poclaimed that he 3ould may the
gil 3hose feet Ltted the glass slippe. 8e step sistes tied on the
slippe $ut it 3as too small fo themH no matte ho3 had they sJueeNed
thei toes into it. In the endH the king@s page let &indeella ty on the
slippe. She stuck out he foot and the page slipped the slippe on. It
Ltted pefectly.
%inallyH she 3as di.en to the palace. (he king@s son 3as o.eAoyed
to see he again. (hey 3ee maied and li.e happily e.e afte.
Notes on Generi( Str-(t-re
OrientationM (hey 3ee &indeella he self as the main chaacte
of the stoyH he step mothe 3hich teated &indeella $adlyH and
SMA Students Modul of English ,+
he steps siste 3hich suppoted he mothe to make &indeella
3as teated .ey $adly. &indeella 3as intoduced as a heo in this
stoy. She stuggled against the $ad teatment fom he step
mothe and sistes.
Co1"'i(ationM In this &indeella stoyH 3e can see clealy that
thee ae Ma;or Co*plication and Minor Co*plication.
(he second paagaph is the maAo complication of this &indeella
stoy. &indeella got $ad teatment fom he stepmothe. It is the
$ad cisis 3hich di.es into se.eal mino complications 3hich
&indeella has to o.ecome.
Reso'-tionM 7ike complicationH thee ae Ma;or Resolution and
Minor Resolution.
In the last paagaphH it is said that Lnally &indeella li.ed happily.
It is the happy esolution of the $ad teatment.
E. T9e S1artest Ani1a'.
#nce thee 3as a fame fom 7aos. E.ey moning and e.ey
e.eningH he ploughed his Leld 3ith his $u>alo.
#ne dayH a tige sa3 the fame and his $u>alo 3oking in the Leld.
(he tige 3as .ey supised to see a $ig animal listening to a small
animal. (he tige 3anted to kno3 moe a$out the $ig animal and the
small animal.
Afte the man 3ent homeH the tige spoke to the $u>alo; =you ae so
$ig and stong. Why do you do e.eything the man tells you?? (he
$u>alo ans3eed; =ohH the man is .ey intelligent?.
(he tige asked; =can you tell me ho3 intelligent he is??. =2oH I can@t
tell you?H said the $u>alo; =$ut you can ask him?
So the next day the tige asked to the man; =&an I see you
intelligence??. "ut the man ans3eed; =it at home?. =&an you go and
get it?? asked the tige. =Des? said the man; =$ut I am afaid you 3ill kill
my $u>alo 3hen I am gone. &an I tie you to a tee??
Afte the man tied the tige to the teeH he didn@t go home to get his
intelligence. 8e took his plough and hit the tige. (hen he said; =2o3
you kno3 a$out my intelligence e.en you ha.en@t seen it.
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
,. #ientation; intoducing speciLc paticipants; fame and his
$u>aloH once in 7aos
/. &omplication; e.ealing a seies of cisisM the tige 3anted to
kno3 moe a$out the fame and the $u>aloH the tige 3anted to
kno3 a$out the fame@s intelligence.
0. <esolution; the cisis is esol.eM the fame hit the tige
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
SMA Students Modul of English /-
!sing saying .e$; ans3eed
!sing thinking .e$; sa3H 3as supised to
!sing action .e$; tieH hit
!sing time conAunction; onceH one day
!sing connecti.es; afteH the next day
!sing past tense; thee 3as a fameH the man tied the tige.
%. Pro(ed-re Te$t
89at is Pro(ed-re:
! Defnition o" #rocedure
6ocedue is a text that sho3s a pocess in ode. Its social function is
to desci$e ho3 something is completely done though a seJuence of
seies
$! %eneric Structure o" #rocedure
,. GoalM sho3ing the pupose
/. *ateialM (elling the needed mateials
0. Step ,KendM Desci$ing the steps to achie.e the pupose
&! Language Feature o" #rocedure
!sing tempoal conAunction
!sing action .e$
!sing impeati.e sentence
!sing Simple 6esent (ense
'! ()amples and structures o" the te)t
Tu;uan
*%oal+
Ho0 to Ma5e a C9eese O1e'et
-ahan
*,aterial+

Inredients
, eggH 5- g cheeseH T cup milkH 0 ta$lespoons cooking
oilH a pinch of salt and peppe
-tensils
%ying panH fokH spatulaH cheese gateH $o3lH plate
Lang)ah.
lang)ah
*Step+
,ethod
,. &ack an egg into a $o3l
/. Whisk the egg 3ith a fok until it is smooth
0. Add milk and 3hisk 3ell
4. Gate the cheese into the $o3l and sti
5. 8eat the oil in a fying pan
6. 6ou the mixtue into the fying pan
'. (un the omelet 3ith a spatula 3hen it $o3ns
). &ook $oth sides
+. 6lace on a plate; season 3ith salt and peppe
SMA Students Modul of English /,
,-. Eat 3hile 3am.
E$a1"'e o# Pro(ed-re
A. P'antin C9i'ies
6lanting is a nice acti.ity in ou spae time. (he
follo3ing is guided infomation on ho3 to plant a
chiliKplant easily. 8ee ae the steps.
%istlyH dy a handful seeding unde the sunlight
SecondlyH put the seeding on the soil. It should
$e in open aea
2extH 3ait it. (hee 3ill come out the spout
afte that let it $e $igge.
%inallyH put it in anothe $ig pot. It 3ill soon go3
$igge and $igge and yield us some fesh chilies
soon.
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Goal; infoming on ho3 to plant chillies.
*ateial; excluded
Steps; sho3ing the steps o method in
planting chillies; fom dying seed to putting
the spout in $ig pot.
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
Impeati.e sentences; dy a handful seedingH
put itH etc
Action .e$; putH dyH etc
(empoal conAunction; nextH LnallyH LstlyH
secondly
Simple pesent tense patten; planting is a
nice acti.ityH the follo3ing is a guided
infomation
B. 8ritin For B-siness
Witing something fo you $usiness can $e petty intimidating.
WellH you don1t ha.e to.
8ee1s a simple checklist to follo3. I1m not saying that follo3ing
these ules 3ill make you company the next GoogleH $ut it 3ill help.
%istlyH take the topic of $eneLtsH not featues. Dou customes don1t
cae a$out you. (hey 3ant to kno3 UWhat1s in it fo me?U
SecondlyH 3ite you $eneLt like you talk it. !se egula 3ods. <ead
aloud 3hat you1.e 3itten. 8o3 does it sound?
SMA Students Modul of English //
Small Notes
Pro(ed-re =Prosed-r>
Ciri Umum:
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Memberi petunjuk tentang cara
melakukan sesuatu melalui
serangkaian tindakan atau
langkah.
(b) Struktur Teks!eneric structure
$im!oal" Tujuan kegiatan
Materials" *ahan.bahan
"ote= Materials are
not re3uired for all
<rocedure te4t
Steps" /angkah.langkah.
(c) (iri Kebahasaan:
Menggunakan:
pola kalimat imperative,
misalnya, !ut, $on#t mi%,
dsb.
action verbs) misalnya turn,
put, don#t, mi%) dsb.
connectives untuk
mengurutkan kegiatan)
misalnya then, hile, dsb.
adverbials untuk
menyatakan rinci waktu)
tempat) cara yang akurat)
misalnya for five minutes, &
centimetres from the top)
(hidlyH lose the 3eak 3ods. Don1t desci$e ho3 you company
mayH might o should help customes $ut talk a$out ho3 you company
3ill.
%outhlyH !se a nice hythm. Some sentences ae long and some ae
shot. *ix them up and keep things inteesting.
%ifthlyHeKead 3hat you1.e done $efoe pu$lishing. Edit it necesaily.
It1s so easy to make mistakes 3hich you don1t notice the Lst time
though.
SimpliLed fomM httpMFFENineAticles.comF?expetVDanielW%W#1conno
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Goal; infoming on ho3 to 3ite fo $usiness
*ateial; excluded
StepsF method; sho3ing the method in 3iting fo
$usiness; choosing the ad.antageous topicH 3iting
the topic like the 3ay it is talkedH eKeading 3hat
ha.e $een 3itten .
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
Impeati.e sentences; 3ite like you talkedH eKead
3hat you ha.e doneH etc
Action .e$; 3iteH eadH etc
(empoal conAunctionH LstlyH secondlyH etc
C. Ho0 to Ma5e a C9eese O1e'et
WellH to make a cheese omeletH you need an eggH Lfty gam cheeseH a
Juate cup of milkH thee ta$lespoons cookin oilH a pinch of satlt and
peppe. 2extH you need some toolsH such as; fying panH fokH spatulaH
cheese gateH $o3l and plate.
7isten caefullyH
%istH cack an egg into a $o3l and 3hisk the egg 3ith a fok until it is
smooth. 2extH add
%istH
/. Ne0s Ite1 Te$t
89at is Ne0s Ite1:
&. De7nition o# Ne0s Ite1
SMA Students Modul of English /0
2e3s item is a text 3hich infoms eades a$out e.ents of the day.
(he e.ents ae consideed ne3s3othy o impotant.
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Ne0s Ite1
,. *ain e.ent
/. Ela$oation E$ackgoundH paticipantH timeH placeG
0. <esouce of infomation
+. Lan-ae Feat-re o# Ne0s Ite1
,. %ocusing on cicumstances
/. !sing mateial pocess
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
To0n CConta1inated
"e$s$orth&
e%ents
*osco3 X A <ussian Aounalist has unco%ered
e.idence of anothe So.iet nuclea catastopheH 3hich
)illed ,- sailos and conta*inated an entie to3n.
-ac)ground
E%ents
Delena :aNsha.skya is the Lst Aounalist to speak to
people 3ho 3itnessed the explosion of a nuclea
su$maine at the na.al $ase of shkoto.o X // nea
:ladi.ostock.
(he accidentH 3hich occurred ,0 months $efoe the
&heno$yl disasteH spread adioacti.e fallKout o.e the
$ase and nea$y to3nH $ut 3as co.eed up $y oQcials of
the So.iet !nion. <esidents 3ee told the explosion in the
eacto of the :ictoKclass su$maine duing a eLt had
$een a Othemal@ and not a nuclea explosion. And those
in.ol.ed in the clean up opeation to emo.e moe than
6-- tones of contaminated mateial 3ee s3on to
sececy.
Su*(er
Infor*asi
Sources
A $oad of in.estigatos 0as late to des(ri;e it as
the 3ost accident in the histoy of the So.iet 2a.y.
E$a1"'e o# Pro(ed-re
A. Ma'a!sian 8o1en S-ested to Carr! Condo1s
*alaysian Deputy 8ealth *inisty uged e.ey 3oman to cay a
condom to potect against 8I:H a ne3s epot said.
=(his is not to de$ate them $ut to potect them. Women ae the
Lst ones to get exploited $y thei patnes E3hom ae infected $y 8I:K
positi.eG? A$dul 7ati> Ahmad 3as Juoted as saying $y Sunday Sta
2e3spape. ="ut this Aust a suggestionH it@s up to them?.
SMA Students Modul of English /4
A$dul lati> made emak to coincide 3ith the
Intenational Aids *emoial dayH 3hich 3as
cele$ated openly fo the Lst time in *alaysiaH in
$id to educe stigma fo 8I:K.ictim. In the past the
e.ent 3as held $ehind closed doo.
7ast yeaH '45 *alaysian 3omen 3ee identiLed
as 8I:Kpositi.e and ,+0 3ee diagnosed 3ith AIDSH
he said in the epot. #Qcials ha.e said nealy
),--- *alaysian ha.e $een infected 3ith 8I:H less
then ,- pecent ae 3omanH $ut the num$e is
steadily ising.
*alaysian Aids &ouncil pesidentH Adee$ah
9amaulNamanH 3as Juoted as saying $esides sex
3okesH many 3omen 3ho contact 8I: ae
house3i.esH 3ee infected unkno3ingly $y thei
hus$ands. =It@s not that people don@t kno3 that
condoms can potect them. "ut thee ae some men
3ho don@t cae to take pecautionH e.en though they
kno3 they ha.e 8I:? she said.
ESouce (he Cakata 6ostH Cune -,H /--)G
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Ne0s 0ort9! e,entM *alaysian 3omen
is uged to cay condoms to potect 8I:.
Ba(5ro-nd e,ent &M Intenational
*emoial Day 3as held openly in
*alaysia to educe stigma fo 8I:
.ictims.
Ba(5ro-nd e,ent )M (he num$e of
*alaysian 3omen 3ho ae infected 3ith
8I: is steadily ising.
So-r(eM *alaysian Aids &ouncil pesident said that thee
3ee some men 3ho did not cae to take pecaution e.en
though they kne3 they had 8I:
B. Indonesian Maid in HK Co-rt a#ter Ha,in Se$
A 45Kyea old Indonesian maid admitted ha.ing sex 3ith he 8ong
9ong employe@s ,4Kyea old son afte 3atching intenet pon togethe.
(he maid is a di.ocee and a mothe of t3o childen. (he maidH
named Su3atinH had 3oked 3ith the $oy family fo ,, yeas.
A cout head ho3 the maid had sex 3ith the $oy in elationship
that lasted L.e months. (he $oy tied to end the a>ai $ut she efused.
(he teenage e.entually confessed to the elationship to the leade of
&histian goup he $elonged to.
SMA Students Modul of English /5
Small Notes
Ne0s Ite1 =Berita>
Ciri U1-1<
EaG(uAuan 9omunikatif (eksM
*em$eitakan kepada
pem$acaH pendenga
atau penonton tentang
peisti3aKpeisti3a atau
keAadianKkeAadian yang
dipandang penting atau
layak di$eitakan.
E$GStuktu (eksFGeneic
stuctue
2e3s3othy e.ents;
9eAadian inti.
"ackgound E.ents;
7ata $elakang
keAadianH oang yang
teli$atH tempat
keAadian ds$.
Souces; komenta
saksi keAadianH
pendapat paa ahliH
ds$.
EcG&ii 9e$ahasaanM
Infomasi singkat
tetuang dalam
headline
*enggunakan action
%er(s
*enggunakan sa&ing
(hen the maid 3as aested. She pleaded guilty to L.e chages of
committing an indecent act 3ith undeage patne. She 3ill $e
sentenced in t3o 3eek@s time.
She late apologiNed and said that she 3ould li.e 3ith the shame of
3hat she had done fo the est of life. =She had acted out of loneliness?
the maid@s la3ye said.
EAdapted fom <eutesH 8ong 9ongH *ay 6H /--)G
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Ne0s 0ort9! e,entM Indonesian maid cout and admitted
ha.ing sex 3ith he young employe
Ba(5ro-nd e,entM (he maid is a di.ocee. She had
3oked in the $oy family fo ,, yeas. She had elationship
the $oy fo L.e months. She apologiNed and felt guilty
So-r(eM (he maid la3ye said that the maid had acted out
of loneliness
C. Indonesian Maid ;e9eaded
An Indonesian housemaid has $een executed in Saudi Aa$ia afte
$eing con.icted of killing he employeH the Saudi Inteio *iniste said.
(he 3oman 3as $eheaded in the Southen Asi po.ince in 3hat
3as the second execution in the county.
(he maid 3as ealie found of su>ocating he female $oss and
stealing he Ae3elley. <apeH mude and othe seious cimes can cay
the death penalty in the conse.ati.e deset kingdom.
7ast yeaH Saudi Aa$iaH 3hich follo3 a stict intepetation of SyaiaH
Islamic la3 executed moe than ,0- people.
E(aken fomM 333.ne3s.$$c.co.idG
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Main e,ent; an Indonesian maid 3as $eheaded in Saudi
Aa$ia.
Ba(5ro-nd &; the maid 3as found guilty of su>ocating he
$os.
Ba(5ro-nd ); seious cimes can cay death penalty in
Saudi Aa$ia.
Ba(5ro-nd +; Saudi Aa$ia executed moe than ,0-
people last yea.
Reso-r(eD the Saudi Inteio *iniste statement.
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
Fo(-ssin (ir(-1tan(esD la3 of seious cimes.
Usin 1ateria' "ro(essD $eheadH executeH cayH etc
2. Dis(-ssion Te$t
89at is Dis(-ssion:
SMA Students Modul of English /6
&. De7nition o# Dis(-ssion
Discussion is a text 3hich pesent a po$lematic discouse. (his
po$lem 3ill $e discussed fom di>eent .ie3points. Discussion is
commonly found in philosophicalH histoicH and social text.
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Dis(-ssion
Statement of issue; stating the issue 3hich is to discussed
7ist of suppoting points; pesenting the point in in suppoting the
pesented issue
7ist of contasti.e point; pesenting othe points 3hich disagee to
the suppoting point
<ecommendation; stating the 3ite1 ecommendation of the
discouse
+. Lan-ae Feat-re o# Dis(-ssion
Intoducing categoy o geneic paticipant
!sing thinking .e$; feelH hopeH $elie.eH etc
!sing additi.eH contasti.eH and causal connection; similalyH on
the handH ho3e.eH etc
!sing modalities; mustH shouldH couldH mayH etc
!sing ad.e$ial of manne; deli$eatelyH hopefullyH etc
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Ho1e0or5
Issue I ha.e $een 3ondeing if home3ok
is necessay.
State*e
nt of
issue
and
<re%ie$
I think 3e should ha.e home3ok
$ecause it helps us to lean and
e.ise ou 3ok.
8ome3ok helps people 3ho aen@t
.ey smat to emem$e 3hat they
ha.e leaned. 8ome3ok is eally
good $ecause it helps 3ith ou
education.
State*e
nt of
"utH many timesH doing home3ok
is not a geat idea. I think 3e
SMA Students Modul of English /'
%arious
%ie$poi
nts
shouldn@t ha.e home3ok $ecause I
like to go out afte school to a
estauant o the mo.ies.
Sometimes home3ok is $oing and
not impotant.
I think home3ok is $ad $ecause I
like to play and discuss things 3ith
my family.
E$a1"'e o# Dis(-ssion Te$t
A. E$a1"'e o# Dis(-ssion Te$t on N-('ear Po0er
T9e Ad,antae and Disad,antae o# N-('ear Po0er
2uclea po3e is geneated $y using uanium 3hich is a metal
mined in .aious pat of the 3old. (he Lst lage scale of nuclea po3e
station 3as opened at &alde 8all in &um$iaH England in ,+56.
Some militay ships and su$maines ha.e nuclea po3e plant fo
engine. 2uclea po3e poduces aound ,,Y of the 3old1s enegy
neededH and poduces huge amounts of enegy. It cause no pollution as
3e 3ould get 3hen $uning fossil fuels. (he ad.antages of nuclea plant
ae as follo3M
It costs a$out the same coalH so it is not expansi.e to make.
It does not poduce smoke o ca$on dioxideH so it does not
conti$ute to the geenhouse e>ect.
It poduces huge amounts of enegy fom small amount of uanium.
It poduces small amount of 3aste.
It is elia$le.
SMA Students Modul of English /)
#n the othe handH nuclea
po3e is .eyH .ey dangeous. It
must $e sealed up and $uied fo
many yeas to allo3 the adioacti.ity
to die a3ay. %uthemoeH although it
is elia$leH a lot of money has to $e
spent on safety $ecause if it does go
3ongH a nuclea accident ca $e a
maAo accident.
6eople ae inceasingly
concened a$out this matte. In the
,++-1s nuclea po3e 3as the fastest
go3ing souce of po3e in many
pats of the 3old.
Note on t9e Generi(
Str-(t-re o# Dis(-ssion Te$t
Discussion is a pocess to Lnd
the meet point $et3een t3o
di>eent ideas. It is impotant to
to get the undestanding
$et3een the t3o di>eences. In
many social acti.itiesH discussion
is the e>ecti.e 3ay to calm
do3n any fiction and di>eence
in thoughtH peception and
ecommendation.
(his example of discussion text
pesent the t3o polesH $et3een
the ad.antage and disad.antage
of using nuclea plant to fulLll
the enegy needed. It is a case
3hich need to $e talked and
discussed fom t3o points. (hey
ae epesented in the geneic
stuctue 3hich is usedM
Statin t9e Iss-eM In the Lst
paagaphH it is stated that using
nuclea po3e can $e the choice
in fulLlling the needed enegy.
S-""ortin PointM In the
second paagaphH it is
pesented the ad.antages of
SMA Students Modul of English /+
Small Notes
Dis(-ssion =Pe1;a9asan>
Ciri U1-1<
EaG (uAuan 9omunikatif (eksM
*engetengahkan suatu masalah
EisuG yang ditinAau paling tidak
dai / EduaG sudut pandangH
se$elum sampai pada suatu
kesimpulan atau ekomendasi.
E$G Stuktu (eksFGeneic stuctue
Isu;Estatement of issue and
6e.ie3G
6endapat yang mendukungM
Gagasan 6okok ,H
Ela$oasi EuaianGH
Gagasan 6okok /H
Ela$oasi EuaianG.
6endapat yang menentangM
EStatement of .aious .ie3pointsG
Gagasan 6okokH
Ela$oasi EuaianGH
9esimpulan.Econclusion o
ecomendationG
EcG &ii 9e$ahasaanM
*enggunakanM
general nouns untuk menyatakan
kategoiH misalnya unifor*s'
alcoholH ds$H
relating %er(s untuk mem$ei
infomasi tentang isu yang
didiskusikanH misalnya s*o)ing is
har*fulH ds$.
thin)ing %er(s untuk
mengungkapkan pandangan
pi$adi penulisH misalnya feel'
(elie%e' hope' ds(.
additi%es' contrasti%es dan causal
connecti%es untuk
menghu$ungkan agumenH
misalnya si*ilarl&' on the hand'
ho$e%erH ds$.
detailed noun groups untuk
mem$eikan infomasi secaa
paduH misalnya the du*ping of
un$anted )ittensH ds$.
*odalities' seperti perhaps' *ust'
should' should ha%e (een' could
(e' ds(.
ad%er(ials of *aner' *isaln&a
deli(eratel&' hopefull&' ds(.
nuclea po3e plant to $e used as the souce of the 3old1s enegy
needed
Contrasti,e PointM (he thid paagaph sho3s the $alance. It
gi.es the contadictoy idea in using nuclea po3e plant as the
esouce of enegy.
Re(o11endation< (his text is ended 3ith a simila
ecommendation on ho3 people should concen in the matte of
nuclea enegy.
B. H-ntin Fo$
%oxhunting is a su$Aect that po.okes .ey stong feelings. *any
people $elie.e that it is cuel to hunt a fox 3ith dogs and totally agee
3ith its $an.
*any fame and e.en conse.ationistsH ho3e.eH ha.e al3ays
ague that the fox is a pest 3hich attacks li.estock and must $e
contolled.
E(aken fomM 333.$$c.co.ukG
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Statin t9e iss-e; hunting fox.
S-""ortin "oint; fames and conse.ationists agee to hunt fox
$ecause they attack li.estok.
Contrasti,e "oint; many people disagee hunting fox 3ith dog
$ecause it is cuel.
Re(o11endation; Do not $e cuel in hunting fox Aust contol it in
safe 3ay.
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
Introd-(in (ateor! "arti(i"ant; fameH conse.ationists.
Usin t9in5in ,er;; $elie.e.
Usin (onne(ti,es;
Usin 1oda'ities; mustH al3ays
3. E$"'anation Te$t
89at is E$"'anation:
&. De7nition and "-r"oses o# E$"'anation
Explanation is a text 3hich tells pocesses elating to foming of natualH
socialH scientiLc and cultual phenomena. Explanation text is to say 13hy1
and 1ho31 of the foming of the phenomena. It is often found in scienceH
geogaphy and histoy text $ooks.
). Generi( str-(t-re o# E$"'anation
Geneal statement; stating the phenomenon issues 3hich ae to $e
explained.
SMA Students Modul of English 0-
SeJuenced explanation; stating a seies of steps 3hich explain the
phenomena.
+. Lan-ae Feat-re
%eatuing geneic paticipant; sunH ainH etc
!sing chonological connection; to $egin 3ithH nextH etc
!sing passi.e .oice patten
!sing simple pesent tense
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Ma5in Pa"er #ro1 8ood(9i"s
A general
state*ent
Woodchipping is a pocess used to o$tain pulp and
pape poducts fom foest tees.
(he 3oodchipping pocess $egins 3hen the tees ae
cut do3n in a selected aea of the foest called a coupe.
A se3uenced
e4planation
of
2ext the tops and $anches of the tees ae cut out
and then the logs ae taken to the mill.
$h& or ho$
so*ething
occurs
At the mill the $ak of the logs is emo.ed and the
logs ae taken to a chippe 3hich cuts them into small
pieces called 3oodchips.
(he 3oodchips ae then sceened to emo.e dit and
othe impuities.
At this stage they ae eithe expoted in this fom o
changed into pulp $y chemicals and heat.
(he pulp is then $leached and the 3ate content is
emo.ed.
Closing %inally the pulp is olled out to make pape.
E$a1"'e o# E$"'anation Te$t
A. Ts-na1i
(he tem of =tsunami? comes fom the Capanese 3hich means
ha$ou EUtsuUG and 3a.e EUnamiUG. A tsunamigk is a seies of 3a.es
geneated 3hen 3ate in a lake o the sea is apidly displaced on a
massi.e scale.
A tsunami can $e geneated 3hen the sea Poo a$uptly defoms
and .etically displaces the o.elying 3ate. Such lage .etical
mo.ements of the eath1s cust can occu at plate $oundaies.
Su$duction of eathJuakes ae paticulaly e>ecti.e in geneating
tsunamisH and occu 3hee dense oceanic plates slip unde continental
plates.
SMA Students Modul of English 0,
As the displaced 3ate mass
mo.es unde the inPuence of ga.ity to
egain its eJuili$iumH it adiates acoss
the ocean like ipples on a pond.
(sunami al3ays $ing geat
damage. *ost of the damage is caused
$y the huge mass of 3ate $ehind the
initial 3a.e fontH as the height of the
sea keeps ising fast and Poods
po3efully into the coastal aea.
EsimpliLed fom 333.panda.ogG
B. Ho0 Da! and Ni9t Ha""en
(he sun seems to ise in the
moningH cosses the sky duing the
day and sets at night. 8o3e.e the sun
does not actually mo.e aound the
eath. Eath1s tuning on its axis makes
it look as if the sun is mo.es.
(he eath makes a complete tun
on its axis fo /4 hous. It is called as
otation. It causes day and night. (he
eath also mo.es aound the sun. It
takes 065 days o a yea. (his pocess
is called e.olution. (he e.olution
pocess causes the changes of the
season
C. 89! S-11er Da!'i9t is Loner
t9an 8inter Da!'i9t
In the summeH the amount of
daylight that 3e get is moe than 3e
get in 3inte. (his is not $ecause as
much people think 3e ae close to the
sun $ut $ecause of the tilt of the eath.
(he eath is actually close to the
sun in 3inte than it is in summe $ut
you 3ould $e fogi.en fo thinking that
this can not $e tue afte looking out of you 3indo3 on a cold and
fosty moning.
It seems stange that as the eath get close to the sun duing its
o$it then the amount of daylight that 3e get decease. "ut that is the
case. It is the tilt of the eath that detemine the amount of daylight
that 3e get and so the length of time that fo us the sun is a$o.e the
hoiNon.
E(aken fomM 333.ictteaches.co.ukG
SMA Students Modul of English 0/
Small Notes
E$"'anation Te$t
Ciri U1-1<
(uAuan 9omunikatif (eksM
*eneangkan posesKposes
yang teAadi dalam
pem$entukan atau kegiatan
yang tekait dengan fenomena
alamH dunia ilmiahH sosialK
$udayaH atau lainnya yang
$etuAuan menAelaskan.
Stuktu (eksFGeneic stuctue
A geneal statement;
6enAelasan umum
A seJuenced explanation of
3hy o ho3 something occus;
6enAelasan poses
6enutup.
&ii 9e$ahasaanM
*enggunakan;
general dan a(stract nounsH
misalnya 3od choppingH
eathJuakes;
action %er(s;
si*ple present tense;
passi%e %oice;
con;unctions of ti*e dan
cause>
noun phrase' misalnya the
large cloud;
a$stact nounsH misalnya the
tempeatue;
ad%er(ial phrases;
co*ple4 sentences;
$ahasa teksni;
kalimat pasif
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Geneal statement; stating the phenomenon 3hic daylight in
summe is longe than in 3inte.
Explanation; it is the tilt of the eath that detemines the amount of
daylight not the distance of the eath fom the sun.
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
%ocusing geneic paticipant; daylight.
!sing chonological connection; thenH soH $ut.
!sing pasi.e .oice; you 3ould $e fogi.en.
!sing pesent tense; the eath is actually close to the sun.
*. Hortator! E$"osition Te$t
89at is Hortator! E$"osition:
&. De7nition o# Hortator! E$"osition
8otatoy exposition is a text 3hich epesent the attempt of the
3ite to ha.e the addessee do something o act in cetain 3ay.
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Hortator! E$"osition
,. (hesis
/. Aguments
0. <ecommendation
+. Lan-ae Feat-re o# Hortator! E$"osition
,. %ocusing on the 3ite
/. !sing a$stact noun; policyH ad.antageH etc
0. !sing action .e$
4. !sing thinking .e$
5. !sing modal ad.e$; cetainlyH suelyH etc
6. !sing tempoal connecti.e; LstlyH secondlyH etc
'. !sing e.aluati.e 3ods; impotantH .alua$leH tust3othyH etc
). !sing passi.e .oice
+. !sing simple pesent tense
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Thesis In all discussion o.e the emo.al of lead fom
petol E and the atmospheeGH thee doesn@t seem to
ha.e $een any mention of the di>ence $et3een
di.ing in the city and in the county.
Argu*ents While I ealise my leaded petol ca is polluting the
ai 3hee.e I di.eH I feel that 3hen you ta.el
though the countyH3hee you only see anothe ca
e.ey L.e to ten minutesHthe po$lem is not as
se.ee as 3hen taQc is concentated on city oads.
SMA Students Modul of English 00
(hose 3ho 3ant to penalise olde H leaded petol
.ehicles and thei o3nes donn@t seem to
appeciate thet in the county thee is no pu$lic
tanspot to fall $ack upon and ones o3n .ehicle is
the only 3ay to get a$out.
Reco*endatio
n
I feel that county peopleH 3ho often ha.e to ta.el
huge distances to the neaest to3n and 3ho
aleady spend a geat deal of money on
petolHshould $e teated di>eently to the people
3ho li.e in the city
E$a1"'e o# Hortator! E$"osition
A. 8at(9 !o-r Kids 89i'e 8at(9in TE
(ele.ision $ecomes one of the most impotant de.ices 3hich takes
place in almost houses. It can unite all mem$es of the family as 3ell as
sepaate them. 8o3e.eH is it impotant to kno3 3hat you kids ae
3atching? (he ans3e isH of couseH a$solutely UDesU and that should $e
done $y all paents. (ele.ision can expose things you ha.e tied to
potect the childen fomH especially .iolenceH ponogaphyH
consumeism and so on.
<ecentlyH a study demonstated that spending too much time on
3atching (: duing the day o at $edtime often cause $edKtime
disuptionH stessH and shot sleep duation.
Anothe eseach found that thee is a signiLcant elationship
$et3een the amount of time spent fo 3atching tele.ision duing
adolescence and ealy adulthoodH and the possi$ility of $eing
aggessi.e.
*ean3hileH many studies ha.e identiLed a elationship $et3een
kids 3ho 3atch (: a lot and $eing inacti.e and o.e3eight.
&onsideing some facts mentioning a$o.eH potect you childen
3ith the follo3ing tipsM
7imit tele.ision .ie3ing to oneKt3o hous each day
Do not allo3 you childen to ha.e a (: set in thei o3n $edooms
<e.ie3 the ating of (: sho3s 3hich you childen 3atch
Watch tele.ision 3ith you childen and discuss 3hat is happening in
the sho3
Notes on t9e Generi( Str-(t-re o# t9is Hortator!
E$"osition e$a1"'e
First'!H 3e ha.e to al3ays emem$e that the social function
of hotatoy exposition text is di.ing the eades to act like the
3ite thought as stated in the text. (hen the pupose of this
hotatoy is inPuencing and pesuading the eades $y
SMA Students Modul of English 04
pesenting the suppoting aguments. In many social acti.itiesH
hotatoy is applied fo 3iting ecommended thoughtH sales
letteH ad.etisingH speech campaignH and ne3s ad.etoial.
T9esisM (he 3ite1s thought is pesented as thesis 3hich is
po.en 3ith se.eal aguments. In the Lst paagaphH the
3ite points his thought a$out the impotance of
accompanying childen 3hile they ae 3atching (: sho3. It is
impotant to potect the childen fom the $ad inPuences of (:
sho3.
Ar-1entsM (he next paagaphs sho3 the 3ite aguments
in suppoting his thesis. It is suppoted $y .aious eseaches
that thee ae a geat elationship $et3een 3atching (: and
the 3atche1s pesonality. #ne study desci$es that much time
in 3atching (: can cause $edKtime disuption. (he othes sho3
the possi$ility of $ecoming an aggessi.e chaacte $ecause of
3atching tele.ision too much.
Re(o11endationM Afte stating the thesis and po.ing 3ith
.aious agumentsH the text is completed 3ith the 3ite1s
ecommendation on ho3 the paents should potect the
childen fom the $ed e>ect of 3atching (:.
"asicallyH $oth hotatoy and analytical exposition ha.e the
simila position. "oth take place as agumentati.e essays. "oth
sho3 ho3 impotant idea of the 3ite to $e kno3n. 8o3e.e
the last paagaph of the essay usually make the di>eence
fom hotatoy and analytical exposition. If it is a hotatoy
textH it 3ill $e ended 3ith a stong ecommendation 3hile fo
analytical expositionH it 3ill $e closed 3ith estatement of the
3ite1s Lst paagaph.
". More D-st Bins is C'eanerD e$a1"'e o# 9ortator!
(o impo.e comfot and cleanliness at the schoolH thee should $e
an inceasing num$e of dust $ins.
When 3e look at classoomH school coidos and schoolyadH thee
papesH mineal 3ate copsH sta3sH and napkin e.ey3hee. (he
condition of unseemliness eally hindes leaning and teaching
en.ionment. (hey can $e Llled out 3ith 3ate coming fom the ain.
(his can $e placed fo mosJuito to spead out.
Any3ay I notice that most of the students ha.e esponsi$ilities fo
thei school en.ionment. (hey put thei litte on the pope place $ut
some of them ae not diligent enough to Lnd the dust $ins. (he
num$es of the dust $ins in the school ae not enough. *oe dust $ins
should $e put $eside each stepH outside of the classooms and some
along of the coidos. 6o$a$ly one dust $in should $e in e.ey ten
metes. So 3hen students 3ant to tho3 a3ay thei littesH they can Lnd
the dust $ins easily.
SMA Students Modul of English 05
When school is eJuipped 3ith suQcient dust $insH students do not
ha.e po$lem of discomfot any moe. So po.ide moe dust $ins and
school 3ill $e .ey clean and $ecome a .ey nice place to study.
&. 89ere s9o-'d ;e a#ter Hi9 S(9oo':D a 9ortator! te$t
(he 2ational examination esult 3ill $e pu$licly enounced in next
shot time. Euphoia 3ill Pood fo those 3ho get success. In the othe
handH It 3ill $e soy to hea that thee ae some of them do not
succeed in thei national Lnal examination. %o those 3ho succeed soon
3ill think to decide; 3hee 3ill they $e afte gaduating high school?
Actually it 3ill $e easy to decide fo those has $een aanged and
thought ealie $ut fo those ha.e not planed yetH it 3ill $e Juite
confusing.
&ontinuing study o looking fo 3ok is the pimay choice among
them. When they think a$out continuing studyH they 3ill think had
a$out the time and cost. 8o3 long the highe study 3ill last? And ho3
high is a$out the cost. In the same 3ayH 3hen they think a$out
staightly seeking Ao$H 3hat skill and competence they ha.e got is a $ig
matte of Juestioning. SoH doing $oth choices in the same time is an
altenati.e.
&ontinuing study as 3ell as seeking Ao$ is possi$ly done $ut it 3ill
$e had fo them. &on.entionally studying in the uni.esity needs much
time to spend especially in the Lst yea. It is tue $ecause they ha.e to
do and adapt a lot of things in thei ne3 highe school. it 3ill $e .ey
had to looking fo Ao$. (heefoe it should come to thei mind of
continuing studying at highe school fom thei o3n home. As esultH the
a.aila$le time 3ill $e moe Pexi$le fo them. (hen it 3ill $e .ey
possi$le to seek Ao$ and get the appopiate one. (his type of studying
is pu$licly kno3n as distance leaning.
As the altenati.e method of studyingH $esides the con.entional
studying 3hich students and the lectue ha.e to meet in the Lxed time
and place egulalyH distance leaning po.ides possi$ility to go3
$ette. 6ossi$ly 3oking and studying suely 3ill ceate high Juality
gaduate. Distance leaning should appea as a considea$le choice fo
them.
SMA Students Modul of English 06
D. Mi''ions #ro1 Pro"ert! Mar5etD a 9ortator!
e$"osition te$t
Dea fiendH
Ae you tied of the daily gind? Sick of
3oking all hous of the day fo litle e3ad? (ied
of ha.ing enough money to eally enAoy youself?
WellH no3 thee is a 3ay out.
We can sho3 the 3ay to gi.e up 3ok. Sit
$ack and make millions fo youself and you
lo.ed ones on popety maket.
Al$et Smith felt Aust like you untill he ead
ou leaPet. 2o3 he di.es a spot ca aound the
South of %ance and his 3ife has one of he o3n
too.
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!se
(hesis; thee is a 3ay out of Lnancial
po$lem.
Agument; Al$et Smith is the poof.
<ecommendation; Coin popety maket R
7anguage %eatue Analysis
!sing a$stact noun; e3ad
!sing action .e$; gi.e upH makeH etc
!sing thinking .e$; felt
!sing simple pesent tense; ae you tied?H he
di.es a spot caH etc
&.. Re"ort Te$t
89at is Re"ort:
&. De7nition o# Re"ort
<epot is a text 3hich pesents infomation
a$out somethingH as it is. It is as a esult of
systematic o$se.ation and analysis
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Re"ort
,. Geneal classiLcationM Stating classiLcation
of geneal aspect of thing; animalH pu$lic
placeH plantH etc 3hich 3ill $e discussed in
geneal
/. DesciptionM Desci$ing the thing 3hich 3ill
$e discussed in detail; pat pe pat H
customs o deed fo li.ing ceatue and
usage fo mateials
+. Lan-ae Feat-re o# Re"ort
1 Intoducing goup o geneal aspect
SMA Students Modul of English 0'
Small Notes
Hortator! E$"osition
=e5s"osisi 9ortator!>
Ciri U1-1<
EaG (uAuan 9omunikatif (eks
E.ommunicative #urposeG
*emapakan dan
mempengauhi audience
EpendengaFpem$acaG $ah3a
sehausnya demikian atau
tidak demikian .
E$G Stuktu (eksFGeneic
stuctue
(hesis; 6enyataan isu yang
dipesoalkan
AgumentsM $eupa alasan
mengapa ada kepihatinanH
dan mengaah ke
ekomendasi
<ecomendationM penyataan
tentang $agaimana
sehausnya atau tidak
sehausnya
EcG &ii ke$ahasaan
menggunakanM
A(strac nounsHmisalnya
polic&'go%ern*ent ds$.
Technical %er(s' misalnya
species of ani*alsHds$.
Relating %er(sH misalnya
should (e' doesnt see* to
ha%e (een H ds$.
Action %er(s' misalnyaH $e
*ust sa%eH ds$.
Thin)ing %er(sH misalnya I
(elie%e H ds$.
Modal %er(sH misalnya ,e
*ust preser%eH ds$.
Modal ad%er(sH misalnya
certainl&'$e' ds$.
Connecti%esH misalnya +rstl&'
secondl&H ds$.
Si*ple present tense
"ahas e.aluatifH misalnya
impotantH .alua$leH ds$.
9alimat pasif Epassi.e .oiceG
1 !sing conditional logical connection; 3henH soH etc
1 !sing simple pesent tense
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
THE PELICAN REPORT
eneral
Clasi+cation
(he 3hite pelican is one of the most
successful LshKeating $ids.
?escription (he success is lagely due to its command
hunting $eha.iou. A goupH pehaps t3o doNen
$idsH 3ill gathe in a cu.ed ac some distance
o>shoe. (he $ids then $egin to mo.e fo3ad
to3ads the shoeH $eating the 3ate fuiously 3ith
thei 3ingsH di.ing the Lsh $efoe them.
When the 3ate is shallo3 enough fo the
$ids to each the LshH the fomation $eaks up as
each $id dips its $ill into the 3ate to scoop up its
meal. As the $id lifts its headH the 3ate dains
fom its $ill lea.ing the Lsh 3hich ae then
s3allo3ed.
6elicans ae among the oldest goup of $idsH
%ossils of this genus ha.e $een found dating $ack
4- million yeas.
E$a1"'e o# Re"ort Te$t
A. P'at!"-sD a re"ort te$t
*any people call platypus duck$ill $ecause this animal has a $ill
like duck$ill. 6latypus is a nati.e (asmania and southen and easten
Austalia.
6latypus has a Pat tail and 3e$$ed feet. Its $ody length is 0- to 45
cm and co.eed 3ith a thickH and 3oolly laye of fu. Its $ill is detecting
pey and stiing up mud. 6latypus1 eyes and head ae small. It has no
eas $ut has a$ility to sense sound and light.
6latypus li.es in steamsH i.esH and lakes. %emale platypus usually
dig $uo3s in the steams o i.e $anks. (he $uo3s ae $locked 3ith
soil to potect it fom intudes and Pooding. In the othe handH male
platypus does not need any $uo3 to stay.
Ana'!Fin on t9e Te$t
Geneic Stuctue analysis
Geneal classiLcation; stating geneal classiLcationH
the animal of platypus.
SMA Students Modul of English 0)
Desciption; desci$ing in detail chaacteiNation of
platypus1 $ody and ha$itual life
7anguage %eatue Analysis
%ocusing in goup; the animal of platypus
conditionalH logical connecti.e; $utH in the othe hand
Simple pesent tense patten; 6latypus li.es in
steamsH male platypus does not need any $uo3H etc
Small /otes
Re"ort
Ciri U1-1<
EaG (uAuan 9omunikatif (eksM
*enyampaikan infomasi tentang sesuatuH apa adanyaH se$agai hasil pengamatan
sistematis atau analisis. Dang dideskipsikan dapat meliputi gaAala alamH lingkunganH
$enda $uatan manusiaH atau geAalaKgeAala sosial. Deskipsi se$uah teks report dapat
$eupa simpulan umumH misalnyaH ikan paus temasuk $inatang mamalia kaena
ikan tese$ut melahikan anaknya.
E$G Stuktu (eksFGeneic stuctue
Geneal &lasiLcation; 6enyataan umum yang meneangkan su$Aek lapoanH
keteanganH dan klasiLkasinya.
DesciptionMtells 3hat the phenomenon unde discussion ; in tems of patsH
JualitiesH ha$its o $eha.ios; Gam$aan dai fenomena yang akan didiskusikan
sepeti $agian X $agiannyaH ke$iasaan atau tingkah laku Aika $enda hidupH
kegunaannya Aika non natual.
EcG &ii 9e$ahasaanM
*enggunakanM
general nounsH sepeti @Reptiles in Co*odo Insland' ds(.
relating %er(s untuk menAelaskan ciiH misalnya reptiles are scal& ani*als Ecii ini
$elaku untuk semua eptiliaGH ds$.
action %er(s dalam meAelaskan peilakuH misalnya li6ards cannot 0&' ds$.
present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umumH misalnya Ao*odo dragons
usuall& $eight *ore than 72B )g' ds(.
istilah teknisH misalnya $ater contains o4&gen and h&drogen' ds(.
paagaf dengan topi) sentence untuk menyusun seAumlah infomasi.
&&. S"oo# Te$t
SMA Students Modul of English 0+
89at is S"oo#:
&. De7nition and So(ia' F-n(tion o# S"oo#
Spoof is a text 3hich tells factual stoyH happened in the past time
3ith unpedicta$le and funny ending. Its social function is to
entetain and shae the stoy.
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# S"oo#
,. #ientation
/. E.ents
0. (3ist
+. Lan-ae Feat-re o# S"oo#
,. %ocusing on peopleH animals o cetain things
/. !sing action .e$; ateH anH etc
0. !sing ad.e$ of time and place
4. (old in chonological ode
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
Pen-in In T9e Par5
<engenalan #nce a 1an 3as 3alking in a pak 3hen 9e
came acoss a "en-in.
Ae;adianCperisti$
aC )egiatan 7
8e took 9i1 to a policeman and saidH O I ha.e
Aust found t9is "en-in. What should I do?@ T9e
"o'i(e1an epliedH O take 9i1 to the Noo@.
Ae;adianCperisti$
aC )egiatan :
(he next day t9e "o'i(e1an sa3 t9e sa1e
1an in the same pak and t9e 1an $as still
carr&ing t9e "en-in 3ith him. (he "o'i(e1an
3as athe supised and $al)ed up to the man and
askedH OWhy ae !o- still carr&ing t9at "en-in
a$out? Didn@t !o- take it to the Noo? O
OI cetainly didH@ eplied t9e 1an.
T$ist DA)hir &ang
lucuE
O and it 3as a geat idea $ecause 9e eally
enAoyed itH so today I@m ta)ing 9i1 to the mo.iestR
E$a1"'e o# S"oo# te$t
A. G T9at P9one is O4H
Soon afte he left collegeH Da.e found one of his uncles 3ho 3as
.ey ich and had no childen of his o3n died and left him a lot of
moneyH so he decided to set up his o3n eal estate agency.
Da.e found a nice oQce. 8e $ought some ne3 funitue and mo.ed
in. he had only $een thee fo e fe3 hous 3hen he head someone
coming to3ad the doo of his oQce.
SMA Students Modul of English 4-
=It must $e my Lst custome? Da.e
thought. 8e Juickly picked up the telephone and
petended to $e .ey $usy ans3eing an
impotant call fom someone in 2e3 Dok 3ho
3anted to $uy a $ig and expensi.e house in the
county.
(he man knocked at the doo 3hile this 3as
going on. 8e came in and 3aited politely fo
Da.e to Lnish his con.esation on the phone.
(hen the man said to Da.e; =I am fom the
telephone company and I 3as sent hee to
connect you telephone?
Notes on t9e S"oo#Is
Generi( Str-(t-re
OrientationM Da.e 3as a lucky
man. 8e suddenly $ecame a
.ey ich man $ecause of the
death of his ich uncle 3ho had
no childen. 8e inheited his
uncle@s money.
E,ent &< "eing ichH he 3anted
to set up his estate company
E,ent )< 8e had his ne3 oQce.
In his oQceH he petended to $e
a .ey successful $usinessman.
8e acted as had an impotant client. 8e sho3ed $y
making con.esation on the phone.
T0istM (he man 3hom he sho3ed is a telephone
technician. 8e came to Da.e@s oQce to connect that
phone.
B. Sa,ed ;! Sti'ts
(he king 3anted to test A$u 2a3as@ smatness. So he in.ited A$u
2a3as to the palace. =Dou 3ant meH you *aAesty?? geeted A$u 2a3as.
=DesH you ha.e fooled me thee times and that@s too much. I 3ant you to
lea.e the county. #the3ise you 3ill ha.e to go to Aail? said the king. =If
that is 3hat you 3antH I 3ill do 3hat you said? said A$u 2a3as sadly.
(hen =<emem$eH fom tomoo3 you may not step on the gound of
this county anymoe? the king said seiously. (hen A$u na3as left the
king palace sadly.
(he follo3ing moning the king odeed his t3o guads to go to A$u
2a3as@ house. (he guads 3ee .ey supised found A$u 2a3as still in
his house. 8e had not left the county yet. Instead lea.ing the countyH
SMA Students Modul of English 4,
Small Notes
S"oo# =La"oran 5eJadian
ata- "eristi0a '-(->
Ciri Umum:
(a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks:
Menceritakan kejadian) peristiwa
aneh atau lucu berdasarkan
kejadian atau peristiwa dalam
kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan
menghibur) yang biasa diakhiri
dengan sesuatu yang tidak
diharapkan (tist).
(b) Struktur Teks!eneric structure
#engenalan"
Kejadianperistiwakegiatan
2"
Kejadianperistiwakegiatan
3"
Twist (akhir yang tidak
terduga atau lucu).
(c) (iri Kebahasaan:
Terfokus pada orang)
binatang) benda tertentu"
Menggunakan action verbs)
misalnya eat, run"
Menggunakan keterangan
waktu dan tempat"
Menggunakan past tense"
A$u 2a3as 3as s3imming in small pool in font of his house. =8ey A$u
2a3asH 3hy ha.en@t you left this county yet? (he king odeed you not
to step on the gound of this county anymoeH didn@t he?? said the
guads. =Sue he did? ans3eed A$u 2a3as calmly. ="ut look at meR Do I
step on the gound of this county? 2oH I do not step on the gound. I am
s3imming on the 3ate? continued A$u 2a3as.
(he guads 3ee not a$le to ague 3ith A$u 2a3as so they left A$u
2a3as@ house and 3ent $ack to the palace. (he guads epoted 3hat
they had seen to the king. (he king 3as cuious on A$u 2a3as@ excuse
not to lea.e the county. (heefoe the king odeed his guad to call
A$u 2a3as to come to the palace.
A$u 2a3as came to the palace on stilts. (he king 3ondeed and
said =A$uH I 3ill suely punish you $ecause you ha.en@t done 3hat I
ha.e said. Dou ha.e not left this county?. (he 9ing continued =And no3H
look at you. Dou 3alk on stilts like a child. Ae you caNy? (he king
petended to $e fuious.
=I emem$e exactly 3hat you saidH Dou *aAesty? A$u 2a3as
ans3eed calmly. =(his moning I took a $ath in the small pool in my
house so that I had not to step on the gound. And since yestedayH I
ha.e $een 3alking on this stilts. So you seeH Dou *aAestyH I do not step
on the gound of this county?. (he king 3as not a$le to say anything.
EAdapted fom S. 8aianto@s A$u 2a3as and 9ing AaonG
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
OrientationM Intoducing A$u 2a3as and the 9ing on the
counteacts a$out lea.ing and staying in the county
E,ent &M A$u 2a3as 3as s3imming on the pool
E,ent )M A$u 2a3as 3as 3alking on the stilts
T0isterM A$u 2a3as explained that s3imming in the pool
and 3alking on the stilts meant not stepping on the
gound of the county
C. Pri,ate Con,ersation
7ast 3eek I 3ent to the theate. I had a .ey good seat. (he play
3as .ey inteesting.I did not enAoy it. A young man and a young 3oman
3ee sitting $ehind me. (hey 3ee talking .ey loudly.I got .ey angy. I
could not hea the actos. I tuned aound. I looked at the man and the
young 3oman angily. (hey did not pay any attention.In the endH I could
not $ea it. I tuned aound again. =I could not hea a 3od? I said
angily.=It@s none of you $usiness? the young man said udely. =(his is a
pi.ate con.esation?
E%omM English 2e3 &onceptG
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
#ientationM intoducing a 3ites as point of .ie3 =I?
3hich is in a theate last 3eek
SMA Students Modul of English 4/
E.ent ,M the othe theategoesH young man and
young 3omanH 3ee talking noisily.
E.ent /M the 3ite used physical language $y tuning
aound to the young man and young 3oman talk to
not to make noisy.
E.ent 0M the 3ite used .e$al language $y saying =I
could not hea a 3od?.
(3isteM the young man misundestood the 3ite@s
3od and said; =It@s none of you $usiness. It@s a
pi.ate con.esation?.
D. NasreddinIs Coat
#ne day 2aseddin had $een in.ited to the dinne paty. 8e 3ent to
the paty $y 3eaing old clothes.
When he ai.ed in the patyH no$ody looked at him and no$ody
ga.e him a seat. 8e got no food in the paty so he 3ent home and
change his clothes
2ext he put on his $est clothes. 8e 3oe his ne3est coat and 3ent
to the paty again. (he host at once got up and came to meet him. (he
host o>eed him the $est ta$le and ga.e him a good seat and se.ed
him the $est food
2aseddin sat and put o> his coat. 8e put his coat and said; =Eat
the foodH &oatR? the hosts and guests 3ee .ey supised and asked
2aeddin; =What ae doing?? 2aseddin eplied calmly; =When I came
hee 3ith my old clothesH no$ody looked at me. (hen I 3ent home and
put on my $est clothes. I came $ack in my ne3est coat and you all gi.e
me this $est food and dink. SoH you gi.e food to my coat instead of
me?. Getting 2aseddin1s ans3eH they Aust shook the head.
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
#ientationM one dayH 2aseddin 3as in.ited to a
dinne paty
E.ent ,M 8e 3as in the paty 3ith his old cloth
E.ent /M 8e 3as in the paty 3ith his $est ne3est coat
(3istM Among the hosts and guestsH he aske his coat to
eat the se.ed food
E. Pen-in in t9e Par5
#nce a man 3as 3alking in a pak 3hen he acoss a penguin. 8e
took it to a policeman and said; UWhat should I do?U (he policeman
eplied; U(ake it to the NooRU.
(he next dayH the policeman sa3 the man in the same pak. (he
man 3as still caying the penguin. (he policeman 3as athe supised
and 3alked up to the man and asked; UWhy ae you still caying the
SMA Students Modul of English 40
penguin? Didn1t you take it to the Noo?U (he man eplied; UI cetainly
did. And it 3as a geat idea $ecause the penguin eally enAoyed it. SoH
today I am taking it to the mo.ieU.
Ana'!Fin t9e Te$t
Geneic Stuctue Analysis
#ientation;intoducing paticipantsM U8eU and 6enguin.
(hey 3ee in the pak
E.ent,; (he man tended to take the penguin to the pak
E.ent; (he follo3ing dayH the man 3ee still caying the
penguin
(3ist; E.enH Lnally the man 3ould take the penguin to the
mo.ies
7anguage %eatue Analysis
%ocusing on cetain cetain paticipants; 8eH penguinH
policeman
!sing action .e$; cayH 3alk up
!sing ad.e$ of time and place; onceH in the pak
(old in chonological ode; chonological ode $y daysH
the next day
&). Re(o-nt Te$t
89at is Re(o-nt:
&. De7nition o# Re(o-nt
<ecount is a text 3hich etells e.ents o expeiences in the past. Its
pupose is eithe to infom o to entetain the audience. (hee is no
complication among the paticipants and that di>eentiates fom
naati.e
). Generi( Str-(t-re o# Re(o-nt
,. #ientationM Intoducing the paticipantsH place and time
/. E.entsM Desci$ing seies of e.ent that happened in the past
0. <eoientationM It is optional. Stating pesonal comment of the
3ite to the stoy
+. Lan-ae Feat-re o# Re(o-nt
Z Intoducing pesonal paticipant; IH my goupH etc
Z !sing chonological connection; thenH LstH etc
Z !sing linking .e$; 3asH 3eeH sa3H headH etc
Z !sing action .e$; lookH goH changeH etc
Z !sing simple past tense
SMA Students Modul of English 44
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
O-r tri" to t9e B'-e Mo-ntain
#ientation #n %iday 3e 3ent to the "lue *ountains. We stayed at
Da.id and Della@s house. It has a $ig gaden 3ith lots of
colouful Po3es and a tennis cout.
E.ents #n Satuday 3e sa3 the (hee Sistes and 3ent on the
scenic ail3ay. It 3as scay. (henH *ummy and I 3ent
shopping 3ith Della. We 3ent to some antiJue shops and
I tied on some old hats.
#n Sunday 3e 3ent on the Scenic Sky3ay and it ocked.
We sa3 cockatoos ha.ing a sho3e.
<eoientati
on
In the aftenoon 3e 3ent home.
E$a1"'e o# Re(o-nt te$t
A. Ea(ation to London
*. <ichad@s family 3as on .acation. (hey ae *. and *s. <ichad
3ith t3o sons. (hey 3ent to 7ondon. (hey sa3 thei ta.el agent and
$ooked thei tickets. (hey 3ent to the "itish Em$assy to get .isas to
ente "itain. (hey had $ooked fouteen days tou. (his includes ta.el
and accommodation. (hey also included tous aound 7ondon
(hey $oaded a lage "oeing Pight. (he Pight 3as nealy fouteen
hous. #n the plane the ca$in ce3s 3ee .ey fiendly. (hey ga.e them
ne3s pape and magaNine to ead. (hey ga.e them food and dink.
(hee 3as a Llm fo thei entetainment. (hey had a .ey pleasant
Pight. (hey slept pat of the 3ay.
#n ai.al at 8eatho3 AipotH they had to go to &ustoms and
Immigation. (he oQces 3ee pleasant. (hey checked the document
caefully $ut thei mannes 3ee .ey polite. *. <ichad and his family
collected thei $ags and 3ent to 7ondon Welcome Desk. (hey aanged
the tansfe to a hotel.
(he hotel 3as a 3ellKkno3n fouKsta hotel. (he oom had pefect
.ie3 of the pak. (he oom had its o3n $athoom and toilet. Instead of
keys fo the oomH they inseted a keyKcad to open the doo. #n the
thid PooH thee 3as a estauant se.ing Asian and Euopean food.
(hey had .aiety of food.
(he t3o 3eek in 7ondon 3ent $y fast. At the end of the ,4KdayH
they 3ee Juite tied $ut they felt .ey happy.
B. Bet0een Re(o-nt and Narrati,e
Something 3hich happened in the past is the main esouce to
compose $oth ecount and naati.e text. In 3ite1s point of .ie3H the
SMA Students Modul of English 45
thing is an expeience. It can $e 3hat the 3ite
has doneH heaH eadH and felt. &omposing ecount
and naati.e is etelling the expeiences of the
past e.ent to $e a pesent e.ent.
What does ecount di>e fom naati.e?
(he easiest 3ay to catch the di>eence is
analyNing the geneic stuctue. <ecount text
pesents the past expeiences in ode of time o
place; 3hat happened on SundayH then on
*ondayH the on (uesday. In simple 3ayH ecount
desci$es seies of e.ents in detail. It does not
expose the stuggle on ho3 to make them
happen. (he e.ent happened smoothly. #n the
othe handH naati.e intoduces cises and ho3
to sol.e them. 2aati.e text al3ays appea as a
had potait of paticipant1s past expeience. It
e.eals the conPict among the paticipants.
&indeella1s conPicts 3ith he step mothe and
siste ae the example. (he conPict is the most
impotant element in a naati.e text. 2aati.e
3ithout comPicts is not naati.e any moe.
C. Eisitin Ba'i
(hee 3ee so many places to see in "ali that
my fiend decided to Aoin the tous to see as
much as possi$le. *y fiend stayed in 9uta on
ai.al. 8e spent the Lst thee days s3imming
and suLng on 9uta $each. 8e .isited some tou
agents and selected t3o tous. (he Lst one 3as
to SingaaAaH the second 3as to !$ud.
#n the day of the touH he 3as eady. *y
fiend and his goup do.e on though mountains.
SingaaAa is a city of a$out +- thousands people.
It is a $usy $ut Juiet to3n. (he steet ae lined
3ith tees and thee ae many old Dutch houses.
(hen they etuned .ey late in the e.ening to
9uta.
(he second tou to !$ud 3as a .ey di>eent
tou. It 3as not to see the sceney $ut to see the
at and the caft of the island. (he Lst stop 3as
at "atu$ulanH a cente of stone sculptue. (hee
my fiend 3atched young $oys 3ee ca.ing a3ay
at $ig $locks of stone. (he next stop 3as &elukH a
cente fo sil.esmiths and goldensmiths. Afte
that he stopped a little 3hile fo lunch at
Suka3ati and on to mass. *ass is a touist cente
SMA Students Modul of English 46
Small Notes
Re(o-nt =La"oran "eristi0aB
5eJadian ata- 5eiatan
1asa 'a1"a->
Ciri U1-1
EaG (uAuan 9omunikatif (eksM
*elapokan peisti3aH
keAadian atau kegiatan
dengan tuAuan
mem$eitakan atau
menghi$u.
E$G Stuktu (eksFGeneic
stuctue
#ientation; 6engenalanH
yaitu mem$eikan infomasi
tentang siapaH di mana dan
kapan;
E.ents; <ekaman peisti3aH
keAadian atau kegiatan yang
teAadiH yang $iasanya
disampaikan dalam uutan
konologis;
9omenta pi$adi danFatau
ungkapan penilaian;
<eoientation; 6engenalan
ulang yang meangkum
entetan peisti3aH keAadian
atau kegiatan.
EcG &ii 9e$ahasaanM
*enggunakanM
nouns dan pronouns
se$agai kata ganti oangH
he3an atau $enda yang
teli$atH misalnya ?a%idH the
*on)e&H $e ds$.
action %er(s atau kata keAa
tindakanH misalnya go'
sleep' run ds$.
past tenseH misalnya ,e
$ent to the 6oo> She $as
happ& ds$.
con;unctions dan ti*e
connecti%es yang
menguutkan peisti3aH
keAadian atau kegiatanH
misalnya andH (ut' then'
after that' ds$.
ad%er(s dan ad%er( phrases
untuk mengungkap tempatH
3aktu dan caaH misalnya
&esterda&H at *& house'
slo$l& ds$.
ad;ecti%es untuk
meneangkan nounsH
misalnya (eautifulH funn&'
ds$.
*y fiend tenKdayKstay ended .ey Juickly $eside his t3o touH all
his day 3as spent on the $each. 8e 3ent sailing o suf$oading e.ey
day. 8e 3as Juiet satisLed.
D. M! Horri;'e E$"erien(e
7et me emind you my expeience duing an eathJuake last 3eek.
When the eathJuake happenedH I 3as on my ca. I 3as di.ing home
fom my .ocation to "ali.
Suddenly my ca lunched to one sideH to the left. I thought I got Pat
tie. I did not kno3 that it 3as an eathJuake. I kne3 it 3as an
eathJuake 3hen I sa3 some telephone and electicity poles falling
do3n to the goundH like matchsticks.
(hen I sa3 a lot of ocks tum$ling acoss the oad. I 3as tapped $y
the ock. E.en I could not mo.e my ca at all. (hee 3ee ocks
e.ey3hee. (hee 3as nothing I could do $ut left the ca and 3alked
along 3ay to my houseH in the to3n.
When I eached my to3nH I 3as so supised that thee 3as almost
nothing left. (he eathJuake made a lot of damage to my to3n.
Although nothing 3as leftH I thanked God that no$ody 3as seiously
inAued.
Generi( Str-(t-re Ana'!sis
Orientation; intoducing the paticipantH using Lst
peson point of .ie3H I 3as on the ca las 3eek.
E,ents; desci$ing a seies of e.ent 3hich happened. (he
ca lunched to one side. (elephone and electicity poles
3as falling do3nH etc.
ReKorientation; stating the 3ite1s pesonal note.
(hanking God $ecause no$ody 3as seiously inAued.
Lan-ae Feat-re Ana'!sis
1 !sing pesonal paticipant; I
1 !sing chonological connecti.es; thenH andH suddenly
1 !sing linking .e$; 3asH 3ee
1 !sing action .e$; mo.edH leftH 3alkedH madeH etc
1 !sing simple past tense patten; eathJuake
happenedH I 3as on the caH my ca lunched on one
sideH etc
E. M! Grand"aIs F-nera' in ToraJa
7ast month my family and I 3ent to (oaAa to attend Gandpa@s
funeal. It 3as my Lst time to go to such a ceemony. We gatheed
thee 3ith ou kin in the ceemony.
#.eallH the ceemony 3as Juite ela$oate. It took a$out a 3eek.
Se.eal days $efoe the ceemony 3as doneH gandpa@s $ody 3as kept
SMA Students Modul of English 4'
in a seies of houses aanged in a cicula o3 aound an open Leld
called tongkonan. 8is copse 3as dessed in a L ne 3eaing.
(he funeal 3as pefomed in t3o phases. %istH 3e slaughteed the
pigs and $u>aloesH and then mo.ed the copse to face noth. In this
ceemony 3e 3oe $lack clothes. Afte thatH the copse 3as placed in a
sandal 3ood coQn. (henH it 3as $ought out of the house and placed on
an open platfom $eneath the ganay. *ean3hileH my uncleH my
$otheH and I pepaed the 3ooden puppet and a funeal to3e called
lakian. (he next phase of the ceemony 3as held in this place. (he
coQn is $one fom the house and placed in the lakian. Duing the dayH
thee 3ee also $u>alo matches. (hey 3ee geat matches. In the nightH
3e 3ee feastingH chantingH and dancing.
#n the last dayH the gandpa@s coQn 3ee lo3eed fom the funeal
to3e and $ought up to the mountain side family ga.eyad. It 3as
follo3ed $y geat shouting and excitement fom the elati.es and the
guests. %inallyH 3e installed the 3ooden puppet on a high $alcony 3hee
othe puppets epesenting the mem$es of a 3hole family 3ee aleady
thee. (he funeal ceemonies made my family and me tied. 8o3e.eH
3e 3ee gateful $ecause it an smoothly.
5uestions
,. When did the 3ite attend the funeal?
/. 8o3 long did the 3ite and his family hold the ceemony?
0. What did they do to the copse $efoe the funeal 3as done?
4. What did they do afte the copse 3as placed in a sandal 3ood coQ
n?
5. What did they do on the last day of the ceemony?
Notes<
A ecount text is a text that tells you a pat of expeience.
A ecount text has an oientationH a seies of e.ents in
chonological odeH pesonal emaks on the e.ents and a
eoientation that =ounds o>? the seJuence of e.ents. In
the textH you Lnd 3ods and phases used to statH
connect a sentence 3ith the next oneH and end you
composition. (hose 3ods and phases aeM
1 %istH
1 (henH
1 Afte thatH
1 %inallyH
&+. Re,ie0 Te$t
89at is re,ie0 te$t
SMA Students Modul of English 4)
&. De7nition
<e.ie3 is one of text genes. (his classiLcation of text types is
commonly $ased on the stuctue 3hich used $y the 3ite to
compose his text. Each text type 3ill ha.e di>eent fom of geneic
stuctue. As I said in my pe.ious postH e.ie3 text usually has
geneic stuctue asM
). Generi( Str-(t-re
Introd-(tionM it is the highlight of the geneal desciption a$out
3hat 3ill $e e.ie3ed. It can $e poductH se.ices 3hich 3ant to $e
soldH o Aust a site 3hich 3ant to $e kno3n pu$licly. (hen it 3ill di.e
moe taQc into the site.
E,a'-ationM the second phase is coming inside into the poduct in
details. It states the patsH uniJuenessH Juality of the poduct 3hich
3ill $e kno3n pu$licly. 8o3e.e too much detail desciption 3ill
=teach? the 3illK$uye and it does not sound good. E.aluating as fa
as necessay fo the tageted $uye is moe genuine. (he tem of
e.aluation 3ill not $e fa fom simple 3od of good o $ad. In this
phase e.ie3e 3ill apply much e.aluati.e 3odH .alua$leH usefulH
3othyH etc.
Inter"retationM afte 3iting a$out the o$Aecti.e thing of the
poductH it is the time fo e.ie3e to 3ite a$out 3hat he thinks o
impesses on the poduct. #f couse this phase can $e done afte
getting enough e.aluation on the poduct. It is pesonal idea a$out
the poduct. %eJuently to suppot and stengthen his idea o
impessionH a e.ie3e desci$es a compaison to othe simila
poduct. 8e states in 3hich side the poduct has additional .alue o
honestly admitted that the poduct lacks .alue in cetain side.
S-11ar!M this phase is ecommending conclusion fo eade of the
poduct. Afte clealy explanationH a e.ie3e 3ill make a Lnal
comment 3hethe the poduct is .alua$le o not fo tageted $uye.
(his phase is the 3oth of the e.ie3 fo eade.
+. Do1inant Lan-ae #eat-res<
,. %ocus on speciLc paticipants
/. !sing adAecti.es
0. !sing long and complex clauses
4. !sing metapho
4. E$a1"'es and str-(t-res o# t9e te$t
0arr1 #otter2 3rder o" the #hoeni)
SMA Students Modul of English 4+
6engenalan
F #ientasi
I a$solutely lo.e the 8ay 6otte seiesH and all of the
$ooks 3ill al3ays hold a special place in my heat.
E.aluasi , I ha.e to say that of all of the $ooksH ho3e.eH this 3as
not my fa.oite.
E.aluasi / When the seies $egan it 3as as much of a Ufeel goodU
expeience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. (he stoies 3ee
$ightH fastKpacedH intiguingH and ultimately satisfying.
(afsian
EIntepetati
.e ecountG
#de of the 6hoenix is a di>eent kind of $ook. In some
instances this 3oks...you feel a 3hole ne3 le.el of
intensity and excitement $y the time you get to the end. I
3as tuly mo.ed $y the last page. #the times the $ook
Aust has a slightly deayH depessing feel. (he galloping
pace of the othe $ooks has slo3ed to a tot heeH and
pats of it do seem longH as if 3e1e eading all a$out
8ay UAust hanging outU instead of ha.ing his usual
ad.entues. <eading in detail a$out 8ay cleaning up an
old houseH fo example K housekeeping is still
housekeepingH magical o noH and I1m not .ey inteested
in doing it o eading a$out othe people doing it.
A fe3 othe changes in this $ook K the UealU 3old
comes much moe in to play athe than the fantasy
uni.ese of the pe.ious $ooksH and 8ay has appaently
$een taken o> his meds. I kno3 that he had a lot to $e
gumpy in this $ookH especially 3ith $eing a teenage
and allH $ut the sudden change in his chaacte seemed
too dastic. 8e goes fom $eing a 3amKheatedH
consideate peson to someone 3ho 3ill $ite his $est
fiend1s heads o> o.e nothing. It Aust seemed like it
didn1t Lt 3ith his chaacteH like he tuned into a 3alking
clich[ of the Uangy teenU o.enight.
<angkuman (he UealU stoy seemed to happen in the last ,F0 of the
$ookH and this pat I lo.ed. I actually liked the ending
Eand yesH I ciedRG as sad as it 3as. It packed a punch and
it made me cae a$out the stoy e.en moe. Still a eally
good $ookH 3ith some editing it 3ould ha.e $een geat.
E$a1"'e o# Re,ie0 te$t
A. Lenni O"ti(a'D a site #or e!e'asses
Eyeglasses 3ill $ecome moe and moe impotant. It is not only
$ecause fo potecting ou eyes fom the hot light $ut also fo holding
the tend. (hee ae a lot of online sites 3hich po.ides poducts of
eyeglasses $ut Benni #ptical 3as on %#\ ne3sR is Aust the pefect one.
SMA Students Modul of English 5-
If 3e .isit the siteH 3e 3ill easily catch .aious infomation a$out
eyeglasses. (he site is Juite simple $ut .ey infomati.e. It is ealH easy
and not complicated design. With Juick loading this site 3ill $ing us
Juickly in to 3hat 3e 3ant.
(hee is infomation a$out :aia$le
Dimension %ames %om Benni. (itaniumH aluminum and imless fame
ae a.aila$le. (he eyeglasses ae designed fo di>eent uses.
Eyeglasses fo childenH 3oman and man ae a.aila$le choice. AgainH
3hat makes it di>eent is this site gi.es the Geat Eyeglasses %o 7ess
cost. (he poduct can $e sold in cheap pice $ecause it has cut the
maketing link. It staightly goes to the end use.
B. Good Trans'ation
(anslation is tansfeing not only 3ods $y 3od $ut also message
to message. In cetain caseH it 3ill $e Juite diQcult to make tanslation.
8o3 is to make good Aa$ic tanslation fom English phase of =as 3hite
as sno3? mean3hile thee is no sno3 in Aa$ian?
(he $asic eJuiement of a good tanslato is masteing esouce
and taget language 3ith all nonKlinguistic aspect . If he is an English
tanslato and 3ants to make 8indi tanslationH he should undestand
3ell the language and aspect of India. SimilalyH if he 3oks 3ith %asi
tanslationH he has to $e familia 3ith linguistics and nonKlinguistics of
%asian.
8o3e.eH tanslation po.ides can $idge that diQculty. (he
tanslation expetsH such as India tanslation 3ill help to Lx the po$lem.
(he expets 3ho ha.e gammaticalH lexicalH sociolinguistics
specialiNation 3ill match in tansfeing the message fom one language
to anothe language.
C. Re(ordin Mo11! Mo-rne!
7ife itself is a Aouney. %o <osemaieH a petty young %ilipino single
mothe fo /Kyea kidH the daily acti.ities ae 3othily documented. (he
site is he e>ot to ecod of 3hat she didH does and 3ill do daily.
SMA Students Modul of English 5,
(he site consists of se.eal topic; familyH
mothehoodH shoppingH moneyH lo.e fashion and
shopping. (hese topics ae close elated to he o3n
life. She is not only young $ut also petty and she has
a kid. (hese topics 3ill $e useful to he. <osemaie is
also inteested 3ith making moneyH intenetH
$usinessH computeH loan and othe inteesting stu>.
She is a 3idely kno3ledge mom.
(he template design of he site is .ey gilyH pink
centeed. She has aanged he site .ey attacti.eH
fesh and $ight. AgainH this physical appeaing site
must epesent he pesonal mood $ecause she is a
young and petty mom. I like this site and youH young
mothesH suely 3ill like the site too.
D. Good No-n Mot9er
It is a$out a young mothe. It has a title of
yummy mummy. (his $log is epesentati.e of he
idea of $ecoming young mothe. 8e pous he
thought and opinion on this $log in elating he
position of a mothe of kid and a 3ife of a hus$and.
"eside thatH she is tying to monetiNing it
(his $log has fesh physical appeaance. She
choose geen $ode of he template. She is young
theefoe she has to ha.e a $log look fesh and
enegetic. She looks to ha.e stong cae to he $a$y
that is 3hy 3e Lnd he monthly calenda of feeding
milk to he $a$y attaches on the heade of the $log.
She is not only a good mothe fo he $a$y $ut
also a good 3ife fo he hus$and. She expesses it in
he post la$eled 3edding anni.esay. It is a omantic
scene. In the last she is monetiNing this $log. It must
help he hus$and suppot Lnancially the family. It is
eally a efeence $log fo e.ey young mothe and
3ife.
E. Re(o11ended So#t0are A""'i(ations
Soft3ae application ha.e go3n to thei density. A lot of soft3aes
ha.e $een o>eed to us. (hey claim that they ae the $est poduct. A
$uye is eally a king. 8eFshe has so many choices to select 3hich
heFshe likes most. In one sideH this phenomenon pesent us compaa$le
soft3ae poducts $utH in the othe handsH it make us complicated to
choose.
Due to this complex phenomenon of consumeH a e.ie3 site is
necessay. It 3ill $e a ecommending $idge $et3een consume and
SMA Students Modul of English 5/
Re,ie0 =U'asan ata-
tinJa-an>
Ciri U1-1<
EaG (uAuan 9omunikatif
(eksM
*elakukan kitik
tehadap peisti3a
atau kaya seni
untuk pem$aca atau
pendenga halayak
amaiH misalnya
LlmH petunAukanH
$ukuH dll.
E$G Stuktu (eksM
6engenalan;
EoientationG
E.aluasi ,;
E.aluasi /;
(afsi;EIntepeti.eG
E.aluasi 0;
E.aluasi 4H ds$. Cika
ada;
<angkuman.
EE.aluati.e
SummationG
EcG &ii 9e$ahasaanM
(efokus pada
patisipan tetentu;
*enggunakanM
ad;ecti%es
menunAukkan sikapH
sepeti (ad' good;
klausa panAang dan
kompleks;
metafo.
poduce. A good e.ie3e 3ill place hesFhe self in the middle aena.
8eFshe 3ill not tend to specially soft3ae poduce o a$solutely
consume. 8eFshe Aust pesents the eal desciption of the poduct.
8eFshe 3ill o$se.es to Lnd the good and $ad side of the poduct. In the
lastH heFshe 3ill ecommends 3hethe the e.ie3ed poducts dese.e to
choose o not. (hat is eally helpful fo consume.
&4. 8ritin Jo; a""'i(ation 'etters
The job application letter4s sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your (5. -t
should be clear) concise and straight to the point. 6ere you are simply telling the employer
that you are worth ha+ing a look at.
The application letter should be brief) no more than one page in length. -t should be
easy to read and flow through. -t should include only the absolute necessary information.
/ike most other things) there is a formula that works e7tremely well for preparing job
application letters. 8ollowing we discuss each paragraph and gi+e you some guidelines.
Addressin Jo; a""'i(ation 'etters<
The style you choose is not important) there are many different styles of job applications
and professional letters) this comes down to personal preference. 6owe+er somewhere on
the top) whether it is on the right or left hand sides) there should be your address and the
date. 8ollowing this) on the left hand side you should address it. 9nsure you include the
name of the person) their title) company name) address and any position reference number.
This is probably ob+ious) but ensure that you spell their name correctly) nothing worse
than recei+ing a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. -t gi+es a poor first impression.
T9e Introd-(tor! Parara"9<
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. -f it is an ad+ertised
position) mention the position title and where it was ad+ertised. -f you are :cold calling: a
company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future
employment opportunities.
$n easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: : #lease find enclosed
my (5) which - am forwarding to you as an application for the position of.......:
T9e 1ain ;od! o# Jo; a""'i(ation 'etters<
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. 6ere is where
you tell them what you ha+e to offer and why they should read your (5. This is a good
time to read the job ad+ertisement again. -n one paragraph (two at the most) you need to
SMA Students Modul of English 50
summarise your e7perience and skills) at the same time) you need to respond to the
position re;uirements as per the ad+ertisement.
$nalyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences) highlight what you specialise in)
or how many years in the industry you might ha+e) or e+en the le+el that you ha+e
reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your (5 and should sell you on some
uni;ue points that you might ha+e.
$ good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: :<ou will see from my
enclosed (5....: then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will
immediately get their interest.
The ne7t part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills.
$gain read the ad+ertisement and respond to their needs. -f they are asking for someone
with good co.ordination skills) then ensure you mention something to that effect. -f it is
communication or perhaps leadership skills they +alue) then tell them that you ha+e these.
=se adjecti+es like :demonstrated ability:) :well de+eloped:) :strong:.
Mo; A""'i(ation Letters C'osin Parara"9<
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you
ask for an inter+iew. -t should also state where and how they can reach you) and it should
thank the recipient for gi+ing you the opportunity to apply. <ou can include things like
:should you re;uire further information.....: .
8inish the letter by adding a closing remark) either :yours sincerely:) :yours faithfully4 or
whate+er you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing eti;uette. /ea+e a
few spaces for your signature and then place your full name.
*efore you mail the application letter) read it o+er again) making sure that it is perfect.
Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
-t is not too long.
There are no grammar or spelling errors.
That you ha+e answered the job re;uirements.
The application letter flows and is easy to read.
<ou might ha+e to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it) but just
remember that the job application letter is just as important as the (5 itself. The letter
should in+ite the recipient to read the resume) in turn the resume should raise enough
interest for them to want to inter+iew you. The -nter+iew is where you will demonstrate
your skills and abilities.
SMA Students Modul of English 54
&%. Si1i'arities and di4erenties
A. T9e Di4eren(es ;et0een Re"ort and Des(ri"ti,e Te$t
Some text types ae Juite diQcult to di>e. Such epot and
descipti.e text ha.e the similaity in the social function and geneic
stuctue. 8o3e.e if they ae analyNed caefullyH the slight
di>eence $et3een the t3o text types 3ill e.eal.
(he pupose of the t3o texts ae to gi.e the li.eKdesciption of
the o$AectFpaticipant. "oth the epot and descipti.e text ty to
sho3 athe than tell the eade a$out the factual condition of the
o$Aect. <eades $y themsel.es 3ill catch the impessi.e point of the
o$Aect though that sho3ing 3iting style. What make di>eentH
$et3een epot and descipti.e textH is the scope of the 3itten
o$Aect. If 3e talk a$outH egM $icycleH it $elongs to epot text. It 3ill
talk a$out $icycle in geneal; its patsH physical stenghH function fo
cetain people o othe geneal chaactes of $ike. In the othe handH
descipti.e text 3ill con.ey moe focusH fo example Umy $icycleU
3ith its speciLc chaactes; colouH lenghH 3heel styleH etc.
In shotH epot text desci$es the 3ay of cetain things and
feJuently efe to phenomenon of natueH animal and scientiLc
o$Aect. *ostlyH epot is 3itten afte getting caeful o$se.ation. (his
scientiLc and technical sense make cleae di>eence fom
descipti.e text. (he 3ay of descipti.e text in sho3ing thing is
$ased on the o$Aecti.e fact of the thing. It desci$e the speciLc thing
simply as the thing is.
B. Bet0een E$"'anation and Pro(ed-re Te$t
Seeing the social functionH $oth pocedue and explanation texts
ha.e the similaity in 3hich $oth desci$e ho3 to make o done
something. (hey gi.e the detail desciption on somethingH
phenomenaH goodsH poduct case o po$lem.
(o see the di>eences $et3een explanation and pocedueH 3e
ha.e to analyNe the dominant language featue and ho3 the texts
ae used.
6ocedueH this text type is commonly called as instuction text.
It uses patten of commend in $uilding the stuctue. It use the =to
inLniti.e .e$? 3hich is omitted the =to?. It is a kind of instuction
text 3hich uses full commend .e$. 6ocedue is commonly used to
desci$e ho3 to make something 3hich is close to ou daily acti.ity.
%o example ho3 to make a cup of teaH ho3 to make a good kiteH etc
is the $est example of the pocedue text. It is such 3od; Lst $oil
3ateH secondly pepae the cupH and so on.
SMA Students Modul of English 55
ExplanationH it is commonly used the passi.e .oice in $uilding
the text. Explanation is such a scientiLc 3itten mateial. It desci$es
ho3 cetain phenomenon o e.ent happen. 8o3 a tonado fomH ho3
tsunami 3oks ae the $est example of explanation text. It uses
passi.e patten in desci$ing the topic.
C. Bet0een Re(o-nt and Narrati,e
Something 3hich happened in the past is the main esouce to
compose $oth ecount and naati.e text. In 3ite1s point of .ie3H
the thing is an expeience. It can $e 3hat the 3ite has doneH heaH
eadH and felt. &omposing ecount and naati.e is etelling the
expeiences of the past e.ent to $e a pesent e.ent.
What does ecount di>e fom naati.e?
(he easiest 3ay to catch the di>eence is analyNing the geneic
stuctue. <ecount text pesents the past expeiences in ode of
time o place; 3hat happened on SundayH then on *ondayH the on
(uesday. In simple 3ayH ecount desci$es seies of e.ents in detail. It
does not expose the stuggle on ho3 to make them happen. (he
e.ent happened smoothly. #n the othe handH naati.e intoduces
cises and ho3 to sol.e them. 2aati.e text al3ays appea as a had
potait of paticipant1s past expeience. It e.eals the conPict among
the paticipants. &indeella1s conPicts 3ith he step mothe and siste
ae the example. (he conPict is the most impotant element in a
naati.e text. 2aati.e 3ithout comPicts is not naati.e any moe.
D. Bet0een E$"'anation and Pro(ed-re Te$t
Seeing the social functionH $oth pocedue and explanation texts
ha.e the similaity in 3hich $oth desci$e ho3 to make o done
something. (hey gi.e the detail desciption on somethingH
phenomenaH goodsH poduct case o po$lem.
(o see the di>eences $et3een explanation and pocedueH 3e
ha.e to analyNe the dominant language featue and ho3 the texts
ae used.
6ocedueH this text type is commonly called as instuction text.
It uses patten of commend in $uilding the stuctue. It use the =to
inLniti.e .e$? 3hich is omitted the =to?. It is a kind of instuction
text 3hich uses full commend .e$. 6ocedue is commonly used to
desci$e ho3 to make something 3hich is close to ou daily acti.ity.
%o example ho3 to make a cup of teaH ho3 to make a good kiteH etc
is the $est example of the pocedue text. It is such 3od; Lst $oil
3ateH secondly pepae the cupH and so on.
ExplanationH it is commonly used the passi.e .oice in $uilding
the text. Explanation is such a scientiLc 3itten mateial. It desci$es
SMA Students Modul of English 56
ho3 cetain phenomenon o e.ent happen. 8o3 a tonado fomH ho3
tsunami 3oks ae the $est example of explanation text. It uses
passi.e patten in desci$ing the topic.
&/. A Co1"'ete O,er,ie0 O# Te$ T!"es
"ased on geneic stuctue and language featue dominantly usedH
texts ae di.ided into se.eal types. (hey ae naati.eH ecountH
descipti.eH epotH explanationH analytical expositionH hotatoy
expositionH pocedueH discussionH e.ie3H anecdoteH spoofH and ne3s
item. (hese .aiations ae kno3n as GE2<ES.
,4. Analytical Exposition
,5. Anecdote
,6. Descipti.e
,'. 2aati.e
,). 6ocedue
,+. 2e3s Items
/-. Discussion
/,. Explanation
//. 8otatoy Exposition
/0. <epot
/4. Spoof
/5. <ecount
/6. <e.ie3
a> ANALNTICAL EOPOSITION
6uposeM (o e.eal the eades
that something is the
impotant case
Geneic StuctueM
,. (hesis
/. Aguments
0. <eiteationF&onclusion
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing modals
/. !sing action .e$s
0. !sing thinking .e$s
4. !sing ad.e$s
5. !sing adAecti.e
6. !sing technical tems
'. !sing geneal and a$stact
noun
). !sing
connecti.esFtansition
;> ANECDOTE
6uposeM to shae 3ith othes
an account of an unusual o
amusing incident
Geneic StuctueM
,. A$stact
/. #ientation
0. &isis
4. <eaction
5. &oda.
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing exclamationsH
hetoical Juestion o
intensiLes
/. !sing mateial pocess
SMA Students Modul of English 5'
0. !sing tempoal
conAunctions
(> DESCRIPTIEE
6uposeM (o explain the
pocesses in.ol.ed in the
fomation o 3oking of
natual o socioKcultual
phenomena.
Geneic StuctueM
,. Geneal statement
/. Explanation
0. &losing
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing Simple 6esent (ense
/. !sing action .e$s
0. !sing passi.e .oice
4. !sing noun phase
5. !sing ad.e$ial phase
6. !sing technical tems
'. !sing geneal and a$stact
noun
). !sing conAunction of time
and causeKe>ect.
d> NARRATIEE
6uposeM (o amuseFentetain
the eades and to tell a stoy
Geneic StuctueM
,. #ientation
/. E.aluation
0. &omplication
4. <esolution
5. <eoientation
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing 6ast (ense
/. !sing action .e$
0. &honologically aanged
e> PROCEDURE
6uposeM to help eades ho3
to do o make something
completely
Geneic StuctueM
,. GoalFAim
/. *ateialsFEJuipments
0. StepsF*ethods
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing Simple 6esent (ense
/. !sing Impeati.es sentence
0. !sing ad.e$
4. !sing technical tems
#> NE8S ITEM
6uposeM to infom eades
a$out e.ents of the day 3hich
ae consideed ne3s3othy o
impotant
Dominant Geneic StuctueM
,. 2e3s3othy e.entEsG
/. "ackgound e.entEsG
0. Souces
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. ShotH telegaphic
infomation a$out stoy
captued in headline
/. !sing action .e$s
0. !sing saying .e$s
4. !sing ad.e$s M timeH place
and manne.
> DISCUSSION
6uposeM to pesent
infomation and opinions
SMA Students Modul of English 5)
a$out issues in moe one side
of an issue EO%oF6os@ and
OAgainstF&ons@G
Geneic StuctueM
,. Issue
/. Aguments fo and against
0. &onclusion
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing Simple 6esent (ense
/. !se of elating .e$Fto $e
0. !sing thinking .e$
4. !sing geneal and a$stact
noun
5. !sing conAunctionFtansition
6. !sing modality
'. !sing ad.e$ of manne
9> EOPLANATION
6uposeM to desci$e a
paticula pesonH place o
thing in detail.
Dominant Geneic StuctueM
,. IdentiLcation
/. Desciption
7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing Simple 6esent (ense
/. !sing action .e$
0. !sing ad.e$
4. !sing special technical
tems
i> HORTATORN EOPOSITION
6uposeM to pesuade the
eades that something
should o should not $e the
case o $e done
Geneic StuctueM
,. (hesis
/. Aguments
0. <ecommendation
Dominant 7anguage featuesM
,. !sing Simple 6esent (ense
/. !sing modals
0. !sing action .e$s
4. !sing thinking .e$s
5. !sing ad.e$s
6. !sing adAecti.e
'. !sing technical tems
). !sing geneal and a$stact
noun
+. !sing
connecti.esFtansition
(hen 3hat is the $asic
di>eence $et3een analytical
and hotatoy exposition. In
simple 3od. Analytical is the
ans3e of U8o3 isF3illU 3hile
hotatoy is the ans3e of
U8o3 shouldU. Analytical
exposition 3ill $e $est to
desci$e U8o3 3ill student do
fo his examination? (he point
is the impotant thing to do.
"ut fo the JuestionU 8o3
should student do fo his
exam?U 3ill $e good to $e
ans3eed 3ith hotatoy. It is
to con.ince that the thing
should $e done
J> REPORT
6uposeM to pesents
infomation a$out somethingH
as it is.
Geneic Stuctue
,. Geneal classiLcation
SMA Students Modul of English 5+
/. Desciption
Dominant 7anguage %eatue
,. Intoducing goup o
geneal aspect
/. !sing conditional logical
connection
0. !sing Simple 6esent (ense
5> SPOOF
6uposeM to tell an e.ent 3ith
a humoous t3ist and
entetain the eades
Geneic StuctueM
,. #ientation
/. E.entEsG
0. (3ist
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing 6ast (ense
/. !sing action .e$
0. !sing ad.e$
4. &honologically aanged
'> RECOUNT
6uposeM to etell something
that happened in the past and
to tell a seies of past e.ent
Geneic StuctueM
,. #ientation
/. E.entEsG
0. <eoientation
Dominant 7anguage %eatuesM
,. !sing 6ast (ense
/. !sing action .e$
0. !sing adAecti.es
2aati.e and ecount in some
3ays ae simila. "oth ae
telling something in the past
so naati.e and ecount
usually apply 6AS( (E2SE;
3hethe Simple 6ast (enseH
Simple 6ast &ontinuous (enseH
o 6ast 6efect (ense. (he
3ays naati.e and ecount
told ae in chonological ode
using time o place.
&ommonly naati.e text is
found in stoy $ook; mythH
fa$leH folkloeH etc 3hile
ecount text is found in
$iogaphy.
(he thing that makes
naati.e and ecount
di>eent is the stuctue in
3hich they ae constucted.
2aati.e uses conPicts
among the paticipants
3hethe natual conPictH
social conPict o psychological
conPict. In some 3ays
naati.e text com$ines all
these conPicts. In the
contayH 3e do not Lnd these
conPicts inside ecount text.
<ecount applies seies of
e.ent as the $asic stuctue
1> REEIE8
6uposeM to citiJue o
e.aluate an at 3ok o e.ent
fo a pu$lic audience
dominant Geneic StuctueM
,. #ientation
/. E.aluation
0. Intepetati.e <ecount
4. E.aluation
5. E.aluati.e Summation
Dominant 7anguage featuesM
SMA Students Modul of English 6-
,. %ocus on speciLc
paticipants
/. !sing adAecti.es
0. !sing long and complex
clauses
4. !sing metapho
&2. Bent-5 Soa' Readin
"E"E<A6A petanyaan yang diaAukan dalam teks pada umumnya
sis3a dituntut untuk dapat mem$eikan penAelasan sepeti hal
se$agai $eikutM
Apakah yang dimaksud dengan;
,. TEOT adalah segala $entuk tulisan yang ada pada se$uah $ukuH
atikel dll yang mempunyai makna. 2onKcontinuous text misalnya
$osuH la$elH gaLkH ta$elH mapH diagam ds$. &ontinuous text
misalnya naati.eH descipti.eHexpositionH spoof ds$.
/. PARAGRAPH adalah $agian dai se$uah tulisanFteks dan mungkin
saAa tedii dai se$uah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang
meupakan pengem$angan dai pokok pikianFmain topicFmain
idea.
0. 9alimat yang menggam$akan main ideaFpokok pikian dai se$uah
paagaph dise$ut TOPIC SENTENCE.
4. (opic sentence $iasanya ada pada a3alFakhiFkadang di tengah
se$uah paagap.
5. Gam$aan umum tentang isi $acaan $isa meupakan MAIN TOPIC
atau MAIN IDEA.
6. TOPIC dai se$uah paagapFteks adalah su$Aek dai tulisanH
sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keteanganH "enJe'asanH uaian
topic atau meupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya.
'. #leh kaena itu petanyaan tentang to"i( dai se$uah
paagaphFtext $isa tentang inti isi tulisan yang Auga $isa
meupakan J-d-'.
). Cika petanyaan menanyakan CTOPICI maka Aa3a$an ditulis dalam
sat- 5ata atau $entuk fasaH tetapi Aika petanyaan menanyakan
tentang CMAIN IDEAI maka Aa3a$an ditulis dalam 5a'i1at
'en5a".
+. Dang dimaksud dengan Cin#or1asi tertent-Ps"e(i7(
in#or1ationI adalah infomasi yang tertera Je'as da'a1 te$tH
$iasanya tentang namaH tempatH tanggalH tahunH ds$.
,-. Dang dimaksud dengan Cin#or1asi tersiratI adalah infomasi
yang tida5 tertera Je'as dalam text. !ntuk dapat menAa3a$
petanyaan spt ini di$utuhkan keteampilan Creadin ;et0een
t9e 'inesI.
,,. %asa adalah angkaian kata yang mempunyai makna.
Di$a3ah ini adalah macamKmacam $entuk petanyaan yang $iasa ada
dalam soal <eadingM
SMA Students Modul of English 6,
aG *enemukan gam$aan umumFtopic isi $acaanFteks.
&ontoh petanyaan M
> Which of the follo3ing is the most suita$le titleS?
> What is the suita$le topic of the passage?
> (he text mainly tells us a$outWWWW.
$G *enemukan infomasi tetentuFkhusus dai $acaan.
&ontoh petanyaan M
> When did she make he Lst solo Pight? InS
cG *enemukan infomasi inci yang tesuat dai $acaan teksFdialog.
&ontoh M
> Which of the follo3ing eJuiements is not mentioned in the
passage?
> =(hey may $e classiLed in se.eal di>eent 3aysS?
> (he undelined 3od efes to S.
dG *enemukan infomasi inci yang tesiat dai $acaan teksFdialog.
&ontoh M
> Which statement is 2#( (<!E accoding to the text?
> (he follo3ing ae (<!E a$out *aia E\&E6(S
eG *enentukan main idea yang tesuatFtesiat dai suatu paagap.
&ontoh M
> What is the main idea of the passage?
> (he fouth paagaph tells us WWWW.
fG *enentukan makna kataH fasa dan kalimat $edasakan konteks.
&ontoh M
="o3nie is &hinese $eedH it is smallH Pu>y. And cute.?
(he undelined 3od mean WWWW
gG *enentukan type text yang digunakan penulis.
&ontoh M
What type text is used $y the 3ite?
(he text a$o.e is in the fom of WWWWW.
hG *enentukan communicati.e puposeFtuAuan kominikati. se$uah teks
&ontoh M
(he communicati.e putpose of the text a$o.e is WWW.
(he pupose of the text is WWWWW.
iG *enyusun kalimat dengan $aik.
&ontoh M
(he $est ode of the sentences a$o.e is S
(he $est aangement of the sentences to make a good paagaph is
S
SMA Students Modul of English 6/
EOERCISESD
a> Ana'!ti(a' e$"osition
D-st Bin
(o impo.e comfot and cleanliness at ou schoolH a num$e of dust $ins
should $e inceased.
When 3e look at classoomsH school coidos and school yadH thee ae
pape mineal 3ate cupsH sta3sH and napkins hee and thee. (he condition of
uncleanliness and discomfot eally hindes leaning and teaching en.ionment.
7ittes tho3n caelessly cause diseaseH especially empty plastic cup o glasses.
(hey can $e Llled out 3ith 3ate coming fom the ain. (his can $e placed fo
dengue mosJuitoes to spead out. "esidesH these u$$ish can deteioate the
scene. Well painted 3all and geen school yad do not mean anything littes ae
scatteed e.ey3hee.
Any3ay I notice that most of the students in ou school ha.e
esponsi$ilities fo the school en.ionment. (hey put thei littes on the pope
places. "ut some ae not diligent enough to Lnd the dust $ins. (he num$es of
dust $inds in ou schools ae not enough. #e dust $ins should $e put $eside
each of stepsH outside of the classoomsH and some moe also the coidos.
6o$a$ly one dust $in should $e in e.ey ten metes. So 3hen students 3ant to
tho3 a3ay thei littesH they can Lnd the dust $ins easily.
When school is eJuipped 3ith suQcient dust $insH 3e do not ha.e po$lems
of feak and discomfot any moe. #u school 3ill $e .ey clean and $ecome a
nice place to study.
,. What is the 3ite@s intention? (o
S.. eades to do something good.
aG infom
$G explain
cG desci$e
dG entetain
eG pesuade
/. Accoding to the 3iteH moe dust
$insS.. in e.ey ten metes.
aG should $e decoated
$G should $e painted
cG should $e placed
dG ae unnecessay
eG ae not eJuied
0. What is the 3ite@s agument on a
suQcient num$e of dust $ins?
aG (hey can pe.ent littes
$G (hey can sa.e Aanito@s enegy
cG Students ae asked to clean
them
dG (hey make school en.ionment
neat
eG Students can tho3 ga$age
a3ay easily
4. What is the 3ite@s suggestion?
aG (o $uy moe dust$ins
$G (o hie moe gadenes
cG (o use dust$ins eQciently
dG (o ask paents to gi.e moe
dust$ins
eG (o ask students to clean the
school yad
SMA Students Modul of English 60
Learnin En'is9
7eaning English though music and songs can $e .ey enAoya$le. Dou can mix
pleasue 3ith leaning 3hen you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means
to you English pogess. Some undelying eason can $e da3n to suppot the
idea 3hy 3e use songs in language leaning.
%istlyH =the song stuck in my head? 6henomenon Ethe echoing in ou minds of
the last song 3e head afte lea.ing a estauantH shopping mallsH etcG can $e
$oth enAoya$le and sometimes unne.ing. (his phenomenon also seems to
einfoce the idea that songs 3ok on ou shotKandKlong tem memoy.
SecondlyH songs in geneal also use simple con.esational languageH 3ith a lot
of epetitionH 3hich is Aust 3hat many leanes look fo sample text. (he fact that
they ae e>ecti.e makes them many times moe moti.ating than othe text.
Although usually simpleH some songs can $e Juite complex syntacticallyH lexically
and poeticallyH and can $e analyNed in the same 3ay as any othe liteay
sample.
%uthemoeH song can $e appopiated $y listene fo thei o3n pupose. *ost
pop songs and po$a$ly many othe types don@t ha.e pecise peopleH place o
time efeence.
In additionH songs ae elaxing. (hey po.ide .aiety and funH and encouage
hamony 3ithin oneself and 3ithin one goup. 7ittle 3onde they ae impotant
tools in sustaining cultueH eligionH patiotism and yeasH e.en e.olution.
7ast $ut not leastH thee ae many leaning acti.ities 3e can do 3ith songs
such as studying gammaH pacticing selecti.e listening compehensionH
tanslating songsH leaning .oca$ulayH spelling and cultue.
%om the ela$oation a$o.eH it can $e concluded that leaning though music
and songsH leaning English can $e enAoya$le and fun.
5. (he type of the text a$o.e is S
aG Analytical exposition
$G 8otatoy exposition
cG 2aati.e
dG Discussion
eG Explanation
6. What is the communicati.e pupose
of the text?
aG (o tell the eade a$out the
songs
$G (o entetain the eade 3ith the
songs
cG (o sho3 the eade the use of
songs
dG (o explain a$o.e the songs
eG (o pesuade the eade to use
songs in leaning language
'. (he geneic stuctues of the text
ae S.
aG (hesis X aguments X
ecommendation
$G Geneal statement X seJuential
explanation
cG 2e3s3othy e.ents X
$ackgound e.ents X souces
dG (hesis X aguments X eiteation
eG Geneal statement X aguments
). What is the text a$out S.
aG 7eaning songs
$G :ey enAoya$le music
cG (he phenomenon
dG *usic listenes
eG !sing songs in language leaning
SMA Students Modul of English 64
+. "ased on the textH thee ae SS
eason fo using songs in leaning
language
aG 6
$G 4
cG 5
dG 0
eG /
,-.=(hey po.ide .aiety and funH and
encouage hamony 3ithin oneself
and 3ithin one goup.?
(he undelined 3od efes to S.
aG Goups
$G 7eanes
cG 6eople
dG Songs
eG Acti.ities
S1o5in in Resta-rant
Smoking in estauants is Aust not on. It must not $e allo3ed $ecause it is
udeH hamful to othes and dangeous fo the smokes.
%istlyH smoking in a estauant is impolite. (he smell of the smoke a>ects all
people and can tun them o> thei food. 6eople pay to taste good food and not to
$e put o> $y foul smelling smoke.
Anothe eason smoking should not $e allo3ed in estauant is the ham it can
do to othes. 6assi.e smoking that is $eathing in smoke made $y a smoke can
lead to asthma attacks and e.en cance.
%inallyH smoking is dangeous and a health isk to the smokes. &igaettes
cause heat and lung disease and people should not smoke any3heeH not Aust in
estauants.
(heefoeH smoking in estauants is impoliteH hamful to othes and a health
isk to the smokes and should not $e allo3ed in any estauants.
,,.Smoking in the estauants must $e
a.oided $ecauseSS
aG It is hamful to othes
$G It is impolite
cG It@s dangeous to the smokes
dG It can cause heath and lung
disease
eG All ans3es ae coect
,/.We ha.e many easons to say that
smoking must $e a.oided. (he
3od easons meanS..
aG conclusion
$G point of .ie3
cG agument
dG einfocement
eG statement
,0.Since 3e can Lnd a thesisH
aguments and eiteation in the
textH so 3e can conclude that this
text $elongs toS..
aG desciption
$G naation
cG anecdote
dG pocedue
eG analytical exposition
,4.What is the pupose of the text?
aG (o infom the eades to the
eades
$G (o pesuade to the eades
cG (o desci$e to the eades
dG (o tell a stoy to the eades
eG (o ague a$out smoking to the
eades
,5.(he synonym of the 3od
dangeous in the text isSS
aG ude
SMA Students Modul of English 65
$G impolite
cG health isk
dG hamful
eG disease
,6.Smoking in estauants is Aust not
on. It must not $e allo3ed $ecause
it is udeH hamful to othes and
dangeous fo the smokes.
(he sentence a$o.e chaacteiNe
asS.. of the text.
aG thesis
$G aguments
cG eiteation
dG topic sentence
eG suppoting details
,'.Smoking in estauant should not $e
allo3ed. It means thatS..
aG people should do smoking in
estauant
$G people should not do smoking in
estauant
cG people must not smoking in
estauant
dG people must not smoke in
estauant
eG people should smoke in
estauant
T9e I1"ortan(e o# Readin
I pesonally think that eading is a .ey impotant acti.ity in ou life. Why do I
say so? %istlyH $y eading 3e can get a lot of kno3ledge a$out many things in
the 3old such as ScienceH technology. SpotsH atsH cultueH etc 3itten in eithe
$ooksH magaNineH ne3spapeH etc.
SecondlyH $y eading 3e can get a lot of ne3s and infomation a$out
something happening in any pats of the 3old 3hich can 3e see diectly.
Anothe easonH eading can gi.e us pleasue too. When 3e ae tiedH 3e ead
$ooksH ne3spape o magaNine on the entetainment coloumn such as comedyH
shot stoyH JuiNH etc. (o make us elaxed.
(he lastH eading can also take us to othe pats of the 3old. "y eading a
$ook a$out Iian Caya 3e may feel 3e@e eally sitting in the Aungles not at home
in ou ooms.
%om the facts a$o.eH it@s o$.ious that e.eyone needs to ead to get
kno3ledgeH infomation and also entetainment. # in summay 3e can say
eading is tuly impotant in ou life.
,).Why is eading .ey impotant in
ou life? "ecauseS..
aG "y eadingH 3e can get a lot of
fiendsH elati.esH expeienceH
etc.
$G "y eadingH 3e can get little
kno3ledge $ut a lot of
entetainment.
cG "y eadingH 3e ae al3ays
elaxed.
dG "y eadingH 3e ae al3ays
happy.
eG "y eading 3e can get a lot of
kno3ledgeH ne3sH infomation
and entetainment
,+.If 3e 3ant to get kno3ledgeH 3hat
should 3e do?
aG $uy a lot of $ooks
$G $oo3 a lot of $ooks
cG look fo ne3spape and
magaNine
dG sell and $uy many expensi.e
$ooks
eG <ead a lot of $ooks and othe
pinted mateials.
SMA Students Modul of English 66
/-.What does the text tell us a$out?
aG (he desciption of eading
$G (he function of eading
cG (he impotance of eading
dG (he disad.antages of eading
eG (he pupose of eading
/,.What is the social function of the
text?
aG (o tell a stoy
$G (o desci$e the eade
cG (o entetain the eade
dG (o gi.e infomation
eG (o pesuade the eade
//.6aagaphS. In the text is the
thesis.
aG ,
$G /
cG 0
dG 4
eG 5
/'. Analytical Exposition
/). Anecdote
/+. Descipti.e
0-. 2aati.e
0,. 6ocedue
0/. 2e3s Items
00. Discussion
04. Explanation
05. 8otatoy Exposition
06. <epot
0'. Spoof
0). <ecount
0+. <e.ie3
SMA Students Modul of English 6'
%!2&(I#2A7 S9I77
&.O4erin He'"
(hee ae a num$e of fomulas used 3hen o>eing help in English.
8ee ae some of the most commonM
*ay I help you?
&an I help you?
Ae you looking fo something?
Would you like some help?
Do you need some help?
What can I do fo you today?
&ould I help you?
8o3 can I $e of assistance to
you?
8o3 can I $e of help to you?
What can I help you K What
can I do fo you?
8o3 can I assist you?
8o3 can I help you?
7et me help you?
Do you 3ant me to help you?
Shall I S?
Res"ond o4erin 9e'"
Re(ei,in Re#-sin
Des pleaseH SueH
Why notH
#fcouseH
&etainlyH
I@d lo.e toH
It@s a good ideaH
(hat@s geat.
2oH thanksH
6lease don@t $otheH
I@d lo.e to $utSH
(hat@s geat $utS
So1e 0a!s to o4erin 9e'" #or 1ea's and drin5s<
Would you likeS?H
Would you cae fo S?H
Why don@t you ha.eS?H
8o3 a$out ha.ing S?
*ay I o>e you S?
E4a*ple=
O4erin Res"onses
K Would you like some $ead? DesH please.
SMA Students Modul of English 6)
K Would you cae fo some co>ee? 2oH thanks. I don@t dink
co>ee.
K Why don@t you ha.e some $iscuitH
please?
(hanksH I@d lo.e to.
).Introd-(in !o-r se'# and ot9er "eo"'e
Introd-(in !o-r se'# Introd-(in "eo"'e
I@d like to intoduce
myself.
*y I intoduce myself?
7et me intoduce
myselfR
I 3ant to intoduce
myself
I@d like you to meet S
EnameG
(his is my fiendF$ossFetcS
EnameG
8a.e you metSEnameG?
*ay I intoduce you to S
EnameFoccupationG
7et me intoduce you to S.
I 3ant to intoduce you to S.
1. (his is my fiendH Cack. 8i Cack. I1m 7inda
my $otheH "o$.
my sisteH &indy.
my fatheH *. 8ais.
my motheH *s. 8ais.
my teacheH *s. Watson.
my studentH &aie.
my fiendH *ay Cones.
my $ossH *. <itte.
my coK3okeH 6enny 6itche.
2. 2ice to meet you. 2ice to meet you too.
6leased to meet you. 7ike3ise.
:ey nice to meet you. And you.
It1s a pleasue to meet you.
8o3 to intoduce people Ein fomal situationsG
Introd-(in !o-rse'#
I Aust 3anted to intoduce myselfH
I don1t $elie.e 3e1.e met $efoeH
I don1t think 3e1.e actually met
fomally yetH
my name is...
I1m...
SMA Students Modul of English 6+
Introd-(in so1eone e'se
I1d like to intoduce you toS
(hee1s someone I1d like you to meetH this isS
8a.e you metS?
E$er(ises<
&omplete the follo3ing con.esation 3ith the coect expessions in the
$ox.
8iH <etno. *y name is Adi$.
this is <etno. I@m Anys.
Sit-ation< Adi;B Arn!sB and Retno are ne0 st-dents. T9e!
1eet at t9e st-dentsI orientation (o-rse.
Adi$ M 8iH Ae you a ne3 student?
Anys M DesH I am. "y the 3ayH ae you a ne3 studentH too?
Adi$ M I@m a ne3 student too. ,G WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
Anys M /G WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW WellH Adi$H 0G WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
She 3as my classmate in the Cunio 8igh School.
Adi$ M 4G WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW 2ice to meet you?
<etno M 2ice to meet you too.
Adi$ M Any3ayH 3e still ha.e half an hou $efoe the class stats.
Shall 3e go to the canteen?H Anys?
<etno M #kay.
+.Greetin =1e1;eri sa'a1>
Greetins Lan-ae in t9e "rora11e
Goo
d
moning
si
madam
* Cones
*s Smith
8o3 ae you?
It1s lo.ely to see you againR
It1s $een a long timeH hasn1t it?
8o3 ae things 3ith you?
afteno
on
e.ening
E$a1"'es o# sit-ations 09ere !o- 1i9t -se #or1a'
reetins
Woking in the se.ice industyH e.g. a estauantH hotelH
ta.el agent
Geeting someone olde than you
At 3okH 3hen speaking to you supeios
*eeting a :I6 e.g. a politician
"eing polite to someone you don1t kno3 .ey 3ell
SMA Students Modul of English '-
E$"ressions F-n(tions
Good
moningFaftenoonFe.ening.
EfomalG
8iRF8elloR EinfomalG
Geeting someone
8o3 ae youH Den?
8o3 ae you doing
Asking ho3 someone is
I@m L neH thanks.
:ey 3ellH thanks.
2ot so $adH thanks.
Saying ho3 you ae
See you.
Good $ye.
"ye.
See you soon Flate Ftomoo3.
Saying good $ye
E$er(ises<
&omplete the dialogues $elo3 3ith coect
expessions.
,G Anys M S
<u$en M :ey 3ellH thank you.
/G Ayu M Good e.ening.
Denias M S
0G Andi M 8o3 ae you doing?
<etno M S
4G Adi$ M See you tomoo3.
:iga M S
5G Anita M 8iR
*acell M S
4.In,itin =1en-ndanP1enaJa5>
8ee ae some phases and expessions fo in.iting in English.
Do you 3ant to . . .
Do you 3anna . . . EinfomalG
Would you like to . . . Emoe politeG
8o3 a$out E:]ingG ?
8o3 3ould you like to . . .
let@s ] :,
Why don@t 3e S?
SMA Students Modul of English ',
C-'t-ra' Ti"s
Meetin and Greetin in
A-stra'ia
Q S9a5e 9ands 0it9 e,er!one
"resent -"on 1eetin and
;e#ore 'ea,in.
A''o0 0o1en to o4er t9eir
9ands 7 rst.
Q 8o1en enera''! do not
s9a5e 9ands 0it9 ot9er
0o1en.
I@d like to in.ite you toS
I 3onde if you@d like to
Some esponds of in.iting.
Re#-sin Re(ei,in
K I@m soy I can@t
K I@d like to $utS
K I@m afaid I can@t
K 2oH let@s not.
K I@d lo.e to
K I@d like .ey much
K I@d $e happyFglad to
accept
K DesH I@d $e delighted to.
K (hat@s good ide
6olite in.itations
C9e(5in so1eone is not ;-s!
Ae you fee on %iday?
Ae you $usy on %iday?
What ae you doing on %iday?
8o-'d !o- 'i5e...:
Would you like ...a chocolate $a?
...to come to my house fo dinne?
I 0ondered P 0as 0onderin
I 3ondeed
...if you1d like to come to my house fo
dinne
I 3as 3ondeing
Ot9er e$"ressions
I 3ould .ey much like it if you could come along
Shall I $ing a $ottle?
%.E$"ressin T9an5s =teri1a5asi9>
8ee ae some sample phases and sentences fo expessing thanks.
E$"ressin Res"onses
(hank you
(hank you .ey much
(hanks.
(hank you .ey much foS Ekata $endaG
I@m gateful foSEkata $endaFnounG
I appeciate it.
Dou ae 3elcome.
(hat@s all ight
2ot at all
Don@t mention it
(het@s all ight
Any time
SMA Students Modul of English '/
Execise
8o3 3ould you expess thanks in the follo3ing situations?
aG Someone Aust ga.e you a gift fo you $ithday.
EWhat do you say?G
ExampleM U(hank you so much. I eally like itRU
$G Someone has Aust $ought dinne fo you.
cG Someone etuned you lost 3allet.
dG Someone helped cay you gocey $ags.
eG Someone complimented you on you necktie.
/.Conrat-'ations =-(a"an se'a1at>

Un5a"an Res"on
&ongatulations
&ongatulations on S
I@d like to congatulate you.
I@d like to congatulate you onS
It 3as geat to heaS
It 3as to hea a$outS.
8appy $ithday to you.
8appy ne3 yea.
Good luckR
8a.e a nice holiday
(hank you
(hank you and the same to
you
(hank you. I need it.
(hank you .ey much.
E$"ression F-n(tion
Dou look cute 3ith that hat. &omplimenting
&ongatulationsR &ongatulating
(hank you fo saying so.
(hank you.
<esponding to compliments
and congatulations
Ot9er e$"ression
E$"ression F-n(tion
What a SR
(hat@s a .ey nice S
I like you S
&omplimenting
&ongatulations on 3inning S
I@d like to congatulate you on
S
&ongatulating
SMA Students Modul of English '0
I must congatulate you on
you S
Well done.
(hanks.
#hH not eally.
It@s nice of you to say so.
8o3 kind of you to say so.
<esponding to compliments
and congatulations
S"e(ia' Da!s K So(ia' Lan-ae
It is common to use a special geeting used Aust fo that occasion on
special daysH holidays and othe special occasions. 8ee ae some of
the most commonM
Birt9da!s
8appy $ithdayR
"est 3ishes F Good luck on you thitieth Eage K use an odinal num$eG
$ithdayR
*any happy etunsR
8eddin P Anni,ersar!
&ongatulationsR
"est 3ishes F good luck on you tenth Enum$e K use an odinal num$eG
anni.esayR
8ee1s to many moe happy yeas togethe Eused 3hen making a toastG
S"e(ia' Ho'ida!s
*ey &histmasR
8appy 2e3 Dea F Easte F 8anukkah F <amadan etc.
All the $est fo a happy 2e3 Dea F Easte F 8anukkah F <amadan etc.
When making special geetings to childen on thei $ithday and at
&histmasH it is also common to ask them 3hat they ecei.edM
*ey &histmasR What did you get fom Santa &laus?
8appy "ithdayR What did you Daddy get fo you?
S"e(ia' O((asions
&ongatulations on you pomotionR
All the $est fo you ...
I1m so poud of youR
2. S!1"at9! =1en!ata5an rasa si1"ati>
A.E$"ressin o# s!1"at9! on 1inor
a. What@s shame
SMA Students Modul of English '4
$. What@s pity
c. (hat@s a nuisance
d. (hat@s too $ad
e. (hat@s pity
f. #h dea
B. E$"ressin o# s!1"at9! on serio-s a((ident
a. GoodnessR
$. 8o3 tei$leR
c. 8o3 A3fulR
d. 8o3 deadfulR
C. E$"ressin o# s!1"at9! on "ersona' (ir(-1stan(es
a. I@m soy to hea that
$. I@m soy a$out that
c. I@m eally soy fo them
d. 6lease accept my deepest sympathy
e. Send my deepest condolenceR
f. 6lease accept my condolencesR
3. P'eas-reB Dis"'eas-re =senan R tida5 senan>
P'eas-rePsenan Dis"'eas-rePtida5
senan
It@s eally delightfulFIam delighted
I@m satisLed
(hat@s geat
(hat@s 3ondeful
It@s eally a geat pleasue
I@m dissatisLed
We ae fed up 3ithS
I feel dosappointed
She is extemely
displeased
Ot9er e$"ressions
E$"ression P'eas-re E$"ression Dis"'eas-re
a. I@m so happy S.
$. I feel S.
c. 8o3 happy to S
d. I@m .ey pleasue 3ith
S
e. It@s a pleasue to S
f. 6leasue
g. GeatR
h. (eiLcR
i. I@m pleased.
A. I enAoyed it
a. I feel S
$. I@m eally sad to S
c. S.. feel unpleased 3ith
S.
d. I feel disappointed.
SMA Students Modul of English '5
k. I lo.e it.
l. It 3as teiL c.
m. I@m delighted.
*. Satis#a(tionB Dissatis#a(tion = 5e"-asanB
5etida5"-asan>
9etika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas keAa seseoangH
kita dapat gunakan ungkapanM
Well doneR
GeatR Good 3ok
I am satisLed 3ith you 3ok
Dou did 3ell
Dou Ao$ is satisfactoy
I am so happy a$out this
I@m glad to 3hat you@.e done
It@s eally satisfying
9atika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas keAa
seseoangH kita dapat gunakanM
I@m not satisLed 3ith 3ok
Dou ha.en@t done 3ell enough
I am eally dissappointed
SoyH $ut you 3ok is not satisfactoy
#hH noR
It@s not .ey nice
It@s eally not good enough
Infomal situation
Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
S .ey pleased 3ith S
S content 3ith S
S satisL ed 3ith S
S .ey delighted 3ith S
S displeased 3ith S
S discontented 3ith S
S dissatisL ed 3ith S
S disappointed 3ith S
%omal situation
Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
SupeR
GeatR
(eiL cR
%antasticR
SmashingR
8oi$leR
:ey sadR
AnnoyingR
DisappointingR
%ustatingR
SMA Students Modul of English '6
&.. As5in R Gi,in O"inion =1e1inta R
1e1;eri "enda"at>
As5in O"inion Gi,in o"inion
8o3 3as the tip?
8o3 do you like you ne3 house?
8o3 do you think of <ina@s idea?
8o3 do you feel a$out this dicition?
What is you opinions of the mo.ie?
What ae you feelings a$out it?
I think EthatGS.
In my opinionS.
As I seeH S
If you ask meH I feelS
Ot9er e$a1"'es
(hose expessions ae used to ask fo opinions.
^ ,hat do &ou thin) of this refrigeratorF
^ SoH do &ou thin) I should (u& those 0orescent light (ul(sF
(hose expessions ae used to gi.e opinions.
^ I thin) the other ones (etter.
^ In *& opinion' &ou should (u& the 0orescent light (ul(s.
8ee ae othe expessions that you can also useM
As5in O"inion Gi,in o"inion
What is you opinion?
What do you think of...?
8o3 do you feel a$outS?
8o3 do you see S?
I think S
I $elie.e S
I feel S
It seems to me S
&&. Aree1entPa""ro,a'B
Disaree1entPdisa""ro,a' =set-J-B tida5
set-J->
9etika kita measa sependapat dengan opini oang lainH kita $isa
mengatakanM
So do I
DesH I agee 3ith you
It is cetainly
Exactly
(hat@s 3hat I 3ant to say
I am 3ith you
I am on you side
DesH I agee
(hat@s Juite tue
Dou@e a$solutely ightR
I@m of exactly the same
opinion
I think so
I go along that line
SMA Students Modul of English ''
I agee completely
(hat1s tue.
A$solutely.
DeLnitely.
I couldn1t agee moe.
I kno3 3hat you mean.
I suppose you@e ight
9etika kita measa tidak sependapat dengan opini oang lainH kita
$isa mengatakanM
WellH I don@t think so
I don@t think that is tue
I disagee 3ith S
I 3ouldn@t say that
Exactly not
I can@t say so
#n contay
I don@t $uy that idea
I@m afaid I entiely disagee
I can@t agee
I don@t think it@s .ey good
Suely not
I am soyH $ut I ha.e to
disagee
I couldn@t agee less
I@m not sue I can agee
Ot9er e$"ression o# disareein
Use#-' ,o(a;-'ar! #or disareein
no
I donAt aree
t9atAs not
tr-e
I donAt a((e"t
t9at
2oteM 1no1 is usually follo3ed $y a statement
Esee $elo3G
EJuite diectG
EJuite fomalG
ExamplesM
"o' I don't thin) that's $hat happened.
"o' that's not a good idea.
&). FearB An(iet! =-n5a"an 5eta5-tanB
5ee'isa9an>

Fear Res"on
I am afaid
I am feaed
I am scaed
I am teiLed
(he sound is hoifying
Don@t $e afaid
(hee is nothing to $e afaid of
It is nothing
An(iet! Res"on
I am 3oied a$outS (ake is easy
SMA Students Modul of English ')
I am anxious to kno3 a$outS
I 3ondeed ifS
(hat made me 3oied
I ha.e $een thinking a$out S.
I am afaid ifS
&alm do3n
I kno3 you ae 3oied $utS
It is not a $ig deal
Don@t 3oy
Stay cool
&+. PainB Re'ie# =-n5a"an 5esa5itanB
5e'eaan>

Pain Re'ie#
#uchR
(hat 3as hut
It is painful
It huts me
I@.e got a
$ackacheFtoothacheFstomachache
I feel soe all o.e
*y eyes hut
I@m .ey elie.ed to heaS
%inallyH it 3as o.e
I feel elie.ed
I feel much $ette
I@m glad it@s o.e
(hat@s a geat elief
I@m extemely glad to
heaS
(hank goodness fo that
*a.ellous
What a eliefR
Ot9er e$"ressions
&. E$"ressions o# Pain
1 I am su>eing fom a elapse.
1 I feel sick.FI feel ill.
1 I@m sick.
1 !ghH it@s .ey painfulR
1 #hH it@s killing meR
). E$"ressions o# Re'ie#
1 It@s a elief to kno3 that ....
1 (hank God fo ....
1 I@m glad it 3as done.
1 (hank goodnessR
1 (hank hea.ensR
1 I@m glad a$out SR
1 It@s a geat eliefR
1 Whe3
&4. Li5ePLo,e R Dis'i5ePHate =s-5aP(inta R
tida5 s-5aP;en(i>

SMA Students Modul of English '+
Li5e Dis'i5e
I lo.e it
I like it
I am keen on it
I am caNy a$out it
We all enAoy
E$endaFnounFgeundGSis my
cup of tea
I don@t eally like it
I dislike it
I am not eally inteested inS
I can@t enAoyS
E$endaFnounFgeundGSis not my
cup of tea
I can@t stand
I hate it
Language for expressing likes
Subject Adverb Verb Noun
- (really) don4t like
can4t stand
it
them
ice cream
(hinese food
playing football
watching T5
A;o-t t9e ad,er; 'reall1'.
(his ad.e$ as 3e ha.e seen is .ey useful in making 3hat you say
stonge. When talking a$out things you don1t like though it can
ha.e a di>eent meaning depending on 3hee you put it in the
sentence.
For e4a*ple=
UI rea''! don1t like itRU
(his means you ha.e a stong dislike of something.
"!(
UI don1t rea''! like it.U
(his is not .ey stong. It means that you do not like somethingH $ut
it is not a .ey stong dislike.
Language for expressing likes
Subject Adverb Verb Noun Extra
- (really) like
lo+e
it
them
ice cream
(hinese food
playing football
watching T5
a lot
SMA Students Modul of English )-
&%. E1;arrass1ent R Anno!an(e =Un5a"an
rasa 1a'-B 5eJen5e'an>

E1;arrass1ent Anno!an(e
I am em$aassed
I feel ashamed
#h my God
Shame on me
I don@t feel comfota$le
I feel a3k3ad
I am annoyed
I had enough 3ith it
I can@t $ea it any longe
Dou made me annoyed
Dou ae such a pain in the neck
Dou made me sick

(hee ae some othe expessions you can use to sho3 you
annoyance.
For1a' Sit-ations In#or1a' Sit-ations
I@m extemely displeased 3ith
S
S is .ey iitating.
I@m extemely unhappy a$out
this.
S eally makes me mad.
I cannot stand S
Why on eath he didn@t S?
(hee ae some othe expessions to sho3 em$aassmentH such asM
In %omal Situations In Infomal Situations
For1a' Sit-ations In#or1a' Sit-ations
What an em$aassmentR
I must say that it@s an
em$aassment.
(hat@s a eal em$aassment.
What a shameR
It@s my em$aassment to ...
I 3as so ashamed.
&/. Re?-est ="er1intaan>

Re?-est A((e"tan(e Re#-sa'
Would it $e possi$le
fo you to
Would you $e so kind
as to
Would youSHplease?
Would you mind S?
Any chance ofS
&an youS?
I should $e delighted
to come
"y all means
I ha.e no o$Aection
I@d $e happy to
Sue
Deah
#9
I eget to say that 3e
Lnd ousel.es una$le to
go
I@m afaid it@s not
possi$le
I@m afaid not
Soy
2oH I 3on@t
SMA Students Modul of English ),
2o po$lem
*mm
2ot likely
Dou must $e Aoking

Grantin Re?-est
In the dialogue $et3een Ayu and 6alupi you L nd the follo3ing
expessionsM
Ayu M Will you tell me a$out it?
6alupi M Sure' I $ill.
Ayu M 7et@s ty to make lepat sometimes.
6alupi M #A.
Sure' I $ill and #A ae expessions to gant a eJuest.
8ee ae othe expessions that you can useM
^ Alight.
^ &etainly.
^ <ight a3ay.
^ #f couse.
&2. Co1"'aintB B'a1e
=5e'-9anB1en!a'a95an>

Co1"'aint B'a1e
I@m not at all satisLed 3ith the
se.ice
I eally doFmust o$Aec to the
se.ice
I take geat exception toS
I 3ant to complain a$outS
(his is caNyR
Dou@e the one to $lame
It@s you faultR
It@s you mistakeR
Dou@e 3ong
I think you1e the only peson
3ho could ha.e done it.
It1s you fault fo Edoing
somethingG.
(hee ae a num$e of fomulas used 3hen complaining in English.
It1s impotant to emem$e that a diect complaint o citicism in
English can sound ude o aggessi.e. It1s $est to mention a po$lem
in an indiect manne. 8ee ae some of the most commonM
I1m soy to ha.e to say this $ut...
I1m soy to $othe youH $ut...
*ay$e you fogot to...
I think you might ha.e fogotten to...
Excuse me if I1m out of lineH $ut...
SMA Students Modul of English )/
(hee may ha.e $een a misundestanding a$out...
Don1t get me 3ongH $ut I think 3e should...
Expressing socked disagreement
*ut that4s ridiculous0
unfair0
unreasonable0
A negative structure
-t4s just not fair to charge us for the
starters0
simply
&3. ReretB A"o'o! ="en!esa'anB 1e1inta
1aa#>

Reret A"o'o!
*uch to my eget
SadlyH I S.
!nfotunately
I@m tei$ly soy
I honestly eget that I S
SoyH I S
6lease accept my apologies fo
3hat I did
6lease fogi.e me fo 3hat I did
I am extemely soy
I eally must apologies
*ay I o>e you my sinceest
apologies?
Language for sa!ing sorr!
"o empasise o# !ou
feel
Examples
-4m really sorry... -4m really sorry) #ete) - didn4t mean to lose your
book.
-4m so sorry... -4m so sorry - forgot your birthday) ,li+er0
"o sa! #! !ou$re sorr! Examples
Sorry about... Sorry about the mess. -4ll clear up later.
Sorry for... Sorry for taking your ?5?.
"o sa! sorr! #itout using te #ords $%$m sorr!$&
SMA Students Modul of English )0
-4d like to apologise for... -4d like to apologise for the way - spoke to you
earlier.
Vocabular! around sa!ing sorr!
to apologise
to say sorry) to ask for forgi+eness) to e7press regret
an exclamation
a word) phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly) often through
surprise or anger
to urt someone$s feelings
to make someone feel upset or unhappy
a misunderstanding
this can mean 4a small disagreement4
trouble
unhappiness) distress) worry or danger
a ard time
a difficult time
to be out of order 'informal(
to be impolite or rude
&*. Possi;i'it! R I1"ossi;i'it! =5e1-n5inan
R 5etida51-n5inan>

Men!ata5an Ke1-n5inan Menan!a5an Ke1-n5inan
I think thee is possi$ility to S
I sassumeF$elie.eS
In all po$a$ilityHS
it is going to $e possi$le fo
me toS
that 3ill po$a$ly S
it@s Juite possi$le S
Do you think heFit couldS?
Would you say 3e@e capa$le
ofS?
Ae you capa$le ofS?
Ae you a$le toS?
Do you ha.e any expeience ofS?
&an youS?
Do you kno3 ho3 toS?
Do you think you canS?
E$"ressions #or Dis(-ssin Possi;i'ities
Z Would thee $e any possi$ility of S?
Z Do you think 3e ae capa$le of S?
SMA Students Modul of English )4
Z Would it $e possi$le fo Esome$odyG to S?
Z I think that 3ould $e possi$le ....
Z Is it possi$le to S?
Z DesH thee is a possi$ility ....
NOTE <
&. Se,era' 0a!s o# indi(atin
"ossi;i'it! are<
It@s possi$le that he@ll 3in the
game.
(hee@s a possi$ility of his 3inning
the gameF that he 3ill 3in the
game.
possi$ly he hasn@t head the ne3s
yet.
(hee is a good chance that S..
(hee is a little chance that S..
It is impossi$le
6o$a$ly She is on the 3ay
*ay $e he needs moe time
She might not $e at home
/. E$"ressions -sed to as5
"ossi;i'it! or (a"a;i'it! o#
doin so1et9in are<
Would thee $e any possi$ility of
S..?
Do you think 3e ae capa$le of
S.?
Is it possi$le fo me to S?
Ae 3e capa$le enough to S?
+. E$"ressions to s9o0
(a"a;i'it! are <
I@m capa$le of doing it
I can do it
(hee is a chance that I can do it.
I@m a$le to do it
I ha.e the a$ility to do it.
4. E$"ressions to s9o0
in(a"a;i'it! are<
I can@t do it
I@m not sue I@m capa$le of doing
it.
I don@t think I ha.e the a$ility
I don@t feel capa$le of doing it
I don@t kno3 ho3 to do it.
II. LANGUAGE USAGE
A. TENSES
TENSES POLA KET. 8AKTU
Present Tense
E*enyatakan
ke$iasaan hingga
sekaang masih
dilakukanG
:V E]G S]:_ EKsFes utk S heHsheHitG
EKG S]DoFDoes not ] :_
Do utk SV IHyouHtheyH3e
Does utk SV heHsheHit
She goes to school e%er&da&
She does not go to school
e%er&da&
E.eyS
!syally
Al3ays dll

SMA Students Modul of English )5
2V E]G S] to $e EamFisFaeG ]
adAFnFad.
She is (eautiful
Present
Contin-o-s
E*enyatakan
akti.itas yang
sedang
$elangsung pada
3aktu $icaaG
:V E]G S] to $e EamFisFaeG]:King
She is not going to school
e%er&da&
2o3
At pesent
At this moment
(o day
Present Per#e(t
E*enyatakan
pe$uatanFtindaka
n yang teAadi
pada 3aktu yang
tidak tetentu di
masa lampau dan
pada saat
$e$icaa
pe$uatanFtindaka
n ts$ telah
selesaiF$au aAa
selesai dilakukanG
:V E]G S ] ha.eFhas ] :0
8a.e utk SV IHyouHtheyH3e
8as utk SV heHsheHit
%athe has gone to 3ok fo ,/
hous
2V E]G S ] ha.eFhas]"een ]
adAFnFad.
Father has (een at his oGce
since 7:
hours ago.
7ately
<ecently
%o
Since
aleady
yet
lately
Aust
Past Tense
E*enyatakan
kegiatan yang
dilakukan pada
3aktu lampauG
:V E]G S ] :/
EKG S ] did not ] :_
Did utk semua Su$Aek
2V E]G S ] "e E3asF3eeG ]
adAFnFad.
Was utk SV IHheHsheHit
Wee utk SV youHtheyH3e
Desteday
7astS
Sago
Past Per#e(t
Tense
E*enyatakan
akti.itas yang
telah selesai
dilakukan ketika
akti.itas lain
teAadi pada 3aktu
lampauG
:V E]G S ] had ] :0
8ad utk semua Sa$Aek ESG
2V E]G S ] had $een ] adAFnFad.
"efoeF3hen ]
S ] :/
Past Per#e(t
Contin-o-s
E*enyatakan
akti.itas yang
:V E]G S ] had $een ] :King %o ] peiode
3aktu ] 3henF
$efoe ] S ] :/
SMA Students Modul of English )6
telah $elangsung
selama peiode
3aktu tetentu
ketika akti.itas
lain teAadi
di3aktu lampauH
akti.itas ts$ masih
$elangsungG
F-t-re tense
E*enyatakan
akti.itas yang
akan dilakukan di
3aktu yang akan
datangG

:V E]G S ] 3illFshall ] :_
Will utk semua Sa$Aek ESG
Shall utk S V IH3e
2V E]G S ] 3illFshall ]$e ]
adAFnFad.

(omoo3
2extS
F-t-re
Contin-o-s
E*enyatakan
akti.itas yang
akan sedang
$elangsung di
3aktu yang akan
datangG

:V E]G S ] 3illFshall ] $e ] :King

At this time
tomoo3
At ten tomoo3
F-t-re Per#e(t
E*enyatakan
akti.itas yang
akan telah selesai
dilakukan ketika
akti.itas lain
teAadi di3aktu
yang akan datangG

:V E]G S ] 3illFshall ] ha.e ] :0
2V E]G S ] 3illFshall ]ha.e ]$een
]adAFnF

"y ] ket.3aktu
F-t-re Per#e(t
Contin-o-s
E*enyatakan
akti.itas yang
akan telah sedang
$elangsung
selama 3aktu
tetentu ketika
akti.itas lain
teAadi di 3aktu
yang akan datangG


:V E]G S ] 3illFshall ]ha.e]$een
] :King


"y ] ket.3aktu
Past F-t-re
Tense

:V E]G S ] 3ouldFshould ] :_

Desteday
SMA Students Modul of English )'
E*enyatakan
pe$uatanFkeadaa
n yang akan
datang
dilakukanFteAadi
di3aktu lampau.
6e$uatan ts$
sudah
diencanakan tapi
tidak telaksanaG
2V E]G S ] 3ouldFshould ] $e ]
adAFnFad.
7astS
Cust no3
If ] simple past
Past F-t-re
Per#e(t Tense
Emenyatakan
suatu
pengandaian pada
masa lampauH
sesuatu
sehausnya akan
telah teAadi pada
saat suatu syaat
tepenuhiG

:V E]G S ] 3ouldFshould ] ha.e
]:0
2V E]G S ] 3ouldFshould ]
ha.e $een ] adAFnFad.

If ] past pefect
Past Per#e(t
Contin-o-s
E*enyatakan
pe$uatan yang
sehausnya sudah
sedang
$elangsung di
suatu 3aktu di
masa lampau
tetapi
kenyataanya
gagal
$elangsungG

:V E]G S ] 3ouldFshould ]
ha.e $een ] :King

"y ] ket.3aktu
9ita $isa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui (iriK(iri 59-s-s
yang dimiliki setiap tensisM
Simple 6esent :_FdoHdoesFamHisHae
Simple past :/FdidF3asH3ee
6efect ha.eFhasFhad ] :0F$een
%utueFmodal EpesentG
%utueFmodal EpastG
3illFshallFmayFcanFmust ] :_F$e
3ouldFsouldFmightFcouldFhad to ] :_F$e
SMA Students Modul of English ))
&ontinuous (o$e ] .King
TO BE
6esent
6ast
6efect
%utueFmodal
AmH isH ae
WasH 3ee
"een
$e
&ontoh soal
,. %ed M CudaH the telephone ang t3el.e times. What 3ee you doing?
CudaM IWWWW Ca.anese dancingH =Simpi?.
a. pactised d. ha.e $een pactising
$. 3as pactising e. 3ill $e pactising
c. ha.e pactised
Ma0a;an < B E<ast Continuous TenseG
/. Dian M (he 6u$lic 8ealth &ente WWWW thee fo moe than t3enty yeas.
(he doctos and paamedis 3ok had to impo.e the people@s
health especially childen.
I3an M DesH they ae succesful. (he infantFdeath ate has deceased
emaka$ly.
a. 3oks d. has $een 3oking
$. 3oked e. 3ill ha.e 3oked
c. is 3oking
Ma0a;an < D E<resent <erfect Continuous V peisti3a yang
teAadiFdimulai pada 3aktu lampau dan sekaang masih
$elangsung. Ada tanda 3aktu for yang $isa diAadikan
ciiG
0. De.i M So you ha.e Lnished 3ashing the dished. When did you do it?
Si M I did 3hile you WWWW the yad.
a. clean d. 3ee cleaning
$. cleaned e. ha.e $een cleaning
c. had cleaned
Ma0a;an < D E<ast Continuous tense V menyatakan suatu kegiatan
yang sedang $elangsung ketika kegiatan lain teAadi di 3aktu lampau.
9ata $hile $isa diAadikan ciiG
4. <etno M Why don@t you eply my lette?
8adi M #h soy. I foget to tell you that I WWW in "ali since last yea.
a. am li.ing d. 3ill ha.e li.ed
$. 3as li.ing e. ha.e $een li.ing
c. ha.e to li.e
Ma0a;an < E E<resent <erfect Continuous. (anda 3aktu since dapat
diAadikan ciiG
SMA Students Modul of English )+
5. :ina M When did you get the lette?
%ani M Desteday. *y family WWWW 3hen the postman ai.ed.
a. ha.e lunch d. 3ill ha.e had lunch
$. 3ill ha.e lunch e. ha.e $een ha.ing lunch
c. 3ee ha.ing lunch
Ma0a;an < C E<ast Continuous tense $iasa Auga dipakai untuk
menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain teAadi
pada 3aktu lampau.
,hen H si*ple past dapat diAadikan ciiG
SoalKSoal 7atihan
,. If 3e don?t huyH the meeting WWW $y the time 3e get thee.
a. 3ould ha.e stated d. 3ill stat
$. 3ill ha.e stated e. stats
c. 3ill $e stated
/. (he li$aian suddenly head a noise.
7i$aian M What 3as the noise?
Student M I dopped some $ooks 3hile I WWWW them to the ta$le.
a. cay d. am caying
$. caied e. ha.e caied
c. 3as caying
0. Ann has $een looking fo a Ao$ fo six month.
(his sentence means that Ann WWW.
a. has got a ne3 Ao$ d. has stopped looking fo a Ao$
$. has 3oked fo six months e. stated to 3ok 6 months a go
c. is still looking fo a Ao$
4. When aipot ae located in the cente of citiedH they WWW noise
pollution and distu$ people@s life.
a. caused d. 3ee causing
$. causes e. ha.e caused
c. 3ill cause
5. Agam M Whee 3ill 3e go next holiday?
Coko M What a$out "ali?
Agam M (hat@s #9H $ut I WWWW thee many times.
a. am d. 3ill $e
$. 3as e. 3ill ha.e $een
c. ha.e $een
6. *y fathe is still in "ali. 8e WWWW thee fo thee 3eeks.
a. is d. has $een
$. 3as e. ha.e $een
SMA Students Modul of English +-
c. had $een
'. Anto M I@m soy Ay. I foget to $ing you $ook.
Ay M What did he say 7ina?
7ina M Anto said that he WWW to $ing you $ook.
a. has fogotten d. fogets
$. had fogotten e. fogot
c. 3ould foget
). (eache M I?.e head that "enny is ill. Is it ight?
Student M DesH si. 8e WWWW ill fo a 3eek.
a. 3as d. 3ould $e
$. has $een e. 3ill ha.e $een
c. had $een
+. (eache M Dou 3ill $e eady fo a test next 3eek. 7ean all these.
Student M All ightH si. I WWWW them $y then.
a. lean d. 3ill $e leaning
$. ha.e leant e. 3ill ha.e leant
c. am leaning
,-. <eni goes to he uni.esity e.ey moning. She studies
$usiness. Dou can@t meet he at he house at ,-.-- tomoo3. She WWW
the lectues.
a. 3ill $e attending d. has attended
$. has $een attending e. attended
c. 3ould $e attended
B. DIRECT K INDIRECT =Re"orted S"ee(9>
9etika kita meu$ah kalimat langsung menAadi kalimat tidak
langsungH ada $e$eapa hal yang mengalami peu$ahan diantaanya
peu$ahan tensesH stuktu kalimatH ponoun Ekata ganti oangGH
6ossessi.e Ekata ganti kepemilikanGH keteangan 3aktuH dan tempat.
6eu$ahan ponoun dan possessi.e tegantung kepada sa$Aek dan
o$Aek yang dipakai di kalimat langsungFtidak langsung.
Cika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu
diulang Ekalimat tidak langsungG tidak mem$entuk kata tanya lagi
tetapi menAadi kalimat $eita. 9ata penghu$ungnya adalah ifF3hethe
dan 3hatH 3hyH 3heeH 3henH 3hoH ho3. "egitu pula Aika kalimat
langsung adalah kalimat peintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung
menAadi kalimat $eita. 9ata penghu$ungnya adalah E]G to
inLniti.eF:,H EKG not to inLniti.eF:,
Contoh Aali*at
SMA Students Modul of English +,
9alimat langsungFdiect 9alimat tidak langsungFindiect
E]G 8e saidH = I 9a,e a pesent fo
!o- in 1! $ag.?
EKG 8e saidH =I do not 9a,e a pesent
fo !o- in 1! $ag?
E?G 8e askedH =Do I ha.e a pesent fo
!o- in 1! $ag:?
E?G 8e asked meH = 89! do I 9a,e to
ha.e a pesent fo !o- in 1!
$ag?
ERG 8e odeedFcommanded meH
=Brin my $ag 9ere no0R?
ERG 8e odeed meH =DonIt ;rin
!o- $ag 9ereR?
E]G 8e said t9at 9e 9ad a pesent
fo 1e in 9is $ag.
EKG 8e said t9at 9e did not ha.e a
pesent fo 1e in 9is $ag.
E?G 8e asked me i#P09et9er he
9ad a pesent fo 1e in 9is
$ag.
E?G 8e asked me 09! 9e 9ad to
ha.e a pesent fo 1e in 9is
$ag.
ERG 8e odeedFcommanded me to
;rin his $ag t9ere t9en.
ERG 8e odeed me not to ;rin
1! $ag t9ere.

Per-;a9an Tenses
Dire(t =5a'i1at 'ans-n> Indire(t =5a'i1at tida5
'ans-n>

Simple 6esent
6esent &ontinuous
6esent %utue
6esent 6efect
6esent 6efect &ontinuous
Simple 6ast
6ast &ontinuous

Simple 6ast
6ast &ontinuous
6ast %utue
6ast 6efect
6ast 6efect &ontinuous
6ast 6efect
6ast 6efect &ontinuous

7e$ih singkatnya peu$ahan tenses tese$ut adalahM
Dire(t Indire(t
:, EeatG
:/ EateG
AmFisFae
DoFdoes
DoFdoes not
Did not
WasF3ee
AmFisFae ] :King
WasF3ee ]:King
8asFha.e ] :0
WillFshallFcanFmayFmust
&ouldFmightFshouldF3ould ]
:,F$e
:/ EateG
8ad ] :0 Ehad eatenG
WasF3ee
Did
Did not
8ad not ] :0
8ad $een
WasF3ee ] :King
8ad $een ] :King
8ad ] :0
WouldFshouldFcouldFmightFhad to
couldFmightFshouldF3ould ] ha.e]
:0F$een
SMA Students Modul of English +/

Per-;a9an Keteranan 8a5t- dan Te1"at
Dire(t Indire(t
2o3
(oday
(omoo3


2extS
7astS

Sago
Desteday

(he day $efoe yesteday
8ee
(his
(hese
(hen
(hat day
(he next day
(he day afte
(he follo3ing day
A day late
(heS afte
(he follo3ingS
(heS$efoe
(he pe.ious S
(he peceeding
S$efoe
Sealie
(he day $efoe
(he pe.ious day
(he peceeding day
(3o day $efoe
(hee
(hat
those

&ontoh Soal
,. "eckham M Did you kno3 3hat %ingo said yesteday?
<aul M #f couse. 8e said WWWW the pe.ious day.
a. had gone to his county d. he 3ent to his county
$. he has gone to his county e. he goes to his county
c. he 3ill go to his county
Ma0a;an < A E kalau kalimat langsungFdiect si*ple pastH indiectFtdk
langsung haus past perfectG
/. (eache M Why 3as *ay a$sent yesteday?
Cenife M What did the teache 3ant to kno3H %edy?
%edy M he 3anted to kno3 WWWW
a. if *ay 3as a$sent d. that *ay had $een a$sent
$. 3hy *ay 3as a$sent e. 3hy *ay had $een a$sent
c. 3hy 3as *ay a$sent
Ma0a;an < E Edirect $e$entuk ,h.3uestion $entuk past tense Aadi
indirec $e$entuk past perfectG
SMA Students Modul of English +0
0. *othe M Don@t $e so noisyH 8eman. (he $a$y is sleeping.
8eman M #kayH mom.
<udy M What did you mothe Aust told you?
8eman M She told me WWW $ecause the $a$y 3as sleeping.
a. I 3asn@t so noisy d. I am .ey noisy
$. not to $e so noisy e. to $e not so noisy
c. don@t $e noisy
Ma0a;an < B EdirectM don@t ] $e maka indirectM not ] to $eG
4. Docto M #pen you mouthR
*othe M What did the docto tell you?
Son M (he docto told me WWW
a. that I open his mouth d. to open my mouth
$. if I opened my mouth e. opened my mouth
c. to open my mouth
Ma0a;an < D EdirectM :, ] # maka directM to :, ] #G
5. *othe M Do you 3ant meat$alls o fied chicken?
*othe asked me WWWW
a. 3hethe I 3anted meat$all o fied shicken
$. 3hethe I 3ant meat$all o fied chicken
c. that I 3anted meat$all o fied chicken
d. that I 3ant meat$all o fied chicken
e. if I 3ant meat$all o fied chicken
Ma0a;an< A EdirectM doFdoes ] S ]:, maka indirectM ifF3hethe
] S ] :/G
SoalKSoal 7atihan
,. 8ead maste M Why didn?t you clean this oom this moning?
Cani M I am soy. I got a headache.
(he headmaste asked he 3hy WWW the oom this moning.
a. I hadn@t cleaned d. he headn@t cleaned
$. he does not clean e. he 3ould not clean
c. he hasn@t cleaned
/. Anto M I am soy 7ina. I fogot to $ing you $ook.
Ai M What did he sayH 7ina?
7ina M Anto said to me that he WWW to $ing my $ook.
a. has fogotten d. fogets
$. had fogotten e. fogot
c. 3ould foget
0. *othe asked *ia to close the 3indo3s $ecause it 3as 3indy outside.
SMA Students Modul of English +4
*othe saidH = WWWWWWWWWWW?
a. *ia closed the 3indo3. It is 3indy outside.
$. &losed the 3indo3H *ia. It is 3indy outside.
c. *ia closed the 3indo3. It 3as 3indy outside.
d. Does *ia close the 3indo3. It 3as 3indy outside.
e. (o close the 3indo3 *iaR It is 3indy outside.
4. =What ae you doing no3??H he asked.
8e asked me WWWW
a. 3hat ae you 3ee doing no3 d. 3hat I 3as doing then.
$. 3hat 3ee you doing no3. e. 3hat I am doing no3.
c. 3hat I 3as doing then
5. =Is Cohn coming to the paty tonight??
=yesH he asked me WWWW?.
a. If he could go 3ith us d. going 3ith us
$. can he go 3ith us e. 3ethe he goes 3ith us
c. he 3ent 3ith us
6. *y paents ad.ised my siste WWWW too much money on clothes.
a. do not spend d. not spending
$. not to spend e. not spend
c. did not spend
'. (he secetay asked me WWW 3ith *. Slamet.
a. did I ha.e an appointment d. 3hen is my appointment
$. ho3 3as my appointment e. that I had an appointment
c. 3hethe I had appointment
). =don@t make noiseH childen?H she said.
a. She told the childen don@t make noise
$. She said the childen didn@t make noise
c. She didn@t say the childen should noise
d. She told the childen not to make noise.
e. She didn@t tell the childen to make noise
+. *y fiend said to meH =&an I Lnd you a hotel??. *eanWWWW
a. *y fiend asked me if I could help him Lnd a hotel.
$. I 3ondeed if my fiend could help me Lnd a hotel.
c. *y fiend said that I could help him Lnd a hotel.
d. *y fiend asked me to Lnd a hotel fo him.
e. *y fiend asked me 3hethe he could help me Lnd a hotel.
,-. %athe saidH =%inish you 3okR?
(he indiect fom isM %athe told me WWWW
SMA Students Modul of English +5
a. Lnish you 3ok d. to Lnish you 3ok
$. Lnished you 3ok e. to Lnish my 3ok
c. that I Lnish my 3ok
C. PASSIEE EOICE =5a'i1at "asi#>
9alimat passif adalah kalimat dimana su$Aek dikenai
tindakanFpekeAaanH sedangkan kalimat aktif su$Aeklah yang melakukan
tindakanFpekeAaan.
Ha' !an "er'- di"er9ati5an da'a1 1er-;a9 a5ti# 5e "asi# ada'a9<
Dang dapat diAadikan kalimat passi.e adalah :e$al Sentence
Ekalimat yang pedikatnya kata keAaF:G
:e$al sentence yang dapat diu$ah ke 6assi.e :oice Ekalimat pasifG
adalah kalimat yang memiliki o$Aek pendeita.
6eu$ahan aktif ke pasif atau se$aliknya tidak meu$ah makna
kalimat. 6eu$ahan iti teAadi hanya pada stuktu kalimatnya saAa.
&ii kalimat pasifFpassi.e .oice adalah to ;e S E+ dan kata b1 Ekata
ini $ukan meupakan syaat yang haus ada dalam kalimat pasif G
&ontoh M EAkti.eG "aAui lo.es Onen
S 6F:, O
E6assi.eG Onen is lo.ed $y "aAui.
S 6F:0
EActi.eG I $ought a ne3 motocycle last 3eek.
Epassi.eG A ne3 motocycle 3as $ought $y 1e last 3eek
R-1-s Po'a a5ti#K"asi# -nt-5 se1-a tenses
Tenses A(ti,e Passi,e
Simple Present
Simple Past
S ] :,
S ] :/
S ] a1PisPare ] :0
S ] 0asP0ere ] :0
6esent Contin-o-s
6esent pefect
(ontin-o-s
6ast Contin-o-s
6ast 6efect
Contin-o-s
%utue Contin-o-s
%utue 6efect
Contin-o-s
6ast %utue
Contin-o-s
6ast %utue 6efect
&ontinu
S ] amFisFae ] :King
S ] ha.eFhas ] $een ]
:King
S ] 3asF3ee ] :King
S ] had ] $een ] :King
S ] 3illFshall ] $e ] :K
ing
S ] 3ill ] ha.e ] :King
S ] 3ould ] $e ] :K
ing]
S ]3ould
]ha.e]$een]:King
S ] amFisFae ] ;ein ]
:0
S ] ha.eFhas ]$een ]
;ein ]:0
S ] 3asF3ee ] ;ein ]
:0
S ] had ] $een ] ;ein ]
:0
S ] 3illFshall ] $e ] ;ein
] :0
S ] 3ill ]ha.e]$een]
;ein ]:0
S ] 3ould ] $e ] ;ein ]
:0
SMA Students Modul of English +6
S ]3ould]ha.e]$een]
;ein]:0
Simple Per#e(t
6ast Per#e(t
S ] ha.eFhas ] :0
S ] had ] :0
S ] ha.eFhas ] ;een ] :0
S ] had ] ;een ] :0
Simple F-t-re
6ast %utue
Moda' EpesentG
*odal EpastG
S ] 3illFshall ] :,
S ] 3ouldFshould ] :,
S ] mayFcanFmust ] :,
S ] mightFcouldFhad to
] :,
S ] 3illFshall ] ;e ] :0
S ] 3ouldFshould ] ;e ]
:0
S ] mayFcanFmust ] ;e ]
:0
S ] mightFcouldFhad to ]
;e ] :0

Cadi le$ih singkatnya cii kalimat pasifFpassi.e .oice selain ;! S O adalah
6esent
6ast
6efect
&ontinuous
%utueFmodal
a1PisPare S E+
0asP0ere S E+
;een S E+
;ein S E+
;e S E+

&ontoh Soal
,. A M 7ookR (he gil is cying. What happened to he Aust no3?
" M While playing 3ith he $otheH she WWWW
a. kicks d. 3as kicking
$. kicked e. 3as kicked
c. 3ill kick
Ma0a;an < E Esi*ple pastM S ] 3asF3ee ] :0G
/. A M Do you kno3 the esult of the test?
" M 2ot yet. (he announcement WWWW t3ice.
a. 3as postponed d. has to $e postponed
$. 3as $eing postponed e. has $een postponed
c. 3ill $e postponed
Ma0a;an < A Ekonteks kalimat adalah si*ple pastG
0. *ela M Why do you pefe Suya Depstoe to othes?
2oni M "ecause the items WWWW at a easona$le pice.
a. is sold d. 3ee sold
$. ae sold e. had $een sold
c. 3as sold
Ma0a;an< B Ekonteks kalimat adalah si*ple present. 9aena su$Aek
ite*s Aamak maka to (e yang sesuai adalah areG
4. \ M (hee@s no longe a ule fo the youth to ente militay se.ice in
"itain.
SMA Students Modul of English +'
D M <eallyH 3henS.?
a. 3as it a$olishing d. 3as it to a$olish
$. did it a$olish e. to $e a$olished
c. 3as it a$olished
Ma0a;an< C Epola pasif introgati%e si*ple pastM 3asF3ee ] S ] :0G
5. Dita M When did the accident happen?
Dini M When the goods WWWW fom the tuck.
a. ha.e $een unloaded d. 3ill $e unloaded
$. 3ee $eing unloaded e. ae unloaded
c. ae $eing unloaded
Ma0a;a;< B Epola pasif past continuaou tenseM S ] 3asF3ee ]
$eing ] :0G
SoalKSoal 7atihan
,. <.A. 9atini WWWW in Cepaa in ,)'+.
a. is $on d. 3ould $e $on
$. 3as $on e. has $een $on
c. 3ill $e $on
/. (he $ooks in the li$ay WWW in alpha$etical ode.
a. is aanged d. ha.e aanged
$. 3as aanged e. has aanged
c. ha.e $een aanged
0. A $ig dam WWW in this aea next yea.
a. 3ill $uild d. has $een $uilt
$. 3ill $e $uilt e. is $eing $uilt
c. 3ould $e $uilt
4. We can@t s3im in the s3imming pool no3 $ecause it WWW.
a. 3as $eing cleaned d. 3ill clean
$. is $eing cleaned e. cleaned
c. has $een cleaned
5. (hey had Aust $een li.ing in the house fo t3o yeas 3hen it WWW $y the
Le.
a. destoyed d. 3ill $e destoyed
$. had destoyed e. is $eing destoyed
c. 3as destoyed
6. She looks afte the $a$y 3ell.
(he passi.e fom is WWWW
a. the $a$y is 3ell looked afte
SMA Students Modul of English +)
$. the $a$y 3as looked afte 3ell
c. the $a$y 3ill $e 3ell looked afte
d. the $a$y is $eing looked afte 3ell
e. the $a$y 3ould $e 3ell looked afte
'. E.ey$ody kne3 that he had sho3n geat loyalty to the companyH
theefoe he WWWW a $ig sum of money at the anni.esay of the
company.
a. e3aded d. is $eing e3aded
$. 3as e3aded e. has $een e3aded
c. 3ill $e e3aded
). At the moment the old $uilding WWWW to make space do a paking lot.
a. demolishing d. had $een demilishing
$. is $eing demolished e. is demolishing
c. 3as $eing demolishing
+. Sita is 3aiting fo he $ithday paty dess $ecause she WWWW a ne3 one
$y he mothe.
a. has pomised d. has $een pomising
$. 3ill $e pomised e. 3as $eing pomised
c. 3ill $e pomised
,-. As the .ictem 3as $adly hut in the ca accidentH he WWWW to the neaest
hospital.
a. 3ill $e taken d. 3as taken
$. is $eing taken e. took
c. has $een taken
D. DEGREES OF COMPARISON =tin5at "er;andinan>
(edii dai 0 tingkatanH yaituM
,. 6ositi.e Etingkat $iasaG
S ] to$e ] adJe(ti,ePk.sifat
contohM CoAon is 9andso1e
Gogon is ('e,er
/. &ompaati.e Etingkat pe$andinganG
S ] to$e ] 1orePKer ] adAecti.e
] than
contohM CoAon is 1ore 9andso1e t9an Aming
"aAui is ('e,erer t9an #neng
0. Supelati.e Etingkat palingaG
S ] to$e ] t9e 1ostPKest ] noun
SMA Students Modul of English ++
phase
&ontohM CoAon is t9e 1ost 9andso1e
"aAui is t9e ('e,erest peson
Catatan
a. AdAecti.eFkataKkata sifat yang $esuku kata duaFle$ih haus
dia3ali kata G1oreH pada kalimat pe$andinganFcompaati.e
dan Gt9e 1ostH pada kalimat tingkat palingFsupelati.e.
&ontohM $eautiful moe $eaitiful the most
$eautiful
$. "e$eapa kata haus di$entuk dengan caa tida5 ;erat-ran
pada compaati.e dan supelati.e.
&ontohM $ad 3ose 3ost
good $ette $est
much moe most
c. AdAecti.eFkataKkata sifat yang $esuku kata satuFdua yang
$eakhi dengan akhian GKerPKrH pada kalimat
pe$andinganFcompaati.e dan GKestPKst? pada kalimat tingkat
palingFsupelati.e adalahM
,. 9ata yang $eakhi dengan / konsonan F , konsonan
yang didahului dengan / .okal.
&ontohM ich iche ichest
deep deepe deepest
/. 9ata yang $eakhi dengan , konsonan yang dudahului
oleh , .okal. Dalam peu$ahannya konsonan tese$ut
digandakan se$elum di$ei akhian Xe dan Xest.
&ontohM $ig $igge $iggest
0. 9ata yang $eakhi dengan Xe dalam peu$ahannya
hanya di$ei akhian X dan Xst.
&ontohM lage lage lagest
4. 9ata yang $eakhi dengan Xy yang didahului konsonan
dalam peu$ahannya huuf Xy tese$ut $eu$ah menAadi
Xi. (etapi Aika Xy ts$ didahului .okal maka atuan tese$ut
di atas tidak $elaku.
&ontohM easy easie easiest
coy coye coyest
5. 9ata yang tedii dai dua suku kata yang $eakhian X
someH Ko3H KleH Ke.
&ontohM cle.e cle.ee cle.eest
E. @UESTION TAGS
*eupakan $entuk petanyaan $eeko yang fungsinya untuk
mempetegas suatu petanyaan.
&ontoh M 6ok Ati is a $eautiful 3omanH isnIt s9e:
*y hus$and didn@t go to "andung last 3eekH did 9e:
SMA Students Modul of English ,--
aG Cika statement adalah kalimat .e$al maka Juestion tagKnya
di$entuk menuut kaidah kalimat .e$al yaitu ada kata keAa
$antuFmodal yang dipakai sepetiM doFdoesH didH ha.eFhasH hadH
3illH shallH canH mayH dll. "egitu pula Aika statement adalah kalimat
nominal maka Juestion tagKnya pun di$entuk menuut kaidah
kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata keAa to $e yang dipakai sepetiM
amFisFaeH 3asF3eeH dll.
$G Cika statement E]G maka Juestion tag EKG dan se$aliknya

F. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES =5a'i1at "enandaian>
&onditional sentence tedii dai anak kalimat Esu$ clauseG dan induk
kalimat Emean clauseG dimana $entuk tenses yang di pakai pada
keduanya $e$ada.
Induk kalimat $iasanya dia3ali dengan kata =if?. Cika anak kalimat
mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma EHG.
Ada 0 tipe conditional sentence M

,. %utue &onditional Et!"e &G
9alimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang se$enanya tida5
;erto'a5 ;e'a5an. Apa yang diucapkanH itulah yang dihaapkan.
9emungkinan haapan tepenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada E$ukan
imaAinasiG tapi kalau syaat tepenuhi.
&ontohM If I 9a,e much moneyH I 0i'' ;-! a ne3 ca.
EAika saya punya uangH saya akan mem$eli mo$il $auG
6ola M If ] simple pesent ] simple futueFmodal
S ] :, S ] 3illFshallFcanFmustFmay ] :,
S ] amFisFae S ] 3ill shallFcanFmustFmay ] $e
/. 6esent &onditional Etype /G
9alimat yang diucapkan ;erto'a5 ;e'a5an dengan kenyataan yang
se$enanya di 1asa se5aran. 9alau kalimatnya E]GH maka
maknaFmeaningKnya EKG dan se$aliknya. 9emungkinan haapan
tepenuhi di tipe ini adalah tida5 ada Ehanya imaAinasi saAaG.
&ontoh M E]G If I 9ad timeH I 0o-'d o to the $each 3ith you.
ESaya se$enanya tida5 punya 3aktu sekaang ini sehingga
tida5 $isa pegiG
6olaM If ] simple past ] past futueFmodal
:/ 3ouldFshouldFcouldFhad toFmight ] :,
WasF3ee 3ouldFshouldFcouldFhad toFmight ] $e
Di tipe ini hanya 0ere saAa yang dipakai.
0. 6ast &onditional Etype 0G
9alimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan ke3aAi$anFkegiatan yang
dilakukan dimasa lampauH tetapi tidak dilakukanF tidak tepenuhi.
9alimat ini diucapkan ;erto'a5 ;e'a5an dengan kenyataan yang
SMA Students Modul of English ,-,
se$enanya di 1asa 'a'-. 9alau kalimatnya E]GH maka maknaFmeaning
yang disampaikan EKG dan se$aliknya.
9emungkinan haapan tepenuhi di tipe ini adalah tida5 ada Ehanya
imaAinasi saAaG
&ontoh M E]G If I 9ad 5no0n you 3ee theeH I 0o-'d 9a,e 0ritten you
a lette.
E Cika saya tahu 3aktu dulu kamu $eada di sanaH saya sudah mengiim
suat padamuK ini $emakna saya tidak mengiim suat kaena saya
tidak tahu kamu $eada di sanaG
6olaM If ] past pefect ] past futue pefectFmodal pefect
8ad ] :0 3ouldFshouldFcouldFhad toFmight ] ha.e ]
:0
8ad $een 3ouldFshouldFcouldFhad toFmight ] ha.e
$een
G. RELATIEE PRONOUNS =5ata anti "en9-;-n>
<elati.e 6onoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan
salah satu pokok kalimatF$agian kalimat lainnya yang menghu$ungkan
dua $uah kalimat menAadi satu kalimat maAemuk Ecomplex sentenceG.
9ataKkata yang digunakan se$agai penghu$ung yaituM 3hoH 3homH
3hoseH 3hichH of 3hich.
<umus !mum M
Ca$atan dalam kalimat #ang $enda
Su$Aek
#$Aek
9epunyaan Epossesse.eG
WhoFthat
WhomFthat
3hose
WhichFthat
WhichFthat
#f 3hich
,. WhoFthatM =yang?
Digunakan utk pengganti oang s$g su$Aek
&ontohM We kno3 a lot of people. (hey li.e in Cakata
S # S
We kno3 a lot of people 09o li.e in Cakata
E(hey V a lot ao peopleH Aa$atan dalam kalimat su$AekHG
/. WhomFthatM =yang?
Digunakan untuk pengganti o$Aek
&ontohM (he gil feel in lo.e 3ith the man. I met him last 3eek.
S # S #
(he gil feel in lo.e 3ith the man 09o1 I met last 3eek.
Ehim V the manH Aa$atan se$agai o$AekG

0. 3hoseM =yang punya?
Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaanM myH youH ouH hisH
theiH itsH he.
SMA Students Modul of English ,-/
&ontohM We sa3 the people. T9eir ca has $een stolen.
S # possessi.e
We sa3 the people 09ose ca had $een stolen.
Ethei ca V mo$ilnya oangKoang. #ang yang dimaksud V the
peopleG
4. 3hichFthat
Digunakan untuk mengganti kata $endaF$inatang se$agai su$Aek
&ontohM I don@t like the stoies. (hey ae pinted in English.
S
I don@t like the stoies t9atP09i(9 ae pinted in English.
Ethey V the stoiesFceita adalah kata $enda yg kedudukannya se$agai
SG
*y mothe lo.es a ed ca .ey much. I $ought it last yea.
# #
*y mothe lo.es a ed ca 09i(9Pt9at I $ought last yea .ey
much
E it V a ed caH se$uah $endaH Aa$atan se$agai o$AekG
6. #f 3hich
Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaanFpossessi.e untuk
$endaF$inatang.
&ontohM I sent the ta$le $ack to the stoe. Its suface is not
smooth.
<ossessi%e
I sent the ta$le of 3hich suface is not smooth $ack to the
stoe.
Eits sufaceFpemukaannya meAa. *eAa yg dimaksud the ta$leG
'. Whee
). When

H. SUBMUNCTIEE 8ISH
Su$Auncti.eFanganKangan digunakan untuk
menyatakanFmengungkapkan haapan yang tidak dapat tepenuhi.
F-t-re
<umus < ST S 0is9 S SU S (o-'dP0o-'d S
ETP;e
&ontoh M I 3ish you 3ould stop saying that.
Esaya $ehaap kamu akan $ehenti mengatakan ituG
I 3ish she 3ould come to my paty to night
Esaya $ehaap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya
minggu iniG
Present
SMA Students Modul of English ,-0
<umus M ST S 0is9 S SU S E)P0ere
&ontoh < I 3ish you 3ee old enough to may me.
Esaya $ehaap sekaang ini umumu cukup tua untuk
menikahi sayaG
(hey 3ish they didn@t ha.e to go to school today.
Emeeka $ehaap sekaang ini meeka tidak haus pegi
sekolahG
Past
<umus M ST S 0is9ed S SU S 9ad
E+P(o-'d 9a,e E+
&ontoh M She 3ished she had had moe time last night.
Esaya $ehaap tadi malam dia punya $anyak 3aktuG
I. CAUSATIEE HAEEPGET
&ausati.e ha.e dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu
pekeAaan yang dilakukan oang lain untuk si Su$Aek. &ausati.e 9a,e
$eati 1en!-r-9P1e1erinta95an seseoang melakukan sesuatuH
sedangkan causati.e et $eati 1e1inta Edengan pesuasifG
seseoang melakukan sesuatu.
R-1-s A(ti,e
S S 9a,eP9asP9ad S O;Je(tT S E& S
O;Je(tU
S S etPetsPot S O;Je(tT S to E& S
O;Je(t

&ontoh M
E,G. She 9as the shoemake 1end he shoes
S SomeoneF#_ :, somethingF#`
EDia 1en!-r-9 6em$uat sepatu 1e1"er;ai5i sepatunyaG
#_ :, #`
E/G. I 9ad mechanic re"air my ca.
Esaya 1en!-r-9 mekanis 1e1"er;ai5i mo$il saya
&ontoh M
E,G. She ets the shoemake to 1end he shoes.
EDia 1e1inta 6em$uat sepatu mempe$aiki sepatunyaG
E/G. I ot the mechanic to re"air my ca.
Esaya 1e1inta mekanis 1e1"er;ai5i mo$il sayaG

R-1-s Passi,e
S S 9a,eP9asP9ad S O S E+
S S etPetsPot S O S E+
&ontoh
SMA Students Modul of English ,-4
E,G. (he manage 9as the lette typed.
# :0
E*eneAe 1en!-r-9 suat itu ditikG
E/G. (he manage ets the lette typed.
E*eneAe 1e1inta suat itu ditikG
M. GERUND
Geund adalah kata keAa yang di$endakanF kata $enda yang
di$entuk dai kata keAa yang di$ei akhian Xing E:KingG. Geund
digunakan $ilaM
,. :e$Fkata keAa se$agai su$Aek.
&ontohM S0i11in is a good spot.
Cogging makes us fesh.
/. :e$ se$agai complementFpelengkap.
&ontoh M *y ho$$y is (!('in.
0. Setelah kata depanFpeposition sepeti foH onH $efoe dll.
&ontoh M I am soy fo (o1in late.
"efoe 'ea,inH he said nothing.
4. Setelah istilah khusus sepeti no useH to $e 3othH to $e $usyH can@t
helpFcan@t $eaHto $e used toH get used to.
&ontoh M It is no use st-d!in 3ithout pacticing.
5. Setelah possessi.e adAecti.e EmyHyouH hisHheHouHtheiHAmi@sH dllG
&ontoh M 8is starin figtens me.
6. 9ata keAaF: setelah kata keAa tetentu

Admit
Appeciate
&laim
&an@t help
<esume
&onside
A.oid
Delay
Deny
<isk
EnAoy
%inish
5uit
<esist
Siggest
*ind
*iss
6ostpone
6actice
Ad.ise
<ecall
<eget
<epot
<ecent
esist

&ontoh M We enAoy seeing them again afte so many yeas.
K. PREFERENCES ="i'i9anP5es-5aan>
*enyukai A ketim$ang "
,.
S S "re#ers S no-nPEKin S to S
no-nPEKin
&ontohM
K Dona prefers dancing to singing.
EDona le$ih menyukai menai ketium$ang menyanyiG
K Cuned prefers com$o to de$lo.
ECuned le$ih menyukai com$o ketim$ang de$loG
/.
SMA Students Modul of English ,-5
S S 'i5e S no-nPEKin S ;etter t9an S
no-nPEKin
&ontohM
K I li)e (.: (etter than adio.
K 9okom li)es eading (etter than 3atching (.:.
0.
S S 0o-'d rat9er S E& S t9an S E&
&ontohM
K Dita $ould rather 3atch (.: . than plays a .ideo game.
EDita le$ih menyukai nonton (.: ketim$ang main .ideo gameG
4.
S S 0o-'d "re#er S to E& S rat9er
t9an S E&
&ontohM
K Ayu 3ould prefer to phone me rather than send S*S.
EAyu le$ih menyukai menelpon saya ketim$ang mengiim S*SG
L. CONNECTORS =Kata Pen9-;-n>
&onnectos digunakan untuk mengga$ungkan dua kalimatFle$ih
menAadi satu kalimat. &onnectos di$agi menAadi 0H yaituM
,. *enunAukan 3aktuM (efore' after' as soon as' $hile' $hen.
a. We 3ent home a#ter the ain stopped.
$. I pepae my ticket and passpot ;e#ore I go on holiday to
6ais.
c. I stated to look fo an apatment as soon as I ai.ed in this
city.
d. 89i'e he 3as eading he no.elH some$ody knocked on the
doo.
e. I 3as eally sad 3hen I sa3 a dama mo.ie.
/. *enunAukan se$a$ dan aki$atM (ecauseC(ecause of' since.
a. I 3ent to the hospital ;e(a-se I had a seious accident.
$. I 3ent to the hospital ;e(a-se o# my seious accident.
c. Sin(e I ha.e no moneyH I can@t teat you.
0. *enunAukan tanda uutanM +rst' ne4t' then' after that' +nall&.
a. 7rstH 3e must pepae the ingedients.
$. Ne$tH 3e cut the .egeta$les into small pieces.
c. A#ter t9atH 3e put them into fying pan.
d. Fina''!H 3e put some sauce and salt.
M. CONMUNCTIONS =Kata Sa1;-n>
9ata sam$ung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyam$ung dua
kalimatFkataKkata.
,. 9ata sam$ung yang $edii sendii sepetiM andH oH $utH foH
althoughFthoughH thatH ifH dll.
SMA Students Modul of English ,-6
&ontohM K Dou can ead this $ook if you like.
Ekamu dapat mem$aca $uku ini ;i)a kamu mauG
K I 3ent to you house (ut you 3een@t at home.
Esaya pegi ke umahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di umahG
K Ami and I go to school e.eyday.
EAmi dan saya pegi ke sekolah setiap haiG
K Although it 3as ainingH he come on time.
E$alaupun huAan dia datang tepat 3aktuG
/. 9ata sam$ung yang $epasangan sepetiM
$othSandS ESdan AugaS.G
not onlyS$ut alsoS EStidak hanyaStetapi AugaSG
eitheSoS ES.maupunSG
neitheSnoS EStidakSdan tidakSG
&ontohM K 8e is (oth 3ise and good.
Edia $iAaksana dan Auga $aikG
K 8e is not onl& acti.e (ut also cle.e.
Edia tida) han&a aktif tetapi ;uga pintaG
K %actoy pollutions ha.e polluted either land or 3ate in ou
en.ionment.
E6olusi pa$ik telah mencemai tanah *aupun ai di lingkungan
kitaG
K (he eseach is neither intesting nor accuate
E6enelitian itu tida) menaik dan tida) akuatG
N. ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION
9alimat elip meupakan pemendekan dai dua kalimatFle$ih dengan
caa menghilagkan $e$eapa $agian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan
ati asalnya. 9alimat elip digunakan untuk menghindai adanya
pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.
SMA Students Modul of English ,-'