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FINDING OUT THE CATION AND ANION IN UNKNOWN SALTS

AIM
To determine the cation and anion in unknown salts.

SALT A
EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1) Solubility Salt A dissolves in distilled
water.
It is a water soluble salt.
2) Appearance Clear solution. Absence of coloured salts of
Cu
2+
, Fe
2+
and Fe
3+

3) Test for Cation
To the unknown salt
solution, NaOH
(aq)
was
added in excess.
No precipitate formed.
Solution remains clear.

Presence of barium and
ammonia salt.

To the unknown salt
solution, NH
3 (aq)
was
added in excess.
No precipitate formed.
Solution remains clear.

Presence of barium salt.


To the unknown salt
solution, Na
2
CO
3

(aq)
was
added in excess.
No precipitate formed.
Solution remains clear.

Absence of barium,
presence of other salt.

To the unknown source
solution. Flame test was
carrying out.





Golden yellow flame is
produce
Confirm presence of
sodium salt.
4) Test of Anion
To the unknown source
solution, dilute nitric acid
was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of
carbonate ions.
To the unknown source
solution, concentrated
sulphuric acid was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of nitrate
ions.
To the unknown source
solution, BaCl
(aq)
and
dilute hydrochloric acid
was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of sulphate
and sulphite ions.
To the unknown source
solution, AgNO
3
(aq) and
ammonia was added.
White precipitate
presence and soluble in
ammonia solution.
Presence of chloride
ions. No presence of
bromide and iodide ions.
To the unknown source
solution, ammonium
molybdate was added
followed by a few drops
of conc. Nitric acid.
No reaction occurred. No presence of
phosphate ions.

CONCLUSION
Sodium ions are the cations present in SALT A because of its production of a golden yellow
flame in the flame test. Chloride ions are the anions present in SALT A because of the formation
of white precipitate after AgNO
3

(aq)
was added. The white precipitate can be dissolved in
ammonia solution. Thus, SALT A is NaCl.




SALT B
EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1) Solubility Salt B dissolves in dilute nitric
acid.
It is not a water soluble salt.
2) Appearance Clear solution. Absence of coloured salts of
Cu
2+
, Fe
2+
and Fe
3+

3) Test for Cation
To the unknown salt
solution, NaOH
(aq)
was
added in excess.
White precipitate
formed. Soluble in
excess.
Presence of Al
3+
, Ca
2+
,
Zn
2+
and Pb
2+
.

To the unknown salt
solution, NH
3 (aq)
was
added in excess.
No precipitate formed in
excess.

Presence of Ca
2+
.


To the unknown salt
solution, Na
2
CO
3

(aq)
was
added in excess.
White precipitate
formed. Soluble in
excess.
Presence of Ca
2+
.

To the unknown source
solution. Flame test was
carrying out.
Bricked red flame is
produced.
Confirm presence of
Ca
2+
.
4) Test of Anion
To the unknown source
solution, dilute nitric acid
was added.
Fizzy occurs. CO
2

liberated by dilute nitric
acid.
Presence of CO
2
.
To the unknown source
solution, concentrated
sulphuric acid was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of nitrate
ions.
To the unknown source
solution, BaCl
(aq)
and
dilute hydrochloric acid
was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of sulphate
and sulphite ions.
To the unknown source
solution, AgNO
3
(aq) and
ammonia was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of chloride,
barium and iodide ions.
To the unknown source
solution, ammonium
molybdate was added
followed by a few drops
of conc. Nitric acid.
No reaction occurred. No presence of
phosphate ions.

CONCLUSION
Calcium ions are the cations present in SALT B because in NaOH
(aq)
and Na
2
CO
3 (aq)
, white
precipitate is formed. In ammonia, it is soluble in excess and do not have precipitate.
Furthermore, a brick red flame was produced in a flame test. Carbonate ions are the anions
present in SALT B because the salt fizzes after diluted nitric acid was added. Thus, SALT B is
CaCO
3
.












SALT C
EXPERIMENT OBSERVATION INFERENCE
1) Solubility Salt C dissolves in distilled
water.
It is a water soluble salt.
2) Appearance Pale green solution solution. Presence of color salts of Fe
2+
.
3) Test for Cation
To the unknown salt
solution, NaOH
(aq)
was
added in excess.
Green precipitate
formed. Soluble in
excess.
Presence of Fe
2+
.

To the unknown salt
solution, NH
3 (aq)
was
added in excess.
Green precipitate
formed. Soluble in
excess.
Presence of Fe
2+
.


To the unknown salt
solution, Na
2
CO
3

(aq)
was
added in excess.
Green precipitate
formed.
Presence of Fe
2+
.

4) Test of Anion
To the unknown source
solution, dilute nitric acid
was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of
carbonate ions.
To the unknown source
solution, concentrated
sulphuric acid was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of nitrate
ions.
To the unknown source
solution, BaCl
(aq)
and
dilute hydrochloric acid
was added.
White precipitated
formed. Solution in
dilute hydrochloric acid.
Presence of sulphate
ions. Absence of
sulphite ions.
To the unknown source
solution, AgNO
3
(aq) and
ammonia was added.
No reaction occurred. No presence of chloride,
barium and iodide ions.
To the unknown source
solution, ammonium
molybdate was added
followed by a few drops
of conc. Nitric acid.
No reaction occurred. No presence of
phosphate ions.

CONCLUSION
Iron (II) ions are the cations present in SALT C it formed a green precipitate in NaOH
(aq)
,
ammonia solution and Na
2
CO
3 (aq)
. However, it is insoluble in excess NaOH
(aq)
and Na
2
CO
3 (aq)
.
Sulphate ions are the anions present in SALT C because of the white precipitate formed with
barium chloride and it is insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid. Thus, SALT C is FeSO
4
.