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zurab kiknaZe

xuTwigneulis
Targmaneba

qristianuli Teologiisa
da kulturis centris gamocema
Tbilisi
2004

STUDIA BIBLICA.1
Zurab Kiknadze
Commentary on Pentateuch
The Center of Christian Theology and Culture
Tbilisi
2004

merab RaRaniZis
redaqciiT

mxatvari
vaJa orbelaZe
SmuctitulebisaTvis gamoyenebulia
yanCaeTis Jamn-gulanis (1674 w.)
miniaturebis fragmentebi

ISBN 999-0-128-0
qristianuli Teologiisa
da kulturis centri, 2004

sarCevi
Sesavali

dabadeba
gamosvlani
levianni
ricxvni
meore rjuli

15
109
183
233
305

boloTqma: winasaxeobrivi eqskursi


bibliografiuli mimoxilva
saZieblebi:

383
389

bibliuri pirovnebani
bibliuri adgilebi da xalxebi
cnebebi, sagnebi da kerpebi
arabibliuri pirovnebani
arabibliuri personaJebi
arabibliuri adgilebi da xalxebi

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395
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400

Semoklebani
abak. _ abakum winaswarmetyveli
gal. _ pavles epistole galatelTa mimarT
gam. _ gamosvlani
gamocx. _ ioanes gamocxadeba
dab. _ dabadeba
ebr. _ pavles epistole ebraelTa mimarT
ezek. _ ezekiel winaswarmetyveli
1ezr. _ pirveli ezra
3ezr. _ mesame ezra
ekl. _ eklesiaste
es. _ esaia winaswarmetyveli
efes. _ pavles epistole efeselTa mimarT
zaq. _ zaqaria winaswarmetyveli
ier. _ ieremia winaswarmetyveli
ieso _ ieso naves Ze
ioan. _ ioanes saxareba
iob. _ iobi
ion. _ iona winaswarmetyveli
iov. _ iovel winaswarmetyveli
1kor. _ pavles pirveli epistole korinTelTa mimarT
2kor. _ pavles meore epistole korinTelTa mimarT
lev. _ levianni
luk. _ lukas saxareba
maT. _ maTes saxareba
mal. _ malaqia winaswarmetyveli
mark. _ markozis saxareba
1mef. _ pirveli mefeTa
2mef. _ meore mefeTa
3mef. _ mesame mefeTa
4mef. _ meoTxe mefeTa
msaj. _ msajulni
neem. _ neemia
1neSt. _ pirveli neStTa
2neSt. _ meore neStTa
os. _ osia winaswarmetyveli
2pet. _ petres meore epistole
ricx. _ ricxvni
rom. _ pavles epistole romaelTa mimarT
ruT. _ ruTi
rjl. _ meore rjuli
saqme _ mociqulTa saqme
fsalm. _ fsalmunni

Sesavali
xuTwigneuli bibliis erTi nawilia, dasawyisi nawili. Tavad biblia berZnuli saxelwodebaa sxvadasxva dros, sxvadasxva avtoris, sxvadasxva moculobis wignTa, romlebic
erT mTlianobas qmnis. wignebis ricxvi meryeobs imisda mixedviT, Tu ra principiT vixelmZRvanelebT misi danawilebisas, magram is rCeba erT mTlian wignad. ufro swori iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom biblia aris RvTivkacobrivi biblioTeka, romelic Seicavs gamocxadebul (da ara adamianis gonebiT
mignebul) codnas adamianze, sofelze da RmerTze. RvTiuri
WeSmaritebis gamocxadeba gadmoTargmnilia adamianur enaze, adamianisTvis gasagebi kuTxiT, adamianSi adamianuris
(adamuris) asaRorZineblad da RvTaebrivis gasaRviZeblad.
mTeli Tavisebureba bibliisa, riTac is gansxvavdeba ara
mxolod saero literaturisgan, aramed Tundac sxva religiuri xasiaTis fuZemdebluri wignebisgan, mocemulia mis
erT-erT saxelwodebaSi _ aRTqma. biblia moicavs or aRTqmas _ Zvelsa da axals. ras niSnavs es sityva? aRTqma aris
dadebuli piroba, romelic or mxares moicavs: aRTqmis damdebs (aRmTqmels) da mimRebs. aRTqma kidev niSnavs anderZs
(berZn. diaTeke, laT. testamentum), romelic aseve or mxares gulisxmobs. bibliis ambebisa da aqtebis warmmarTveli
udebs aRTqmas adamianebs, romlebic iReben aRTqmas da aRTqmiTve pasuxoben. RmerTi ucxadebs anderZs adamianebs,
romlebic deben aRTqmas, rom itvirTaven mis Sesrulebas.
RvTisgan (mamisa da Zisgan) anderZi da aRTqma kidev imas niSnavs, rom RmerTi gaaxsenebs Tavs adamians, Sehyavs Tavis
wreSi, sTavazobs Tavis absolutur nebas da, ufro metic:
Tavis memkvidred xdis mas _ adamians, erT-erTs Tavis qmnilebaTagan. axal aRTqmas kidev ufro maRal safexurze ahyavs adamiani: qriste Tavisi anderZis ZaliT, romelic man
dautova mowafeebs da maTi meSveobiT mTels kacobriobas,
RvTis Zeobas aRuTqvams kacs. mTeli qmnileba ki mouTmenlad moelis RvTisSvilad yofnis gamocxadebas (rom. 8:19).
biblia am molodiniT aris avsebuli, romelic edemidan iwyeba da gasdevs mTels sakacobrio istorias.
xalxi, romelic axali aRTqmis Semdeg sasoebiT moelis
RvTisSvilobas, igive xalxia, romelzec RmerTma Zvel aRTqmaSi Tqva: dRes gSobe Sen; igive modgmaa, romelzec man
Tqva: me amogarCie Sen da me gixsni Sen; igive eria, romelzec ambobs: Cemi eri xar Sen. am aRTqmebSi, am sulier
dabadebebSi, am rCeulobaSi, am xsnis molodinSi Zveli aRTqma xels uwvdis axal aRTqmas da, rogorc netari avgusti-

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ne werda, Zvel aRTqmaSi dafarulia axali aRTqma da axalSi gacxadebulia Zveli.


SegviZlia Tu ara, vTqvaT, rom Zveli aRTqma igavia, axali
aRTqma ki _ misi ganmarteba da, roca igavi ganimarteba, igi
uqmdeba? metsac amboben: Zveli aRTqma Crdilia. magram
Crdili mzis arsebobas gulisxmobs da, roca amodis mze mTeli Tavisi ZalmosilebiT, gana Crdilebi ar ganqardebian?
nawilobriv asea, mxolod nawilobriv, radgan bibliuri ambebi da adamianebi ar arian Cveulebrivi igavebi da Crdilebi.
igavurad migvaniSneben ra Soreul axdomebze da WeSmaritebebze, isini inarCuneben realur arsebobas: bibliur xdomilebebSi realuri sisxli da cremlia daRvrili, maTi monawileni sisxlxorceuli arsebani arian. abraamma mogvca rwmenis igavi da is Seiqna rwmenis mama, magram darCa cocxal kacad, romelsac ufalma mouvlina auwereli gansacdeli.
abelma gamoxata ubralo msxverplis igavi, magram is iyo da
darCa saukuneebSi cocxal kacad, romlis sisxli dRemde
SehRaRadebs miwidan zecas. es da sxvani mravalni iseTi Crdilebia, romlebic mzis miSuqebiT ki ar gaqrebian, aramed Tavad gamoaSuqeben manamde dafarul sazriss. mTeli Zveli aRTqma aseTi Crdili da igavia, romelic axali aRTqmis Semdegac inarCunebs cxovelmyofelobas da TavisTavadobas.
***
bibliis kodeqsi, romelic ebrauli tradiciiT ocdacxrameti wignisgan Sedgeba, ebraulive tradiciis Tanaxmad,
sam jgufad iyofa (riTac sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba qristianuli tradiciuli dayofisgan): xuTwigneuli (Tora), winaswarmetyvelni (nebiim) da werilni (qeTubim). Tu pirvel
nawilSi sruli Tanxvedraa ebraul da qristianul tradiciebs Soris, principuli gansxvaveba amis Semdeg iCens Tavs: ebrauli tradicia winaswarmetyvelTa jgufSi, sakuTriv winaswarmetyvelTa (esaias, ieremias, ezekielis da aTi mcire
winaswarmetyvelis) garda, aqcevs ieso naves Zis, msajulTa
da mefeTa wignebs. mesame jgufSi _ werilebSi aerTianebs
yvela wigns, romelmac wina orSi adgili ver hpova, ris gamoc
es jgufi sakmaod araerTgvarovania: aq erTmaneTis gverdiT
vxedavT fsalmunebs, solomonis igavebs, qebaTa qebas, eklesiastes, ieremias godebas, iobis, ruTis, ezras, neemias, esTeris da neStTa wignebs da, rac ucnauria, danielis wigns, romelsac septuaginta (samocdaaTi ebraelis Targmanis, Zv. w.
III s.) da mis kvalze qristianuli tradicia sruliad samarTlianad winaswarmetyvelur wignad miiCnevs.
qristianuli tradicia, romelic misdevs septuagintas,
bibliaSi 51 wigns iTvlis: ebrauli bibliis 39 wigns emateba
kidev 12, romlebic ebraelebma adreve uaryves rogorc
arakanonikurni da male maTi ebrauli dednebic iSviaToba
gaxda (maT ar scnobs protestantuli samyaro). arakanoni-

Sesavali

kurad miiCneven im wignebs, romlebzec ar aris dafuZnebuli dogmaturi moZRvreba, magram isini mniSvnelobas inarCuneben, rogorc zneobrivi damoZRvris wyaro.
wmida mociqulTa kanonebis 85-e muxlSi CamoTvlilia 46
bibliuri wigni samRvdeloTa da eriskacTa sayuradRebod.
saerTo qristianuli tradiciiT, Zveli aRTqmis wignebi
oTx nawilad aris dajgufebuli: I. rjulis wignebi: dabadeba, gamosvlani, levianni, ricxvni, meore rjuli; II. istoriuli wignebi: ieso naves Ze, msajulni, ruTi, 4 mefeTa,
2 neStTa, I ezra, neemia, II ezra, ivdiTi, esTeri, 4 makabelTa;
III. samoZRvrebo wignebi: tobiTi, iobi, fsalmunebi, igavni,
eklesiaste, qebaTa qeba, sibrZne solomonisa, sibrZne ieso
ziraqis Zisa; IV. sawinaswarmetyvelo wignebi: esaia, ieremia, ieremias godeba, ieremias epistole, ezekieli, danieli,
baruxi, osia, ioveli, amosi, abdia, iona, miqa, naumi, abakumi,
sofonia, angia, zaqaria, malaqia, III ezra.
amaTgan marTlmadidebluri tradicia arakanonikurad
miiCnevs II ezras, ivdiTis, makabelTa wignebs, solomonis
sibrZnes, ieso ziraqis Zis sibrZnes, ieremias epistoles, baruxisa da III ezras wignebs. kaTolikuri moZRvrebis Tanaxmad ki, CamoTvlilTagan arakanonikuradaa miCneuli mxolod III da IV makabelTa wignebi, II da III ezra.
Zveli aRTqmis 51 wigns moicavs bibliis Targmani axal
qarTul enaze, romlis gamocema saqarTvelos sapatriarqom ganaxorciela 1989 wels. es aris maqsimaluri ricxvi.
savaldebulod araa miCneuli bibliur wignTa Soris CaTvalon IV makabelTa (igi ioseb flaviuss ekuTvnis) da III ezra (romelic arc ebraul da arc berZnul enebze ar arsebobs, SemorCenilia mxolod laTinurze, Zvel somxurze da
Zvel qarTulze).
***

xuTwigneulis anu xuTi wignis erTianobis mowmoba Tavad Zveli aRTqmis teqstSia dadasturebuli. rva gansxvavebuli saxelwodebiT ixsenieba is bibliis sxvadasxva wignebSi: da Semdeg waikiTxa iesom rjulis yvela sityva (ieso 8:34); nu ganeSoreba rjulis es wigni Sens bageebs (ieso 1:8); rogorc es weria moses rjulis wignSi (ieso
8:31); rogorc weria moses wignSi (1ezr. 6:18); ezram
guls idva uflis rjulis Zieba (1ezr. 7:10); raTa evloT
RvTis rjuliT (neem. 10:28); da Cawera iesom es sityvebi
RvTis rjulis wignSi (ieso 24:26); Tan hqondaT uflis
rjulis wigni (2neSt. 17:9).
aq yvelgan wmida werili xuTwigneuls gulisxmobs,
radgan danarCeni wignebi am epoqaSi jer kidev ar iyo Seqmnili, maTi dro jer kidev ar iyo damdgari. es aris pirveli krebuli, romelmac dasabami misca Zveli aRTqmis
korpuss.

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

axal aRTqmaSi xuTwigneuli imave saxelwodebebiT ixsenieba: rjulis wigni (gal. 3:10), moses wigni (mark. 12:26 iesos piriT), moses rjuli (luk. 2:22), uflis rjuli (luk.
2:23), rjuli (maT. 12:5, iesos piriT), rac misi mTlianobis
Zveli tradiciis gviandeli mowmobaa.
am saxelwodebebidan vigebT, rom 1) es aris rjuli Tavisi SinaarsiT; 2) es aris wigni Tavisi formiT; 3) es aris
uflis (RvTis) rjuli (misi RvTiuri warmoSobis mowmoba); 4) es aris moses dawerili wigni (misi adamianuri warmoSobis mowmoba).
ras niSnavs rjuli, ebr. Torah? ebrauli sityva warmodgeba zmnidan arah, romlis kauzatiuri formis amosavali
mniSvnelobaa (isris) tyorcna, sxureba, wvimeba, xolo
meoradi, metaforuli: mimarTulebis micema, ganswavla,
damoZRvra. amrigad moreh niSnavs moZRvars, merjules
(vinc iyo mose), Torah _ moZRvrebas, kanons, rjuls.
metafora efuZneba siswores, romelsac qmnis isris, udabnos adamianis erTaderTi iaraRis, mimarTuleba da, meore
mxriv, ideas cxovelmyofelobisa, rac udabnos mkvidrTaTvis moaqvs wvimas.
rjuls am wignis saxelwodebaSi orgvari mniSvneloba
aqvs. rjuls, sakralur da sazogadoebriv kanonmdeblobas,
rac safuZvlad udevs israelis cxovrebas, gamWolad moicavs xuTwigneuli, igi gasdevs xuTive wigns. magram xuTwigneulSi aranaklebi, SesaZloa, meti adgili uWiravs narativs,
romelic inaxavs israelis sazogadoebis aseve fuZemdeblur
aqtebs, rac kanomdeblobasTan erTad misi warsulis, awmyosa
da momavlis ganmsazRvrel rjuls warmoadgens.
amrigad, xuTwigneuli Zveli aRTqmis monumenturi Senobis saZirkvelia. amave dros, is misi gansruleba da gvirgvinic aris. is aris israelis sazogadoebis amgvaryofnis mizezic da mizanic. am azriT, igi istoriis dasabamSi, udabnos TavisuflebaSi Seiqmna da istoriuli procesis gavliT
metaistoriis TavisuflebaSi gadadis.
vidre xuTwigneulis calkeuli wignebis ganmartebas SevudgebodeT, movixiloT es wignebi maTs mTlianobaSi, ramac misi _ xuTwigneulis _ sazrisi unda warmoaCinos.
vfiqrob, ramdenadac wignis sazrisi rCeuli eris qmnadobis istoriaa (axlo da Soreul prefigurativul perspeqtivaSi), wigni mkveTrad geo-anTropocentrulia. yvelaferi, rac iqmneba, adamianisTvis iqmneba, RvTis xatisTvis, da, sabolood, isev RmerTs, pirvel xats ubrundeba.
wignSi oTxi etapia, Sesabamisad, oTxi, urTierTgardamavali da urTierTgammsWvalavi Tema:
I.
nivTieri samyaro. casa da miwas Soris, romlebic
Seadgenen mTels kosmoss, uxilavsa da xilul samyaros, Semoqmedi airCevs miwas (pirveli arCeva).
II. adami. is Canafiqri da is wesi, rogorc adami Seiqmna,
mis rCeulobaze metyvelebs (meore arCeva).

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Sesavali

III. kacobrioba. viszec Semoqmedi zrunavs da visac


sjis, ara angelozTa samyaroa, aramed adamis codvili modgma (mesame arCeva).
IV. erTi xalxi. abraamis wiaRidan gamosuli aranakleb
codvili xalxi uflis rCeuli eria (meoTxe arCeva).
aqedan gamomdinare, xuTwigneulis yuradRebis SuagulSia miwa, adamiani, kacobrioba, rCeuli eri. isini gadaskvnilni arian erTmaneTTan erTmaneTis mimarT pasuxisgeblobiT, saerTo momavlisken mimarTulni, xsnis erTian gangebulobaSi gaerTianebulni. miwis saidumlo adamianis saidumloa, kacobriobis saidumlo _ rCeuli eris saidumlo,
romlis istoria, unikalobisa da ganumereblobis miuxedavad, potenciurad yvela xalxisa da, bolos, mTeli kacobriobis bedisweris matarebelia.
xuTwigneulis umetesi nawili rCeuli eris Tavgadasavals aqvs daTmobili. pirvel rigSi, es wigni, Tu mas garedan SevxedavT, erTi gankerZoebuli xalxis istoriaa, romlis absoluturi genezisi iwyeba ara mxolod abraam mamamTavriT, arc mxolod adamiT; is iwyeba miwis gaCenidan, rogorc im asparezidan, sadac unda mosuliyo mxsneli, rCeuli, im rCeuli da Semdgom mojanye angelozis xeliT dangreuli samyaros aRsadgenad da mosapoveblad. am kosmiuri (da, kerZod, sakacobrio) amocanis ganxorcielebaSi Semoqmedma ara angelozebi, ara qerubim-serafimni, aramed
adamiani airCia.
xuTwigneuli mogviTxrobs adamianebis da maT saqmeTa
Sesaxeb, da RvTis Sesaxeb mxolod im mxridan, ra mxridanac
is calkeul adamianTa da xalxebis istoriis warmmarTvelia. amitom vambobT, rom biblia da, kerZod, xuTwigneuli
anTropocentruli wignia. Cvens winaSe Caivlian adamianebi, adamianTa tipebi _ umniSvneloni (epizodurni) da
mniSvnelovanni, glaxakni da didebulni, kerZoni da sazogadoebrivni, uCinoni da rCeulni, romlebzec met-naklebad gadadis providenciis mier maTze dakisrebuli sayovelTao xsnis tvirTi. ar unda vifiqroT, rom isini monurad emorCilebian gangebis xels, isini avtomaturi arsebani ar arian, maT TavianTi erTxel mocemuli cxovreba
aqvT da ufrTxildebian mas, yovelTvis ar arian mzad,
RvTiuri gangebisTvis Tavis gasawirad. ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom isinic adamianebi arian, CvensaviT xrwnadi xorciT moxilni. gvmarTebs pieteti maT mimarT. marTalia,
maT gangebam esqatologiuri amocanebi dausaxa, magram es
amocanebi yofiT-adamianuri saSualebebiT xorcieldeba.
maTi uSualo sazrunavi sakuTari Tavi, ojaxi, cxvris fara
da udabnoSi gaTxrili Webia, ufali ki am sazrunavebis
meSveobiT axorcielebs uwinares yovelTa saukuneTa gangebulebas. me minda vTqva, rom isini Cveulebrivi adamianebi arian, amocanebi ki _ RvTiuri aqvT. ramdenad hqondaT
maT Segnebuli sakuTari misia? ra icodnen da ra ar icod-

11

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

nen TavianTi misiis Sesaxeb abraamma, isakma (romelmac esavi airCia) da iakobma (romelmac rCeuli Svili mosaklavad
gagzavna ZmebTan)?
martin buberi erTgan wers, rom biblia ar iZleva adamianTa tipebs da xasiaTebs, aramed _ adamianebs garemoebebSi. daveTanxmebiT: biblia ar aris mxatvruli nawarmoebi (fiction), rom mis avtorTa mizani tipebisa da xasiaTebis
xatva iyos. me vityodi, rom esa Tu is tipi da xasiaTi qmnis
ama Tu im, swored amgvar da ara sxvanair garemoebas, ufro sworad, adamianis xasiaTi (farTod gagebuli) gansazRvravs im garemoebas, romelSic igi aRmoCndeba; adamiani
Tavad qmnis im garemoebas, romelSic mas uxdeba moqmedeba. samoqmedo situacia misi pirovnebisgan ganyenebulad
ar arsebobs. bibliuri patriarqi ibadeba Tavisi SesaZleblobebiT, romelTa manifestacia ama Tu im garemoebaSi xdeba. isaki ver moxvdeboda im garemoebaSi, ramac abraamisgan moiTxova motacebuli Zmiswulis, lotis, daxsna
tyveobidan, romlis Sedegad ganxorcielda esqatologiur-metaistoriuli Sexvedra melqisedekTan. es ar iyo
isakis mowodeba; da arc xilva angelozTa kibisa, romelic ixila misma Zem iakobma luzSi, sazRvarze, roca igi
garboda. isaki arasodes aRmoCndeboda iseT situaciaSi,
rom gasaqcevad hqonoda saqme. samagierod, masze, rogorc
samsxverplo pirutyvze, daRirebuli iyo maxvili da mas
unda daeTmina es gansacdeli. is, rac SeemTxvaT abraams
da isaks morias mTaze, mxolod am ors mama-Svils unda
SemTxveodaT. Cven viRebT bibliur mamamTavars yvelaferTan erTad, mTels garemoebasTan erTad, romlisganac
igi elis gamowvevas, raTa upasuxos sakuTari erTaderTi
da unikaluri pasuxiT, raSic CaTreulia sagnebi, movlenebi da adamianebi, urTierTobebi, _ es misi cxovrebaa,
misi ara mxolod awmyo, aramed warsulic da momavalic.
xuTwigneulis qronologiuri CarCo moicavs daaxloebiT 500 wels, Zv. welTaRricxvis XVIII-XIII saukuneebs, evfratis gadalaxvidan, roca abraamma datova qaldevelTa uri,
iordanis aRmosavleT napirze dabanakebamde, roca misi
Teslidan warmoSobili ormilioniani xalxi miadga mas, raTa gadaelaxa da mamamTavarTa mdgmurobis qveyanaSi damkvidrebuliyo.
***
zemoT iTqva, rom moses xuTwigneuli erTi mTlianobaa.
amdenad, arsebobs misi calke wignad gamocemis tradicia.
xuTwigneulis Zveli qarTuli Targmani calke wignad orgzis gamoica:
1. Zveli aRTqma: xuTi wigni mosesi, tfilisi, saRmrTo
werilis ganmavrceleblis britaniis da ucxo qveyanaTa sazogadoebis gamocema, 1898.

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Sesavali

2. Zveli aRTqma: xuTi wigni mosesi, tfilisi, gamocema


britanul da ucxo qveynur bibliur sazogadoebisa, 1900.
rac Seexeba xuTwigneulis Targmans axal qarTul enaze,
dResdReobiT arsebobs oTxi damoukidebeli Targmani,
romlebic dabeWdilia:
1. bibliis saqarTvelos sapatriarqoseul gamocemaSi
(Tbilisi, 1989).
2. bibliis saqarTvelos bibliuri sazogadoebis gamocemaSi (Tbilisi, 2001).
3. Toris qarTul gamocemaSi ebraul teqstTan erTad
(ieruSalaimi, 1995).
4. Toris xuTwigneulis qarTul gamocemaSi (Tel-avivi,
1996).
winamdebare Targmaneba eyrdnoba sapatriarqos gamocemas. mkiTxveli SeamCnevs, rom wignSi zogierTi damowmebuli
adgili ar emTxveva am gamocemis teqsts. es imis gamoa, rom
Targmani qmnadobis _ dazustebis procesSia. ama Tu im monakveTis ganmartebam dedanTan ufro metad miaxloebuli
Targmani moiTxova. imedia, dazustebuli Targmani adre Tu
gvian ixilavs dRis sinaTles.
E
***

xuTwigneulis ganmartebani leqciebis saxiT ekiTxeboda Tbilisis sasuliero akademiisa da Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis aRmosavleTmcodneobis fakultetze
asiriologiis studentebs _ madloba maT mosmenisTvis.
wigni iwereboda aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi (1994-2004)
da weris kvalobaze ibeWdeboda erTaderT qarTulenovan
farTo diapazonis religiur JurnalSi religia mis
Tavdadebul muSakTa _ q-n naTela xurcilavas, b-n gigla
abdalaZis da b-n giorgi arabulis xelSewyobiT, risTvisac maT guliTad madlobas vuZRvni.
madlobas vuZRvni megobars da kolegas merab RaRaniZes
SromaSi gamxnevebisTvis da naSromis dauzareblad gacnobisTvis, raTa is ukeTesi gamxdariyo, vidre dawerili iyo.
madlobas vuZRvni maT, vinc itvirTes wignis gamocema _
qristianuli Teologiisa da kulturis centrs da, piradad, m. pier diumulens.
zurab kiknaZe
almati (Zveli vaSlovani)
agvisto, 2004

13

dabadeba

ebraul tradiciaSi xuTwigneulis pirvel wigns saTaurad


aqvs misi pirveli sityva bereSiT _ `dasawyisSi~; misgan gansxvavebulia berZnuli septuagintaseuli (aqedan laTinuri)
saxelwodeba, romelic damkvidrda dasavlur enebSi, maT Soris, qarTulSi: genesis _ arazusti TargmaniT `dabadeba~, `Sesaqme~. es ori saxelwodeba _ ebrauli da berZnuli ori arsebiTi mxridan gvimxelen wignis Sinaarss: misi ZiriTadi Temaa Seqmna-Semoqmedeba, rogorc fuZemdebluri Rirebuleba, rasac
gamoxatavs misi pirveli sityva. am wignSi yvelaferi pirvelad
xdeba, rogorc absolutur dasawyisSi, romelic ar gulisxmobs winaperiods an motivacias. ra iyo ca-da-miwis Seqmnamde
an ratom Seiqmna? rogor cxovrobda abraamis sagvareulo qaldevelTa urSi da risTvis gamovida iqidan? rac bereSiTSi xdeba, pirvelad xdeba, amdenad arqetipulia yvela qmnileba da
movlena, mTeli realoba da an misi nawili: dila-saRamo _ erT
dRed,Epirvelqmnili mcenare _ Tavis gvarisda mixedviT, adami
_ RvTis xatad, abraami _ rCeuli eris (rac RvTisxatobis erTi gamovlenaa) saxed, kaeni _ mkvlelis tipad, abeli _ msxverplad, noe _ srul da marTal kacad... isaki _ aRTqmis Zed, ismael-esavi _ xorciel Svilad...
wignSi SegviZlia oTxi, erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli an erTmaneTisgan gamomdinare, nawili gamovyoT:
samyaro anu nivTieri sinamdvile _ miwa da rac miwazea maTi Seqmnis procesSi, Sesaqmis eqvsi dRe (1:1-25); adamis Seqmna,
adami da eva samoTxeSi (1:26-31; 2:18-24).
adamis codva da sasjeli (3); adamis codvis nayofi: abeli
da kaeni, kaenis codva (4).
pirveli kacobrioba warRvnamde (6:1-12); warRvna (6:13_8:122); warRvnis Semdeg _ noe da misi Zeni (9:1-29); babilonis godoli da xalxebis ganfantva (11:1-9).
rCeuli eris (uflis eris), rogorc mTeli xuTwigneulis
subieqtis, dasawyisi. abraamis genealogia (11:10-32); abraamis
gamosvla xaranidan da qanaanSi mdgmuroba, gamocxadebebi
(12:1_20); isaki, esavi da iakobi (21_27); iakobi xaranSi (28_31);
iosebi qanaanSi (37); iosebi egvipteSi, aRzeveba (39_41); iakobi
da misi Zeni egvipteSi (42_50).

16

ca da miwa
(1:1-2)
cani caTani uflisani arian,
xolo qveyana mosca ZeTa kacTasa.
(fsal. 113:24)

`Tavdapirvelad RmerTma Seqmna ca da miwa~ _ ase iwyeba biblia. am sityvebs mosdevs Sesaqmis eqvsdRiani
procesis aRwera. rogorc Cans, es `Tavdapirvelad~
(sxvanairad `dasawyisSi~, `dasabamSi~, an, Zveli qarTuli versiiT, `dasabamad~) Sesaqmis dReTa gareSe dgas,
win uswrebs maT da, raki win uswrebs, misi `adgili~ udroJamobaSia. am udroJamo `dasawyisSi~ uflis neba
qmnis `cas da miwas~, anu uxilavs da xiluls, sulieri da
nivTieri samyaroebis erTianobas, kosmoss, romlis cnebis gadmosacemad arc Zvelebraul enaSi, arc sxva semitur enebSi, da arc SumerulSi ar arsebobda sakuTrivi
sityva. kosmosis cneba gamoixateboda am sityvaTa (ca da
miwa) SewyvilebiT. meore mxriv, cnebaSi `ca~ (dedanSi
es sityva mravlobiT formaSia) igulisxmeba angelozuri samyaro, romelic RmerTma miwaze uwinares Seqmna. wm.
grigol noselis igavuri TqmiT, es ca is oTxmocdacxrameti cxvaria, romlebic keTilma mwyemsma, erTi dakarguli mease cxvris saZebnad wasulma, miatova. dakarguli cxvari adamianTa miwaa, romliskenac aris mipyrobili Sesaqmis avtoris mTeli gulisyuri. dabadebis wigni
arafers gvamcnobs cis Seqmnaze, angelozTa gaCenaze, es
saidumlod rCeba adamianisTvis. rogoria is ca, Cven ar
viciT, magram viciT, rogori iyo miwa Tavdapirvelad,
vidre Sesaqmis eqvsi dRe daiwyeboda.
miwis Tavdapirveli mdgomareobis gadmosacemad avtori iyenebs or sityvas _ Tohu da bohu, romelTa zusti mniSvneloba daudgenelia, ganusazRvrelia iseve,
rogorc pirvelqmnili miwis saxe an, ufro sworad, usaxoba Tu usaxuroba. `da miwa iyo Tohu -va-bohu~, rac SeiZleba gavigoT rogorc: `miwa iyo areul-dareuli~ an
`usaxur-udaburi~, rac unda gamoxatavdes miwis qaotur mdgomareobas. es sityvebi wyvilad kidev orgzis
gvxvdeba wmida werilSi, orivegan `araraobis~, `ngrevisa~ da `udaburebis~ mniSvnelobiT. `Sevxede miwas
da, aha, Tohu -va-bohu iyo~ (ier. 4:23; ix. agr. es. 31:14).
calke Tohu: `ara amaod (Tohu) Seqmna igi (miwa), aramed
samkvidrebelad~ (es. 45:18).
imave muxlSi `bneli iyo ufskrulis pirze~ azustebs
pirvandeli qaosis bunebas _ es aris sibnele (xoSeq) da
ufskruli, (Tehom), magram es ar aris sicariele; aqaduri Ti(h)amaT_
E zRvis (saidanac unda iyos nasesxebi Te-

17

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

hom) analogiiT _ unda iyos wylis pirvelarsebuli


stiqia, rogorc amas adasturebs momdevno fraza: `da
suli RvTisa iZvroda wyalTa zedapirze~. maSasadame,
miwas Tavdapirvelad wylis stiqiis saxe hqonda, oRond
es saxe mrume da mRvriea. avtori aq gadmoscems materiis
Seqmnas araraobidan _ misi amgvari saxe araraobasa da
arsebobas Soris Sualeduri mdgomareobis mimaniSnebelia. am qaosSi sinaTle da wesrigi, dabolos, sicocxle
Seaqvs RvTis suls (ruax elohim). misi moqmedeba gadmocemulia unikaluri zmniT, romelic erTaderTxel
gvxvdeba Zvel aRTqmaSi Tavis bartyebze gadafofrili
frinvelis moqmedebis gadmosacemad: `rogorc arwivi...
zed efofreba Tavis marTveebs~ (rjl. 32:11). marTalia,
metaforulad, magram ufro ukeTesad da ufro zedmiwevniT Znelia RvTis sulis (wmida sulis) moqmedebis
gageba, rogorc es basili dids aqvs gagebuli `eqvsTa
dReTaSi~, sadac Tavis mxriv damowmebulia am adgilis
siriuli Targmani: `da viTar iqceoda igi zeda wyalTa?
me gauwyo Sen, ara Tu TaviT CemiT vityvi, aramed Tqumulisa misgan kacisa asurastanelisa, ganSorebulisa sibrZnisagan amis soflisa da maxlobelisa mecnierebisagan
WeSmaritisa. rameTu ityoda igi, viTarmed: sityva asurastanelTa ufros gamoCinebul ars TargmanebisaTvis wignTasa, rameTu maxlobel ars igi ebraelebisa. da
Targmaneba, Zali sityvisa amis ars romeli-igi Tqua,
viTarmed: iqceoda igi, ese igi ars, viTarmed: itfobda
da ganacxovelebda b
F unebasa wylisasa, viTarca igi qmnis
qaTamman matfobarman, romelman miscis Zali ganmacxovelebeli misgan datfobilTa maT...~ RvTis sulis moqmedeba aq Semsgavsebulia kruxis moqmedebas, romelic
azis Tavis wiwilebs gasaTbobad Tu kvercxebs gamosaCekad. aseve `Ceks~ suli samyaros (yuradReba unda mivaqcioT imas, rom ebrauli sityva ruax _ `suli~ _ dedrobiTi sqesisaa).
suls Seaqvs qaotur, mRvrie wylebSi, upirveles yovlisa, naTeli da mere _ wesrigi. naTeli iqmneba pirvel
dResve RvTis sityviT: `iyos naTeli~ (1:3). meore dRes
ganaTebul qmnilebaSi Semodis wesrigi RvTisave sityviT: `iyos wyalTa Soris myari da gahyaros wylebi~.
gamijvna _ es aris kosmogoniuri pirveladi aqti, romelsac mohyveba sxva aqtebi, sityvis ZaliT aRsrulebuli. mesame dRes erTmaneTs emijneba is elementi, romelic am qaosidan unda gaxdes realuri wyali, _ es (Cveni) wyali, _ da is elementi, romelic unda iyos realuri miwa, _ es (Cveni) miwa, niadagi, xmeleTi. es xorcieldeba RvTis sityviT: `Seikribos erTgan cisqveSeTis
wylebi da gamoCndes xmeleTi~ (1:9). am aqtiT ukve Seqmnilia miwa, magram mas esaWiroeba ganmzadeba, rac imave, mesame, dRes xorcieldeba mcenareulobis warmoSobiT da grZeldeba momdevno dReebSi safexurebrivad.
aqve unda davZinoT, rom meore dRes Seqmnili ca (Samaim
`cani~) `miwieri~, xiluli caa da ara is uxilavi ca, ro-

18

dabadeba

melic pirvel muxlSia dasaxelebuli. am cas da am miwas


orives _ erTi wiaRi aqvs: Tohu -va-bohu. es ca im cis
miwieri xatia, rogorc simbolo sulieri samyarosi.
Sesaqmis xuTi dRe
(1:3-23)
mcenares aRmoacenebs ukve miwa Tavisi ZaliT, radgan
masSi Cadebulia es SesaZlebloba (unari): `aRmoacenos
miwam mcenareuli~ (1:11). mcenare a
F Rmocendeba (aca)
miwis wiaRidan iseTad, rom mas SeeZlos Tavisive msgavsis, Tavisi gvaris warmomSobi nayofis (Teslis) gamoReba. mcenarem unda gamoiRos nayofi, romelSic iqneba
misive aRmomacenebeli Tesli (zeray). mesame dRes miwa
(erec) ganmzadebulia.
meoTxe dRe aris Semzadeba cocxal arsebaTa Sesaqmnelad _ am dRes RmerTi akeTebs (yasah) or mnaTobs
(mzesa da mTvares) da varskvlavebs, rac imavdroulad
aris dRisa da Ramis erTmaneTisgan gamijvnis aqti. miwis ganmzadebis Semdeg xdeba miwiszeda Sris, atmosferos mowesrigeba (1:14-18).
mexuTe dRes RmerTi qmnis (bara) wylis mkvidrT
(Tevzebs da sxva arsebebs) da caSi mfrinvelT (1:20-22).
esenic imave principiT iqmnebian, rogorc mcenareebi
warmoiSvnen: mcuravi da mfrinveli atareben Tavis TavSi Tesls, saidanac maTive msgavsi, maTi gvaris arseba
unda daibados. es erTi saerTo dRe maTi Sesaqmisa raRac niSniT aerTianebs maT erTmaneTTan; SesaZloa, maT
anaTesavebdeT sivrceSi (haerSi da wyalSi) gadanacvlebis, moZraobis erTgvaroba, erTi principi.
meeqvse dRe. cxovelebi
(1:24-25)
meeqvse dRe Sesaqmis mwvervalia.
am dRes RmerTma gaaCina sakuTriv miwieri arsebani _
cxovelebi da qvemZromni _ da, bolos, kaci (1:25-27).
cxovelTa Sesaxeb ori ram unda iTqvas. maT gaCenaze
naTqvamia: `warmoSvas miwam cocxali arseba (nefeS xaah) Tav-Tavisi gvarisda mixedviT... (1:24). Semoqmedi ki
ar qmnis maT uSualod `Tavisi xeliT~, aramed warmoaSobinebs miwas. amiT gaxazulia cxovelSi miwieri qvedaziduli buneba, ufro zustad, cxovelTa sicocxlis
miwieri gansazRvruloba. cxovelis samSvinveli miwasTan aris naziarebi, kacis (adamis) suli ki uSualod
RvTis mier aris STaberili. meore: `gaaCina RmerTma nadiri (xaaT ha-arec) Tav-Tavisi gvarisda mixedviT da
saqoneli (behemah) Tav-Tavisi gvarisda mixedviT...~
(1:25). biblia gveubneba, rom RmerTma ori bunebis cxovelebi gaaCina: erTni, romlebic eqvemdebarebian moSinaurebas; meoreni, romlebic ar eqvemdebarebian da adamianTa sazogadoebis gareSe velurebad, gareulebad rCebian. maT Soris fundamenturi sxvaobaa kacobriobis mTeli istoriis manZilze. cxovelTa moSinaurebis proce-

19

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

si didi xania dasrulda, gareulni ki gareulebad darCnen, radgan maTi buneba swored amgvarad, `Tavisi gvarisda mixedviT~ Seiqmna. Tav-Tavisi gvari kidev imaze
miuTiTebs, rom TiToeuli gvaris pirutyvi cal-calke,
erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad Seiqmna da ara ise, rom
jer erTi cxoveluri arseba Seqmniliyo erTmaneTisgan
gvareobiT gansxvavebuli cxovelebis winaprad.
cxovelTa samyaro mravalricxovani gvaris arsebaTagan Sedgeba, kaci ki, adami, erTiani kacobriobis winaparia. adami erTi unikaluri gvarisda mixedviT Seiqmna.
meqvse dRe. adami
(1:26-31; 2:1-25)
kacis (adam) Seqmnis mniSvnelovnoba gadmocemulia
zmnis mravlobiT ricxviT: `gavaCinoT~ ( nayase _
vqmnaT, gavakeToT), rac mxolod am SemTxvevaSia gamoyenebuli. saeklesio gadmocemiT, es mravlobiTi ricxvi gulisxmobs wmida samebis (RmerTi, sityva, suliwmida) TaTbirs iseTi arsebis Sesaqmnelad, romelic unda iyos xati (celem) da msgavseba (demuT) RvTisa, sxva
danarCen qmnilebaTa Soris gamorCeuli. amgvarad, kaci
(adami) iqmneba rogorc RvTis rCeuli. es aris pirveli
RvTismieri arCeva Sesaqmis procesSi. pirvel yovlisa,
adamianis RvTis xatoba unda gamoCndes imaSi, rom igi
unda iyos yoveli qmnilebisa da Tavad `mTeli dedamiwis~ patroni (1:26), msgavsad samyaros Semoqmedisa da
patronisa _ RvTisa. radgan misTvis aris Seqmnili miwac da yvelaferi, rac maszea, rac masSia da rac mis zemoT aris. ioane oqropiri wers, rom RvTis xati adamianSi misi bunebis Rirsebaze ki ar miuTiTebs, aramed
patronobis unarze. da, rogorc patroni aZlevs saxelebs Tavis sapatronebelT (Svilebs da sxvaTa), aseve
adams RmerTma SeqmnisTanave SesZina unari cxovelebisTvis saxelebis micemisa (2:19). RvTiuri TaTbiriT Seqmnili adami, kaci, rTuli arsebaa. kaci gulisxmobs mama-kacs da deda-kacs. `mamakacad da dedakacad Seqmna
isini~, ambobs teqsti (1:27). aq gamoricxulia pirvelgaCenili adamis warmodgena androginad, orsqesian arsebad, amis nebas ar iZleva sityva `isini~ (oTam). adamiani ar aris mxolod mamri, da ar aris mxolod dedri,
aramed mxolod da mxolod wyvili (mamri da dedri)
aris mTliani adamiani, RvTis xatad Seqmnili adamis
ideis matarebeli.
amgvarad gaCenil adams mieca sapatroneblad miwa
yovel qmnilebasTan erTad, xolo sazrdod _ mcenareuloba (1:29).
yvelaferi, rac arsebobs, am eqvsi dRis ganmavlobaSi
Seiqmna da, rac Seiqmna, srulyofilebiT Seiqmna, rasac
adasturebs RvTis mier eqvsgzis, yoveli dRis qmnilebis `moxilvisas~, warmoTqmuli: `kargia~ (tov) da erTgzis, sabolood, Sesaqmis mTels nayofze, mis mTlianobaze, naTqvami: `Zalian kargia~ (tov meod). RvTis mi-

20

dabadeba

er, absoluturi arsebis mier gamoTqmuli Sefaseba,


cxadia, absoluturi WeSmaritebis gamomxatvelia.
Sesaqmis, rogorc mTlianobis, srulyofileba momdevno TavSic aris dadasturebuli: `gasrulda ca da miwa mTeli maTi morTulobiT~ (2:1). dedniseuli sityva
(cava'), romelic aq Targmnilia, rogorc `morTuloba~
(an `samkauli~), Cveulebriv Zvel aRTqmaSi aRniSnavs
`mxedrobas~ (rogorc miwiers, aseve ciurs); etimologiurad igi Seicavs `simwyobris~ ideas, rac adekvaturad aris gadmocemuli berZnul TargmanSi (kosmos).
meSvide dRes Semoqmedi wyvets SemoqmedebiT process _ es dRe `SabaTia~ _ (SabaT) `Sewyveta~, saidanac
iRebs igi `dasvenebis~ mniSvnelobas. RmerTma `wmidayo~ es dRe anu gamoacalkeva, gamijna igi sxva dReTagan,
mianiWa ra mas gansakuTrebuli statusi (aq _ 1:3 _ pirvelad Semodis Zveli aRTqmis teqstSi bibliuri TeologiisTvis umniSvnelovanesi cneba-kategoria, romelic gacxadebulia am sam TanxmovanSi: kdS).
meore TavSi avtori ubrundeba adams, radgan is aris
Sesaqmis gvirgvini _ misTvis Seiqmna yvelaferi, rac Seiqmna. am TavSi swored am kuTxiT aris ganmeorebuli
mcenareTa, cxovelTa da adamis Sesaqme. magram am meore
moTxrobaSi Sesaqmis rigi Secvlilia: `jer kidev mindvris buCqic ar iyo miwaze... da kaci (adam) ar iyo, rom
miwa daemuSavebina... da gamosaxa ufalma RmerTma adami
miwis mtvrisagan...~ (2:5-7). ufro qvemoT, adamis g
FU amosaxvis Semdeg `gamosaxa ufalma RmerTma miwisagan velis yoveli cxoveli...~ (2:19). TiTqos adamis Seqmna win
uswrebs mcenareTa da cxovelTa gaCenas. bibliis kritika fiqrobs, rom aq arsebaTa Sesaqmis ori gansxvavebuli tradiciaa erTmaneTze xelovnurad mikerebuli,
rom TiTqos es ori tradicia ewinaaRmdegeba erTmaneTs. pasuxi aseTi iqneba: es ori moTxroba Tundac gansxvavebuli tradiciidan momdinareobdes, erTmaneTis
miyolebiT maT arsebobas teqstSi Tavisi axsna unda
hqondes. TiToeul am gadmocemas Tavisi funqcia aqvs da
sxvadasxva kuTxiT gangvimartavs adamianis Sesaqmis mizans, adamianis bunebas da mis adgils cocxal arsebaTa
samyaros ierarqiaSi.
pirvel TavSi adamiani Sesaqmis bolo etapia, rogorc gvirgvini Sesaqmisa. is yvelaze bolos iqmneba,
rogorc iseTi arseba, romelmac unda ataros RvTis xati. adamiT gansruldeba Sesaqme da dgeba SabaTi, dRe
gansvenebisa, kurTxeuli da wmida dRe. ioane oqropiri
ambobs, rom adamiani yvelaze bolos movida, rogorc
mefe modis misTvis gamzadebul qalaqSi, raTa dajdes
Tavis taxtze. misma gamCenma amiT aCvena, Tu ra Rirseba
mianiWa man am cocxal arsebas, romelic imave dRes Seqmna, ra dResac cxovelebi. qronologia aq ierarqiulia.
meore TavSi mose isev da isev adamis Seqmnaze laparakobs, radgan adami gamoarCia RmerTma yvela sxva cxovelisgan da ara mxolod cxovelisgan, mTeli kosmosis-

21

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

gan, angelozTaganac (`rameTu odes sada vis hrqua angelozTagansa: Ze Cemi xari Sen da me dRes miSobie Sen~,
ebr. 1:5). es aris meore amorCeva mas Semdeg, rac Semoqmedma miwa amoarCia Tavis qmnilebaTagan, miwis arsebaTagan ki mTavari adamiania. da rac amis Semdeg aris moTxrobili bibliaSi, yvelaferi adams exeba, es misi Tavgadasavalia.
meore Tavi (2:6) gvamcnobs, rom adami aris principi
mTliani Sesaqmisa da amitomac is pirvelia qmnilebaTa
Soris. ase rom: adami, am ori monaTxrobis mixedviT,
aris Tavi da bolo, pirveli da u
E kanaskneli q
B mnilebaTa
Soris.
meore monaTxrobs kidev aqvs Tavisi kuTxe pirvelisgan gansxvavebiT: pirvel TavSi ufro laparakia adamis,
rogorc RvTis xatis, ideaze, rogoradac Seiqmna (zmna
bara) igi, Tundac gamorCeuli, ierarqiis umaRles safexurze myofi, magram mainc ierarqiaSi myofi sxva arsebaTa Soris. meore TavSi igi gamosaxa (icer, berZn.
eplasen, Zv. qarT. arazustad: `Seqmna~) RmerTma _ es
konkretuli qmedebaa, romelic gulisxmobs nivTierebasac, miwis (adamah) mtvers, risganac gamoisaxa igi.
marTalia, is miwis mtvrisgan aris gamosaxuli, magram
RmerTma Tavad Cabera mis nestoebs sicocxlis suli
(niSmaT xaim), rac cxovelTa mimarT ar moumoqmedia.
swored es RvTisgan monaberi sicocxlis suli unda yofiliyo adamis ukvdavebis sawindari.
`da gaaSena ufalma RmerTma baRi edemSi, aRmosavleTiT, da dasva iq adami, romelic gamosaxa~ (2:8). es muxli centraluria am TavSi da adamis ambavSi.
ori niSniT aris aRbeWdili es baRi edemSi (yeden
`netareba~) adamianis samyofeli. orive niSani Suagulis principia: baRis SuagulSi aRmoacena RmerTma ori
xe _ xe sicocxlisa da xe keTilisa da borotis garCevisa; baRis Suagulidan gasuli mdinare oTxad itoteba
samyaros oTxi mxaris mimarTulebiT. amaoa Zieba amgvari landSaftisa dedamiwis zurgze, sadme aRmosavleTSi, rogorc cdilobdnen gasul saukuneSi winaaziuri
arqeologiis aRmavlobis xanaSi, roca aRmoCnda aSurul-babilonuri da mere Sumeruli kultura _ TiTqos sakacobrio civilizaciis akvani, romelic lamis
pirvelkacis samSoblod daisaxa. mxolod ori mdinarea
cnobili Tavisi lokalizaciiT _ xidekel, igive tigrosi da feraT, igive evfrati; magram sinamdvileSi isini xom erTi mimarTulebiT miedinebian?
adami edemSi
(2:7-25)
ra xdeba edemis baRSi? risi qmna moaswro aq adamma?
meore TavSi, sadac adamis gaCenisa da edemSi misi
yofnis ambavia gadmocemuli, mkacri logikuri TanamimdevrobiT, erTmaneTisgan gamomdinareobiT aris moTxrobili adamis istoria mis dacemamde.

22

dabadeba

1
F ) aq kvlav ubrundeba wigni adamis gaCenas, raTa gamokveTos misi adgili dedamiwaze. marTalia, adamiani
iqmneba miwis mtvrisagan, magram es miwa, rogorc irineos lioneli ganmartavs, yamiri, daumuSavebeli miwaa,
saidanac jer araferi aRmocenebula, iseve rogorc
qalwulisgan iSva ieso; da 2) miwis mtvrisgan gamosaxul adams mieCina sacxovrebeli _ es aris baRi (samoTxe) edemSi, sadac mas mieca 3) amocana da 4) cnobili akrZalvac baRis erT-erTi xis nayofTan dakavSirebiT, da
5) ganisazRvra misi urTierToba cxovelebTan, romelTa Soris man ver amoarCia Tavisi Sesaferi, amitomac 6)
iqmneba dedakaci.
edemis baRSi Tavis adgils poulobs adamTan (jer is
martoa) mimarTebaSi mcenareuli da cxoveluri samyaro, da maTi saSo _ miwa, ara erec, aramed adamah (`niadagi~), saidanac adamis sxeulia `aRebuli~.
`aiyvana adami ufalma da RmerTma da daasaxla edemis baRSi mis dasamuSaveblad da dasacavad~ (2:15).
arc `damuSaveba~ (yabad) da arc `dacva~ (Samar) ar
gulisxmobs utilitarul saqmianobas, es aris adamis
edemuri moRvaweoba, romlis warmodgena edems mowyvetili adamis cnobierebiT da gamoxatva amgvarive eniT
SeuZlebelia. orive es cneba, romliTac misi saqmianobis es ori mxarea gamoxatuli, mniSvnelovani cnebebia
Zvel aRTqmaSi _ maTi religiuri datvirTva aSkaraa:
yabad niSnavs ara mxolod `Sromas~, aramed `Tayvaniscemas~, ufro zustad iseT Sromas, romelSic nagulisxmevia samsaxuri vinmesTvis, vinmes sasargeblod. `mis
dasamuSaveblad~ _ `mis samsaxurad~, adamis RvTiuri
movaleobaa, emsaxuros edemis baRs _ RvTis sagangebo
qmnilebas, miwis esencias, yvelaze saukeTesos, rac ki
dedamiwis arsebaSia, miwas aRmatebiT xarisxSi. pirvelqmnil, qalwulebriv miwas, saidanac Tavad aris
`aRebuli~, unda emsaxuros adami. ara mxolod emsaxuros, aramed daicvas kidec _ magram visgan? `dacva~ (anu
`Senaxva~, `damarxva~ ZvelqarTuli mniSvnelobiT) am
SemTxvevaSi ar gulisxmobs baRis dacvas raime gareSe
SemoWrisgan; am `dacvasac~ religiuri mniSvneloba
aqvs: adamma baRi iseve unda daicvas edemSi, rogorc
edems gareT daevaleba mas rjulisa da mcnebaTa dacva
_ es misi samsaxuri iqneba, es iqneba RvTis mier dakisrebuli movaleobis Sesruleba.
dacva, damarxva _ yovelTvis dakavSirebulia simrTelis, pirveli mdgomareobis SenarCunebasTan. baRis
dacva iqneba, Tu adami daicavs sakuTar Tavsac, Tu daicavs im sityvas, romliTac RmerTma aukrZala mas erTerTi xis nayofis SeWma. `rogorc ki SeWam, mokvdebi~ _
es akrZalva uSualo kavSirSia edemis baRis dacva-SenaxvasTan. es misi samsaxuria, baRis mimarT, misi miwis
mimarT valdebulebis negatiuri gamoxatulebaa. Tu
dairRveva akrZalva, edemis baRic daikargeba. am epizodSi adami, rogorc gancxovelebuli miwa _ adamah,

23

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

miwis muSakis rolSia. aq pirvelad daekisra mas pasuxismgebloba miwisa da misi nayofebisTvis.
axla unda gairkves adamis mimarTeba cxovelTa samyarosTan.
`da gamosaxa ufalma RmerTma miwisagan velis yovelnairi cxoveli da cis yovelnairi frinveli da mihgvara
adams, rom enaxa, ras daarqmevda. romel suldgmuls rasac daarqmevda adami, misi saxelic is iqneboda~ (2:19).
saxeli axal Rirsebas, sxvaTagan gamorCeuls, aniWebs arsebas, gamokveTs mis individualobas, axal safexurze ahyavs qmnileba. am azriT, adami RvTis TanaSemoqmedia, misi Sesaqmuri Rvawlis ganmgrZelebelia miwaze, miwier SreSi yofierebisa. is, visac saxels arqmev, Seni morCili da Seni sapatronebelia, saboloo
azriT, Seni ga-Cen-ilia (Cen Ziris semantikis mixedviT). saxeli mas arsobas aniWebs, ga-mo-a-Cen-s. aseTi aqti ki mxolod Sinaganad Tavisufali moqmedisgan aris
mosalodneli. da swored `RvTisxatoba~ adamianis Tavisuflebas, misi, rogorc Semoqmedis, Tavisufali Semoqmedebis unars gulisxmobs. amave dros, RvTisxatoba adams aniWebs uflebas yvela qmnilebaze, xolo saxeldeba, rogorc ioane oqropiri wers, aris niSani
(simbolo) uflobisa.
meore mxriv, saxelis darqmeva saganTa bunebis gamocnobis tolfasia _ es TiTqmis erTi da igive aqtia. Tumca amocnoba win uZRvis saxeldebas, raTa saxeli Sesatyvisi iyos saxelis matareblis arsebisa, adekvaturad
gamoxatavdes mas. swored amitom aris, rom adamis mier
Tavisi Sesaferisis migneba da amorCeva cxovelTa Soris maTi saxeldebis procesSi xdeba. saxeli ar aris ubralod sagnis aRmniSvneli sityva; saxeli imitom aris
is, rac aris, rom saxeldebuli gamoepasuxos am saxels.
saxelis siswore imiT Semowmdeba, rom viRac gamoexmaureba mas. amrigad, yoveli cocxali arseba exmaureba im
saxels, romelic adamma daarqva mas. es ki imas niSnavs,
rom adams (saxelmdebels) da cxovelebs (saxeldebulT) Soris sityvieri urTierToba damyarda da ase
iyo edemis baRSi, vidre adami iq imyofeboda.
adamma amoicno yoveli maTganis buneba, magram maT
Soris `Semwe da Sesaferi ar aRmoCnda, Tumca es cocxali arsebani imave miwisgan iyvnen Seqmnilni. magram maT
akldaT imgvari `sicocxlis sunTqva, romelic adams
Cahbera RmerTma. arseba, romelic RvTis xatad iyo gaCenili am modgmis qmnilebaTa Soris Semwes da Sesafers
ver ipovnida. gauZlebda adami am martoobas? ar varga
adamis martod yofna, ai, ra Tqva RmerTma, sanam cxovelebs migvrida adams saxelTa Sesarqmevad. adamisTvis
martooba ar aris bunebrivi mdgomareoba _ adami Tavis sxvasTan saurTierTod Seiqmna, es urTierToba
devs mis bunebaSi. amitom iTqva misi Seqmnisas meeqvse
dRes, rom mamakacad da dedakacad Seqmna isini (1:27).
aq kacobriobis Teslzea miTiTeba.

24

dabadeba

magram RmerTs adamisTvis iseTi arseba unda mieyvana, romelSic adami amoicnobda Tavis Sesafers; romelic ar iqneboda misTvis, misi bunebisTvis ucxo. marTalia, cocxali arsebani adamiviT miwis mtvrisgan iqnen
gamosaxulni, magram, rogorc pavle mociquli wers,
`ara yoveli orci erT orc ars, aramed sxua orc ars
kacTa da sxua orc ars pirutyvTa~ (1kor. 15:39). roca RmerTma miuyvana mas cxovelebi _ sxva xorcis arsebani, es misi gansacdeli iyo _ pirveli (erTaderTi!)
gamocda, romelic adamma Caabara: arc erTi maTgani ar
scno man Tavis tolad.
mxolod is arseba SeeZlo adams ecno Tavis tolad,
romelzec ityoda: `Cem ZvalTagani da Cem xorcTagani~.
da aseTi arseba swored ise unda gaCeniliyo, rogorc
ufalma RmerTma gaaCina _ adamis neknidan, anu gamCenma
misi siRrmidan gamoiRo Zvali da xorciT Semosa. da
adamma, yoveli arsebis saxelmdebelma, masac uwoda Tavisi saxeli _ `dedakaci~ (ebr. iSSah). dedakaci ar aris
sxva, adamisgan gansxvavebuli qmnileba, rogoric is iqneboda, Tuki mas RmerTi damoukidebeli aqtiT Seqmnida Sesaqmis eqvsdReulSi, _ isic adamia, ufro sworad,
adamis nawilia. magram igi ukve Ugamosaxulisgan, ara
uSualod miwis mtvrisgan, Seqmna RmerTma. dedakaci ar
aris sruliad sxva, magram mainc aris sxva, adams SeeZlo
masze asec eTqva: `Cemi sxva~.
amiT daixura adamis samoTxeSi cxovrebis pirveli
periodi.
dacema
(3:1-7)
`da gveli cbieri iyo yvela velur cxovelze, romlebic ufalma gaaCina. da uTxra gvelma dedakacs...~ (3:1).
aq sami problemaa: Tavad gvelis vinaoba, misi `cbiereba~ da misi unari, daamyaros sityvieri kontaqti
RvTis xatad gaCenil arsebasTan.
Cven ver vxvdebiT, Tu ra saxisa iyo gveli, sanam ufali RmerTi daswyevlida mas evasa da adamis SecdenisTvis _ miwaze xoxialiT da miwis mtvris WamiT, da im
mtrobiT, romelic masa da adamians Soris aqtualurad
arsebobs. is ar unda yofiliyo zardamcemi, rogoric is
aris; Tavzardamcemi da zizRis gamomwvevi arseba ver
moaxerxebda imas, rac man moaxerxa. es gveli iseTive
mSvenieri da mimzidveli unda yofiliyo, rogoric iyo
is xe da misi nayofi, romlis Wama ufalma RmerTma aukrZala adams (da adamis xeliT dedakacs). dasjil-dacemul gvels SemorCenili aqvs `Zveli dideba~ _ misi Seferiloba, misi moqnili tani, idumaleba, romlis
msgavssac arc erTi veluri cxoveli ar iwvevs adamianSi, mowmobs mis sxvanair warsuls. is arsebac, romelmac
gveli gamoiyena RvTis xatis matarebelTa Sesacdenad,
ubrwyinvalesi angelosi iyo, da mas saxeladac SerCa
luciferi (Lucifer sxivosani~). meore mxriv, rogorc mo-

25

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ciquli pavle wers: `da ara sakvirvel ars, rameTu igica eSmaki icvalisve angelozad naTlisa~ (2kor. 11:14).
sityva, romliTac miniSnebulia gvelis `gonebrivi~
unari, naklebad aris dakavSirebuli sibrZnesTan (rogorc es Targmnilia slavurad ). gveli aris
ara xaxam `brZeni~, romlis moqmedeba arasodes iRebs
uaryofiT mimarTulebas, arasodes uaryofiTi niSniT,
bibliuri warmodgeniT sibrZne (xoqmah) eTikur kategorias ekuTvnis. misi Tanamdevia simarTle~ da samarTlianoba~. gveli aris yarum cbieri~, eSmaki~
(ara `avsulis~ mniSvnelobiT) _ swored iseTi, rogorc warudga is Cvens winaprebs.
albaT, ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom im muxls, sadac biblia laparakobs adamisa da dedakacis sxeulebriv
mdgomareobaze, rom isini `SiSvelni iyvnen~ (2:25), uSualod mosdevs (Tavebad dayofa gviandelia da, ramdenadme, pirobiTi) muxli, sadac Semodis gveli Tavisi
cbierebiT. SiSveli (yarom) da cbieri (yarum) erTi
Zirisani arian. amiT TiTqos miTiTebulia, rom gvelic
SiSvelia da misi cbiereba siSiSvlesTan aris dakavSirebuli. siSiSvlesa da cbierebas aqvT TiTqos saerTo
mWvirvalebaSi, WvretaSi, ganWvretaSi... aq imasac
unda mieqces yuradReba, rom pirveli, rac Seimecna
adamma codnis xis nayofis SeWmis Semdeg, swored sakuTari siSiSvle iyo. gveli ki mainc erTaderTia velur
cxovelTa Soris, romlis tani Seumosavia, magram es siSiSvle, iseve rogorc qvewarmavloba, misi wyevlis daRia mis sxeulze. is SiSvelia axlac da ar rcxvenia.
ismis kiTxva: mxolod gveli iyo metyvelebis unariT
mimadlebuli, Tu sxva cxovelebic? yovel SemTxvevaSi,
dedakacs ar gahkvirvebia gvelis saubari, _ molaparake
gveli misTvis moulodneloba ar yofila. magram aq aris
problema ara mxolod molaparake cxovelisa, aramed,
erTi mxriv, Tavad adamis enisa, _ ra ena hqonda adams samoTxeSi, meore mxriv, problema adamsa da cxovelTa Soris komunikaciisa. RvTis xeliT yoveli sulieri wardga adamis winaSe saxelis misaRebad, _ saxeldeba, cxadia, ar unda yofiliyo meqanikuri aqti, msgavsi iarliyis Camokidebisa; es unda yofiliyo ormxrivi urTierToba, urTierTgagebisa da gagebinebis sawindari, rac
gulisxmobs maT Soris sakomunikacio saSualebas, ara
aucileblad verbalurs. SesaZlebelia, gveli yvelaze
metad iyo dajildoebuli metyvelebis niWiT, raki is
airCia dacemulma angelozma Tavisi nebisa da zraxvis
gamtarad, risi naSTic TiTqos SemorCenilia msoflio
folklorSi adamianis mier gvelis sibrZnesTan sxvadasxvanairad ziarebis Sedegad cxovelTa enis dauflebis saxiT. adamma dakarga cxovelebTan saurTierTo ena
da, cxadia, misi enac Seicvala dacemis Semdeg.
ase Tu ise, pirveli fraza, romelic gaisma edemis
baRSi cxovelTa samyarodan dedakacis gasagonad, gvelis mier iyo warmoTqmuli:

26

dabadeba

`marTla giTxraT RmerTma, baRis arc erTi xis nayofi ar SeWamoTo?~ (3:1).
SekiTxvis mizania eWvi daubados dedakacs, waarTvas
rwmena RvTis (gamCenis, mamis) samarTlianobaSi. is sicruiT iwyebs, magram am sicrueSi aris simarTlec: ras aqnevs dedakaci yvela nayofs, romelic eWmeva, Tu is erTi,
Suagul baRSi rom dgas, miuwvdomelia misTvis? miT
ufro, Tu am xis nayofs sikvdilis nacvlad Tvalis axela mohyveba, xilva raRac sxvasi, imisa, rac aqamde ar uxilavs, RvTis saidumlosi, da gaxdebian isini RmerTiviT keTilisa da borotis Semcnobelni. am akrZalviT
xom ar daaklo RmerTma rame adams, xom ar waarTva mas
baRSi netarebis kidev erTi wyaro? _ ase unda efiqra
dedakacs da swored es iyo dacemuli angelozis gegma.
ar mokvdebiT (3:4), eubneba xma, magram icis RmerTma, rom rogorc ki SeWamT, Tvali agexilebaT da gaxdebiT RmerTiviT keTilisa da borotis Semcnobelni
(3:5). ioane oqropiri svams kiTxvas: nuTu ar icoda adamma, ra aris sikeTe da ra _ boroteba? pasuxobs: icoda.
unda scodnoda, roca RmerTma sicocxlis sapirispirod sikvdili dauwesa, rogorc akrZaluli nayofis gemosxilvis Sedegi.
sikvdili, rogorc sasjeli, xom gulisxmobs im sikeTis sawinaaRmdegos, romliTac igi sargeblobda uflis baRSi? es sikeTe maradiuli sicocxlea RmerTTan,
am arCevaniT ki adamma sikvdili airCia, riTac sicocxlis xisken mimavali gza moiWra.
gvelis cbieri saubari naxevarsimarTlezea agebuli, maT namdvilad aexilaT Tvali da namdvilad, sakuTar xorcze Seicnes zRvari sikeTesa da borotebas Soris. da is, rac icis RmerTma maT dacemaze, Tavadac ician. maT, SeiZleba iTqvas, RvTis TvaliT Sexedes Tavis
Tavs, ixiles WeSmariteba sakuTar Tavze. raRac saidumlos safarveli aexada. magram es ar iyo RvTis saidumlo, es codviTdacemis saidumlo iyo.
`aexila Tvali orives da mixvdnen, rom SiSvelni iyvnen (3:7).
siSiSvle ufro mets gulisxmobs, vidre sxeulis daufaraobaa. siSiSvle adamisa ganZarculobaa didebis
samoslisagan, romelic mas emosa dacemamde, razec ioane oqropiri laparakobs. TiTqos RmerTi kiTxviT _
adam, sada xar? _ eubneba mas: dagtove didebiT mosili, axla ki SiSvels gxedav. adamis codva xilulia; siSiSvlis gancda Segnebaa am codvisa, gaCnda sircxvilis
grZnoba, sindisi _ mamxilebeli goneba, sineidisis _
Tanacodna amgvari sakuTari Tavisa. am dros warmoiSva
is adami, romelic CvenSia. gaCnda TiTqos zedmeti codna da mas mohyva sircxvili, rogorc fsiqologiuri Sedegi urCobisa. am zedmetma daamZima adami.
`adam, sada xar?~ (3:9) _ am SekiTxviT aRiniSna RvTis
pirveli gamocxadeba adamis mimarT, dasabami Semdgom
gamocxadebaTa, romlebic aRwerilia bibliaSi. vidre

27

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

adami uflis ubeSi iyo, saWiroeba gamocxadebisa, rogorc garedan mosuli xmisa, ar iyo. am SekiTxviT aRiniSna gaucxoebul-ganmdgari adamis mdgomareoba.
basili didis TqmiT: RmerTma adamiani cxovelad
gaaCina im davalebiT, rom RmerTi gaxdes. magram adami
RvTis gareSe RmerTad gaxdomis mcdelobam usasrulod
daaSora RmerTs, mas mxolod Tavisi codvili arseba Seacnobina. vladimir loski amgvari paradoqsiT ganmartavs adamis tragedias: Tavad Tavis didebulebaSi _
unarSi RmerTad gaxdomisa _- adamiani dacemad aris
midrekili. magram amis gareSe arc arsebobs dideba. man
unda gaiaros gansacdeli, rogorc wmida mamebi weren,
raTa moipovos Tavisi Tavisuflebis Segneba, Segneba im
Tavisufali siyvarulisa, rasac RmerTi elis misgan.
Tavis marTleba
(3:9-13)
`sada xar, adam?~ (3:9) _ RmerTi ar kiTxulobs adamis
adgil-samyofels. man icis, rom adami imaleba buCqebs
Soris. kiTxva gulisxmobs adamis sulier-zneobriv
mdgomareobas. adamis pasuxSic es Cans, pasuxi sworia:
SemeSinda, SiSveli rom var, da davimale (3:10). es pasuxi swored mis axal mdgomareobas asaxavs _ es aris SiSi da siSiSvlis, rogorc uCveulo, arasasiamovno codnis, gancda. adami xvdeba, rom es siSiSvle mas aSorebs
RvTisgan, rom amis gamo mas aRar SuZlia gamCenis pirispir dgoma. siSiSvlis dafarva ar miiCnia sakmarisad _
unda daemalos kidec RmerTs. amiT mas surs dafaros Tavisi codva yovlismxilvelisgan. mas dakarguli aqvs
RvTis yvelganmyofobis da yovlismxilvelobis codna.
gamCenis kiTxvebze pasuxebSi es mkafiod gamoCndeba.
siSiSvle, rogorc gamoCnda, codvis niSania sxeulze
_ ase aRiqva es adamma. sircxvili, ramac dabada Semosvis survili, reaqciaa codvis Segnebaze. sircxvili dadebiTi movlenaa, magram mas axlavs usircxviloba (misi
meore mxare), da es gamomJRavnda gamCenTan saubarSi: is
tyuis da icis, rom tyuis da ar rcxvenia.
tyuili naxevarsimarTleSia, ufro sworad, roca
daculia formaluri simarTle, magram marTali anu
sruli simarTle, ar aris naTqvami.
`uTxra (RmerTma): ...im xis nayofi xom ar giWamia, me
rom agikrZale? Tqva adamma: Sen rom dedakaci momiyvane, man momca im xis nayofi da SevWame. uTxra ufalma
RmerTma dedakacs: es ra Caidine? Tqva dedakacma: gvelma Semacdina da SevWame~ (3:11-13).
am saubarSi kargad gamoCnda erTxel Cadenili urCobis Sedegi. adami da dedakaci ise laparakoben, TiTqos
ar gaaCndeT Tavisufali neba. maTi msjeloba d
P eterministulia: Tavis saqciels isini gareSe Zalis gavleniT
gansazRvraven: adamisTvis es aris dedakaci, dedakacisTvis _ gveli. Tavisufali nebis uaryofiT isini Tavidan ixsnian pasuxismgeblobas: dedakaci Tavis danaSa-

28

dabadeba

uls gadaabralebs gvels, adami _ dedakacs da, sabolood, RmerTs, ramdenadac dedakaci RmerTma mihgvara mas,
da gvelic xom misi qmnilebaa. am adamianuri (adamuri)
logikiT gamodis, rom RmerTma maT kidec aukrZala im
xis nayofis Wama da kidec Seuqmna dauZleveli maiZulebeli pirobebi mis SesaWmelad. gvelis mier Cagdebulma
Teslma ixara adamis bunebaSi.
sasjeli urCobisTvis
(3:14-24)
SiSis, siSiSvlisa da sircxvilis SegrZneba uSualo
Sedegi iyo adamisa da misi dedakacis dacemisa. RvTis
pirisgan damalvis survilma providenciulad gamoxata adamis realuri mdgomareoba _ is daSorda RmerTs,
RmerTi daimala misgan. amieridan adami unda eZebdes
RmerTs _ es iqneba misi upirvelesi amocana edemis baRis gareT, iq, sadac gauSvebs mas RmerTi.
am uSualo, SeiZleba iTqvas, imanentur sasjels, mosdevs sasjeli RvTisgan, romelic daekisreba ara mxolod adams, dedakacs da gvels, aramed miwasac, romlisganac aRebulia pirveli kaci. am sams adevs sasjelad im
sabediswero SemTxvevis daRi. gveli daiwyevla RvTisgan mucelze xoxviT da miwis mtvris WamiT (3:14); gveli
daeca am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT; Tumca, SesaZlebelia, gveli `dasabamad~ mucelze mxoxav arsebad Seqmna RmerTma, magram dawyevlis Semdeg miwaze
xoxvam damcirebisa da sircxvilis mniSvneloba SeiZina, radgan miwac daiwyevla _ erTi safexuriT `daeca~,
is aRar aris iseTi qmnileba, romelzec RmerTs SeeZlo
eTqva, rom kargia. ekali da ZeZvi (3:18) dawyevlili miwis niSania iseve, rogorc ofli adamis Sublze dawyevlil miwasTan misi sasicocxlo urTierTobisa (`pirofliani Wamde purs~, 3:19).
codvis daRi dedakacze misi mSobiarobis satanjvelia; da, agreTve, mamakacis batonoba masze, rac aucdenelia, radgan dedakacs misken ltolva eqneba (3:16). dedakacis danaSaulebrivi iniciativa akrZaluli xis nayofTan dakavSirebiT amgvarad aisaxa maT urTierTobaSi. sagulisxmoa, rom gvelis bedi dedakacTan mimarTebaSia gadawyvetili. `mtrobas Camovagdeb Sensa da dedakacs Soris, Sens Teslsa da dedakacis Tesls Soris~ (3:15) _ ramdenadac raRac gansakuTrebuli mtroba ar SeiniSneba aqtualurad qalsa da gvels Soris, unda vifiqroT, rom es
sityvebi sxva WeSmaritebas gvicxadeben: `dedakacis TeslSi~ SeiZleba igulisxmebodes mxolod is erTaderTi,
romelic umamod aris Sobili dedisagan (dedakacisgan).
da swored is aris, Tavs rom gauWeWyavs gvels, kacTa modgmis mters, romelic satanis iaraRi iyo evas Secdenisas,
risTvisac gaigivebulia gveli da satana, rogorc gamocxadebaSi vkiTxulobT: `da gardamovarda veSapi igi didi, gveli dasabamisa, romelsa ewodebis eSmaki da satana, romeli acdunebs yovelsa sofelsa...~ (gamocx. 12:9).

29

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

mTavari Sedegi akrZaluli nayofis gemosxilvisa,


ris gamoc adamianTa winaprebisTvis SeuZlebeli gaxda
edemis baRSi cxovreba, rogorc Cans, mainc iyo `codna
keTilisa da borotisa~. es codna TiTqos SeuTavsebelia edemur yofasTan, sadac unda sufevdes mxolod sikeTe da borotebisTvis adgili ar unda rCebodes. im
cnobierebiT, romelic ganarCevs sikeTes da borotebas
anu, Semoaqvs edemis sinamdvileSi sikeTis sapirispiro
cneba, adamma ver unda gaZlos edemSi _ edemi mas ukuagdebs. amgvari codniT aRWurvilma adamma ar SeiZleba
maradiulad icocxlos, ar SeiZleba ukvdavi iyos, rogoric unda yofiliyo igi misi gaCenisas (`radgan
RmerTs sikvdilisTvis ar Seuqmnia adamiani, sicocxlisTvis Seqmna igi...~). sikeTisa da borotis garCevis
nayofis Semdeg sicocxlis xis nayofis gemosxilviT gaukvdavebul adamSi gaukvdavdeboda codvac _ amitomac
ufalma RmerTma `gandevna adami~ edemis baRidan, xolo
sicocxlis xes damcvelebad qerubimebi da `cecxlovani
mbrunavi maxvili dauyena~ (3:24).
`da gagzavna igi ufalma RmerTma edemis baRidan im
miwis dasamuSaveblad, saidanac iyo aRebuli~ (3:23) _
aqedan Cans, rom adamis Tavdapirveli saqmianoba, rac
ufalma ganuwesa mas edems gareT, miwismuSakoba iyo.
Tumca Zalas inarCunebs is mniSvnelobac sityvisa yabad, romliTac gamoixata misi damokidebuleba edemis
baRis miwis mimarT. unda SevniSnoT aSkara paralelizmi or frazas Soris: 1. ...ufalma RmerTma daasaxla
(adami) edemis baRSi mis dasamuSaveblad (=samsaxurad)... da 2. da gagzavna... miwis dasamuSaveblad (=samsaxurad)... miwasTan urTierToba kvlav rCeba adamis
fundamentur ganzomilebad _ miwa (adamah) kvlav rCeba adamianis miwad, mis samsaxurebel adgilad, Tumca
xasiaTi maTi urTierTobisa Secvlilia, am cvlilebis
daRi ki oflia mis pirze.
dasjilma, magram jer kidev samoTxeSi myofma adamma
erTxel kidev da ukanasknelad gamoavlina Tavisi unari
saxeldebisa da daarqva saxeli dedakacs, romelic aqamde usaxelo iyo. da uwoda adamma Tavis dedakacs eva,
radgan igiF gaxda yoveli cocxalis deda (3:20). eva=xavva cocxali. am aqtiT adamma gamoicno dedakacSi da
mis saxelSi daafiqsira is unari, romelic RmerTma mianiWa mas _ gangrZoba sicocxlisa Tavisive msgavsis SobiT. magram es ar iyo is sicocxle, romelic maT sicocxlis xesTan ziarebiT unda moepovebinaT.
kaeni da abeli
(4:1-16)
adamisa da evas pirveli STamomavloba samoTxis gareT, gandevnaSi ibadeba. rogor unda gamravlebuliyo
kacTa modgma edemis baRSi, rom RvTis mcneba aRsrulebuliyo (1:28), amis codna adamianisTvis miuwvdomeli
darCa. da Seicno adamma eva... (4:1) _ amgvarad aris

30

dabadeba

gadmocemuli gamravlebis arqetipuli aqti, romelmac


dasabami misca adamis ZeTa (adamianTa) gamravlebas dedamiwaze. Seicno ara mxolod evfemisturi gamoTqmaa
qal-vaJis kavSiris gamosaxatavad, aramed is miuTiTebs am aqtisa da gamravlebis saudumloebriv bunebaze. adamma pirvelad Seicno eva, roca amoicno masSi
yoveli cocxalis deda da uwoda misi bunebis Sesatyvisi saxeli xavvah (sicocxle); meored ki, roca dadga dro dedaSi arsebuli potenciuri unaris aqtualizaciisa. adami da eva RvTis Seqmnilni arian uSualod.
isini, rogorc winaparni (kacobriobis Taursaxeni),
RvTis xats, saxes atareben. maT mier Sobilni, cxadia,
inarCuneben pirvelgamCenis xats, magram maTze aris daRi pirvelCadenili codvisa. codvis daRma pirvelsave
TaobaSi iCina Tavi. codvis sasjelad Semosuli sikvdili aq pirvelad adasturebs Tavis Zalas da es sasjeli kvlav codvis saxes iRebs: sikvdili mkvlelobis
saxiT poulobs pirvel realizacias. gavixsenoT dasawyisi am tragikuli ambisa:
...abeli mecxvare iyo, kaeni _ miwis muSaki. gamoxda
xani da miarTva kaenma ufals ZRveni, miwis nayofi.
abelmac miarTva Tavisi faris naTavari da rCeuli pirutyvi.
moxeda ufalma abels da mis ZRvens. xolo kaensa da
mis ZRvens ar moxeda. da Zalze gamwarda kaeni da Tavi
CaRuna. uTxra ufalma kaens: rad gamwardi, rad CaRune
Tavi? Tu sikeTis mqmneli xar, gana Tavaweuli ar unda
iyo? Tu sikeTis mqmneli ara xar, codva Casafrebulia
karTan, Senken aqvs mas ltolva, Sen ki ibatone masze.
uTxra kaenma Tavis Zmas, abels: gavideT velad. da
roca velad gavidnen, daeca kaeni abels da mokla...
(4:2-8).
vxedavT, rom sikvdili, romelic Sevida adamis bunebaSi, pirvelad uSualod mis momdevno TaobaSi (SeiZleba iTqvas, rom meore dRes) mkvlelobis saxiT ganxorcielda. pirvelma sikvdilma Tavisi Tavi bunebrivi
gziT ver daadastura. mkvleloba moxda ara ucxoTa Soris, radgan kacobriobis genezisSi erTmaneTis mimarT
ucxoni ar arsebobdnen, aramed Zmam mokla Tavisi RviZli Zma, romlis uaxloesi adamiani, Tumca is sxva iyo,
mas ar hyavda.
ra gamoxatuleba hqonda am sxvaobas maT Soris, romelic mtrobaSi gadaizarda?
igi gamoixata, pirvel yovlisa, saqmianobis or gansxvavebul dargSi, romelic TiToeulma airCia.
saqmianobis es ori saxe _ mwyemsoba da miwismuSakoba
_ dasabams edemSi iRebs: RmerTma adami daayena pirutyvis patronad da miwis msaxurad. adamis dacemis Sedegad moxda, rom erT xelSi (adamis xelSi) moqceuli es
ori saxe meurneobisa ganawilda mis or naSiers Soris,
rac tragikuli konfliqtis sababi Seiqna. adamis, viTarca RvTis xatis, mTliani, integraluri buneba da-

31

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

irRva: Tu igi iyo mwyemsic da miwaTmoqmedic erTdroulad da misi buneba umtkivneulod iTavsebda orTaves,
samoTxis gareT es SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda: SeuTavseblobam kaen-abelis dapirispirebaSi iCina Tavi.
meore mxriv, Tu adamis codvis mizeziT miwa daiwyevla (adams amieridan ofliT unda moipovebina sarCo),
kaenis codvis mizeziT Tavad kaeni daiwyevla miwisagan, radgan is ver emsaxura miwas, ver daicva misi siwmide _ SebRala igi sisxliT. mas ki, rogorc adams, miwis
dacva evaleboda (2:15). amieridan miwa srulyofilebiT ar gamoavlens Tavis Zalas. adamianma dakarga masze
patronobis ufleba. amieridan dawyevlili xar miwisagan, romelmac gaixsna piri, raTa mieRo Seni Zmis sisxli Seni xelidan. daamuSaveb miwas, magram aRar mogcems igi Tavis Zalas... (4:11-12). kidev erTi safexuriT
CamoqveiTda da gauaresda urTierToba adamiansa da miwas Soris. Tumca SeiZleba vifiqroT da, iqneb es varaudi ufro axlos iyos WeSmaritebasTan, rom miwisgan iwyevleba ara saerTod adamiani, aramed mxolod kaeni da
misi modgma, romelic am mizeziT qalaqebis gaSenebasa
da industriuli civilizaciis mSeneblobas mihyofs
xels (4:17), rac mas miwisagan ganaSorebs. paradoqsia:
qalaqebs safuZveli miwaSi aqvT, magram safuZvlianad
Sordebian miwas.
abel-kaenis epizodSi warmodgenilia ori saxe
msxverplisa _ sisxliani da usisxlo, da upiratesoba
eniWeba sisxlians, rogorc msxverplis umaRles saxes,
ramac Tavisi gansruleba da dasrulebac golgoTaze
hpova. pavle mociquli wers: rwmeniT Seswira abelma
RmerTs kaenisaze ukeTesi (pleion sruli) msxverpli... (ebr. 11:4). Zveli aRTqmis mTeli istoriis manZilze sisxliani msxverpli upiratesobs mcenareul
Sesawiravze (gamomsyidveli unari mxolod sisxlian
msxverpls aqvs, mcenareuli mxolod damatebaa).
magram ismis kiTxva: mxolod imitom ar miiRo RmerTma kaenis msxverpli, rom is ar iyo srulyofili saxe
msxverplisa? aramc da aramc. marTalia, arCevani amxels
mas, vinc irCevs, magram kaeni Tavisi arCevanis gamo ver
gaikicxeba, radgan miwis arseboba bunebrivad badebs
miwismuSakobas. retrospeqciulad Tu SevxedavT, kaenis arCevanSi araferia gasakicxi, perspeqtivaSi ki _ misi arCevani Cavardnaa. kaenis arCevani ar gaiziara im
xalxma, romelic RmerTma airCia. magram kaens ara aqvs
brali am arCevanSi. misi brali am epizodSi orgvari SeiZleba iyos: kaenma ar Sewira Tavisi msxverplis saukeTeso egzemplarebi. davakvirdeT: abelis msxverplze
naTqvamia, rom man ufals `miarTva Tavisi faris naTavari da rCeuli pirutyvi~ (4:4), xolo kaenze _ mxolod
`miwis nayofi~ (4:3), anu man perspeqtivaSi msxverplis
udaresi saxeobidan naklebi Rirebulebis egzemplarebi gaiRo. uflisgan msxverplis miuReblobis meore mizezi is unda iyos, rom kaenma (Tumca teqstSi es aSkarad

32

dabadeba

ar Cans) Seuferebeli ganwyobilebiT Seswira Tavisi


namuSakevi. RmerTma daiwuna Semwirvelis sulieri
mdgomareoba msxverplSewirvisas, misi arasakmarisi
`religiuroba~, gansxvavebiT abelisgan.
magram ar iqneba swori, Tu erTmaneTisgan movwyvetT
Semwirvelis bunebas da Tavad ZRvenis bunebas. ara calke Semwirveli da calke msxverpli, aramed mxedvelobaSia misaRebi maTi urRvevi erTianoba. isini erTmaneTs
ganapirobeben: kaenis saqmianoba ganapirobebs rogorc
msxverplis saxes, ise mis xarisxs; da Semwirvelis ganwyobilebac gavlenas axdens Sesawiravze. RmerTma daiwuna Semwirveli msxverpliTurT mTlianobaSi, maTs
erTianobaSi, radgan msxverplSewirvis aqti msxverplisa da Semwirvelis erTianobaa. isini gansazRvraven
da ganapirobeben erTmaneTs. abelis religia WeSmaritad uangaro religiaa, kaenisa _ utilitaruli, magram mis STamomavlebSi esec aRar iyo.
rCeuli eri (Zveli aRTqmis subieqti) Tavis garemomcvel xalxebs egvipteSi da qanaanSi upirispirdeba rogorc mwyemsuri kulturis xalxi samiwaTmoqmedo kulturis xalxs. israelianTaTvis ucxoa da religiuri
TvalsazrisiT sibilwe baalizmi, _ qanaanuri tomebis
orgiastuli samiwaTmoqmedo kulti. mwyemsebi iyvnen
patriarqebi: abraami, isaki, iakobi da misi Tormeti Ze,
Tormettomovani xalxis winaprebi. niSandoblivia,
rom miwaTmoqmedi kaenia kacismkvleli, romlis STamomavloba industriul, arsebiTad uRvTo civilizacias
afuZnebs. unda SeiniSnos, rom samiwaTmoqmedo kultura, romelic miwaze mkvidrobis niSniT gamoixateba,
gardauvalad iwvevs urbanizms. marTalia, israelianTa udabnoSi xetialis saboloo mizani miwaze damkvidreba iyo, magram damkvidrebis Semdegac udabnos cxovreba, cxovrebis msxemuri wesi, misTvis idealad rCeba.
amis naTeli magaliTi iyo reqabianTa Temi (ier. 35:219), romelic ganuxrelad misdevda abelur cxovrebas:
ar xnavda, ar Tesavda; ar aSenebda saZirkvlian saxlebs,
cxovrobda karvebSi, rogorc maTi winaprebi _ abraami,
isaki da iakobi, da Zeni iakobisa (israelianebi) udabnoSi. netari avgustine wers: kacTa modgmis winaparTagan pirvelad daibada kaeni, romelic ekuTvnis adamianur qalaqs, Semdeg ki abeli, romelic ekuTvnis
RvTis qalaqs; kaenze naTqvamia, rom man aaSena qalaqi,
abels ki qalaqi ar auSenebia, radgan wmidaTa qalaqi
uzenaesi qalaqia... (RvTis qalaqisaTvis)
amrigad, abel-kaenis ambavze dayrdnobiT da mTeli
bibliuri istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom RmerTi dasturs scems mwyemsur cxovrebas,
mwyemsur yofas da kulturas, _ Tumca abeli aRar aris,
_ da ar iwonebs urbanistul-industriul civilizacias, magram cocxalia kaeni. rCeuli eris siamaye imTaviTve iyo mwyemsoba, abraamidan moyolebuli, romelic
ufalma qaldevelTa uris urbanistul (kaenur) civi-

33

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

lizacias gamoarida qanaanSi mwyemsobisTvis. mesame TaobaSi eris mamamTavari iakobi siamayiT acnobs Tavs, Tavis vinaobas faraons: `mecxvareebi varT Seni msaxurni,
rogorc Cveni mama-papa iyo~ (dab. 47:3).
abel-kaenis epizodis ZiriTadi, amosavali Tema mainc mkvlelobaa da mas, cxadia, aqvs samarTlebrivi mxare. pasuxad kaenis sasowarkveTil sityvebze, _ romlebic mas aRmoxda, roca idevneboda uflis pirisgan: `aha,
magdeb dRes miwis pirisagan da unda mivefaro Sens saxes, devnili da miusafari viqnebi amqveynad da yoveli
Semxvedri momklavs me~ (4:14), _ RmerTi daadebs niSans
kaens, rom ar moekla igi pirvel Semxvedrs (4:15). ras
niSnavs mkvlelze dadebuli niSani? es niSnavs, rom
RvTis samarTali ar awesebs mkvlelobisTvis Surisgebas (sisxlis Ziebas), es RvTis prerogativaa: me var Surisgeba da me mivuzRav (rjl. 32:35). niSani niSnavs,
rom kaens Tavis TavSive, Tavis sulier-mSvinvier samyaroSi unda etarebina sasjeli. es aris RvTismieri sasjeli. rogoria es sasjeli?
kaenis yofa daxasiaTebulia rogorc RvTis pirisgan
moSoreba, rogorc gadagdebuloba samyaroSi, devnileba da miusafroba, SiSi da Zrwola, rasac misi adgilsamyofelis saxelwodebac gamoxatavs: nod xetialis,
`Zrwolis~ (sulieri da sivrculi gagebiT) mniSvnelobas Seicavs. kaenianebi Zrwian, daZrwian, Tumca damkvirebulni arian miwaze, aSeneben galavnian qalaqebs miusafrobis da Ria sivrcis SiSis dasaZlevad, romlis gamoZaxils babilonis godlis epizodSi davinaxavT.
adamma namdvilad Tavis xatad da msgavsad dabada kaeni. es kargad gamoCnda im pasuxSi, romelic kaenisgan
miiRo RmerTma SekiTxvaze: sad aris Seni Zma abeli?
kaenma miugo: ar vici. Cemi Zmis mcveli xom ara var
(4:9). es gvagonebs im pirvel SekiTxvas, romelic RmerTma dausva adams _ adam, sada xar? (3:9) _ da pasuxTa
Semdgom jaWvs, romlebiTac adami da eva Seecadnen pasuxismgeblobis Tavidan acilebas da, sabolood, maT gamCensac ki dasdes brali. kaens Tan dahyva memkvidreobiT
pirvelwinaparTa fsiqologia: Tavis pasuxSi is usayvedurebs RmerTs imisaTvis, rom man Tavisi Zmis mcvelad
daadgina. is xom Tavisufali arsebaa, ratom unda iyos
vinmes mcveli, pasuxismgebeli RvTis winaSe vinmes sicocxlisTvis? SevniSnoT, rom mcveli _ Someri
H s sityvaa, romliTac gamoxatulia adamis movaleoba edemis
baRis miwisadmi (2:15). xolo Tu miwisadmi iyo adami
(da unda yofiliyo kaenic) pasuxismgebeli, raoden ufro marTebda Zmas Zmisadmi pasuxismgebloba.
kaenianebi
(4:17-24)
SeiZleba, kaenisa da abelis saxelebma gagvimxilos
is, rac sityvierad ar gamoTqmula TxrobaSi. Tumca kaen-saxelis etimologia Tavad bibliis teqstis mixed-

34

dabadeba

viT SeZenas ukavSirdeba (kaci SemeZina uflisagan,


4:1), magram SesaZlebelia misi sxvagvari Targmanebac:
ebrauli sityva kain niSnavs Subs da Tavad mis fonetikas moaqvs materialuroba: kaeni mkvidrobs, SubiviT
CarWobilia nivTobriobaSi, abels ki, romlis saxeli
habel (havel) `sunTqvas~, `qrolvas~ niSnavs, eTeruli
arseboba aqvs, is ar arsebobs materialur sinamdvileSi, misi myofoba sxvagan, nivTobriobis sapirispiro realobaSia saZiebeli.
miwier realobaSi ki, romelic mkvidrobis niSniT
aris aRbeWdili, kaenis modgma warmatebas aRwevs. pirveli saqmianoba, rasac kaeni gaiCens nodis (`Zrwolis~)
qveyanaSi memkvidris SeZenis Semdeg, aris qalaqis aSeneba (4:17). miwaze. miwis erT adgilze damkvidreba kaenisave TaobaSi xdeba. meeqvse Taobis memkvidre lameqi
TiTqos zRurblia, romlis Semdeg meordeba kaeni da
abeli: lameqis pirmSoze _ iabalze naTqvamia, rom `igi
iyo karavSi mcxovrebTa da saqonlis mama~ (4:20). magram
cxovrebis am abelur nirSi SeWrilia kaenuri niSani:
`SenaZeni~ _ mikne' Seicavs kaenur Zirs _ kanah' (`SeZena~, `moxveWa~). meore Ze lameqisa Tubal-kaeni ki aris
rvalisa da rkinis saWurvelTa mWedeli (4:22), romelic am saqmianobiT kaenuri yofa-saqmianobis Sidabunebas gamZafrebulad aCens.
lameqSi ibartyebs kaenis codva, rac kidev ufro mZime sasjelad daawveba kacTa modgmas: movkali kaci Cemda satkivarad da ymawvili _ Cemda Wirad, Tu Svidgzis
miezRvebaT kaenis gamo, lameqis gamo samocdaCvidmetgzis miezRvebaT (4:25-24). es aris kacobriobis is saxe,
romelic Cvens dReebamde grZeldeba. Tu davukvirdebiT, es aris pirwmindad adamianuri civilizacia, sadac ar urevia RvTis xeli da arc misi saxelis xseneba
Cans. am civilizaciaze ar iyo uflis dasturi.
SeTis modgma
(4:25-26; 5)
abeli aRar aris, kaenis STamomavloba codvaSia danTqmuli. adams da evas SeeZinaT vaJi, romelmac unda Secvalos daRupuli abeli, gaswios misi magivroba. da kacTa modgmis dedam Tqva misi Sobisas: mommadla ufalma
sxva naSieri nacvlad abelisa, kaenma rom mokla (4:25).
biblia sagangebod aRniSnavs am tragikuli moTxrobis
bolos, rom SeTis momdevno TaobaSi daiwyo uflis saxelis xseneba (4:26).
xolo me-5 Tavi mTlianad eZRvneba SeTis STamomavlobas, romlis dasasruls dgas noe, warRvnamdeli xanis sruli kaci. magram erT-erT TaobaSi RvTismosaoba aRwevs mwvervals _ es aris enoqi, romelsac RvTis
wyalobiT ar uxilavs sikvdilis xrwnileba: dadioda
RmerTTan enoqi da aRar iyo, radgan waiyvana igi RmerTma (5:24). enoqi miCneulia qristianul wmidanTa pirvelsaxed. ai, ras wers masze pavle mociquli: sarwmu-

35

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

noebiT enoq gardaicvala, raTa ara ixilos sikvdili,


da ara ipova, rameTu gardacvala igi RmerTman, rameTu
pirvel gardacvalebisa misisa wamebul ars, viTarmed
saTno-iyo igi RmerTman (ebr. 11:5). Zvel aRTqmaSi kidev aris erTi SemTxveva adamianis cocxlad wayvanisa
RvTis mier (ix. winaswarmetyvel elias ambavi: 4 mef. 2).
kaenianTa da SeTianTa aRreva
(6:1-4)
bibliuri Txrobis am mcire monakveTSi metad mniSvnelovani ambavia gadmocemuli. aq Sexvdnen erTmaneTs
adamis asulni (benoT ha-adam) da RvTis Zeni (bne haelohim). vin arian erTni da vin arian meoreni? RvTis
Svilebze aris azri, TiTqos maTSi angelozebi igulisxmebian, magram Tu am azrs gaviziarebT, gaugebari
iqneba is, rac maTzea naTqvami:
da dainaxes RvTis Svilebma, rom mSvenierebi iyvnen
adamianTa asulebi, da mihyavdaT colad, visac vin moewoneboda (6:2).
Zvel aRTqmaSi arsad ar aris dadasturebuli angelozebis amgvari damokidebuleba adamianebTan _ angelozTa buneba gamoricxavs qorwinebas da xorciel urTierTobas saerTod da, miTumetes, gamravlebis im
wess, ra wesiTac adamis modgma mravldeba. wmida mamebis saerTo SexedulebiT, am monakveTSi saubaria SeTis
STamomavalTa da kaenis modgmis Sexvedraze. SeTis
STamomavloba gahyva RvTis gzas, risTvisac isini aq
RvTis ZeebadF iwodebian, xolo kaenianebi, rogorc pirwmindad adamianur, RvTis sawinaaRmdego an uRvTo gzaze mavalni, miwieri adamis codvis matarebelni, sakuTriv adamis saxeliT ixseniebian. mRvrie nakadi Seereva
wmida nakads da imRvreva wmida nakadi. es asea fizikur
samyaroSi da ase moxda am ori sulier-zneobrivi sawyisis matarebel modgmaTa Serevisas. sagulisxmoa, rom
codvis gadamdeb wyarod aqac dedakacia movlenili da
cTunebasac garegani momxiblaoba iwvevs, rogorc edemis baRSi moxda.
Semdeg teqstSi dazustebulia am RvTis SvilTa da
adamianTa SeuRlebis Sedegi:
bumberazebi iyvnen im xanebSi qveynad da mas merec,
roca RvTis Svilebi Sediodnen adamianis asulebTan,
romlebic uSobdnen maT. Zlierebi iyvnen isini, ZvelTagan saxelovani kacebi (6:4).
aq ori niSania iseTi, romelic uaryofiTad axasiaTebs am Sereul modgmas _ es aris fizikuri, adamianuri
Zliereba, romelsac RvTis dasturi ara aqvs, da saxeli
(Sem), romelic eyrdnoba isev da isev adamianis da ara
RvTis avtoritets.
ai, swored am Sereulma modgmam, romelSic kaenurma
Tvisebebma iZala, kidev erTi safexuriT daamdabla miwa. miwisa da adamis urTierTobidan gamomdinare, ar
unda iyos gasakviri, rom adamianTa ukeTureba da gar-

36

dabadeba

yvnili zne Tavis ukanasknel daRs, rogorc niSans, isev


da isev miwaze hpovebs:
`wairyvna qveyana RvTis winaSe da aivso qveyana usamarTlobiT. da gadmoxeda RmerTma qveyanas da, aha, waryvniliyo igi, radgan gaeryvna yovel xorciels Tavisi
zne (derex _ `gza~) am qveyanaze~ (6:11-12).
rogorc vxedavT, aq laparakia ara adamis calkeul
ZeTa codvianobaze, ris samanadac sikvdilia dawesebuli _ adamianis gansvla xorcidan, raTa usasrulod ar
gagrZeldes codvis qmna. aq laparakia mTels kacTa modgmaze mis mTlianobaSi da qveyanaze, romelic Tavis
patronTan erTad aris waryvnili. amgvar totalur dacemas ver `uwamlebs~ bunebrivi sikvdili, amitomac
RmerTma, romelmac `inana..., rom Seqmna adamiani am qveynad, da Sewuxda~ (6:6), _ adamianis gamCenisa da samyaros
Semoqmedis sinanulma da Sewuxebam unda warmogvidginos is uzomo da usaSvelo boroteba, romelic adamianma gamoavlina misi Seqmnidan am Jamamde, _ gadawyvita
yoveli dabadebulis aRgva miwis pirisagan. es iqneba
ara imdenad sasjeli, ramdenadac adamianis xsna saboloo sulieri sikvdilisgan. magram ise ar moxdeba, rom
kaci (ha-adam) xelaxlad gasaCeni Seiqnas. RvTis ganzraxva mdgomareobs ara axali arsebis SeqmnaSi, aramed
Seqmnilis, gadagvarebulis ganaxlebaSi. zneobaSeryvnil kacobriobaSi unda arsebuliyo kaci, romelsac
Senaxuli eqneboda RvTis xati da romelsac saTave unda
daedo ganaxlebuli modgmisTvis. es iyo noe. Y
noe
(6:7-8)
Tavad saxeli misi n
Y oax `Sveba~ moaswavebs raRac nugeSs kacobriobaSi da dawyevlil miwaze. mTels im TaobaSi, roca RmerTma inana adamianis Seqmna da ganizraxa
yoveli qmnilebis mospoba warRvnis wylebiT, erTaderTi noe aRmoCnda, romelsac SenarCunebuli hqonda
srulyofilad Tavisi gamCenis xati. noe mesamea (uSualod RvTis mier Seqmnil adams Tu ar CavTvliT) RvTis
rCeulTa Soris, SeTisa da enoqis Semdeg. misi portreti mwiria, magram rac naTqvamia mis Sesaxeb, es oriode
sityvac gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens:
`noes epova madli uflis TvalSi. es aris noes modgma. noe marTali, sruli kaci iyo Tavis TaobaSi. RmerTTan dadioda noe~ (6:8-9).
`marTali~, `sruli~, `RmerTTan moaruli~ _ es
aris da es, riTac biblia gvacnobs kacobriobis istoriaSi unikaluri bedis mqone adamians. `RmerTTan siaruli~ aris Sedegi misi `simarTlisa~ da `sisrulisa~.
noes simarTle da sisrule, amave dros, `RmerTTTan
siarulSi~ hpovebs dadasturebas. amiT aris gamoxatuli sruli Tanxmoba RmerTTan, RvTis nebasTan: noeSi
araferia iseTi, rac RvTisa ar iyos, RvTisgan ar momdinareobdes. noes araferi aqvs ufalTan dasafaravi, misi

37

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

simarTle RvTis simarTlea da misi sisrule aris xati


RvTis srulyofilebisa (`iyaviT srulni, rogorc
Tqveni zecieri mamaa sruli~, maT. 5:28). adamma dakarga
es sisrule da amitomac mounda mas damalva uflisgan,
Tavisi Secvlili, dakninebuli bunebis dasafaravad.
`marTali~ (cadik) da `sruli~ (Tamim) bolomde
gasdevs Zvel aRTqmas, rogorc RvTis kacis arsebiTi
daxasiaTeba. es ori cneba dawyvilebulad gvxvdeba
fsalmunebSi: `misaje me, ufalo, simarTliTa CemiTa
da umankoebiTa (sisruliTa) CemiTa Cemdamo~ (7:8).
`marTlis~ wodeba amkobs ioseb durgals (maT. 1:19),
xolo ioane naTlismcemlis mSoblebze naTqvamia: `da
iyvnes ornive ese winaSe RmrTisa marTal da vidodes
yovelTa mcnebaTa simarTlisa uflisaTa ubiwoni~
(luk. 1:6). `ubiwo~, aseve `umanko~, Sesatyvisia `srulisa~, romelic warTqmiT gamoxatavs maTSi nagulisxmev Sinaarss, anu: es adamiani yovelgvari naklis, xarvezis, `Cavardnis~ gareSe atarebs RvTis xats. ioanes
mSoblebze naTqvami `vidodes...~ savsebiT Seesatyviseba noes da masze ufro adre SeTis STamomavlis _
enoqis sulier-zneobriv mdgomareobas. enoqze orgzis aris naTqvami, rom igi `dadioda RmerTTan~ (dab.
5:22, 24). igulisxmeba da ar aris xsenebuli misi sisrule da simarTle, samagierod, Cven viciT, rogor dasrulda enoqis miwieri svla RmerTTan: `dadioda
RmerTTan enoqi da aRar iyo, radgan waiyvana igi RmerTma~ (5:24). es iyo misi jildo, rac mas sruli cxovrebisaTvis miego (Zvel aRTqmaSi kidev elia winaswarmetyvelia aseTi rCeuli, ix. 4mef. 2). enoqs ar uxilavs
sikvdili, noem ixila qaosi da arara _ Tohu-va-bohu'_Eda gadarCa, rogorc erTaderTi sruli kaci Tavis
TaobaSi. da noesTan erTad misi sami Ze _ misi saxli,
Tumca maT pirovnulad ar hqondaT damsaxurebuli
xsna, magram isini gadarCnen noes madliT, romelic man
uflis TvalSi hpova.
[bibliis enaSi `siaruli~ (halax) da, aseve, `gza~ (derex) zneobrivi Sinaarsis matarebeli cnebebia. samagaliTod bevri adgilis motana SeiZleba Zveli aRTqmidan, da
axlidanac. yuradRebas imsaxurebs is, rom yumranis originalur teqstebSi `svla~ halax, misi mravaljeradi aspeqtiT hiThallex, rogorc es noesa da enoqis SemTxvevaSi
gvxvdeba, `sisrulesTan~ aris Sewyvilebuli: `raTa dadiodes sruli yovel Tavis gzaze~ (damaskos dokumenti, I, 21).]

warRvna
(6:11-22; 7; 8)
warRvnis movlenas TiTqmis yvela miTologia asaxavs. yvelgan is erTjeradi, erTxel momxdari movlenaa, romelic or periodad hyofs kacobriobis istorias _ warRvnamdel da warRvnisSemdgom periodebad. es
mkafiod Cans warRvnis Suamdinarul versiaSi, romelTanac yvelaze met siaxloves iCens bibliuri moTxroba

38

dabadeba

(gavixsenoT `gilgameSianis~ prologi). Suamdinaruli


tradicia icnobs warRvnis moxdenis mizezsac:
ganivrco qveyana, gamravlda xalxi,
qveyanam xaris xmaze daiwyo bubuni,
maTma Rrialma Seawuxa RmerTebi... cnobilia, agreTve, gamorCeuli adamiani, romelic gadaurCa warRvnis
wylebs: es aris Sumereli ziusudraF anu `xangrZlivi sicocxlisken mavali~, romlis arsebiTi epiTetia `Semnaxveli kacobriobisa da yoveli suldgmulis Teslisa~; babiloneli uTa-nafiSTimi anu `mZebneli (maradiuli) sicocxlisa~. aris kidev, aseve babiloneli, FaTraxasis anu farToyuriani~ (igive `brZeni~). yvela eseni,
warRvnas gadarCenilni, ukvdavebas arian naziarebni.
warRvnis dasrulebis Semdeg, Sumeruli miTosis Tanaxmad, mefoba Camodis isev cidan, saidanac is moevlina
kacTa modgmas. mefoba gamoxatavs ara mxolod winamZRolobis ideas, aramed masSi adamianuri kulturuli
Rirebulebania daunjebuli. berZnul wyaroebSi SemorCenili babilonuri versia sagangebod gaxazavs
warRvnis Semdeg kacobriuli civilizaciis aRorZinebis aucileblobas (es elinuri momentia warRvnis miTosSi). babiloneli qurumis berososis versiaSi, romelic berZnul wignebSi moxvda, zevsis rCeuli adamiani qsisuTrosB (igive ziusudra) zevsisve STagonebiT siparSi (mzis RvTaebis saTayvano qalaqSi) Camarxavs dafebs, romlebzec Cawerilia dasabami, Sua da ukanaskneli ambebi kacobriobis istoriisa. warRvnis Semdeg qsisuTrosi zevsma cocxliv aiyvana TavisTan (gavixsenoT
enoqisa da elia winaswarmetyvelis saswaulebrivi gauCinareba), xolo masTan erTad gadarCenilebma amoTxares es dafebi da ganaaxles kulturuli cxovreba ganaxlebul dedamiwaze.
sxvadasxva xalxSi arsebobs gadmocemebi ama Tu im adgilas momxdar (lokalur) warRvnebze. CvenSi, paliastomis tbis warmoSobis legenda gviambobs, rogor CaiZira codvis gamo palias tomiT dasaxlebuli sofeli
modidebul wyalSi da erTaderTma gadarCenilma kacma
rogor gamoitana wylidan amotivtivebuli xati, raTa
RvTis SegonebiT maxlobel maRal mTaze aetana. advili misaxvedria, rom am legendaSi xatis gadarCena qristianuli religiis aRorZinebas niSnavs.
marTalia, yvelaze axlos warRvnis bibliur epizodTan Sumerul-babilonuri versiebia, magram es siaxlove fabuliTa da siuJeturi masaliT (kidobnis an xomaldis ageba, wylis rRvnis procesi, frinvelTa _
mtredisa Tu yornis gaSveba, adamianis gadarCena, da
sxva saerTo wvrilmani) amoiwureba. es mowmobs mxolod TxrobiTi kulturis saerTo tradiciaze. bibliis Semqmneli xalxi xom Zveli axlo aRmosavleTis civilizacias ekuTvnis da maTi enac xom didi kulturebis

39

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

Semqmneli xalxebis monaTesave enaa. ebrauli ena iRebs,


inarCunebs yvelafers saerTos, magram umatebs raRac
axals, rac saerTo Zvel wyaroSi ar ipoveboda. ar aris
Zneli misaxvedri, ra aris es axali _ es aris warRvnis
movlenis religiur-zneobrivi gaazreba, riTac am epizodis mTxrobeli Caswvda kosmiuri movlenis azrs, mis
mniSvnelobas kacobriobisTvis, misi bedisaTvis.
Zvelma aRTqmam Cvenamde moitana es ambavi da kidev
meti cxovelmyofeloba SesZina mas im saidumloebasTan
erTad, rasac is imarxavs; magram is kvlav gacocxlda im
simbolizmSi, romliTac igi naTlisRebis saidumlos
daukavSirda. wabilwuli, degradaciis gzaze damdgari qveyniereba unda wailekos wylisgan, magram unda gadarCes erTi adamiani, romelic iqneba saxe, tipi kacobriobisa. unda gadarCes, magram ra Rirseba gadaarCens
mas? risTvis gadarCa Sumerul-babilonuli warRvnis
gmiri da risTvis noe? ratom mianiWa upiratesoba uTanafiSTims an ziusudras mTels kacobriobaSi misma
mxsnelma RmerTma? risTvis aiyvana zevsma qsisuTrosi
TavisTan gasaukvdaveblad? teqstebi ar iZleva pasuxs.
mxolod erT versiaSi sibrZnis RmerTis rCeulis saxeli uaTra-xasis farTo yuris (sasmenelis) mqone gvimxels, rom is Tavisi sibrZnis gamo ixsna mwyalobelma
RmerTma. erTaderTia bibliuri versia, romelic adamianis sibrZnidan maxvils adamianis zneobaze da
RvTismoSiSebaze gadaitans. aris gza xsnisa sibrZnesa
da SemecnebaSi, magram aris gza xsnisa simarTlesa da
srulyofilebaSi, RmerTTan siarulSi. soteriologiis am doqtrinas aqvs upiratesoba, rogorc ZiriTads,
da, aseve, sayovelTaos. SeiZleba sibrZnem ixsnas adamiani, magram im sasjelisgan, romelic zneobrivi gadagvarebis gamo moevlina kacobriobas, adamians mxolod
zneobrivi sisrule Tu ixsnida. da Tu pirveli wuTisofeli ar daindo, Seinaxa rvasTan erTad noe, simarTlis qadagi, roca warRvna mouvlina ukuRmarTTa wuTisofels (2pet. 2:5). Tu RvTis xatis dacemis gamo isjeba wuTisofeli, sasjels mxolod RvTis xatis Semnaxveli Tu ascdeba.
warRvnis mTeli movlenis aRwera misi dasawyisidan
dasasrulamde mniSvnelovanwilad ricxvTa Tanamimdevrobazea damyarebuli. Svids, romelsac manamde daekisra Sesaqmis saidumlos dateva, sxva ricxvebi mosdevs. ufali noes SvidiB dRis vadas aZlevs, romlis Semdeg `ormoc dResa da ormoc Rames awvimebs~ qveyanaze
(7:4). am xanebSi unda moaswros noem kidobanSi Sesvla
yvelasTan da yvelafer imasTan, vinc da rac masTan erTad unda gadarCes, raTa gagrZeldes sicocxle ganaxlebul miwaze. noes saxlis Svidi wevri, yoveli wmida
pirutyvidan Svid-Svidi (oRond uwmidurTagan _ orori, unda gadarCnen esenic, Tumca pirvelad moses rjuli adgens maT gansxvavebas, magram amis codna, rogorc
Cans, warRvnamdel xanaSic arsebobda). sawarRvno wvi-

40

dabadeba

mebis dawyebis win Sevida noe kidobanSi, romlis agebis


idea, Sida sivrcis danawileba da zomebi Tavad ufals
ekuTvnis (6:14-16). aq monawileobs ricxvebi: samasi
wyrTa _ sigrZe, ormocdaaTi wyrTa _ sigane, ocdaaTi
wyrTa _ simaRle da sami sarTuli. warRvnis dros
wyalma TxuTmet wyrTaze gadafara maRali mTebi (7:
20), wylis modideba grZeldeboda asormocdaaT dRes
(7:24) da ukuqceva a
F sormocdaaT dRes (8:5). mwvervalebis pirvelgamoCenidan ormoci dRis Semdeg noem gauSva yorani wylis donis Sesamowmeblad (8:6-7); Svidi
dRis Semdeg noem gauSva is mtredi, romelmac zeTisxilis rto moitana warRvnis dasasrulis sauwyeblad da
mSvidobis niSnad (8:10). kvlav Svidi dRis Semdeg gagzavnili mtredis ukanmouqcevlobam noes aniSna, rom
mas ukve SeeZlo xmeleTze gadasvla (8:12). dabolos,
amas erTvis noes ricxvic: eqvsasiB wlisa iyo noe, roca
Sevida kidobanSi (7:6,11) da eqvsasmeerTeSiB iyo gadamdgari, roca gamovida kidobnidan (8:13).
sagulisxmoa, rom im uzarmazar WurWels, romlis
wyalobiTac noe gadaurCa waRvnas, ewodeba ara xomaldi, rogorc warRvnis Suamdinarul miTosSi, aramed
Tebah, romelic kidev orjer ipoveba Zvel aRTqmaSi _
erTxel im lerwmis WurWlis aRsaniSnavad, romelSic
Casves Cvili mose da niloss gaatanes (gam. 2:3); meored,
kubos aRsaniSnavad, romelSic Caasvenes iosebi egvipteSi (50:6). mosesTvis, iseve rogorc noesTvis, lerwmis
kidobani misi xsnis WurWelia; misTvis nilosis wyali
igive warRvnis wylebia, saidanac is noesaviT uvneblad
unda gamovides. kidobani gardatexis momaswavebelia,
is zRurbls qmnis noes dros _ mTeli kacobriobis da
moses dros _ misi eris istoriaSi.
ar aris SemTxveviTi mtredis gamoCena da misi misia
warRvnis dasasruls. mtredi, rogorc suliwmidis niSani, xorcieli gamoxatulebaa RvTis sulisa (ruax
elohim), romelic samyaros genezisSi, roca jer mxolod Tohu-va-bohu (qaosi _ warRvnis pirvelsaxe) iyo,
iqceoda zeda wyalTa.
raSi mdgomareobs is siaxle, romelic Semodis kacobriobaSi warRvnis Semdeg? riT aris aRbeWdili kacTa modgmis cxovrebis warRvnisSemdgomi xana?
jer SevniSnoT, rom noe pirveli iyo, romelmac aRmarTa samsxverplo sruladdasawvelis Sesawiravad
(es aris pirveli xseneba samsxverplosi da sruladdasawvelisa Zvel aRTqmaSi). aRsaniSnavia isic,
rom noem yoveli gvaris wmida cxovelTa da frinvelTagan TiTo-TiTo Seswira msxverplad ufals (8:20),
rac Semdgom aRar ganmeorebula. am sapasuxismgeblo
SewirvaSi ar monawileobs pureuli Sesawiravi _ ZiriTadi samadlobelo msxverpli sisxliani msxverplia: noem abeluri msxverpli Seswira ufals da
ufalma moxeda mis msxverpls, iynosa ufalma keTilsurneleba, ebraulad Hreax ha-nixoax (sityvasityviT:

41

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

surneleba Svebisa), sadac ismis Tavad Semwirvelis


saxeli (noax).
am msxverplSewirvis Semyure ufali ambobs mniSvnelovan sityvebs: `...amieridan aRar davwyevli miwas adamianis gamo, radgan borotiskenaa midrekili adamianis
gulisTqma misi siyrmidanve~ (8:21). am sityvebiT erTxel kidev aRiniSneba adamianis pasuxismgebloba miwis winaSe, romelic mas Cabarda dasamuSaveblad da sapatroneblad, da, rac mTavaria, gaTvaliswinebulia
adamisgan memkvidreobiT gadmosuli codva, romelic
ar waruxocavs warRvnas. man mxolod pirovnuli codvebisgan wabilwuli miwa da codviani miwis mkvidrni
warxoca.
meordeba kurTxeva, romliTac ufalma RmerTma
akurTxa adami, TiTqos yvelaferi Tavidan iwyeba, warRvnis dasasrulma moitana axali Sesaqme: `inayofiereT, imravleT da aavseT qveyana~ (9:1), magram gaismis
axali, jerarTqmuli sityvebic, romelic adamis modgmis axal mdgomareobas gvixatavs: `Tqveni SiSi da
Zrwola hqondes miwis yovel mxecs, cis yovel frinvels, yovel suldgmuls, rac ki iZvris dedamiwaze da
zRvis yvela Tevzs. Tqvens xelT arian isini~ (9:2).
adamiansa da cxovelebs Soris urTierToba ukve adamis dros Seicvala, roca daeca adami. `Tqveni SiSi hqondeT...~ es ar iyo adamis kurTxevaSi, roca is cxovelTa
samyaros patronad daadgina RmerTma. axla SiSi da undobloba Cadga adamiansa da sxva suldgmuls Soris.
adami Tu maSin maTi patroni iyo, axlac patronia,
oRond saSineli patroni, romelsac axla ufro batoni
eTqmis. cxoveli axlac emorCileba adamians, rogorc
Tavisze maRal arsebas, magram es morCileba axla ukve
SiSzea dafuZnebuli. uflis sityvebi `Tqveni SiSi
hqondeT~ unda gavigoT, ara rogorc wyevla sapirispirod kurTxevisa, _ ufali aRar wyevlis kacobriobas, _
aramed rogorc ukve arsebuli urTierTobis gamocxadeba kacTa Soris misi gacnobierebis mizniT.
yoveli iZvrisi, rac ki cocxlobs, saWmelad gqondeT. rigorc mwvane balaxs, ise gaZlevT yvelafers~
(9:3), _ albaT, esec ukve arsebuli faqtis konstantacia
ufroa, vidre mowodeba, rom adamianma Seicvalos orientacia sakvebis mimarT. unda vifiqroT, rom adamians
ukve gauCnda moTxovnileba cxoveluri sakvebisa an ukve
SeuZlia an surs cxovelis xorcis Wama. ufali mxolod
akurTxebs am moTxovnilebas da cxovelur sakvebs mcenareul sazrdosTan aTanabrebs. magram aqve adamians ekrZaleba xorcis Wama mis sisxlTan erTad (9:4), rasac
moses rjulSi mieca, zneobrivis garda, metafizikurreligiuri axsna, rom `sisxlSia xorcielis suli~ da,
Tu daiRvreba, samsxverplosTvis unda daiRvaros, radgan `sisxlia, rom Seundobs suls~ (lev. 17:11).
warRvniswina ambis gadmocemisas biblia ar asaxelebs im codvis konkretul saxes, romelmac adamis Sem-

42

dabadeba

deg kidev ufro dacemuli kacobrioba esoden sastiki


sasjelis msxverpli gaxada. magram imis mixedviT, rasac
noe ismens uflisgan, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom es codva
exeboda sisxls, romelSic aris suli anu sicocxle yoveli suldgmulisa, risTvisac ikrZaleba misi Wama.
`me ki Tqvens sisxls Tqveni sicocxlis wil movikiTxav, yovel mxecs movkiTxav, adamians movkiTxav, Tqven
mogkiTxavT erTmaneTis sicocxles. vinc adamianis
sisxls daRvris, adamianis mierve daiRvreba misi sisxli...~ (9:5-6), ucxadebs ufali noes. warRvnis dasasruls warmoTqmuli es sityvebi imaze unda migvaniSnebdes, rom warRvnamdel epoqaSi miwa rom Seiryvna, swored uRvTod daRvrili sisxliT Seiryvna, rogorc kaenis xanaSi moxda, roca miwam pirvelad `gaxsna piri~, raTa moklulis sisxli mieRo mkvlelis xelidan (4:11).
maSin miwam, romelic adams dasacavad Cabarda, imdenad
icvala saxe, rom wyevlad eqca kaens. kaenisa da SeTis aRreul TaobebSi miwas kvlav kaenis codva bilwavs da,
aravin icis, ra daemarTeboda mas an sadamde miiyvanda
adamis ZeTa modgmas misi `gza~, rom warRvna ar momxdariyo. warRvna iseTive zRvardamdebi movlenaa mTeli
kacobriobisTvis, rogorc sicocxlisaTvis sikvdili,
romelmac mouspo adamians codvis usasrulod Cadenis
SesaZlebloba da misi mokvdavi sicocxliT SemosazRvra. amitom aris, rom adamianis maqsimalur (cxadia,
pirobiTad) asakze biblia codvis momravlebisa da
warRvnis, rogorc sasjelis, konteqstSi laparakobs
(`ar darCes Cemi suli adamianSi saukunod, radgan xorcia igi. iyos misi xani asoci weli~, 6:3).
Surismgebeli mxolod RmerTia, RmerTs ar dauwesebia adamianisTvis wesad _ `sisxli sisxlis wil~. es kaenis ambavSic gamoCnda, roca kaens niSani daado RmerTma, rom adamiani, Tundac kacismkvleli, aravis moekla, radgan erTi RmerTia Surismgebeli, rogorc sabolood saxarebaSi gamoikveTa (`Cemi ars Surisgeba da me
mivago, ityvis ufali~, rom. 12:19). marTalia, noe ismens
sityvebs `vinc adamianis sisxls daRvris, adamianis mierve daiRvreba misi sisxli~, magram noem es naTqvami
sisxlis aRebis dakanonebad ar unda gaigos. aq winaswarmetyelurad aris aRniSnuli, rom momavalSi sisxlis daRvras kvlav sisxlis daRvra mohyveba, rom es
adamianuri kanoni iqneba.
dabolos, noes da mis ZeTa gasagonad kacobriobis
da yvela suldgmulis mimarT da mTeli qveynis (miwis)
mimarT warmoiTqmis aRTqmis sityvebi, rom `aRar aRgvis xorciels warRvna da aRar mova warRvna qveynis
dasaRupad~ (9:11). mTels am monakveTSi (9:9-17) `aRTqma~, bibliis umniSvnelovanesi cneba, araSemTxveviT, Svidgzis aris naxsenebi misi simtkicis niSnad da
aqve dawesebulia cisartyela sityvieri aRTqmis xatad da saswaulad. Y

43

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

noes ZeTa modgma


(9:8; 10:1-32)
noes ZeTa modgma (ToledoT) anu genealogia meoTxea qveynis gaCenidan im modgmaTa Soris, romlebzec
biblia aCerebs Tavis yuradRebas. pirveli iyo modgma
cisa da miwisa (2:4), raSic igulisxmeba adami, rogorc
qmnileba cisa (Tavisi suliT, romelic RvTis mier aris
STaberili) da miwisa (Tavisi sxeuliT, romelic miwidan aris aRebuli); meorea modgma adamisa da evasi
(5:1-31), romelic moicavs pirveli wyvilis STamomavlobas kaenisa da abelis Semdeg, SeTis genealogias. mesamea noes modgma (6:9-dan 9:17-mde), romelic mTlianad moicavs warRvnis epizods.
is epizodi, romelic mogviTxrobs noes mier vazis
gaSenebas, mere Rvinis Sesmas, daTrobas da gaSiSvlebas
karavSi, ufro metad misi Svilebis gamoa moTxrobili,
vidre Tavad noesTvis. semis, xamisa da iafeTis saqcieli _ rogor moiqcnen isini mamis siSiSvlis mimarT, gadamwyveti Seiqna maTgan, gansakuTrebiT, xamisgan gamomavali xalxebis istoriisTvis.
ai, es adgili. kidev erTxel wavikiTxoT is mis mTlianobaSi:
`da daiwyo noem miwismuSakoba da gaaSena venaxi.
Sesva Rvino, daTvra da gaSiSvlda Tavis karavSi. dainaxa xamma, qanaanis mamamTavarma, mamis siSiSvle da Seatyobina gareT Tavis or Zmas. da aiRes semma da iafeTma samoseli, moisxes mxrebze da ukusvliT mividnen da
dafares mamis siSiSvle. piri ukan hqondaT miqceuli
da mamis siSiSvle ar daunaxavT. gamofxizlda noe Rvinisgan da Seityo, rogor moepyra mas SuaTana vaJi, da
Tqva: wyeulimc iyos qanaani! Tavisi Zmebis msaxurTa
msaxuri iyos! da Tqva: kurTxeul iyos ufali, RmerTi
semisa! msaxurad gauxdes mas qanaani! ganufarTos RmerTma iafeTs, semis karvebSi daemkvidros! msaxurad gauxdes mas qanaani!~ (9:20-29).
noem xeli mihyo (an airCia) is dargi moRvaweobisa,
romelSic marcxi ganicada kaenma. miwis nayofis ucebad
gamoyenebam daaknina is adamianic ki, romelic sisruliTa da simarTliT iyo gamorCeuli Tavis TaobaSi. magram es ar unda aRviqvaT mis dacemad. noes Rirsebaze gadatyda vazis bunebis saidumlo, Zala vazis wvenisa. noes Rirseba msxverplad Seewira yurZnis maTrobela bunebis aRmoCenas kacobriobisTvis.
noes es uneblie `dacema~ ki udaod gamocda iyo misi
SvilebisTvis. SuaTana xami `CaiWra~, man Selaxa urTierTobis is kanoni, romelic mravali xnis Semdeg mexuTe
mcnebad Caiwera RvTiur dafebSi: `pativi eci mamas Sensas da dedas Sensas...~ (gam. 20:12). ufro sworad, SuaTana Ze xami ar aRmoCnda is Svili, romelic mosemde moiqceoda am rjuliT. mas SeeZlo ise ar moqceuliyo, rogorc moiqca, riTac Tavisi STamomavloba dasawyevlad
gaswira. marTalia, pirvelad mosem gamoacxada sruli

44

dabadeba

kategoriulobiT mSoblebis pativiscemis imperativi,


magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom manamde mamaSviluri urTierToba raRac sxva, mis sapirispiro rjuls emyareboda. mosem mxolod aRmoaCina~ is, rac `ewera~ adamianobis, rogorc RvTis xatebis, dauwerel kodeqsSi. moses
rjulis mexuTe sityva is mcnebaa, romelic sxva mcnebebTan erTad adamianad qmnis miwis mtvrisagan Seqmnil
arsebas. am mcnebam Seiyvana karavSi ukusvliT semi da iafeTi da mosasxamiT daafarvina mamis siSiSvle. Zmebis
amgvari qcevis fonze gamoCnda xamis danaSauli.
mamam daswyevla ara uSualod Tavisi Seuracxmyofeli, romelic RmerTma akurTxa mis ZmebTan erTad (9:1),
_ ioane oqropiri ambobs, rom noes undoda daesaja xami, magram, amave dros, ar undoda, rom darRveuliyo
RvTis kurTxeva, _ aramed SeaCvena misi erT-erTi, saxeldobr, umcrosi Ze qanaani, rac auxda kidec mas, mis
STamomavlobas, roca semis STamomavalma israelianebma qanaani daipyres da mis mkvidrTagan, _ eseni iyvnen
iebusevelni, girgaSelni, xivelni, xeTelni da sxvani, _
zogni gandevnes, zognic daimones.
magram noes ar surs iyos mxolod mawyevari, misi bageebidan kurTxeva gamodis _ da es exeba, pirvel rigSi,
sems, roca mas esmis: kurTxeul iyos ufali, RmerTi semisa! (9:26). es kurTxevasTan erTad winaswarmetyvelebac aris, vinaidan arsaidan Cans, rom noes TaobaSi sems
sakuTari RmerTi hyolodes. aq igulisxmeba is, rac moxda, rom semis STamomavlobaSi, mis erT mcire StoSi
WeSmaritma RmerTma gaacxada Tavi. bibliam semis mniSvneloba dabadebis wignis sakacobrio monakveTSi imiT
gamoxata, rom mis genealogias orjer dauTmo adgili:
jer noes ZeTa modgmis konteqstSi (10:21-31); meored,
sagangebod, sakuTriv semis modgmis saxiT TaobaTa mamamTavrebis asakis (pirmSoTa SeZenisa da gardacvalebis) CvenebiT (11:10-32).
mamis kurTxeva miiRo iafeTmac, umcrosma vaJma: `ganufarTos RmerTma iafeTs, semis karvebSi daimkvidros!~ (9:27). iafeTis STamomavalTa mravalricxovneba
da dedamiwis zurgze gafantuloba misma saxelmac (afeT ? faTah sifarTe) iwinaswarmetyvela, magram kurTxevaSi ufro mniSvnelovania misi meore nawili: `semis
karvebSi~ Canergili rwmena uxilavi RmerTisa iafeTis
modgmam gaaxara (igulisxmeba qristianuli xana).
xalxTa genealogia
(10:1-32)
es aris bibliuri Txrobis mcire monakveTi, romelic safuZvlad udevs msoflio xalxTa klasifikacias
enobrivi principis mixedviT. ase dadginda erTxel da
dResac ZalaSia, Tumca, rogorc sinamdvile da mecniereba cxadyofs, xSir SemTxvevaSi ena ar gansazRvravs genetur kavSirs xalxTa Soris. bibliuri sqemis Tanaxmad, warRvnisSemdgom mTels kacobriobas noes samma Zem

45

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

misca dasabami. mravalricxovani da mravalferovani


msoflio xalxebi semis, xamisa da iafeTis ganStoebaa.
zogadad asea miCneuli: semis modgmisani arian is
xalxebi da maT semitebs uwodeben, romlebic erTi Ziridan warmomaval monaTesave enebze laparakoben. esenia, pirvel rigSi, ebraelebi, arabebi, arameelebi,
amorevelebi, Zveli aRTqmis moabelni, yamonis Zeni
(yamonianebi), edomelebi, romelTac israelianebTan
erTad saerTo winapari hyavT. dRevandeli mecniereba
enobrivi niSniT semitebad Tvlis babilonelebs da
aSurelebs, romelTac datoves semiturenovani uZvelesi werilobiTi Zeglebi. Tumca bibliuri genealogia am ukanasknelT xamis STamomavalTa Soris aTavsebs
(10:7-12). enobrivi principi aq namdvilad ugulebelyofilia, amitom unda vifiqroT, am monakveTis avtori sxva eTnikuri monacemebiT sargeblobda. igi iTvaliswinebda, albaT, am xalxebiT dasaxlebuli miwawylis, evfrat-tigrosis SuamdinareTis, Zvel substratul mosaxleobas, romelic aSkarad ar aris semituri: kerZod, Sumerelebs, romelTa qveyana bibliis
am adgilas Sinyarad iwodeba (Zveli qarTuli Targmanis senaari): ...babiloni, ereqi, aqadi da qalne-Sinyaris qveyanaSi (10:10).
aseve, unda vifiqroT, rom substratis gaTvaliswinebiT aris sidoni (cidoni) qanaanis Zed miCneuli
(10:15), Tumca Zveli aRTqmis xanaSi es qalaqi Tu qalaqsaxelmwifo `semiturenovani~ xalxiT iyo dasaxlebuli, rogorc ugariti da mTeli finikia.
rac Seexeba egviptes, romelsac Zveli aRTqmis enaze
ewodeba micraim (saxelwodebis orobiTi forma zemo
da qvemo egviptes aRniSnavda) da romelic israelis
erT-erTi uZlieresi mter-moyvare iyo, aseve xamis STamomavlad aris warmodgenili _ igi xamis meore Zea quSis Semdeg, da masac, Tavis mxriv, STamomavloba hyavs,
romelTa saxelwodebani arafers gveubneba maTi istoriuli bedis Sesaxeb. erT-erT maTganze ki, qasluximze,
naTqvamia, rom misgan arian gamosulni filistimelni,
israelis istoriuli mtrebi, da qafTorelni, xolo
qafTorad Tanamedrove arqeologiis mier kunZuli kretea miCneuli, romelic imxanad indoevropeli tomebiT
iyo dasaxlebuli. amis safuZvelze, zogierTi mkvlevaris TvalsazrisiT, filistimelebi erT-erT indoevropul enaze molaparake xalxi unda yofiliyo, Tumca
ufro gavrcelebuli SexedulebiT, maTi palestinaSi
yofnisas isini semiturenovanni iyvnen (amas mowmobs
TiTqos maTi qalaqebis saxelwodebaTa semituri saxe).
tradiciuli lingvoistoriuli TvalsazrisiT, iafeTis modgmaSi indoevropeli xalxebi igulisxmeba,
Tumca maTi identifikacia Zalze gaZnelebulia. erTaderTi amocnobadi eTnonomia iavan, romelic, ebraulis garda, sxva semitur enebSi `berZenTa~ saxelwodebad damkvidrda. rogorc Cans, termini gulisxmobs ber-

46

dabadeba

Zeni xalxis ionel toms, romelTanac ufro axlo urTierToba hqonda aRmosavleTis xalxebs.
qarTvelologia iafeTis ZeTa _ Tubalisa da meSeqis saxelSi qarTveli xalxis uZveles tomobriv saxelwodebebs xedavs, da Tumca amJamad qarTuli ena Sors
aris indoevropul enaTa ojaxisgan, bolodroindeli
gamokvlevebi TiTqos cxadyofs mis dasabamier indoevropul struqturas.
miuxedavad mravalricxovani gamokvlevebisa, msoflio xalxTa bibliuri genealogiis gasaRebi jer kidev
moZebnili ar aris.
babilonis godoli
(11:1-9)
am sabediswero godlis mSenebloba ukanaskneli epizodia erTiani kacobriobis istoriaSi, romelic Semoinaxa bibliam. adamis dacema, kaenis codva, warRvnamdeli gadagvareba, warRvna, noes aRmoCena _ es ambebi
mTeli kacobriobis kuTvnilebaa. babilonis godoli
ki aris is zRurbli, romlis iqiT iwyeba axali xana adamis ZeTa TavgadasavalSi, roca TiToeuli ena da TiToeuli xalxi ganviTarebisa Tu dacemis Tav-Tavis gzas
daadgeba.
kacobrioba TandaTan Sordeba im Suaguls, saidanac
man miiRo dasabami. es aRmosavleTia, sadac biblia edemis baRs aTavsebs. magram, cxadia, es `aRmosavleTi~ (kedem) RirebulebiTi realobaa, kerZod, zneobriv-religiuri, vidre sivrcobriv-geografiuli, qveynis kuTxeTa mixedviT orientirebuli. `aRmosavleTidan~ daSorebis am monakveTze kacobriobas jer kidev SenarCunebuli aqvs erTi sxeuli da erTiani ena, rogorc cxadad,
rogorc garkveuli mniSvnelobis faqtad, aris gamoxatuli 11-e Tavis dasawyisSi:
`erTi ena (`bage~) hqonda mTels qveyanas da erTi
sityvebi~ (11:1).
da kidev, roca ufali ambobs:
`aha, erTi xalxia es da erTi ena aqvs yvelas~ (11:6).
da ai, es erTiani xalxi, erT enaze metyveli, Sinyaris
velze Sekrebili, wamoiwyebs mSeeneblobas, romelic
sabediswero gaxdeba misTvis. ra aris mizani qalaqisa
da godlis Senebisa?
`aviSenoT qalaqi da godoli da cas mivuwvdinoT misi Tavi, da SevqmnaT CvenTvis saxeli, rom ar gavifantoT dedamiwis zurgze~ (11:4).
am metismetad Zunw TxrobaSi oTxi ram mainc aris aRsaniSni:
1. Tavad Seneba qalaq-godlisa,
2. camde miwvdomis survili,
3. saxelis Seqmna,
4. gafantvis SiSi da simWidrovisken ltolva.
erTi, SexedviT amgvar saqmianobasa da ganzraxvebSi
araferi danaSaulebrivi ar aris. magram Tu Cavukvir-

47

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

debiT am lakonur pasaJs da mas gaviazrebT ara gancalkevebiT, aramed Zveli (da axali) aRTqmis konteqstSi,
cxadad gamoCndeba is damRupveli gza (derex),^ romelsac mSeneblebi daadgnen. RmerTma dasturi ar dasca
maT wamowyebas da moawyo ise, rom godol-qalaqis mSenebloba Sewyvetiliyo. amiT RmerTma samani daudo kacobriobis kaenur tendenciebs. sasjeliT ufali abrkolebs imas, rac ar unda moxdes.
Cven viciT, rom pirveli qalaqi RvTis pirisgan gadaxvewilma kaenma aaSena; qalaqi mas sWirdeboda im Sinagani
Zrwolis da wrialisgan (noay da nod) TavSesafarad, romelic man mkvlelobis sasjelad miiRo. Sinyaris velze
Sekrebilnic gafantvis SiSiT aSeneben qalaqs. arc kaeni,
arc godlis mSenebelni ar axseneben uflis saxels, isini
RvTis-saxel-uxseneblad aSeneben, rasac aSeneben _ anu
qmnian nivTiers sulieri problemis gadasawyvetad. da
Tu saxelzea laparaki, maT mxolod sakuTari adamianuri
saxeli axsovT. kaeni, rogorc gvaxsovs, Tavisi Svilis saxelze aSenebs qalaqs. amiT kaeni iqmnis _ movixmoT ebrauli sityvis Sem (`saxeli~) damatebiTi mniSvnelobani _
`didebas~, `STamomavlobas~. godlis mSeneblebic eswrafian TavisTvis saxelis Seqmnas, sakuTari Tavis damkvidrebas da es xdeba uflis kurTxevis gareSe da, amis
gamo, misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod.
`saxelis SeqmnaSi~ godlis mSenebelni ukvdavebis
garantias xedaven, rogorc adami da eva akrZaluli xis
nayofis gemosxilvaSi (`ar mokvdebiT~, eubneboda maT
Semacdeneli), xolo mis materialur gansxeulebas _
koSkis Tavanis cadmiwvdomaSi, rac janyis simboluri
gamoxatulebaa. adamiani isev da isev cdilobs daibrunos dakarguli ca, ufro metic, gautoldes RmerTs uRvTo gziT, nivTieri saSualebiT.
ufalma adamianebs dauwesa gansaxleba dedamiwis
zurgze, raTa aRsrulebuliyo kurTxeva, romelic mieca adams misi gaCenisTanave: `inayofiereT da imravleT,
aavseT dedamiwa...~ (1:28), da ganmeorebiT noes warRvnis
Semdeg: `inayofiereT, imravleT, moefineT qveyanas da
gamravldiT masze~ (9:7), _ godlis mSeneblebi ki win
aRudgnen am kurTxevas, qveyanaze mofenis nacvlad godlis garSemo, erT adgilze, mWidrod cxovreba arCies.
maTi SiSi `ar gavifantoT~ daupirispirda RvTiur mowodebas _ `moefineT qveyanas~.
`erTi xalxi da erTi ena~, _ RvTis madlismieri
mdgomareoba, romelsac Senatrodnen Zveli xalxebi
TavianT andrezebSi, da romelsac kacobrioba RvTisadmi WeSmariti samsaxuriT maRal safexurze unda aeyvana, borotebis wyaro Seiqna. janySi erTianoba damRupveli aRmoCndeboda Tavad adamis ZeTaTvis. amitomac RmerTma `ena auria~ maT da gafanta isini ufalma
iqidan mTels dedamiwis zurgze...~ (11:8). godlis mSeneblebma sasjelad daimsaxures swored is, rasac ufrTxodnen _ gaifantnen. uflis kurTxeva aRsrulda,

48

dabadeba

magram man ukuRmarTi kacobriobisTvis sasjelis saxe


miiRo. sasjeli aqac, iseve rogorc adamis xanaSi da noes xanaSi isev da isev adamianis sakeTildReod da misi
amqveyniuri misiis warsamarTavad.
[ganfantvas, rogorc sasjels, ar amouwuravs Tavi im saerTokacobriul xanaSi. ganfantva sabediswero sasjelad
eqca rCeul ers, roca aRTqmuli qveynidan mTels qveyanaze
ganiTesa (diaspora), da es bunebivia, radgan am sasjels is
swored kacobriobis rCeulobis gamo imsaxurebs.]

`...aq aRria ufalma mTeli dedamiwis ena da aqedan gafanta isini ufalma dedamiwis zurgze~ (11:9), _ es `aq~
babilonia, Zveli msoflios udidesi qalaqi, sadac istoriul xanaSi mravali ena ireoda; mis saxelTan _ babel akavSirebs teqsti ebraul sityvas babal (aRria),
Tumca saerTokacobriul xanaSi babiloni (aqad. babili kari RmerTebisa) ar unda arsebuliyo. aSkaraa
misi simboluri, SesaZlebelia, esqatologiuri daniSnulebac, ramac, marTalia, sxva aspeqtSi, winaswarmetyvelTa qadagebebSi pova asaxva. rac Seexeba enis aRrevas am pasaJSi, igi ar niSnavs erTi enis gansxvavebul
enebad danawilebas. gansxvavebuli enebi da xalxebi
ganfantvis Sedegad warmoiSvnen. aRrevaSi, rogorc
sityvis Sinaarsi mowmobs, adamianTa Soris gaTiSuloba, Tanxmobis dakargva da, saboloo jamSi, erTmaneTisadmi gaucxoebaa nagulisxmevi, ramac SeuZlebeli gaxada RvTis nebis sawinaaRmdego mSeneblobis gagrZeleba.
da mainc, sabolood, erTiani sakacobrio enis gansxvavebul enebad danawilebis saidumlo `babilonis
godlis~ tragikul movlenasTan aris dakavSirebuli.
qristianul egzegetikaSi is sulTmofenobis Suqze ganixileba, roca aRdgomidan ormocdameaTe dRes suliwmidiT aRZruli mociqulebi ganTesvis yvela qveynidan
ierusalimSi amosulTa enebze alaparakdnen _ TiToeuls esmoda, rogor laparakobdnen mis enaze (saqme 2).
sulTmofenobaSi qristianoba babilonuri aRrevis SedegTa gauqmebas xedavs, roca adamis Ze kvlav ibrunebs
dakargul, arasavsebiT gamqral dasabamier erTianobas. netari Teofilaqte bulgareli, gamoxatavs ra saerTo Sexedulebas am saswaulze, ase wers: `rogorc
godlis Senebisas erTi ena daiyo mraval enad, axla es
bevri ena erT adamianSi SeerTda da erTi da igive kaci
suliwmidis STagonebiT sparsulad, romaulad, indurad da bevr sxva enaze ametyvelda...~
semis modgma
(11:10-26)
enis aRrevisa da erTiani modgmis gafantvis epizods
imave, 11-e TavSive, uSualod mosdevs semis STamomavalTa vrceli genealogiuri nusxa _ TiToeuli mamis asakis CvenebiT misi pirmSos dabadebisas da dabadebis Semdeg sxva ZeTa da asulTa SeZenis xsenebiT. ucvlelad
ganmeorebadi, mamidan mamaSi jaWvurad gadasvlis mauw-

49

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yebeli formula aseTia: `...ocdaaTi wlisa iyo Salaxi,


roca Sva yeberi. icocxla Salaxma yeberis dabadebis
Semdeg oTxas sami weli da Sva Zeni da asulni. icocxla
yeberma falegis dabadebis Semdeg oTxas ocdaaTi weli
da Sva Zeni da asulni. ocdaaTi wlisa iyo falegi, roca
Sva...~ (11:14-18). da a.S.
aseTi gulisyuriT arc erTi modgma ar aris warmodgenili wmida werilSi. es imas mowmobs, rom semis modgmisadmi gansakuTrebuli yuradRebaa mipyrobili. semis upiratesoba Tavad missave saxelSia: Sem _ `saxeli~. amasTan erTad, am genealogiis boloSi eguleba avtors is mama, romelmac dasabami daudo rCeul ers. arafers eubneba Zveli aRTqmis mkiTxvels saxelebi _ arfaqSadi, Salaxi, falegi, reRu, Serugi, naxori; arc maTi saqmeni viciT da arc maTi saxelebi moixseneba metad
mTeli Zveli aRTqmis manZilze. oRond maT Soris aris
erTi, saxelad yeberi, romelzec Rirs SeCereba. Tavad
abraami, rCeuli eris mamamTavari, yeberis STamomavlad aris moxseniebuli _ `abram ebraeli~ (yibri
14:13). ratom mainc da mainc igi ixsenieba winaprad da
ara arfaqSadi, semis pirmSo, an Tundac naxori, misi papa, an sxvas romelime piri genealogiuri jaWvidan? Znelia amaze pasuxis gacema da iqneb arc unda daisvas aseTi
kiTxva, roca yeberis Tavad saxeli, SeiZleba, ufro
mets gvamcnobs, da arsebiTsac, Tavis Sesaxeb, vidre semis modgmis romelime sxva mama. am CvenTvis sruliad ucnobi mamis cxovrebaSi raRac rom moxda, ramac SeiZleba
safuZvlianad Secvala misi gza, amas misi saxeli mowmobs. saxelma Semoinaxa xsovna movlenaze mis cxovrebaSi, romelic mdinaris gadalaxvasTan aris dakavSirebuli, da es ar atarebs mxolod simbolur xasiaTs: gardatexas realuri gamoxatuleba hqonda (da es aRibeWda
mis saxelSi), rogorc Semdeg meordeboda misi ori STamomavlis cxovrebaSi (abraamisa _ evfratis, xolo iakobisa _ iabokis gadalaxvis dros, sadac mas saxeli gamoecvala) da mTeli eris gansacdelSi mewamul zRvaze.
es aris yeberis gamorCeuloba semis modgmaSi.
Teraxis modgma
(11:26-32)
sad cxovrobdnen Teraxis Soreuli winaprebi, amaze
genealogiuri Zunwi nusxa arafers ambobs. axloni ki,
iseve rogorc Teraxis modgma, Sumeruli qalaqis uris
mkvidrni unda yofiliyvnen. qaldevelTa uria (ur
qaSdim) Teraxis samSoblo qveyanaa (erec moledeT qveyana Sobisa), sadac mraval RmerTs Soris ufrosobda
RvTaeba mTvarisa, romelic sxvadasxva saxelwodebiT
idideboda Sumeruli xanis da mis Semdgom SuamdinareTSi. sinais anu nanaris mTavari taZari iyo urSi da,
rogorc Tavad Teraxis saxeli (areax mTvare) mowmobs, misi modgmac mTvaris Tayvanismcemeli unda yofiliyo. ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom mTvaris mTavari qalaqi

50

dabadeba

iyo xaranic, sadac svla SeaCera da mokvda kidec Teraxi.


Teraxis modgmas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba imis gamo
eqceva, rom am dros moxda gardatexa sagvareulos cxovrebaSi _ is icvlis sacxovrebel adgils an unda gadalaxos mdinare, romlis napirze iyo gaSenebuli qalaqi
uri; xolo es mdinarea yvelaze didi mdinare mTels axlo aRmosavleTSi. teqstis mixedviT ar Cans, rom Teraxis modgma mravalricxovani yofiliyos. `es aris Teraxis modgma: Teraxma Sva abrami, naxori da harani. haranma Sva loti. mokvda harani mamamisis Teraxis sicocxleSi...~ (11:27-28). es aris da es. maT Seematnen abramisa da
naxoris colebi _ sara da milqa, romelic adre gardacvlili haranis asuli iyo (mas kidev darCa sxva asuli isqa _ qalebi genealogiur nusxaSi ar arian moxseniebuli). Teraxis pirovnul Zalaze (Tu imJamindeli
uris patriarqalur urTierTobebze) unda metyvelebdes is faqti, rom abrami (naxori ratomRac ar Cans gamgzavrebis epizodSi), ukve daqorwinebuli da, amdenad,
sakuTari saxlis patroni, jer kidev mamis patronobis
qveS, jer kidev mis saxlSia. es aris erTiani, ganuyofeli modgma, romelsac erTi kaci, misi mamamTavari, ganagebs. ar aris aRniSnuli, ram aiZula Teraxi gascloda
imJamindeli kulturuli msoflios metropolias, rogoric iyo uri, da qanaanis qveynisken wasuliyo. arc erTi im mraval mizezTa Soris, romelsac unda gamoewvia
es nebayoflobiTi gadasaxleba, dasaxelebuli ar aris.
teqstSi mxolod misi neba Cans, rom man `aiyvana Tavisi Ze abrami, Tavisi SviliSvili loti, haranis Ze, Tavisi rZali sara, Tavisi Zis abramis coli, da gavidnen
erTad qaldevelTa uridan...~ (11:31). abraami misi Zea,
romelsac jer kidev ara aqvs sakuTari arCevanis ufleba da unda dahyves mamis nebas. iyo RvTis xeli Teraxis
arCevanSi? amaze arafers ambobs wmida werilis es adgili. magram, rogorc Cans, ZvelTaganve egzegetikas am
nawyvetidan (ambis Semdgomi ganviTarebis safuZvelze)
ufro metis amokiTxva SeeZlo. pirvelmowame stefane
ase iwyebs Tavis qadagebas ierusalimelTa winaSe, sanam
Caqolavdnen: `kacno, Zmano da mamano, ismine Cemi! RmerTi didebisa eCvena mamasa Cvensa abrahams, vidre iyoRa
igi Suamdinares, pirvel damkvidrebisa misisa qaransa
Sina, da hrqua mas: gamoved queyanisagan Senisa da moved
qveyanad, romeli me giCveno Sen. maSin gamovida qveyanisagan qaldevelTasa da daeSena qaransa Sina, da mier
Semdgomad sikvdilisa mamisa misisa daamkvidra igi qveyanasa amas, romelsa-ese aw Tqven damkvidrebul xarT~
(saqme 7:2-4).
teqstis mixedviT Teraxis modgmis adgilgadanacvleba _ misi gza qanaanisken, romelic, rogorc Cans,
jer kidev Teraxs hqonda Cagonebuli, safexurebrivia.
bibliis Txroba, rogorc yovelTvis, uaRresad dawurulia, Tumca amis gamo naklebi informaciis Semcveli
ar aris. `...da miadgnen xarans da iq damkvidrdnen. Tera-

51

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

xis sicocxlis xani iyo orasxuTi weli da mokvda Teraxi xaranSi~ (11:31-32). aqedan Cans, rom Teraxma amowura
Tavisi SesaZlebloba. is darCa xaranSi, winaparTa
RvTaebis saTayvano qalaqSi, qanaanisken ki sxva unda
daZruliyo misive modgmidan. es sxva abrami (Semdgom:
abraami) iyo. swored mas mouwoda RmerTma.
pirveliB gamocxadeba. xaranidan gasvla
(12:1-6)
roca erTi iyo, maSin movuwode mas.
(es. 51:2)

biblias ar Semounaxavs Teraxis gamocxadeba. Cven ar


viciT, ra uTxra Teraxs ufalma, roca is qaldevelTa
uridan daiZra. misi modgmidan abramia is kaci, romelic ufalma gamoarCia, rogorc winamZRoli Tavisi,
Tundac mcire xalxis, qanaanSi wasayvanad. abrami am
dros (igi samocdaTxuTmeti wlisa iyo) ukve mamamTavaria; mis saxlSi Sedis lotic, misi Zmiswuli. da iseve,
rogorc Teraxzea naTqvami, rom man aiyvana Tavisi Ze
abrami, Tavisi SviliSvili loti..., aseve abramzec:
`da aiyvana abramma sara, Tavisi coli, loti, Tavisi
Zmiswuli...~ (12:5).
es gasvla xaranidan RvTis gamocxadebis Sedegi iyo.
uTxra ufalma abrams: wadi Seni qveynidan, Seni samSoblodan, mamaSenis saxlidan, im qveyanaSi, romelsac me
giCveneb... (12:1). am gamocxadebaSi (romelic iyo Semdgomi eqvsi gamocxadebisa da xaranSi ukve damkvidrebuli am adamianis cxovrebis safuZvliani gardatexis
dasabami) mwyobrad, zogadidan kerZomde, aris miniSnebuli, rom abrams Tavisi adgili aqvs ukve mopovebuli
am samyaroSi, sadac igi cxovrobs, sadac uflis gamocxadebam miuswro mas, da is qveyana ukve misi qveyanaa (me-arce-xa Seni qveynidan), is misi Sobis adgilia (mi-moladeT-xa) da iq aris misi mamis saxli (beT abbi). Sobis
adgili imas niSnavs, rom igi ukve savsebiT damkvidrebulia am qveyanaSi (Tumca Cven viciT, rom is aq ar dabadebula, SuamdinareTis urSi daibada); man unda datovos es qveyanac, mSobliuri adgilic da mamis saxlic,
raTa axali qveyana da axali samSoblo moipovos da axali, ukve Tavisi sakuTari mamis saxli daaarsos.
imave gamocxadebaSi ufali eubneba abrams: ...da Segqmni did xalxad, gakurTxeb da ganvadideb Sens saxels
da kurTxeuli iqnebi. vakurTxeb Sens makurTxebels da
davwyevli Sens mawyevars... (12:2-3). Zveli tradiciuli
yofis sanacvlod, romelic man ukan unda moitovos, igi
iRebs RvTisgan aRTqmas da kurTxevas. yvela adamianis
xvedri ar aris, gaxdes xalxis mamamTavari, romlis saxelze daiwereba is xalxi. vinc gamxdara tomis eponimi,
mas amis Sesaxeb araferi scodnia _ misi STamomavloba
erTian xalxad Seqmnila, magram mamamTavars amis cocxa-

52

dabadeba

li cnobiereba ar hqonia. abramma ki axlave icis, rom misi sazardulidan gamosulni did xalxad (goi gadol)
iqcevian; abramis es cnobiereba mamamTavrad yofnisa gamoarCevs mas sxvaTagan, visTanac mas uxdeba urTierToba;
amas grZnoben isini da abramis (Semdgom: abraamis) zogierTi gaugebari moqmedeba gasagebi xdeba. gakurTxeb da
ganvadideb Sens saxels, uTxra ufalma.
kaenianebi, godlis mSeneblebi cdilobdnen SeeqmnaT
TavisTvis saxeli, abramis saxelis wyaro ki ufalia. abrami dgas abelis, SeTis, enoqis, noes gzaze _ imaT wyebaSi, romlebic dadian ufalTan da marTalni da
srulni arian. iare Cems winaSe da sruli iyavi, eubneba mas ufali mexuTe gamocxadebaSi (17:1), sruli iyavi,
rogorc axla xar, rom Sesruldes is aRTqma, me rom dagidevi. abrami grZnobs, rom ufali masTan iqneba, sadac
ki wava (`vakurTxeb Sens makurTxebels...~), da es sakmarisi iqneboda imisaTvis, rom is daufiqreblad ayriliyo
Tavisi qveynidan, magram mas ar SeeZlo bolomde Caswvdomoda am ayris azrs samomavlod da, miT umetes, im
saocari sityvebisa, romlebic man moismina: kurTxeuli iqneba SenSi (an: SeniT be-xa) miwis mTeli modgma
(12:3). da kidev, rom is ara mxolod kurTxeuli iqneba
uflisgan, aramed Tavadac kurTxeva (beraxah) iqneba.
meore gamocxadeba
(12:7)
Tu risTvis unda misuliyo qanaanSi, es abrams meore
gamocxadebaSi ecnoba, roca mas gavlili hqonda qveyana
Seqemamde da dainaxa, rom igi dasaxlebuli iyo sxvadasxva warmoSobis xalxebiT (12:6). `Sens modgmas vaZlev am
qveyanas~ (12:7), uTxra mas ufalma. RmerTi iZleva qveyanas, romelic ukve dasaxlebulia, iZleva ara Tavad abramisTvis, aramed misi TeslisTvis momavalSi. es unda erwmuna abrams da amis dasturad man aq, uflis gamocxadebis adgilze, pirvelad qanaanis qveyanaSi, momavlisadmi
rwmeniT aRsavsem, augo sakurTxeveli ufals. da ganagrZo gza samxriT da aqac beTilTan, romelic Semdeg mniSvnelovani adgili gaxdeba misi STamomavlobisTvis, aRmarTavs samsxverplos da axsenebs uflis saxels (12:8).
magram abrami arc aq gaCerebula, man qveynis samxriT, negebisken, ganagrZo Tavisi svla da, bolos, egvipteSi Cavida, raTa qanaanSi Camovardnili SimSilobisgan gadaerCina Tavi da Tavisi saxli. es iyo abramis pirveli gavla qanaanis qveyanaSi, arsad igi ar damkvidrebula, mxolod am ori sakurTxevliT aRniSna Tavisi myofoba.
abrami da sara egvipteSi
(12:9-20)
`da aiyara abrami da daiwyo svla samxreTisken~
(12:9). ase iwyeba es mcire monakveTi, romelic rCeuli
eris warmoSobis gangebulebis (providenciis) gegmaSi
unda CaerTos. Tanamedrove mkiTxvels Seacbunebs aq

53

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

moTxrobili ambavi. abramis saqciels Tu adamianuri


gamarTleba ar eZebneba, mas amarTlebs sakuTari rwmena
da RvTiuri providencia.
Cans, abrami sarasTan da Tavis ymebTan erTad miemarTeba egviptisken, raTa kars momdgar SimSilobas ganeridos mdidar da nayofier qveyanaSi, rogoric egviptea (swored egvipteSi gadairCina Tavi misma modgmam
erT Taobis Semdeg).
abrami Tavs SimSilisgan ki gadairCens, magram safrTxe mas axlobeli adamianis mizeziT emuqreba.
`roca miuaxlovdnen egviptes, uTxra saras, Tavis
cols: vici, lamazi Sesaxedavi qali xar. daginaxaven egviptelebi da ityvian, am kacis coliao. me momklaven,
Sen ki cocxals dagtoveben. Tqvi, rom da xar Cemi, rom
kargad momeqcnen Sens gamo da gadavrCe Seni wyalobiT~
(12:11-13).
marTlac, moxda ise, rom didebulebma faraons Seuqes saras silamaze da waiyvanes sara faraonis sasaxleSi, abrams ki misi `dis~ gamo kargad moeqcnen... faraons qali mdidari da warmatebuli xiznis da ki egona,
magram simarTlem Tavisi gaitana da am ukeTurobis gamo
faraoni Tavisi saxliTurT Savma Wirma SeaWirva. gamJRavnda simarTle da faraonma sayvedurebiT daubruna
abrams misi coli (`ratom ar gamimxile, Seni coli Tu
iyo es qali?~, 12:18). bedad faraoni ar mihkarebia saras, Tumca mis colad SerTvas apirebda, da yvelaferi
mSvidobianad damTavrda. `aha, Seni coli, waiyvane da
wadi!~ (12:19). (analogiuri epizodi SeemTxveva isev abraams _ me-20 TavSi da isaks _ 26-e TavSi).
ra SeiZleba iTqvas am epizodze?
sul cota oTxi kuTxidan SeiZleba SevxedoT mas.
1. vxedavT, rogori daucvelia xizani da mdgmuri
(ger), is kanongareSea. xiznis kanonieri qorwineba
arafrad iTvleba ucxo qveyanaSi. misi coli ar aris coli ucxo qveynis TvalSi. nebismieri, visac ki qali moewoneba, uflebamosilia waiyvanos colad, qmari ki moklas, radgan cocxali qmris arseboba dabrkolebas uqmnis momtacebels. rac unda SeZlebuli yofiliyo abrami, is mainc xizani da mdgmuria egvipteSi da unda Serigeboda xiznis beds, da Seurigda kidec. rogorc Cans, es
`Cveuleba~ sayovelTao iyo.
2. abramis sityvaSi, sara misi daa, aris simarTlis
naxevari, SesaZloa, mTelic ki. dab. 20-Si, sadac analogiuri epizodia moTxrobili, abraami (ukve abraami!)
Tavs imarTlebs geraris mefis winaSe: `marTlac, Cemi
da aris es qali; mamaCemis asulia igi, oRond dedaCemis
asuli ar aris. amitomac viTxove colad~ (20:12). es faqtia: sara, coli abramisa, misi qmris naxevarda (ara
RviZli da) unda yofiliyo im xalxebis Cveulebis Tanaxmad, sadac mis ojaxs uxdeboda cxovreba, saxeldobr,
xaranSi, romelic xuritebis kulturul gavlenas ganicdida. xuritebSi ki didad iyo miRebuli col-duri

54

dabadeba

urTierToba, imdenad, rom qmars xSirad coli legalurad dis statusSi ahyavda, raTa meti Rirseba da avtoriteti mieniWebina qorwinebisTvis. dumuzi-inanas Sumerul miTosSic, romelic realur viTarebas asaxavs,
asea: dumuzi inanasTvis qmaric aris da Zmac, inana dumuzisTvis _ dac da colic. asea osirisisa da isisis urTierTobaSic.
3. Tanamedrove mkiTxvelSi Rimils iwvevs saras
warmtaci silamaze samocdaxuTi wlis asakSi, ramac mostaca Tvali faraonis kariskacebs. me-20 TavSi oTxmocdaaTi wlis sara imdenad moxiblavs geraris mefes, rom
igi mis colad SerTvas ganizraxavs. saqme isaa, rom bibliur patriarqTa cxovrebis xangrZlvioba Cvensas orjer mainc aRemateboda. ase rom, faraonis sasaxleSi wagvrili 65 wlis sara Cveni drois 33-35 wlis qalis Tanatoli unda yofiliyo, geraris epizodSi ki _ 45 wlisa
(isakic am asakSi unda SesZenoda mas).
4. mkiTxvels, albaT, Seacbunebs abramis saqcieli,
roca sakuTari Tavis gadasarCenad is mzad aris, `gaasxvisos~ kanonieri coli. magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom uSualod am epizodis win mas RvTisgan
mieca aRTqma _ `Seni modgmisTvis mimicia es qveyana~,
_ unda virwmunoT, rom abrami ara sakuTari sicocxlisTvis zrunavs, aramed im modgmisTvis, romelic
misi wiaRidan unda gamovides. eTikuri aq, rogorc
kierkegori ityoda, ukan ixevs religiuris winaSe. Tu
abrami daiRupa, CaiSleba RvTis gangeba _ ase fiqrobs abrami. igi pasuximgebelia Tavisi sazardulis
winaSe, saidanac unda gamovides aRTqmis Svili, romelic saTaves daudebs qanaanis dammkvidrebel modgmas; igi pasuximgebelia Tavisi sicocxliT am modgmis winaSe.
mesame gamocxadeba
(13:14-17)
egviptidan dabrunebis Semdeg, abramma xelmeored
ganvlo qveyana da imave adgilze dabrunda, sadac axsena
uflis saxeli. aq moxda mesame gamocxadeba, saidanac man
ufro meti gaigo Tavisi momavlis Sesaxeb. ufali gaaxedebs mas im adgilidan, sadac is dgas, oTxive kuTxis mimarTulebiT, da kvlav aRuTqvams mTels am miwa-wyals,
nebas miscems (`adeqi da...~) kidiT-kidemde moiaros qveyana da, sadac moewoneba, radgan mas mieca igi, iq dasaxldes. aq amcnobs mas ufali damatebiT misi STamomavlobis Sesaxeb, rom is qviSasaviT uricxvi iqneba.
am gamocxadebis Semdeg abrami kvlav samxreTiT aiRebs gezs da xebronis (Zveli kiriaT-arbas) maxloblad dasaxldeba, mamres muxasTan, da aqac aagebs uflis
samsxverplos (13:18). misi Zmiswuli loti ukve gamoyofilia misgan, man sacxovrebeli adgili sodomis maxloblad airCia (13:12).

55

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

Sexvedra melqicedekTan
(14:18-20)
SuamdinareTis oTx mefesa da palestinis xuT mefes
Soris brZolis epizods Tu rame mniSvneloba aqvs, isev
da isev abramTan mimarTebaSi. rogorc Txrobidan Cans,
es yofila samxreT palestinis qalaq-saxelmwifoTa erTi didi darbeva da am darbevis msxverpli Seiqna abramis Zmiswuli loti, romelic waiyvanes misi qonebiTurT, dedawulianad da xalxianad, da abrams mouxda
misi gamoxsna Tavisi sakuTari ZalebiT _ mis saxlSi
dabadebuli samasTvrameti gamocdili kaciT (14:1218). es mzadyofna moyvasisTvis Tavis gasawirad, brZolisunarianoba abramis Tvisebaa, moulodnelad gamoCenili, Tumca araarsebiTi; radgan arsebiTi sxva ram
aris am epizodSi, romelic, albaT, swored am arsebiTisTvis aris moxmobili.
lotis gamoxsniT abramma vali moixada Tavisi mamissaxlis winaSe, Tumca es ar SeiZleba yofiliyo aucileblobiT gamowveuli, radgan abramis misiasTan arc
lots (loti xom gamoeyo abramis saxls) da arc lotis
STamomavlobas _ moabs rCeuli xalxis misiasTan ara
hqonia raime pirdapiri kavSiri. abramma aRasrula Tavisi keTili neba rogorc Teraxis STamomavalma da ara
rogorc uflis rCeulma, romelsac gansakuTrebuli
amocana dausaxa ufalma. amave yofiT sferoSi gaiazreba misi Sexvedra sodomis mefesTan, romelic gamoegeba
mas madlobis niSnad, xolo abramma mas mTlianad daubruna mtrisgan mitacebuli, miuxedavad mefis SeTavazebisa TavisTvis daetovebina is. sagulisxmoa abramis
pasuxi: `vficav ufals, uzenaes RmerTs, cisa da miwis
dambadebels, Tu Zafi an fexsamosis Tasma aviRo yvelafridan, rac Senia, rom ar Tqva, me gavamdidreo abrami...~ (14:22). abramma icis, sad aris misi simdidris wyaro da ra sismdidrea es. abramma xelapyrobiT (harimTi
iadi `aRvapyar xeli~) daifica ufali `uzenaesi RmerTis~ (el yelion) saxeliT, romelic aq man pirvelad
axsena. es siaxlea mis religiur cnobierebaSi, romelic gafarTovda uflis amgvarad xsenebiT; da es siaxle moutana mas Salemis mefe melqicedekTan Sexvedram
mefeebze gamarjvebis Semdeg. melqicedekis epizodi
SeWrilia sodomis mefis epizodSi. monakveTi iwyeba
sodomis mefis migebebiT (14:17), wydeba da Semodis
TxrobaSi melqicedeki (12:18-20), mere kvlav sodomis
mefes ubrundeba Txroba, sadac gadmocemulia misi dialogi abramTan (14:21-24). abrami melqicedekTan SexvedriT gamdidrebuli saubrobs sodomis mefesTan.
ori mezobeli palestineli mefe egebeba abrams da ra
ufskrulia maT Soris!
`xolo melqicedekma, Salemis mefem, gamoitana puri
da Rvino. da is iyo mRvdeli uzenaesi RvTisa. da akurTxa abrami da uTxra: kurTxeulia abrami uzenaesi
RvTisTvis, cisa da miwis dambadeblisTvis. kurTxeu-

56

dabadeba

lia uzenaesi RmerTi, romelmac xelSi Cagagdebina Seni


mteri. da misca mas meaTedi yvelafridan~ (14:18-20).
vin aris melqicedeki, romelmac abrams amcno esoden
mniSvnelovani ram, saxeldobr, rom mas swyalobs uzenaesi RmerTi, rom ufali, romelmac xaranidan gamoiyvana igi, romelic aqamde ecxadeboda mas, da uzenaesi
RmerTi erTi da igive RmerTia da rom igi universaluria, rogorc gamCeni da patroni cisa da miwisa? melqicedeki mTels Zvel aRTqmaSi mxolod erTxel gamoCnda
saidumloebrivad, raTa isev gauCinarebuliyo. arc misi winaparia dasaxelebuli, arc tomi, arc modgma. umamo, udedo, naTesav-mouxsenebeli; arca dasabami dReTa, arca aRsasruli cxovrebisa aqvs..., wers masze
pavle mociquli (ebr. 7:3). viciT, rom igi Salemis anu
ierusalimis (ieruSalaim) mefea, rom igi, amave dros,
mRvdelia uzenaesi RvTisa, romlis saTayvanebeli adgili ierusalimSia. es qalaqi ki abramis xanaSi sruliad uCinoa da melqicedekis mefoba da mRvdloba idumalebiT mosavs mas.
`...xolo mimsgavsebul ars igi Zesa RmrTisasa da hgies
igi mRdelad samaradisod~ (ebr. 7:3), ganagrZobs pavle
mociquli, mxedvelobaSi aqvs ra erTaderTi mowmoba
melqicedekze fsalmunSi: fuca ufalman da ara Seinana:
Sen xar mRdel ukunisamde wessa missa melqizedekissa
(109:4). melqicedeki (mefe samarTliani an mefe simarTlisa) _ mefe da mRvdeli erTdroulad Tavisi puriTa da RviniT qristes winasaxed da, amdenad, esqatologiur figurad aris miCneul qristianul TeologiaSi.
mefe-mRvdelTan SexvedriT, ramac winaswar moaswava evqaristiuli msxverpli, abramis Rirseba maRldeba, Tumca Salemis mefe masze ganuzomlad maRalia, rogorc ambobs kvlav mociquli pavle, Tvinier yovlisa cilobisa umciresi igi umjobesisagan ikurTxevin (ebr. 7:7).
meoTxe gamocxadeba
(15:1-7)
am gamocxadebas biblia uSualod ukavSirebs wina
epizods (`am ambebis Semdeg...~), metad mniSvnelovans
abramis cxovrebaSi. magram biblia ar gadmoscems abramis guneba-ganwyobilebas, ras fiqrobs, rogor ganicdis es kaci _ `abram ebraeli~ uflis aRTqmas, romelic
xangamoSvebiT, daJinebiT ecxadeba mas. gamoucnobma
melqicedekma Tavisi sityviTa da didebuli, saidumloebrivi qceviT (pur-Rvinis gamotaniT) daudastura,
rom igi RvTis rCeulia da rom misi amomrCeveli RmerTi ar aris mxolod misi piradi RvTaeba, usaxelo suli,
rogorc ganicdis Tavis mfarvel RmerTsa Tu qalRmerTs Suamdinareli kaci da, cxadia, ganicdida abramic, im religiuri kulturis Svili; es RmerTi `cisa da
miwis gamCenia~ da is Rrmad zrunavs abramze da mis Teslze samomavlod. magram risTvis _ es abramisTvis saidumlo burusiT aris moculi. rogor? _ arc es aris ga-

57

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

sagebi. ufali aRuTqvams uricxv Tesls da ers, misi sazardulidan gamosuls, _ Tumca sara berwia da asaksgadacilebuli, Tavadac xandazmuli; ufali aRuTqvams am qveynis micemas misi STamomavlobisTvis, _ magram es qveyana ukve danawilebul-dasaxlebulia mraval
toms Soris da mefeebi ganageben maT. abrams Tavze awevs,
SeiZleba iTqvas, welSi gamwyveti, erTi adamianisTvis
autaneli amocana, magram misi amoxsnis gzebi ar Cans. gasagebia eWvebi, WoWmani, SiSic, _ yovelive es, rac Tansdevs gansacdelSi myof adamians da abramic gansacdelSia. melqicedekis gamocxadebam kidev meti simZimiT datvirTa misi cnobiereba. mas gamxneveba esaWiroeba da kidev ufro sarwmuno niSnebi imis dasamowmeblad,
rom yovelive aRTqmuli ganxorcieldeba.
amitomac ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom morigi gamocxadeba uflisa am saimedo sityvebiT iwyeba: `nu geSinia,
abram! me var fari Seni! didze didi iqneba Seni jildo~
(15:1). am sityvam gaamxelina abrams uSvilod gadagebis
SiSi, rom misi memkvidre mis saxlSi dabadebuli anu misi mona (saxleuli) damaskeli eliazaria, misi saxlis
mouravi. magram ufali garkveviT auwyebs, rom ara misi
saxlidan, aramed mxolod misi wiaRidan gamosuli iqneba misi memkvidre.
meoTxe gamocxadebaSi ramdenime mniSvnelovani uwyeba da winaswarmetyvelebaa.
Tu mesame gamocxadebaSi abramis STamomavlobis simravle miwis qviSas aris Sedarebuli, axal gamocxadebaSi ufali caSi aaxedebs mas da etyvis: `...daTvale varskvlavebi, Tu SegiZlia maTi daTvla... ase iqneba Seni
Tesli~ (15:5). garda simravlis simbolikisa, am miniSnebas sxva datvirTvac aqvs: niSandoblivia cisa da miwis
elementebis Serwyma rCeuli eris gzaze. es Cans Tundac
iosebis winaswarmetyvelur sizmrebSi, sadac miwaze
Tormet Znas caSi Tormeti mnaTobi enacvleba (37:6-9).
ufali eubneba abrams: `me var ufali, romelmac gamogiyvane qaldevelTa uridan, rom dasamkvidreblad
mogce es qveyana~ (15:7). Tumca Cven viciT, rom qaldevelTa uridan abramis mama Teraxi gamovida mTeli Tavisi saxliTurT. axla uflis sityvebidan Cans, rom
ufals qaldevelTa urSive aurCevia abrami (Ze da ara
mama) qanaanSi Sesayvanad da iq dasamkvidreblad. abrami
imTaviTve uflis rCeulia. uflis es sityvebi-mimarTva
kidev sxva ramiT aris niSandoblivi: ufali imgvaradve
mimarTavs abrams, rogorc oTxasi wlis Semdeg mimarTa
mTel ers (abramis sazardulidan gamosuls), roca is
egviptidan gamohyavda, rogorc moses pirvel mcnebaSia
CabeWdili: `me var ufali, Tqveni RmerTi, romelmac gamogiyvaneT egviptis qveynidan...~ (gam. 20:1). Cans, arsebiTad erTia qaldevelTa uri da egviptis qveyana, orive warmarTuli monobis saxlia, xolo gza qanaanisken _
gza arCevisa da xsnisa. rCeuli eris istoria imeorebs
Tavisi mamamTavris istorias.

58

dabadeba

uflis sityvebiT _ `icode, rom mdgmurad iqneba Seni Tesli sxvis (ara Sens) qveyanaSi; monebad gaixdian da
daCagruli eyolebaT oTxas wels...~ (15:13) _ nawinaswarmetyvelebia krizisuli xana abramisgan gamosuli
xalxis cxovrebaSi, romelic, amave dros, misi rCeulobis dasabamic aris.
nawinaswametyvelebia `monobis qveynidan~ gamosvlac da Jami gamosvlisa: `da meoTxe TaobaSi mobrundebian aqeT, radgan ar gansrulebula aqamde amorevelTa ukeTureba~ (15:16). `amorevelebSi~ (emori) igulisxmeba zogadad qanaanis mosaxleoba, romlis erTi nawilis _ sodom-gomoris ukeTureba ukve abramis dros gadascda zRvars. rCeuli eris qanaanSi dabrunebisa da
dasaxlebis vadebs Tavad RvTiuri gangeba gansazRvravs
eris ukiduresi gasaWirisa da qanaanuri tomebis ukiduresi zneobrivi gadagvarebis droSi TanxvdomiT.
orgzis mouxdeba abrams sakurTxevlis aRmarTva,
magram arc erTxel ar aris aRwerili, rogor swiravs
msxverpls abrami. meoTxe gamocxadebisas msxverplSewirva gansakuTrebulia _ aq saswauli xdeba imis niSnad, rom ufali namdvilad miscems da daumkvidrebs mas
am qveyanas (15:8-11; 17-18). am saswaulebrivi msxverplSewirvisas, `mze rom Cavida da sibnele Camowva~
(15:17), roca SiSiTa da wyvdiadiT moculi abramis winaSe Suaze gakveTili msxverplis naxleCebs Soris uflis cecxlma Caiara, warmoiTqmis aRTqmis sityvebi, romelic ufalma daudo abrams.
am adgilasve vkiTxulobT abramze, rom igi `erwmuna
ufals da man simarTled CauTvala es~ (15:6). amieridan
iwodeba abrami `rwmenis mamad~.
hagari da sara
(16:3-16)
saram icis, rom abrams unda SeeZinos Ze da rom ufali misgan gamoiyvans STamomavlobas, bevr xalxs. magram
saras daxSuli aqvs saSo da amis mizezi sxva ra unda
iyos, es icis saram, Tu ara imave RmerTis neba, romelmac abrams STamomavloba aRuTqva. Ze abramis sazardulidan unda gamovides _ es cxadia da gardauvali; magram gana aucilebelia, abramis Tesli saras saSodan
daibados? abramis Tesli misi sisxli da Zvali unda
iyos _ es gardauvalia, magram saras sisxli da Zvali
Tu monawileobs gardauvalad am aRTqmaSi? saSodaxSuli sara ar aris amaSi darwmunebuli, ufro sworad,
mas imedi aqvs dakarguli, rom is odesme SeZlebs Sobas.
is axla namdvilad damabrkolebelia RvTis aRTqmis
ganxorcielebaSi. magram is aris abramis sayvareli (anu
erTaderTi) coli da am safuZvelze mas SeuZlia aRTqmis monawile iyos. arsebobs amis gza.
`aha, damxSa ufalma, rom ar vSobo. Sedi Cem mxevalTan, vinZlo gavSviliande misgan~ (16:2). abramisadmi
naTqvam am sityvebSi gadmocemulia Serigeba bedTan,

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romelic ufalma arguna mas, da am bedis garRvevis cda


ise, rom winaaRmdegoba ar gaewios uflis nebas. rac amis
Semdeg aris naTqvami, momentis mniSvnelovnebis SegnebiT aris aRbeWdili _ rac xdeba, ritualur xasiaTs
atarebs: es ar aris saras TviTneburi saqcieli, ase iqceoda yoveli saSodaxSuli. `adga sara, abramis coli,
da misca egvipteli hagari, Tavisi mxevali, colad abrams, Tavis qmars, qanaanis qveynad misi dasaxlebis aTi
wlis Tavze~ (16:3).
coli qmars Tavis msaxurs miaTxovebs colad. am aqtis mizani is aris, rom SeuRlebisgan naSobi saras
Svili iqneba _ iseve, rogorc misi sakuTrebaa hagari.
misi mxevali misi saSos nacvalia, amitomac mxevlis Svili misi Svili unda iyos; sara `Svilieri Seiqneba misgan~. da es rwmena sarasa sayovelTao adaTiT aris ganmtkicebuli, Tumca is, rac amas moyveba, ar jdeba tradiciaSi, romelic gulisxmobs ufrosi colis (Tundac
berwis) upiratesobas umcros colze (miT ufro mxevalze) da am ukanasknelis morCilebas ufrosisadmi,
romelic am konkretul SemTxvevaSi misi qalbatonia.
midgomili hagaris saqcieli _ gaampartavneba Tavisi
qalbatonis winaSe _ sabediswero Seiqna abraamis ori
naSieris STamomavalTa urTierTobaSi: hagaris urCoba
gadadis mis Zeze ismaelze, ismaelidan _ mTels tomze.
arc, rogorc gamoCnda, sarasgan hagaris Cagvras (16:6)
Cauvlia ukvalod maT naSierTa _ ismaelisa da isakis
STamomavlebis momaval urTierTobaSi.
Tumca ufali hagars kvlav Tavis qalbatons daumorCilebs da igi Sobs Tavis Zes abramis WerqveS (16:15).
ufals unda moedrika mxevlis ampartavneba da gaexsna
saSo sarasTvis Tundac imis saCveneblad, rom maszea
damokidebuli yvela dedis Sviliereba.
mexuTe gamocxadeba.
saxelTa Secvla. winadacveTa
(17:1-27)
mexuTe gamocxadeba RirsSesaniSnavia. es aris axali
safexuri abramis cxovrebaSi. meordeba aRTqma misi
STamomavlobis bedis Sesaxeb, magram amieridan uflis
aRTqma mis saxelSi Caiwereba, ufro sworad, amieridan
misi saxeli cxadad iRaRadebs aRTqmuls. `aRar gerqvas
amieridan abrami, aramed a
H braami iyos Seni saxeli, radgan uamrav xalxTa mamad gaqcev (17:5). abram niSnavda
`maRal mamas~, xolo axali saxeli, Tumca bgerobrivad
misi msgavsi abraham _ `mravlis mamas~. am aqtma, saxelis
gamocvlam, unda gaaZlieros abraamis rwmena, rom yvelaferi ise moxdeba, rogorc Zlierma RmerTma brZana,
romelmac aRuTqva mas, rom igi misi STamomavlobis
RmerTi iqneboda ukunisamde (17:7-8).
uflis aRTqma CaibeWda abraamis saxelSi, magram aRTqma mis STamomavalTa xorcSic unda aRibeWdos: `iyos
Cemi aRTqma Tqvens xorcSi saukuno aRTqmad~ (17:13).

60

dabadeba

amaSia winadacveTis simboluri azri. winadaucveTeli


ar Sedis aRTqmaSi, is moikveTeba `Tavisi xalxidan~, _
xalxidan, romelic abraamis wiaRidan unda gamovides
da uflis eri anu rCeuli eri gaxdes. aRTqmaSi Sedis
yvela, abraamis da mis STamomavalTa saxlSi dabadebuli, Tundac ar iyos misi Tesl-tomis, Tundac iyos vercxliT nayidi, oRond winadaicviTos. winadacveTis ZaliT, ismaelic gaxda monawile saerTo aRTqmisa, romelic pirvel etapze gamravlebaSi mdgomareobs. ismaelis Teslic imravlebs, Tormeti tomis mamamTavari iqneba igi, `vakurTxeb masac~ (17:20), ambobs ufali. da
Tumca aRTqma saerToa yvela winadacveTilisTvis, magram winadacveTilTa Soris arCeulia erTi, romelTanac ufali personalurad dadebs aRTqmas anu, rogorc
ambobs, `aRvudgen mas Cems aRTqmas~ (17:19). es `aRTqmis
Svili~ iqneba isaki, romelic SeeZineba abraams. da rom
namdvilad SeeZineba da berwi sara iqneba misi deda,
amis dasturad ufali sarasac Seucvlis saxels da
uwodebs mas saras, rac niSnavs `dedofals~ (sarrah).
`swored sara, Seni coli giSobs vaJs~, eubneba ufali,
raTa yoveli iWvi gahfantoda Tavis rCeuls da bolo
moReboda mis WoWmans saras asakis (17:17) da ismaelis
gamo (17:18). saras axali saxeli misi saSos gaxsnis mauwyebelia: ar SeiZleba dedofali berwi iyos.
meeqvse gamocxadeba.
sami angelozis stumroba
(18:1-15)
meeqvse gamocxadeba ar hgavs wina gamocxadebebs. `gamoecxada mas ufali mamres muxnarTan~ (18:1), _ iwyeba
Tavi, magram irkveva, rom uflis es gamocxadeba misi angelozebiT aris xorcSesxmuli. `da gaixeda da xedavs,
sami kaci dgas mis Soriaxlo~ (18:2). sami kaci, sami stumari, romelTa winaSe abraami Tavis stumarTmoyvareobas daadasturebs. es erTi. mivaqcioT yuradReba frazas `...roca karvis karTan ijda dRis papanaqebaSi~
(18:1). aq miniSnebulia adgili da dro, roca am samma
stumarma Caiara mis karTan. dRis papanaqebisas abraami
zis ara karavSi, CrdilSi, rogorc sara, aramed karvis
gareT. ras niSnavs es? es imas niSnavs, rom kaci, romelic
gamovida karvidan gareT, molodinSia, is winaTgrZnobiT aris avsili da es sami stumris gamocxadeba sruliadac ar unda yofili moulodneli. roca adamians molodini aqvs, misTvis arc erTi SemTxveva SemTxveviTi
ar aris. stumarTmoyvareoba, rasac bunebrivad iCens abraami, am SemTxvevaSi molodinis ganaRdebasTan aris
gadawnuli. esec rom ar iyos, stumari xom RvTisaa da es
universaluri Cveuleba arc abraamisTvis aris ucxo. abraami martoa Tavis molodinSi, zis karvis karTan da
gahyurebs gzas. sara ki karavSia, radgan mas aRarafris
molodini ara aqvs, imedi iseve aqvs gadawuruli, rogorc misi dedruli Zalaa daSretili. abraami ki wi-

61

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naTgrZnobs, rom am samma kacma raRac iseTi unda acnobos mas, rac im varskvlaviani RamiT karvis gareT miRebuli aRTqmis (meoTxe gamocxadeba, 15:5) kidev erTi, SesaZloa, saboloo dadastureba iqneba. marTlac, abraami maTgan pirvelad moismens aRTqmis aRsrulebis konkretul vadas: `kidev moval gais am dros, _ uTxra erTma, _ da naxav, vaJi eyolebs saras, Sens cols...~ (18:10).
moismens mas Semdeg, rac aRasrulebs maspinZlis RvTiur vals da is, rasac abraami moimoqmedebs, maTTvis
msxverplSewirvis badali iqneba. amaze migviTiTebs yovelive saukeTeso, rasac igi stumrebisTvis gaimetebs:
gamtkiculi fqvilisgan gamocxobili xmiadebi, saRi
xbo, erbo da rZe... es iyo TiTqos aRsavleni msxverpli,
romelic mTlianad iwireba uflisadmi da Semwirveli
ver ekareba. aseve, sruladdasawveli msxverplis SemwirveliviT abraami `xis Ziras idga, Soriaxlo~ (18:8),
roca isini Wamdnen Sewiruls.
saras sicili, Tundac gulSi, stumris sityvebze imdenad saras urwmunoebas ar gamoxatavs, ramdenadac aRTqmis Svilis saswaulebriv movlinebas, romelic SeuZleblis ganxorcielebis zRvarze xdeba.
saras sicili fizikur realobas exeba, xolo is, rac
stumrebma Tqves, am realobis daZlevis Sedegad unda moxdes. da mainc am siciliT gangebam gansazRvra isakis bedi:
gacinebam (Ticxak `gaicina~) Seadgina misi saxeli (icxak).
abraami esarCleba sodomel marTalT
(18:16-33)
im sam mgzavrs, abraamis stumrebs, romelTac mas saimedo cnoba miutanes, kidev sxva davaleba hqondaT. maT
marTlac Caiares abraamis karze (18:5), dainaxes abraamis mzadyofna maT dasaxvedrad, amcnes sasixarulo ambavi da gaemarTnen sodomisken, raTa Tavad darwmunebuliyvnen sodomelTa codvebSi, romelTa gamo samduravi miswvda ufals. stumrobis dasrulebis Semdeg `abraami gahyva gasacileblad~ (18:16) mgzavrebs kvlav stumarmaspinZlobis wesisamebr. da ai, swored am dros gamoecxada abraams uflis gadawyvetileba sodom-gomoris daqcevis Taobaze. `Tqva ufalma: rogor davumalo
abraams, Cems msaxurs, ris gakeTebasac vapireb?~ (18:17).
abraami esarCleba sodoms im marTalTa gulisTvis,
romelnic misi rwmeniT unda aRmoCndnen am gaukuRmarTebul qalaqSi. aq abraamma am gamosarClebiT daadastura is, rac mas ufalma uwinaswarmetyvela da axlac
gaumeora, roca sodomis daqcevis ambavs ucxadebda, rom
`yvela xalxi dedamiwis zurgze kurTxeuli iqneba misiT~ (18:18). es momavalSi moxdeba, roca abraami did
xalxad iqceva, magram axlac, roca abraami erTiaF RvTis
winaSe da jer memkvidrec ar hyavs, igi pasuxismgeblobas grZnobs kacTa modgmis gamo, Tundac is sodom-gomoraSi iyos gansxeulebuli. da raki ufalma gaumJRavna
Tavisi neba, abraami uflebamosilia am meoxebisTvis,

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dabadeba

miT umetes, rom sodomSi cxovrobs misi Zmiswuli loti, romlis tyveobidan gamosaxsnelad Tavi ar dazoga
erTxel (14:14-16).
sodomis Sesamowmeblad orni wavidnen (`mivida ori
angelozi sodomSi saRamoxans...~ 19:1), erTi ki, rogorc
Cans, abraamTan darCa da es erTi `uflad~ aris dasaxelebuli. `gabrundnen iqidan kacebi da wavidnen sodoms,
abraami ki kvlav idga uflis winaSe~ (18:22). `kvlav idga~ niSnavs, rom gamocxadeba grZeldeba, magram is sxva
fazaSia Sesuli. stumrebi uflis macneni iyvnen da mis
pirad saqmeze elaparaknen. axla ki abraami uSualod uflis winaSea da ufali mas sxvaTa bedze elaparakeba. saubarSi, romelic gaimarTa abraamsa da ufals Soris, euli patriarqi axali saxiT warmogvidgeba.
abraami ver urigdeba im azrs, rom mTeli sodomi
codvilebiT aris savse. sodomSi SeuZlebelia ar aRmoCndes ormocdaaTi marTali kaci. abraami uflisgan gamoiTxovs sodomis gadarCenas im ormocdaaTis gulisTvis.
am Txovnas Tan axlavs dajereba RvTis samarTlianobaSi, rom RmerTi marTalT boroteulebTan erTad ar daRupavs. magram ismis kiTxva _ ramdeni marTali ixsnis
sodoms? abraamma daasaxela `ormocdaaTi~, magram miiRo Tu ara dadebiTi pasuxi uflisagan, daeWvda: `ormocdaaTs rom xuTi daakldes, nuTu daRupav amisaTvis
mTels qalaqs?~ (18:28). da ase uflis yoveli Tanxmobis
Semdeg abraami uklebs marTalTa ricxvs da, sabolood,
aTze Cerdeba. is ekiTxeba frTxilad, gulis kankaliT:
`nu gamiwyreba ufali da am erTxelac vityvi: aTi rom
aRmoCndes?~ (18:32) _ `am erTxelac~ anu ukanasknelad.
rogorc Cans, aTi zRvruli raodenobaa, romelze naklebic qalaqs veRar ixsnis. `ar davRupav im aTis gulisaTvis~ _ iyo uflis saboloo pasuxi da abraamic damSvidebiT wavida `Tavis adgilas~ (18:33).
sodomis daqceva. lotis gadarCena
(19:1-38)
da mainc sodomSi aTi kacic ar aRmoCnda iseTi, romelTa gulisaTvis ufali daindobda sodoms. sodomis
totaluri gaxrwnisa da znedacemulobis dasadastureblad kmaroda is, risi momswrec Seiqna uflis ori angelozi lotis saxlSi. am urjuloebaSi mTeli sodomi
monawileobs: `gars Semoadgnen saxls qalaqis mkvidrni, sodomeli kacebi _ Wabuki Tu moxuci, mTeli xalxi
moadga yovelis mxridan~ (19:4).
lotma gamoiCina ara mxolod samagaliTo stumarTmoyvareoba _ Tavad ucxom ucxoTa mimarT (19:1-3),
aramed mzad iyo Tavisi ojaxis Rirsebac ki gaewira
stumarTa pativis SesanarCuneblad. mis kars momdgari
brbos martodmarto warudga (kari gamoixura) da mis
ukeTur moTxovnas pasuxad Seageba: `nu izamT borotebas, Zmebo! aha, ori qaliSvili myavs, romelTac mamakaci
ar ician. maT gamogiyvanT da uyaviT, rac geneboT.

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oRond am kacebs araferi avnoT, radgan Cems WerqveS


arian Semosulni~ (19:7-8).
lotma Tavisi qceviT da abraamis Zmiswulobis wyalobiT (19:29) ixsna Tavi, xolo im brbom, romelsac sibrmave mohgvara ufalma da veRar gaignes lotis saxlis
kari, Tavisi ukeTuri saqcieliT ubedureba daatexa
mTels sodoms. qalaqis ganadgurebisas daiRupnen urwmuno siZeebic lotisa da misi coli, romelmac ukan moxeda akvamlebul naqalaqars da marilis svetad iqca
(19:26). sasiZoebi ver mixvdnen, Tu risTvis unda dasjiliyo sodom-gomora, rac maT zneobriv moumwifeblobaze metyvelebda, xolo lotis cols es ukeTuri adgilic ki ar eTmoboda.
lotis qaliSvilTa saqcieli
(19:30-37)
im codvas, risTvisac ganadgurda sodomi da gomora,
da romelic moses rjulis Tanaxmad umZimes codvad
aris Seracxili, lotis qaliSvilebma sxva codva daumates: gaiyves mTvrali mamis sareceli. mkiTxveli SeamCnevs, rom qaliSvilTa es moqmedeba zneobrivi Sefasebis gareSea datovebuli, igi ar aris CaTvlili codvad, oRond ara imis gamo, rom amgvari moqmedebis amkrZalveli rjuli abraamis xanaSi jer kidev ar iyo mocemuli da, amdenad, qaliSvilebs da lots ar mouxdebodaT pasuxisgeba.
qaliSvilebi arRveven bunebiT rjuls da, Tu isini
ase iqcevian, isev da isev bunebiTi rjulis aRsasruleblad _ STamomavloba aRudginon mamas, `rogorc qveynis wesia~. ufrosi qaliSvilis sityvebi _ `...kaci ar
aris qveyanaSi, rom Semovides CvenTan~ (19:31) _ SeiZleba gulisxmobdes ara mxolod `am qveyanas~ anu im mxares, sadac loti dasaxlda gamoqvabulSi, aramed qveynierebas saerTod. ufros qaliSvils unda hgoneboda,
rom ufalma mTeli kacTa modgma gaanadgura da isini
erTaderTni arian, vinc uflis risxvas gadaurCa. maT
gadmocemiT axsovdaT noes dReebi, roca mxolod noes
ojaxi ixsna RmerTma sayovelTao katastrofisgan. maT
SeeZloT efiqraT, rom mTel qveynierebaze erTaderTi
mamakaci lotia, xolo erTaderTi dedrovani _ isini.
amrigad, lotis qaliSvilebi, TavianTi SegnebiT, ara
mxolod mamas aRudgenen STamomavlobas, aramed kacobriobis Teslsac gadaarCenen dedamiwaze.
Tu warRvnisgan Tavdaxsnili noesTvis simTvrale
iyo is niSani, romelmac, misda uneblieT, gamouvlina
mas misi Svilebis av-kargi, sodoms gamoqceuli lotisTvis igive simTvrale axali STamomavlobis Seqmnis piroba Seiqna. am ararjulieri SeuRlebisgan warmoiSva
ori xalxi _ moabi da yamoni, romlebsac Sexla-Semoxla hqondaT rCeul erTan mTeli istoriis manZilze.
rac Seexeba imas, Tu rogori iyo sodom-gomoris mxare mis daqcevamde, amis Taobaze laparakia lotis iq da-

64

dabadeba

saxlebasTan dakavSirebiT. `gaixeda lotma da dainaxa,


rom iordanis mTeli mxare coRaramde irwyveboda... rogorc baRi uflisa, rogorc egviptis qveyana~ (13:10).
abraami da sara gerarSi
(20)
`da aiyara iqidan abraami negebis qveynisken da dasaxlda kadeSsa da Surs Soris, da mdgmurobda gerarSi~
(20:1).
`gaemgzavra iqidan~, vkiTxulobT teqstSi. Cndeba
kiTxva: saidan? albaT, iqidan, sadac mas sami zecieri
stumari ewvia da sadac sodom-gomoris marTalTa gamo
edaveboda ufals. es ki mamres muxasTan iyo. ram aiZula
abraami daetovebina misTvis esoden Zvirfasi adgili,
sadac mas sanatreli memkvidris (aRTqmis Svilis) SeZena ecnoba. iqneboda raRac mizezi, magram wigni dums
amis Taobaze. iqneb arc yofiliyo mizezi am moulodneli gamgzavrebisa, romelic im zmniT aris gadmocemuli, mogvianod israelianTa banakis ayras (nasay) rom
gadmocems. ubralod, abraami msxemi da mdgmuria (ger)
da erT adgilze didxans arasodes yovndeba. am qveynis,
qanaanis, mdgmuroba mas avalebs, dro da dro inacvlebdes adgils, rogorc SemdgomSi israelianTa banaki
udabnoSi. amjerad igi `mdgmurobda gerarSi~ (va-agar bi-gerar). albaT, SemTxveviTia, rom abraami Seexizna im qveyanas, romlis saxeli geris (mdgmurobis) semantikas Seicavs.
gerari xmelTaSua zRvispira dablobis (Sefelah)
erT-erTi qalaq-saxelmwifoa, romelsac mefe abimeleqi ganagebda. aq moTxrobilia imis analogiuri epizodi, razedac saubari ukve iyo (12:10-20). aq sara geraris
mefes moewona da misi colad Txova daapira, magram sizmarSi ufalma gaucxada simarTle: `mokvdebi am qalis
gamo, Sen rom moiyvane, radgan qmriania igi~ (20:3). sasjelad ufalma saSo dauxSo abimeleqis saxlSi mTel
dedrovans. SeZrwunebulma mefem daubruna sara Tavis
qmars da cxvar-Zroxa, ymebi da ymaqalebi, aTasi vercxli
miusarTa namusis mosawmedad.
isakis dabadeba. ismaelis gaSveba
(21:1-21)
`ufalma moxeda saras...~ (21:1) _ `moxeda~ (ebr. fakad) esqatologiuri mcnebaa, mas danapirebis, aRTqmis
aRsrulebis Sinaarsi aqvs. abraamisa da sarasadmi trapezobisas micemuli sazeimo aRTqmis Semdeg weliwadi
Sesrulda da, aha, `ufalma moxeda saras..~ wmida adamianuri Sedegi am `moxedvisa~ is aris, rom mucladRebuli dedofali gausworda Svilier mxevals. magram gaTanasworeba ar iyo sakmarisi. amaze qvemoT. axla mivaqcioT yuradReba pirveli muxlis frazis gagrZelebas:
`...rogorc Tqva. da gaukeTa ufalma saras, rogorc ilaparaka~. aq gaxazulia uflis dapirebis aqti da es imas

65

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

niSnavs, rom rac moxda, _ berwi da xangadasuli saras


Sviliereba, _ moxda ara bunebrivi gziT, aramed uflis
CareviT. ioane oqropiri wers am adgilis Sesaxeb, rom
`is, rac ver SeZlo bunebam, maT aRsrulebuli dainaxes
ara adamianur saqmeTa Cveulebrivi rigisamebr, aramed
RvTis madliT~.
`Tqva saram: sacineli gamxada RmerTma. yoveli msmeneli gaicinebs Cemze~ (19:6). `sicili~, `gacineba~,
`dacinva~ Tan sdevs isaks, aRTqmas mis Sobaze (18:12),
mis dabadebas, mis urTierTobas ufros ZmasTan ismaelTan _ `dainaxa saram, rom egvipteli hagaris Svili,
romelic man uSva abraams, dascinoda (mecaxek, septuaginta Targmnis: `eTamaSeboda~) isaks, mis Svils~
(21:9). es gaxda sababi imisa, rom, saras moTxovniT,
mxevlis Svili gaZevebuliyo mamis saxlidan. mxevlis
Svils ar unda eTamaSa dedoflis SvilTan, ar unda gaTanabreboda mas anu ar unda hqonoda masTan erTad wili mamis saxlSi. magram ebrauli mimReobiT mecaxek
ufro mets ambobs, vidre dacinva an TamaSia. masSi imaleba isakis saxeli icxak. mecaxek ambobs, rom ismaeli
ara mxolod eTamaSeba an dascinis isaks, aramed _ da es
gacilebiT SemaSfoTebelia sarasTvis _ icxakobs
(isakobs) anu bunebis Svili aRTqmisSvilobs, rogorc
misi deda hagari masze orsulobisas dedoflobda.
rogorc sara unda yofiliyo erTaderTi qali abraamis saxlSi, rogorc dedofali, aseve misi Svili _ erTaderTi memkvidre. `siberis Zes~, aRTqmiT Sobils,
unda gaemarjva masze adre bunebiT Sobilze. aRTqma
bunebaze upiratesobs da pirmSoobac kargavs Tavis
upiratesobas, da ase iqneba abraamis mTels modgmaSi.
Tavad abraamic, yvelaze mniSvnelovani figura _ uflis aRTqmis matarebeli, rogorc bibliis teqstidan
Cans, umrwemesi Ze iyo.
abraamma gulistkiviliT gauSva ismaeli, misi yoymani gadawyvita uflis sityvam: `...yvelaferi gaugone saras, rasac getyvis~ (21:12). abraamma unda gaugonos saras? mamakacma _ dedakacs Secnobis xesTan momxdari sabediswero SemTxvevis Semdeg? unda gaugonis, radgan saraSi ufali laparakobs. rogorc rebekas saqcieli
(27:6-10) uflis nebiT iyo, rom gaemarjva iakobs esavze,
aRTqmis Svils _ bunebiT pirmSoze, da mieRo memkvidreoba, romelic mas dedis saSoSive miekuTvna (isakma ki
es ar icoda) ara bunebiT, aramed madliT.
ufali imiT anugeSebs abraams, mamas, rom aRuTqvams
ismaelisTvis mravalricxovan STamomavlobas isev da
isev abraamis gamo (`radgan Seni Teslia igi~, 21:13). mamisaTvis am mZime aqtis aRsrulebisas ukve sabolood
gamoucxada ufalma abraams, rom isakia swored is, visganac daiwyeba aRTqmuli STamomavloba.

66

dabadeba

meSvide gamocxadeba.
abraamis gamocda
(22:1-18)
am sulisSemZrav epizods udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs
ara mxolod abraamis pirovnebisa da rCeuli eris istoriisTvis, aramed winasaxeobrivad migvaniSnebs kacobriobis gamosyidvis saidumlos erT mxareze.
Znelia bolomde CavwvdeT im dumilis siRrmes, romelsac abraami inaxavda dilidanve, roca gaemzada, da
mTeli im gzis manZilze, roca Tavisi erTaderTi,^ Tavisi siberis Ze, mihyavda uflisaTvis Sesawiravad. me19 Tavis mkiTxveli mowmea im Tavgamodebisa, romelic
gamoiCina abraamma im marTalTa mimarT, romlebic sodom-gomoraSi unda aRmoCeniliyvnen. magram axla is
dums. ioane oqropiri wers, rom igi TiTqos gauucxovda adamianur bunebas, raTa yoveli sibraluli da mamobrivi siyvaruli daeTrguna uflis nebis winaSe.
arc SekiTxva, arc yoymani, arc daeWveba uflis samarTlianobaSi. erTaderTi, rac SeiZleba amovicnoT am
dumilSi, igive sityvebi iqneba, Svilebdaxocilma
iobma rom warmoTqva: `ufalma momca, ufalma waiRo~
(iob. 1:21). SesaZlebelia, abraams imis molodinic
hqonda, rom aseTi saswauliT movlenili Zis Sewirvas
axali, kidev ufro maRali saswauli mohyveboda. abraamis rwmena mtkice iyo da is ar dauSvebda imis varauds, rom RmerTma gadaifiqra misTvis micemuli aRTqma mravalricxovani STamomavlobis Taobaze. ara,
aRTqma rCeba aRTqmad da, Tu isaki, aRTqmis Svili, Sewiruli iqneba, RmerTma Tavad icis, kvlav ra rigis
saswauliT aRasrulos aRTqma. isakis kiTxvaze _ `aRsavleni kravi sadRa aris?~ _ abraami upasuxebs, rom
`RmerTi gamoaCens TavisTvis aRsavlen kravs~ (2:7-8).
da am pasuxSi swored es saswauli igulisxmeba, igavurad gamoTqmuli, da ara mainc da mainc is kravi, romelic RmerTma marTlac gamouCina mas isakis nacvlad.
abraami rom darwmunebuli yofiliyo am konkretuli,
Semnacvlebeli kravis arsebobaSi, an scodnoda, rom
ufali cdis mas, maSin ra Rirseba eqneboda mis rwmenas,
erTgulebas, Tavganwirvas uflis sityvisadmi? bolos da bolos, uflis saswaulTa maragi amourwyavia
da aseve usazRvroa abraamis rwmenac imisaTvis, rom
efiqra Tundac ise, rogorc qriste eubneba farisevelT: `geubnebiT Tqven, rom RmerTs SeuZlia am qvebidan aRudginos Svilebi abraams~ (maT. 3:9).
RmerTma gamoscada abraami _ mis Tavisufal arCevans mianeba misi momavali, iyo Tu ara igi Rirsi im aRTqmisa, romelsac RmerTi yvela gamocxadebaSi umeorebda da axlac am gansacdelis gadatanis Semdeg kvlav
gamoucxada, magram ara sxva ram axali an imaze meti, rac
ukve aRTqmuli hqonda misTvis (radgan jildo gamocdamde hqonda miRebuli): `...ikurTxeba Seni TesliT
qveynis mTeli xalxi, radgan ismine Cemi xma~ (22:18).

67

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

abraamis rwmena gamoxurvebuli iqna am araadamianuri gansacdelis cecxlSi da, rogorc rCeuli vercxli
gamodis brZmedidan, misi rwmenac uxinjo gamovida. isaki ar daklula, magram RmerTma msxverplSewirvad CauTvala mamas daniani xelis aRmarTva. ufalma miiRo
Tavisi msaxurisgan sruladdasawveli, msxveplis is saxeoba, roca Semwirveli arafers itovebs TavisTvis: aRsavleni (yolah) mTlianad adis uflisken.
ioane oqropiri ase ganmartavs am epizods, xedavs ra
aq qristes jvris aCrdilebriv moswavebas Zvel aRTqmaSi: `Sexede, sayvarelo, rogor winasaxeobrivia yvelaferi. iq mxolodSobili Ze da aqac mxolodSobili. iq
sayvareli da WeSmariti da aqac sayvareli da erTarsi
Ze, rogorc mama RmerTi ambobs: `es aris Ze Cemi sayvareli, romelic moviwone~ (maT. 3:17). isaki Sewiruli iqna
mamis mier sruladdasawvelad da qristec Seswira zecierma mamam, rogorc ambobs mociquli pavle, rom `is,
vinc Tavisi sakuTari Ze ar daindo, aramed Cven yvelasaTvis gaswira, gana masTan erTad yvelafers ar mogvmadlebs?~ (rom. 8:32). iq Crdili iyo, mere ki gamocxadda ufro aRmatebul saganTa WeSmariteba: mTeli soflisTvis Seiwira msxverplad metyveli kravi da man ganwmida mTeli samyaro...
saras sikvdili. samarxis yidva
(23:1-20)
dgas abraami beTilsa da hagais Soris, saidanac gaistumra man Tavisi Zmiswuli loti, romelmac sacxovreblad iordanis mxare airCia. ecxadeba mas ufali da eubneba: `aaxile Tvali da gaixede am adgilidan, sadac Sen
dgaxar, CrdiloeTisken, samxreTisken, aRmosavleTisken da dasavleTisken. mTeli es qveyana, rasac xedav, SenTvisa da Seni modgmisaTvis momicia ukunisamde... adeqi
da kidiT kidemde moiare es qveyana, radgan SenTvis momicia igi~ (13:14-17). gasagebia, rom es aRTqma samomavloa, rom igi imdenad abraams ar exeba, ramdenadac mis
STamomavlobas _ mTel xalxs, romelic gamova misi sazardulidan. magram ras gulisxmobs `moiare es qveyana,
radgan SenTvis momicia igi~? abraamma marTlac moiara
es qveyana, magram arsad is sabolood damkvidrebuli ar
aris. mas vxedavT beTilSi, vxedavT xebronSi, vxedavT
beerSebaSi _ sam adgilas mas samsxverploebi aqvs aRmarTuli, vxedavT, agreTve, gerarSi da garkveviT aris
naTqvami, rom `mdgmurobda abraami filistimelTa qveyanaSi mravali xani~ (21:34). mTeli qveyana abraamisaa,
magram is mainc mdgmuria am qveyanaSi. `mdgmurobda~,
dedanSi agar sityvidan ger `droebiTi mcxovrebi~,
`mwiri~, `xizani~; aqedan modis qarTul `geri~ _ cols
(an qmars) moyolili Svili, romelic am ojaxisTvis ar
aris mkvidri. mTeli es qveyana, romelic daanaxva ufalma abraams, mas (Tumca potenciurad) ekuTvnis, magram abraami sicocxlis bolomde darCa `gerad~. erTaderTi

68

dabadeba

niSani am miwis samomavlod `dabevebisa~ iyo im sami samsxverplos aSeneba sam adgilas, sadac man axsena uflis
saxeli. magram es niSani ar aris misi sakuTrebis niSani,
aramed isev da isev uflis sakuTrebis dasturia.
maS, ra ekuTvnis abraams, am mdidar kacs, am qveyanaSi?
paradoqsia, magram _ araferi. is mwiria, ra unda ekuTvnodes mwirs? is geri da mdgmuria da, Tu rame ekuTvnis,
droebiTia misi sakuTreba, da es verc CaiTvleba sakuTrebad. aq laparakia am qveynis miwaze, sakuTriv miwawyalze, romelze sakuTrebis ufleba ar gaaCnia abraams. hyavs farebi, naxiri, hyavs msaxurebi, mis saxlSi dabadebulni, romelTagan samasTvrameti kaci magari meomaria (14:14), magram mas am qveyanaSi (erec) ar ekuTvnis
miwa (erec). is ucxo, sxvis qveyanaSia da, karvis garda,
sxva sacxovrebeli ara hqonia.
pirvelad sakuTrebis moTxovnileba gaCnda maSin,
roca misi saxlis pirveli micvalebuli gaxda dasamarxi. `msxemad da mdgmurad var TqvenTan, _ eubneba qveynis
mkvidr xeTelebs abraami, _ momeciT sakuTari samarxi
Tqvens miwaze, raTa davmarxo Cemi mkvdari~ (23:4). xeTelebi da, kerZod, yefron xeTeli Tanaxmani arian usasyidlod dauTmon abraams mkvdris dasamarxi miwa, magram `msxemsa da mdgmurs~ surs safasuri gadaixados nakveTSi, raTa misi da misi STamomavlobis sakuTrebad
darCes is samaradisod. es miwa, romelic man iyida yefron xeTelisgan oTxas Sekelad, misi pirveli da erTaderTi sakuTreba iyo aRTqmul qveyanaSi, misi fasi rCeuli modgmis istoraSi SekeliT ar ganizomeba da, albaT,
amitom biblia mis zust topografiul aRwerilobas iZleva. ai, es adgili, abraamianTa samarxis landSafti:
`ase daumtkicda yefroniseuli mindori maxfelaSi,
mamres win rom aris, mindori da gamoqvabuli, iq rom
aris, da yoveli xe, im mindorSi da mis sazRvrebSi rom
aris, irgvliv, sakuTrebad abraams~ (23:17-18).
isakis daqorwineba
(24:1-67)
abraami zrunavs isakis momavalze. ori ramisgan unda
daicvas man isaki, Tavisi sayvareli Ze, aRsavlenis samsxverplodan dabrunebuli: ar iTxovos coli qanaanel
asulTagan da ar gabrundes ukan, im qveyanaSi, saidanac
gamovida abraami, Tumca es qveyana misi mamis samSoblo
da sanaTesaoa. da erTi ram unda Seasrulos man _ moiyvanos coli mxolod da mxolod am sanaTesaodan. da es
unda Sesruldes ara isakis, aramed abraamisadmi aRTqmuli modgmis gulisaTvis.
ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom is Tavi, sadac moTxrobilia morias mTaze isakis msxverplad Sewirvis ambavi,
roca abraami sabolood darwmunda, rom isakiT daiwyeba misi STamomavloba, Tavdeba cnobiT, rom abraamis
Zmas naxorsac SeeZina STamomavloba, romelTa Soris
saxeldebulia naxoris Zis beTuelis asuli rebeka (ebr.

69

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ribka/rivka). es rebeka gaxda isakis coli, rebeka, romlis siyvarulma isaks gauqarva deda saras gamo mwuxareba (24:67). namdvilad, rebekam Secvala sara ara mxolod
isakis cxovrebaSi, aramed mTeli rCeuli modgmis gamoyvanis procesSi. saram Tavisi gamWriaxobiT, rasac
SeeSvela dedobrivi grZnoba, aRTqmis Svils moacila
mxevlis Svili (ismaeli), rebekam ki Rirseul iakobs moupova mamis kurTxeva, Camoacila ra gzidan uRirsi esavi. da rogorc sara iyo berwi da isaki bunebis sawinaaRmdegod iSva, aseve berwi iyo rebekac da berwma, roca gaexsna saSo, tyupi vaJi dabada (25:21-22).
winaaRmdeg misi Zis, iakobisa, romelic Tavad midis
mamis sanaTesaoSi da Tavad moipovebs mravali wlis
Sromis nayofad sasurvel cols, isakis colis saTxovrad SuamdinareTSi midis abraamis saxlTuxucesi eliazari, swored is adamiani, romelzec fiqrobda abraami,
uSvilod gadavdivar da Cemi memkvidre iqnebao. axla es
savaraudo memkvidre midis isakisTvis sacolis wamosayvanad.
erTguli eliazari Rirseulad Seasrulebs abraamis
davalebas. is abraamiseuli rwmeniT mTlianad daendoba Tavisi patronis RmerTs, romelsac sTxovs niSans
imis mauwyeblad, rom masze dakisrebuli misia sasikeTod damTavrdeba. `ufalo, Cemi patronis abraamis
RmerTo, xeli momimarTe dRevandel dRes, madli uyavi
Cems patrons abraams! aha, vdgavar WasTan da am qalaqis
mkvidrTa asulni sadacaa gamovlen wylis amosaRebad.
da Tu moxda da ymawvili qali, romelsac vetyvi, piri
wauqcie Sens kokas, wyals davlev-meTqi, metyvis, Senc
dalie da aqlemebsac dagirwyulebo, swored is iqneba
Seni msaxuris, isakisTvis rom gyavs daniSnuli. mivxvdebi, rom madli uyavi Cems patrons~ (24:13-14).
yvelaferi ise moxda, rogorc CauTqva erTgulma msaxurma. misi patronis winaswarmetyveluri madlidan
masac moxvda erTi naperwkali (msaxuri xom mis saxlSi
iyo dabadebuli). WasTan Sexvedrili qalwuli swored
ise moiqca, rogorc msaxurs surda rom moqceuliyo misi
patronis sasZlo _ man saukeTeso mxridan aCvena Tavi,
ar iucxova ucxo stumari da Tavisi sanaTesaosTvis Cveuli stumarTmoyvareoba (gavixsenoT abraamisa da lotis stumarTmoyvareobis epizodebi) gamoiCina. am epizodSi ara mxolod sasZlos maZieblis RvTismieri qudbedianoba gamoCnda, aramed qalwulis mzadyofnac, momsaxureboda mgzavrs, TiTqos imis bundovani winaTgrZnobiT, rom sabolood mSobelTa kiTxvaze _ `Tu
waxval am kacTan erTad?~ _ uyoymanod epasuxa erTaderTi sityviT: `waval~.
RvTiuri providencia adamianTa nebis wiaR uSecdomod miikvlevs gzas, am gzaze Waa, qalwulTa Sesakrebeli, da analogiuri epizodi kidev orgzis iCens Tavs
rCeuli eris gzaze (iakobic da mosec WasTan xvdebian
TavianT sasZloebs).

70

dabadeba

abraamis sikvdili
(25:1-10)
Tumca saras sikvdilis Semdeg abraams kidev SeeZina
vaJebi (da, albaT, genealogiaSi Cauwereli asulnic)
keturasagan, romelic mis xarWad (filegeS) iwodeba,
magram maT araviTari monawileoba ar hqoniaT rCeuli
eris cxovrebaSi, garda midianis STamomavalTa, romlebic egviptidan amosul da qanaanSi damkvidrebul
israelianTa istoriuli mtrebi gaxdnen. abraamma iseve
moaSora isini aRTqmis Svils, rogorc Tavis droze ismaeli moaSora mas. damarxes ki igi isakma da ismaelma
imave samarxSi, sadac pirvelad sara daimarxa.
vin aris abraami, abramyofili? ras ganasaxierebs is
wmida werilSi, rCeuli eris istoriaSi?
ZiriTadi, rac mis arsebas gansazRvravs, es aris rwmena, romelic man uflisa da mis aRTqmaTa mimarT gamoiCina: `erwmuna ufals da man simarTleSi CauTvala mas~
(15:6). es adgili mohyavs pavle mociquls misi rwmenis dasadastureblad (rom. 4:3) da yvelgan, sadac mociquli
rwmenaze saubrobs, abraamis saxels axsenebs rwmenis magaliTad. abraami `yvela morwmunis mamaa~ (rom. 4:11), morwmuneni abraamis Svilebi arian (gal. 3:7). abraamma pirvelad maSin daadastura rwmena, roca uflis mowodebaze
`ise wavida, rom ar icoda, sad midioda~ (ebr. 11:8) anu man
xiluli uxilavisTvis daTmo da es rwmeniT iyo, radgan,
rogorc wers mociquli, rwmena uxilavis sasoebaa, `vinaidan, Tu kaci xedavs, raRas esavs?~ (rom. 8:24).
erTgan abraami iwodeba `moxetiale arameelad~, ase
ixseniebs mas misi Soreuli STamomavali (rjl. 26:5). da
marTlac, mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis manZilze moxetialed, mwirad, ucxod da umkvidrod darCa im qveyanaSi,
romelic mas ufalma misca, jer mas piradad da mere mis
STamomavlobas. amiT man kvlav uxilavisTvis daTmo xiluli, `vinaidan eloda qalaqs saZirkvlians, romlis
mSenebeli da Semoqmedi RmerTia~ (ebr. 11:10).
dabolos, ra sityvebiT SeiZleba ukeTesad gamoixatos abraamis arseba, vidre ioane oqropirma gamoxata,
roca masze Tqva, rom is aris `almasze umtkicesi suli~.
tyupebi. isakis modgma
(25:21-34)
imave TavSi, sadac gadmocemulia abraamis sikvdilis
ambavi, biblia mogviTxrobs im tyupebis Sesaxeb, romlebic daibadnen karga xans daxSuli rebekas saSodan.
ioane oqropiri ambobs, rom isakis ganuwyvetelma locva-vedrebam uflisadmi (25:21) sZlia bunebas da gauxsna
saSo rebekas. meormoce wels, mas Semdeg, rac isakma pirvelad Seiyvana igi Tavis karavSi, daibadnen tyupebi.
Zalze ucnauri iyo maTi Soba. Sobamde ki iyo winaswarmetyveleba: `uTxra ufalma: ori xalxia Sens mucelSi,
ori tomi gamova Seni saSodan. erTi tomi meoreze Zlieri iqneba. ufrosi umcross daemoneba~ (25:22).

71

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

pirmSo, romelic winaswarmetyvelebisamebr, unda


damonebuliyo umcross, esavi iyo, `sul mTlad wiTeli
da TiTqos tyav-fuCiT Semosili~ (25:25). es iyo esavi.
umcrosi mas gamoyva, mis qusls moWidebuli, da saxelic
am moqmedebisamebr daarqves _ iakobi (ayakob, `qusls
eWideba~). esavs saxeli misi faCvnierobis gamo daerqva
(yesav), magram is atarebda meore Serqmeul saxelsac _
edoms, kanis wiTuri feris gamo da imis gamoc, rom wiTeli (adom) SeWamadis mouTmeneli surviliT pirmSooba
dauTmo umcros Zmas.
`sikvdilis piras var da rad minda pirmSooba?~ _ es
iyo misi sityvebi. aman gansazRvra misi bedic. biblia
mSvidad askvnis: `maSin misca iakobma esavs puri da cercvis SeWamadi. da Wama da sva, da wavida. arad Caagdo
esavma pirmSooba~ (25:34). iakobi SobiTganve cdilobda pirmSoobis mopovebas, roca Zmis qusls eWideboda.
Zmebi TavianTi saqmianobiT erTmaneTis mimarT dapirispirebulni aRmoCndnen: esavi iyo `marjve monadire,
velebis kaci~ (25:27), iakobi ki `sruli kaci, karvebSi
mcxovrebi~ (25:27). gavixsenoT `sruli~ (Tam) _ noes
epiTeti; karavi mwyemsobis niSania, ris sapirispirodac esavis niSani velia anu is veluria, rasac misi garegnuli saxec mowmobs. mas Ria cis qveS aqvs bina. is monadirea, monadire nimrodis sulieri STamomavali, im
nimrodisa, romelzec arcTu saqeburad naTqvamia, rom
man `daiwyo Zalis gamoCena qveyanaze~ (dab. 10:9).
aseve dapirispirebulni aRmoCndnen isaki da rebeka:
biblia ambobs, rom isaks esavi hyavda arCeuli, xolo
rebekas _ iakobi (25:28). mamis siyvaruli ufrosi vaJisadmi motivirebulia ara misi pirmSoobiT, aramed
imiT, rom mamas uyvarda misi nanadirevi. rebekas siyvarulis motivze araferia naTqvami, magram rebekam icoda, rom ufalma umcrosi airCia mis saSoSive.
malaqias winaswarmetyvelebaSi weria: `...gana esavi
iakobis Zma ar aris? _ ambobs ufali, _ magram me iakobi
Seviyvare, esavi ki SeviZule...~ (1:2-3).
isaki
(26:1-33)
isaks mTavari gansacdeli, rac mas sxvaTagan gamoarCevs, morias mTaze SeemTxva. mis danarCen TavgadasavalSi gansakuTrebuli araferia. mis cxovrebaSi
TiTqos meordeba misi mamis, abraamis, cxovreba, garda erTi gadamwyveti momentisa, rac SvilTa Soris
sayvareli (anu rCeuli) Zis gamorCevaSi mdgomareobs.
abraami uyoymanod irCevs isaks aRTqmis Svilad da
uaryofs ismaels, Tumca wuxs masze da misTvisac kurTxevas gamosTxovs ufals. abraams hqonda gamocxadeba
isakis, saras Svilis, rCeulobis gamo, magram isaks ar
gamocxadebia iakobis rCeuloba da rCeuli Ze misTvis
pirmSo esavi rCeboda, vidre rebeka ar gadaeRoba mis
mcdar arCevans (25:27).

72

dabadeba

`da iyo SimSili qveyanaSi im winandeli SimSilis


Semdeg, abraamis dros rom moxda, da wavida isaki abimeleqTan, filistimelTa mefesTan, gerarSi~ (26:1).
JamTa viTareba daayenebs isaks abraamis gzaze. abraammac gerarSi Seafara Tavi SimSilobisas da mefed mis
drosac abimeleqi iyo, oRond ar unda davinaxoT masSi
igive pirovneba, romelic isakis dros mefobda (SesaZlebelia, abimeleqi _ `mama mefea~, geraris mefeTa saerTo oficialuri Tu dinastiuri saxeli iyo). isakic
abraamis kvalze dad gamoacxadebs cols, raTa ar moklan mis gamo, radgan rebekac sarasaviT lamazi Sesaxedavi iyo. rogorc sara waiyvana TavisTan im abimeleqma,
aseve rebekas wayvanasac apirebda es abimeleqi da waiyvanda kidec Tavisda saubedurod, rom SemTxveviT ar
gamJRavnebuliyo sinamdvile _ isakisa da rebekas colqmruli urTierToba (26:8).
rogorc Cans, isaki geraridan egvipteSi apirebda
Casvlas, rogorc erTxel abraami Cavida pirveli SimSilobis dros (12:10). magram ufali gamoecxada mas da urCia gerarSi mdgmurad darCena. es iyo pirveli gamocxadeba uflisa, sadac ganumeorda isaks yvela aRTqma, romelic abraamisadmi iyo micemuli: qanaanis micema misi
STamomavlobisaTvis, cis varskvlavebiviT gamravleba,
mTeli qveynierebis xalxis kurTxeva misi STamomavlobis wyalobiT. da es yvelaferi moxdeba abraamis uflisadmi rwmenis gamo (26:5). amieridan isaki xdeba aRTqmis
matarebeli.
sagangebod aris aRniSnuli isakis kurTxeuloba uflisagan: `daTesa isakma im miwaze [gerarSi] da aswilad
moimko mosavali im weliwads. da akurTxa igi ufalma~
(26:12). abraamis uflismieri kurTxeva axla isakze gadmodis, magram am kurTxevaSi is Taviseburebaa, rom abraamisagan da iakobisgan gansxvavebiT, romelnic mwyemsebad
darCnen da miwa ar daumuSavebiaT, isaki miwaTmoqmedebas
misdevs. rogorc Cans, ufalma gerarSi, filistimelTa
qveyanaSi, gamoaZebnina sazrdo, risTvisac is egvipteSi
Casvlas apirebda abraamis kvalze. vin misca saxnav-saTesad vargisi miwa isaks am ucxo qveyanaSi, miwa, romelmac
aswili mosavali moutana mas? gamoricxulia, rom es aswili mosavali, cxadia, arnaxuli mTels filistimelTa
qveyanaSi, nayofier yanebSi mosuliyo. arc isaki unda yofiliyo gamocdili miwaTmoqmedi. yvelafridan Cans,
rom aq uflis xeli moqmedebda. rogorc rebekas gauxsna
saSo ufalma ormoci wlis berwobis Semdeg, aseve gauxsna
man isaks miwis guli, raTa geraris unayofo miwaze egvipteze aRmatebuli siuxve eCvenebina. ioane oqropiri am
adgilis ganmartebisas ambobs, rom RmerTs SeuZlia SeuZleblis SesaZleblad qmna, da ixsenebs im adgils dabadebidan, sadac naTqvamia, rom RmerTma Zala misca miwas
yoveli mcenaris aRmosaceneblad (1:11-12).
es saswauli iyo, magram am saswaulma Suri aRuZra
isakis mimarT filistimelebs da maT miwiT amouvses ab-

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

raamis mier amoRebuli Webi, raTa misTvis nayofierebis


wyaro daexSoT.
es mtruli aqti simboluri aqtic iyo. meordeba igive dava Webis gamo, abraams rom hqonda gerarelebTan.
isaki aRadgenda abraamis amoRebul da gerarelTa mier
amovsebul Webs, da axlebsac iRebda. gerarelebi edavebodnen am sakuTrebas, albaT, im sababiT, rom miwa maTi
iyo. Webis amoReba, romelsac isaki eweoda, Zalze mniSvnelovani saqmianoba iyo (da aris dResac) axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebSi. ZvelTaganve masze iyo damokidebuli qveynis keTildReoba. xSirad qveynis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi iyo am saqmianobaze damokidebuli, rasac
erTi Sumeruli poema `gilgameSi da aga~ gvidasturebs,
sadac amgvar sagulisxmo striqonebs vkiTxulobT:
`Webs rom movuaroT, qveynis Webs rom movuaroT, ...Webi
rom gavaRrmavoT, ...qiSis winaSe qeds nu movidrekT~.
gadmocemulia ambavi sami Wis amoRebisa, rac gviCvenebs (TiTqos simbolurad) isakis Seupovrobas. pirvel
or Was isakma saxelad daarqva: erTs _ yesek `ciloba~,
meores _ sitna `mtroba~, imis aRsaniSnavad, rom gerareli mwyemsebi edavebodnen am Webis gamo, xolo mesame
Was uwoda rexoboT `sifarTove~, `raki (ase Tqva man)
gagvifarTova ufalma, vimravlebT qveyanaSi~ (26:20-22).
amis Semdeg iyo, rom ukve beerSebaSi, misi dabadebis
adgilze mibrunebuls meored gamoecxada ufali, RamiT: `me var abraamis, mamaSenis RmerTi. nu geSinia, radgan SenTana var. gagimravleb STamomavlobas abraamis,
Cemi msaxuris, gulisaTvis~ (26:24). pirvelad am gamocxadebaSi ufali wodebulia `abraamis RmerTad~ _ saxelwodebiT, romelic Semdeg Seivseba isakisa da iakobis saxelebiT, rogorc gamoecxadeba moses sinaize, rom is
aris `RmerTi abraamisa, RmerTi isakisa da RmerTi iakobisa~ (gam. 3:6). ra gamoCnda am meore gamocxadebaSi? marTalia, isaki aRTqmis Svilia da misi Teslisgan unda
warmoiSvas uricxvi xalxi, is mainc abraamiT aris gansazRvruli. ufali gaamravlebs mis Tesls, magram ara
misi, aramed abraamis gulisaTvis; ufali akurTxebs mas,
magram ara sakuTriv misi, aramed abraamis gulisaTvis.
`nu geSinia!~ _ am sityviT pirvelad abraams mimarTa
ufalma, roca gaamxneva ucxo qveyanaSi myofi, uSvilZiro adamiani. axla isaks amxnevebs ufali mas Semdeg, rac
ganerida mtrul garemocvas gerarSi da Tavis `samSobloSi~ dabrunda. isakma unda igrZnos, rom is marto ar
aris. `SenTana var~ _ es niSnavs: sadac ar unda waxvide,
RvTis kurTxeva iqneba Senze.
am gamocxadebis Semdeg gamocxadebis adgilze isaki
aRmarTavs sakurTxevels da axsenebs uflis saxels, iseve rogorc abraami (maSin abrami) qanaanSi Semosvlisas
(12:18). amave adgilas daesaxla (`daekarva~) isaki da aqve amoiRes Wa misma msaxurebma (26:25).
dabolos, kvlav ganmeoreba im aqtisa, romelic amave
beerSebaSi abraamis dros moxda, roca abraams zavi da

74

dabadeba

kavSiri sTxova geraris imJamindelma mefem abimeleqma


(21:22-32). axlac geraris mefe Tavisi fexiT modis isakTan, raTa Seekras kavSiriT da ficiT, radgan `kargad
xedavs, rom ufalia masTan~ (26:26-31).
isaki akurTxebs iakobs
(27:1-29)
26-e Tavi, romelic mTlianad moicavs isakis ambavs,
moulodnelad mTavrdeba ori fraziT, sadac esavis colebzea saubari. ara esavis ambavi, aramed mxolod xseneba misi xeTeli colebisa, `romelTac suli gaumwares
isaks da rebekas~ (26:35). aseT kuriozul xsenebas Tavisi mizani aqvs. am or muxlSi gadmocemuli informacia
amarTlebs iakobis wasvlas xaranSi, sadac is unda daqorwindes, rom Tavidan iqnas acilebuli misi daqorwineba qanaanel qalze. ar unda ganmeordes esavis magaliTi. Cveulebriv viTarebaSi isaki Tavad gagzavnida
xaranSi misTvis sacolis Camosayvanad Tavis saxlTuxucess, iseve rogorc abraamma miavlina eliazari rebekas
Camosayvanad. isaks abraamis andrezi aqvs win. magram
moxda ise, rom Tavad iakobs mouwia xaranSi wasvla,
Tumca ara ubralod wasvla, aramed gaqceva. dairRva abraamis dadebuli andrezi, magram mizani mainc Sesrulda: iakobi xaranSi daqorwinda.
momdevno 27-e Tavi mogviTxobs im mizezis Sesaxeb,
Tu rogor moxda iakobis xaranSi wasvla, Tumca am epizods ufro meti da TavisTavadi mniSvneloba aqvs.
`roca daberda isaki da Tvals daaklda, dauZaxa
esavs, Tavis ufros Svils, da uTxra: Svilo! miugo: aqa
var! da uTxra isakma: aha, davberdi da ar vici, rodis
movkvdebi. aiRe Seni iaraRi, mSvild-isari, gadi velad
da nanadirevi momitane. da momimzade SeWamadi, me rom
miyvars, momitane da maWame, rom gakurTxos sulma Cemma,
sanam movkvdebode~ (27:1-4).
rogorc Cans, wiTeli SeWamadiT nayid pirmSoobas
Zala ar hqonda. isaki sakurTxebelad isev esavs uxmobs,
radgan esavia mis TvalSi pirmSo da amdenad memkvidrec
da, cxadia, aRTqmis Zec. kurTxevis gareSe pirmSooba ar
aris sruli. pirmSooba kurTxevis Semdeg Sedis ZalaSi.
pirmSoobas kurTxeviT unda ganmtkiceba. ufro metic,
kurTxevas SeuZlia waSalos gansxvaveba pirmSosa da
momdevnos Soris. Tavad kurTxevas SeuZlia pirmSoobis
miniWeba. is, vinc kurTxeulia, pirmSoa, oRond misi
pirmSooba sulieria, ara bunebiTi.
rodesac bavSvebma, orma Zmam, erTmaneTSi gainawiles: erTma _ pirmSooba, meorem _ SeWamadi, romelzedac mas guli misdioda, SesaZloa es arafers niSnavda
realurad samomavlod. magram es gamocda iyo. aq gamoicadnen oriveni. arCevanma gamoavlina TiToeulis buneba. am arCevanSi pova dadastureba erTis `velurobam~,
meoris `sisrulem~. erTi daemona awmyos da nivTiers
(mas axla hSia), meorem awmyo daTmo momavlisaTvis, ra-

75

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sac misTvis pirmSooba unda moutana. amiT man daamtkica, rom is aris WeSmariti naSieri abraamisa, romelmac
xiluli datova uxilavisaTvis. iakobma SimSili daiTmina pirmSoobisaTvis. es iyo pirveli, rac iakobma, umrwemesma, Tavisi garjiT moipova.
`Seviyvare me iakobi, xolo esavi SeviZule~, vkiTxulobT malaqias winaswarmetyvelebaSi (mal. 1:2) rodis
moxda es SeZuleba? nuTu saSoSi, sadac isini Tanabarni
iyvnen da araferi hqondaT jer Cadenili, arc kargi,
arc cudi? an iqneb maSin, roca yrmobaSi esavma SeWamadisaTvis daTmo pirmSooba (rogorc adamma ukvdaveba
im xis nayofis WamiT)? namdvilad, RvTisaTvis mosawoni
ar iqneboda esavis saqcieli. isaki? mosawoni iyo RvTisaTvis isaki, romelmac esavis SeyvarebiT ver gaakeTa
swori arCevani, ver gamoicno aRTqmis Ze Tavis or vaJiSvils Soris? magram ufali yvelafers apatiebs isaks abraamis gulisaTvis (rogorc solomons apatia daviTis
gulisaTvis).
axlac kurTxeva ratomRac daukavSirda SeWamads,
romelic moiTxova isakma Tavisi sayvareli Svilisagan.
`momawode, SevWamo eg nanadirevi, rom gakurTxos sulma Cemma...~ (27:25). es sityvebi esmis esavs da es sityvebi
gaigona miyuradebulma rebekamac, romelsac RvTiurma
gangebam daakisra misia, Careuliyo isakis arCevanSi da
miseuli kurTxevisTvis swori mimarTuleba mieca, rogorc sara Caeria abraamis yoymanSi da daaTxovina saxlidan ismaeli, raTa ar hqonoda mas wili isakTan erTad aRTqmaSi. saras mecadineobiT abraamma sZlia bunebriv (mamobriv) siyvaruls, romlis dafarva mas ar
SeeZlo (`icocxlos Sens winaSe ismaelma~, sTxovda is
ufals).
iakobisadmi rebekas siyvarulTan erTad isakis sibrmaves providenciuli mniSvneloba eniWeba RvTiuri
aRmSeneblobis procesSi. swored am sibrmavis wyalobiT SeZlo iakobma SecdomaSi Seeyvana isaki da esavad
moeCvenebina misTvis Tavi. iakobis cbierebaSi (Tumca
gegma rebekas STagonebuli iyo) netari avgustine saidumlo azrs xedavs (`RvTis qalaqisaTvis~, 16,
XXXVII). igi wers, rom es aris `Rrma saidumloeba WeSmaritebisa~. avgustine imasac wers, rom isaki sabolood mixvda `am udidesi saidumlos gamocxadebas~ anu
qristes winaswarmetyvelebas, roca xaranSi istumrebda iakobs da esavi aRar gaxsenebia.
isaki orgzis akurTxebs iakobs: pirvelad esavis nacvlad. kurTxevas, romelsac is esavisaTvis inaxavda, iakobs miscems. es aris xorcieli mamisgan gadacemuli
kurTxeva, sadac upiratesobs nayofiereba cisa (cvari)
da miwisa (xorbali). meored isakma akurTxa iakobi, roca xaranSi istumrebda. es providenciuli kurTxevaa,
abraamidan momavali, romelic isaks gadaeca, axla ki
mas iakobi iRebs: `yovladZlieri RmerTi gakurTxebs,
nayofiers gagxdis, gagamravlebs da xalxTa krebulis

76

dabadeba

mamamTavari Seiqnebi. mogcems abraamis kurTxevas Sen da


Sens STamomavlobas SenTan erTad, raTa daimkvidro
Seni mdgmurobis qveyana, romelic misca RmerTma abraams~ (28:3-4). am sityvebiT gaistumra isakma iakobi fadan-aramSi, raTa iqidan wamoeyvana coli.
teqstSi Semonaxulia meore motivi iakobis wasvlisa, ufro sworad, misi gaqcevisa xaranSi. is, rebekas rCeviT, garbis xaranSi labanTan, dedisZmasTan, raTa droebiT gaeridos misgan motyuebul Zmas, esavs, romelmac
gulSi Caido misi mokvla (27:41). `erTxans icxovre masTan, sanam brazi ar gauvlis Sens Zmas~ (27:44), eubneba
deda, mama ki etyvis: `...nu moiyvan cols qanaanelTagan.
adeqi da wadi fadan-aramSi dedaSenis mamis, beTuelis
saxlSi da moiyvane iqidan colad dedaSenis Zmis, labanis asuli~ (28:2).
ase daemTxva erTmaneTs iakobis xaranSi wasvla-gaqcevis mizezi da mizani.
angelozTa kibe
(28:11-22)
es Rameuli xilva, romelic hqonda iakobs, uflis
mfarvelobis niSani iyo, rom ufali mudam masTan iqneboda. rogorc misi Tavgadasavlidan Cans, es misi pirveli
gamocxadeba iyo. mas sWirdeboda gamxneveba, rogorc
mwirs ucxo gzaze, ucxo mxareSi mimavals, Tumc is qveyana,
sadac igi unda misuliyo, misi winapris samSoblo iyo.
`esizmra: da, aha, miwaze kibe dgas da TaviT cas
swvdeba. da uflis angelozebi adian da Camodian kibeze. da, aha, ufali dgas masze da eubneba: me var ufali,
RmerTi abraamisa, mamaSenisa, da RmerTi isakisa. es qveyana, sadac Sen wevxar, SenTvis da Seni TeslisaTvis momicia. Seni Tesli qviSasaviT mravalricxovani iqneba
da ganivrcoba dasavleTisaken, aRmosavleTisaken,
CrdiloeTisaken da samxreTisaken. da ikurTxeba SeniT
da Seni TesliT miwis yvela modgma. aha, SenTana var da
yvelgan dagifarav, sadac ki waxval. da dagabruneb am
miwaze, rom ar migatovo, vidre ar agisruleb, rac giTxari~ (28:12-15).
`dagabruneb~, eubneba gaqceul iakobs ufali, mouxazavs ra mTel periods wasvlidan dabrunebamde da Tavisi mzrunvelobis qveS moaqcevs. `dagabruneb~ _ anu
misi dabruneba uflis neba iqneba, roca amoiwureba xaranSi yofnis dReebi. amitom iyo, rom iakobi TmeniT da
udrtvinvelad eweoda Wirveuli da usamarTlo labanis samsaxurs.
iakobis gamocxadebaSi, garda kibisa, SemWidroebiT
aris gadmocemuli yvelaferi, rac abraams euwya Tavis
droze. aRsaniSnavia, rom Tu isaks, mamamiss, ufali abraamis gamo hpirdeba STamomavlobis gamravlebas
(26:24), iakobze uSualod gadadis uflis kurTxeva, ara
abraamis gamo, aramed imis gamo, rom Tavad iakobi iqneba
is wiaRi, saidanac gamova aRTqmis eri. iakobSia aqtua-

77

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lurad simravle. isaki gardamavalia abraamsa da iakobs Soris da, amdenad, pasiuri monawilea rCeuli eris
aRmSeneblobaSi. iakobi imeorebs abraams, rogorc SviliSvili _ papas. amitomac aris is dasaxelebuli abraamis Svilad (`me var RmerTi abraamisa, mamaSenisa...~).
amdenad, masze gacilebiT meti pasuxismgeblobaa dakisrebuli, vidre isakze. es Cans yovel gansacdelSi,
pirmSoobis mopoebidan moyolebuli, romelic ki man
gaiara. isakisTvis ar uTqvams ufals `SeniT da Seni TesliT ikurTxeba miwis yvela modgma~ _ es ufalma pirvelad abraams uTxra da mere iakobs gaumeora. am aRTqmis
uaxloesi acxadeba xaranSi moxda, labanis magaliTze,
romelic, iakobis masTan yofnis wyalobiT, umdidresi
kaci Seiqna im mxareSi (mis Semdeg misi Ze iosebi iqneba
`gadamdebi~ kurTxevis matarebeli).
ufali erTia, gamocxadebac erT WeSmaritebas Seicavs, magram gamocxadebani, raki pirovnebebia maTi WurWeli, yovelTvis individualuria. ufalma abraams
zRvis qviSiT da cis varskvlavebiT mianiSna usasrulobaze da am simboloebiTve auwya arseboba kavSirisa casa da miwas Soris da, rac mTavaria, uwinaswarmetyvela,
rom es kavSiri mis TeslSi hpovebda ganxorcielebas,
xolo iakobs axilvina kibe am kavSiris niSnad. iakobma
ixila angelozTa mTeli ierarqia uqvemoes safexuridan umaRlesamde da Tavad ufali kibis TavSi. iakobma
Tavad ufali ixila, ara mxolod misi macneni. aseTi
xilva mxolod sizmrad Tu iyo SesaZlebeli. es saxilveli ar warmoadgens scenas, is dinamikuri suraTia: angelozebi evlinebian mxilvelis mzeras maTi zeciuri
samsaxuris procesSi _ isini `adian da Camodian~, anu
axorcieleben RvTis macneobas.
[kibe iseve, rogorc xidi, gza, jaWvi, mTa, xe, taZari, sveti anu yoveli vertikaluri sagani _ zena da qvena samyaroTa kavSiris gamoxatulebaa. qarTul miToreligiur warmodgenebSi figurirebs kibe, sxva niSnebTan erTad, rogorc
RvTisSvilis gza morige RmerTis karisaken. erTi fSauri
saweso simRera inaxavs am Zvel universalur Teokosmologiur tradicias:
wmida giorgi mec viyav, cas vebi oqros SibiTa,
xmelgorze medga bermuxa, zed avdiodi kibiTa,
Cems saymoT Semonaz(Rv)eni RmerTTan amqonda iqiTa.]

am mokle epizodSi, romelic mosdevs sizmareul


xilvas (28:16-22), iakobi oTx mniSvnelovan qmedebas
axorcielebs.
pirveli: misi sityvebi, _ gamofxizlebisTanave warmoTqmuli, `namdvilad ufali yofila am adgilas, me ki
ar vicodi!~ (28:16) da `ra saSiSi yofila es adgili!
sxva ra unda iyos, Tu ara uflis saxli? es caTa karibWea!~ (28:17) _ amxels misi gulis Riaobas sakraluri sinamdvilis aRsaqmelad. iakobi grZnobs (SesaZloa, pirvelad Tavis cxovrebaSi) saRvTo SiSs konkretul adgilTan dakavSirebiT; ganicdis realur myofobas uflisa, romelic sizmarSi angelosTa ierarqiis TavSi

78

dabadeba

ixila. is ganicdis am adgilas uxilav, augebel taZars,


romelic aris erTdroulad rogorc `saxli~ (beT) da
`karibWe~ (Sayar), anu Sesasvleli sasufevelSi.
meore: am gancdis dasturad, rogorc misi nivTieri
gamoxatuleba, iakobma `aiRo lodi, sasTumlad rom
edo, aRmarTa svetad da zeTi daRvara mis Tavze~
(28:18). es moimoqmeda iakobma qanaanuri wesis Tanaxmad;
svetis (macebah) aRmarTva wmida adgilis mosaniSneblad, RvTiuri Zalis myofobis aRsaniSnavad gavrcelebuli iyo ara mxolod qanaanSi, aramed mTels Zvel aRmosavleTSi. moses rjulma akrZala svetebi, rogorc
kerpebi da Tayvaniscemis obieqtebi. israelianebs qanaanSi Sesvlisas unda daengriaT iq aRmarTuli svetebi
baalebis sakurTxevlebTan erTad (rjl. 7:5). iakobma
zeTi scxo qvis svets, Tumca es zeTi, _ albaT, erTaderTi ram, rac Sinidan wamoiRo, _ SesaZloa, ar yofiliyo
wmida saritualo zeTi, romlis damzadeba moses droidan daiwyes israelSi jer mRvdelmTavarTa, mere mefeTa sacxeblad. iakobi am zeTiT, aucilebeli sagzliT
yoveli mgzavrisaTvis udabnos gzaze, miagebs pativs
ara Tavis mier aRmarTul qvis svets, romelic sasTumlad edo im RvTiuri gamocxadebis RamiT, aramed Tavad
ufals, romlis myofoba man mTeli arsebiT ganicada.
mesame: iakobma, sakraluris am gancdiT, `uwoda saxelad im adgils beTeli~ (28:19). es pirveli SemTxvevaa,
roca rCeuli eris patriarqi saxels arqmevs, ufro sworad, gadaarqmevs saxels aRTqmuli qveynis adgils. `beTeli~ niSnavs: `saxli RvTisa~ (beT-el). svetis aRmarTviT da saxeldebiT iakobma windi Cado am miwaze, romelic misi wiaRidan gamomaval Tormettomovan xalxs
unda daemkvidrebina.
meoTxe: es windi ki imis niSania, rom es adgili kultis dasabami iqneba. iakobi debs aRTqmas, rom Tu ufali
mSvidobiT daabrunebs mas mamis saxlSi da ufali misi
RmerTi iqneba, `es lodi, svetad rom davdgi, RvTis saxli (beT elohim) iyos da yvelafrisgan, rasac momcem, meaTeds Sen mogiZRvni~ (28:21-22).
amieridan abraamis RmerTi misi piradi RmerTia: misi mamis _ `aRTqmis Svilis~ _ sicocxleSive gadmodis
iakobze abraamisTvis micemuli aRTqma da am aRTqmis
aRsrulebis pirveli niSnebi swored masze gamoCndeba.
isic aRsaniSnavia, rom iakobi abraamis kvalze _ gavixsenoT melqicedekTan Sexvedra (14:20) _ SeZenili dovlaTis meaTeds sTavazobs ufals.
iakobi labanTan. qorwineba.
(29-30:1-17)
Tu iakobSi ganmeorda abraami, romelic gamovida xaranidan, masac unda mouxdes gamosvla da isic xaranidan
gamodis, sadac mas Tumca ara sakuTari nebiT, aramed
iZulebiT _ da RvTis gangebiT _ mouxda wasvla. dedam
gagzavna igi esavisgan mosarideblad, mamam _ colis

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mosayvanad. iakobma colebic iTxova xaranSi da didad


gamravlda kidec, riTac gamoCnda aRTqmis ganxorcielebis pirveli niSnebi. abraami erTi gamovida xaranidan, iakobi mravali (is ukve aqtualurad aris `mravalTa mama~ _ ab raham) gamodis, ramac winaswar moaswava
misi Tormeti Zisagan Seqmnili mravalricxovani xalxis gamosvla egviptidan. iakobSi ukve ara mxolod potenciurad aris mocemuli simravle, rogorc abraamSi,
aramed aqtualuradac.
iakobis xaranSi yofnis monakveTi, romelic sam Tavs
moicavs, erTi dasrulebuli nawarmoebia Tavisi dasawyisiT, SuaguliT da dasasruliT. dasawyisia pirveli
Sexvedra xaranis misadgomTan, romelmac gansazRvra
adamianuri mxriT iakobis yofna labanis saxlSi; Suagulia Svilebis dabadeba (providenciuli mizani); da dasasrulia gasvla xaranidan, sakmaod dramatuli, romelsac gaqcevis saxe aqvs (Sdr. egviptidan gamosvla
erisa) da romelic mTavrdeba labanTan samSvidobo
kavSiris damyarebiT da amis mowmobad svetis (macebah)
aRmarTviT maTi damSvidobebis adgilze.
WasTan Sexvedra imeorebs epizods eliazarisa, romelic abraamma gagzavna xarans isakisaTvis colis wamosayvanad (24:11 da Semdeg). rogorc eliazarma erTi
SexedviT igrZno, rom swored es asuli, romelic pirveli Sexvda mas WasTan, unda yofiliyo isakis sacole,
aseve iakobmac erT wamisyofaSi gadawyvita Tavisi bedi.
`rogorc ki dainaxa iakobma raxeli, Tavisi dedisZmis, labanis asuli, da misi cxvari, mivida WasTan, gadaagora lodi da daarwyula Tavisi dedisZmis labanis
cxvari. da akoca iakobma raxels da xmamaRla atirda~
(29:10-11).
pirvel yovlisa, am lakoniur TxrobaSi winaswar
aris miniSnebuli iakobis ganwyoba labanisa da misi qonebisadmi, misi keTilsindisiereba, romliTac ToTxmeti weli emsaxura mas. lodis gadmogoreba xaraneli
mwyemsebis Tvalwin, romelTac es evalebodaT, amis niSania. magram am lodis gadmogorebiT iakobi emsaxureba ara mxolod labans, rogorc Tavis dedisZmas da momaval patrons, aramed labans, rogorc raxelis mamas,
raxelisaTvis. am samsaxurma labanis saxlSi or Svideul weliwads gastana.
`da akoca raxels da xmamaRla atirda~ _ es erTaderTi SemTxvevaa (gamonaklisia qebaTa qeba _ poeturi
teqsti) siyvarulis grZnobis gadmocemisa bibliaSi.
aseve unikaluria siyvarulis niSnad tirili, romelic
bibliaSi mxolod da mxolod mwuxarebisa da glovis
gamoxatulebaa. siyvarulis grZnoba rCeba iakobis Tvisebad, romelic mas sxva patriarqTagan gamoarCevs. bibliaSi ar Cans, rom abraams sarasadmi, Tavisi aRTqmuli
colisadmi, siyvarulis grZnoba amoZravebdes mis yovel saqcielSi. siyvarulze ar unda metyvelebdes egviptisa (12:11-20) da geraris (20:1-18) epizodebi, rome-

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lic ganmeorda isakis cxovrebaSic (26:6-11). Tumca


isakze naTqvamia, rom `Seiyvara igi (rebeka) isakma da
dedis gamo mwuxareba gauqarvda~ (24:67). magram es moxda mas Semdeg, rac man igi gardacvlili dedis, saras, karavSi Seiyvana da rebeka misi coli gaxda. es siyvaruli
ver Seedreba raxelisadmi iakobis siyvaruls, romelic
raxelis sikvdilis Semdegac ar ganelebula, gadavida
ra maT pirmSo iosebze.
labans ori asuli hyavda _ lea da raxeli _ oriveni
atareben saxelebs, romelTa semantika mwyemsur cxovrebas mianiSnebs: lea _ `xbo~, raxeli _ `cxvari~. bibliaSi Zalze iSviaTia SemTxveva, roca adamianis garegnobaze maxvildeba yuradReba. raxelze naTqvamia, rom
is lamazi iyo saxiT da taniT, leaze ki _ rom mas, rogorc tradiciulad iTargmneba, susti Tvalebi hqonda.
asea gagebuli ebrauli raqoT septuagintaSi da mis
kvalze Zvel qarTul TargmanSi: `da Tualni leasni uZlur~; vulgata ufro Sors midis: `Lea li ppis erat oculis~
_ `lea CirqovanTvalebiani iyo~. magram am ebraul sityvas (raq, raqoT) aqvs agreTve, ufro xSir SemTxvevaSic,
`Cvilis~, `saTuTis~, `nazis~ mniSvneloba. SeiZleba
vifiqroT, rom leas nazi, moalerse Tvalebi hqonda.
leas silamaze mis TvalebSia (rogorc samsonis Zala
mis TmaSi), raxelis silamazeze ki metia naTqvami. misi
silamaze daxasiaTebulia oTxi sityviT, romelTagan
ori Tavad `silamazis~ aRmniSvnelia.
saojaxo wesi ufrosis gaTxovebisa pirvel rigSi gadatyda iakobze, romelsac swored umrwemesi Seuyvarda _ is, visac is namdvilad araSemTxveviT pirvelad
Sexvda. igi Svidi weli raxelisaTvis emsaxura labans,
labanma ki motyuebiT lea misca mas qorwilis Rames.
`CvenSi wesad ar aris ufrosze adre umcrosis gaTxoveba~, iyo labanis pasuxi iakobis sayvedurze. iakobis
cdaSi erTmaneTs daupirispirda siyvaruli da tradiciiT ganmtkicebuli wesi. magram iakobis qceva esadageba mis sagvareuloSi saTavedadebul tradicias, romlis Tanaxmad pirmSoobas umrwemesi axorcielebs.
iakobi kidev Svid wels imsaxurebs labanTan. ToTxmeti weli raxelisaTvis da eqvsi weli labanis farisaTvis. am xnis manZilze labanis saxlSi iSva misi TerTmeti vaJi da erTi qali _ dina. roca aivso iakobi STamomavlobiT da saqonliT, da labansac SesZina Tavisi
SromiTa da davlaTiT (uflis wyalobiT) didZali
cxvari, da esavsac daucxra risxva Zmisadmi, RmerTma
(romelic beTelis RmerTis saxeliT gamoecxada) ubrZana, dabrunebuliyo mama-papis qveyanaSi.
dabruneba
(32-33)
dabrunebuli iakobis upirvelesi amocanaa Zmis Semorigeba. oci wlis winandeli safrTxe dResac aqtualuria misTvis. is evedreba RmerTs, romelic ifaravda

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aqamde da romelmac esodeni simdidre SesZina, ixsnas igi


esavisagan (`mixseni... radgan meSinia misi~ _ 32:11); amzadebs ZRvens esavisaTvis da ugzavnis msaxurTa xeliT,
vidre pirispir Seeyrebodes. im ZRvenis mixedviT, romelic man esavisTvis gamoarCia Tavisi jogebidan (32:1516), SeiZleba ganvsazRvroT, Tu ra qonebiT gamovida iakobi xaranidan. RirsSesaniSnavia misi sityvebi, romliTac is ufals mimarTavs: `Rirsi ara var yvela im sikeTisa da wyalobisa, Sens msaxurs rom uyavi. me xom joxis amaram gadavlaxe es iordane da axla or banakad vdgavar~
(32:11). aq Cans misi simdable da sruli Segneba imisa,
rom yvelaferi, rac ki mas mouxveWia, RvTis wyalobaa.
amave dros, es naTqvami SeiZleba im istoriuli periodis providenciul ganWvretad miviCnioT, roca egvipteSi Casuli iakobis Tormeti Zis STamomavloba, did
xalxad qceuli, ukan dabrunda da Zlevamosiladac.
iabokis gadalaxva
(32:23-32)
iabokis mdinare Tu xevi gamodis baSanis mTebidan da
marcxena mxridan erTvis iordanes. xaranidan wamosul
iakobs mouxda iabokis gadalaxva. man gadaiyvana Tavisi
ori coli da ori mxevali, TerTmeti vaJiSvili da yvelaferi, rac mohyavda da mohqonda. amis Semdeg iwyeba monakveTi, romelsac didi mniSvneloba aqvs iakobis biografiaSi. aq da am dros xdeba gardatexa mis pirovnebaSi.
`da marto darCa iakobi da erkineboda mas [erTi] kaci ganTiadamde. roca Seatyo [kacma], rom ver ereoda,
Seexo mis TeZos saxsars da eRrZo iakobs TeZos saxsari
masTan Serkinebisas. da Tqva [kacma]: gamiSvi, ukve Tendeba. da Tqva: ar gagiSveb, sanam ar makurTxeb. da uTxra:
ra gqvia? da Tqva: iakobi. da Tqva: iakobi aRar iTqvas
Sens saxelad, aramed israeli, radgan RmerTsa da adamianebs SeebrZole da sZlie. da SeekiTxa iakobi: miTxari Seni saxeli. da Tqva: risTvis mekiTxebi Cems saxels?
da akurTxa igi iq. da uwoda iakobma im adgils fenueli
[piri RvTisa], radgan Tqva: pirispir vixile RmerTi da
gadavrCi. amoubrwyinda mze, rogorc ki gascda fenuels, da koWlobda igi cali TeZoTi~ (32:24-31).
vin iyo es `kaci~, romelic moulodnelad Seeba martod darCenil iakobs da mxolod mzis amosvlamde hqonda amis ufleba? es kaci, cxadia, uflis angelozi iyo, romelsac SeeZlo mxolod kacis (adamianis) Tanabari ZaliT Serkineboda iakobs. amitom aris moxseniebuli igi,
rogorc kaci _ iS. ioane oqropiri ambobs, rom `ufali
kacis saxiT ebrZvis marTals~ (iakobs). es is angelozi
unda yofiliyo, romelic mas beTelSi uflis saxeliT
elaparakeboda. maSin iakobi qveynidan gadioda, axla Semodis da kvlav Teofaniis gamocdilebas iRebs.
rva Taobis win iyo erTi winapari, romelmac aseve gadalaxa mdinare da es aqti imdenad mniSvnelovani Seiqna mis cxovrebaSi, rom igi misma saxelma aRibeWda. es

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iyo yeberi, saidanac abraamis modgma iRebs eTniur saxels (yibri). iakobidan ramdenime aTeuli Taobis Semdeg yeberis modgmas kvlav mouxdeba mdinaris gadalaxva (da orgzis) da es iqneba gardatexis niSani. iakobi
winaswar axorcielebs pirovnul cdaSi im istoriul
aqts, romelic gadaxdeba mTels ers.
iabokis gadalaxva TavisTavad, rogorc gadasvla
erTi napiridan meoreze, mewamuli zRvisa da iordanis
wiaRsvlisagan gansxvavebiT, saswaulebrivs arafers
Seicavs. iakobi brundeba `Tavis~ qveyanaSi SiSiT _ mas
esaWiroeba gamxneveba, rogorc is gaamxneva luzSi ciuri kibis xilvam (28:12). `aha, SenTana var da yvelgan dagifarav, sadac ki waxval~ (28:15), moesma mas Ramis CvenebaSi xma. axlac, magram ara mxolod xma, aramed fizikuri siaxlove RvTiuri Zalisa amxnevebs mas. am SerkinebaSi iakobma gamoavlina sruli (gavixsenoT misi arsobrivi daxasiaTeba _ `sruli kaci~) adamianuri Zala,
romliTac ebrZoda mas uflis angelozi. bolomde gauZlo, sZlia kidec, rogorc ambobs osia winaswarmetyveli: `...moRonierda da RmerTs Seerkina. Seerkina angelozs da sZlia...~ (os. 12:4-5). iakobi ibrZvis, rogorc
epizodidan Cans, kurTxevis mosapoveblad, rac mas
axalgazrdobidanve daebeda _ man TmobiT (daTmo saWmeli pirmSoobis wil) da motyuebiT moipova is, rac mas
bunebiT ar ekuTvnoda. uflis angelozi akurTxebs Serkinebis procesSi, TiTqos sulis moTqmisas, mas Semdeg,
rac samaxsovro niSans daadebs mis TeZos da Seucvlis
saxels. rasac unda niSnavdes israeli _ `RvTis morkinals~ Tu `RvTismxilvels~ (ioane oqropiri), igi moaswavebs imas, rom amieridan isakis Ze `gaixdis~ Zvels da
`imoseba~ axliT. Zveli unda datovos man iabokis gaRma
napirze. axali saxeliT iwyeba axali xana misi, rogorc
patriarqis, cxovrebaSi. sikoWle am gardamtexi gamocdilebis xiluli niSania da, SesaZloa, sasjelic imisaTvis, rasac is, rogorc iakobi, sCadioda.
uflis angelozis SekiTxva iakobisadmi: ra gqvia?
cxadia, cnobismoyvareobis an misi gacnobis mizniT ar
aris dasmuli. uflis angelozi icnobs iakobs. SemkiTxvels surs gaagebinos iakobs, rom misi Zveli bunebiTi saxeli, romelic niSnavs `qusls moWidebuls~,
aRar Seesatyviseba mis mowodebas. amieridan, rasac is
gaakeTebs, gaakeTebs ara motyuebiT da xrikebiT, aramed sulieri ZalisxmeviT. iakobi kvlav ibrZolebs,
magram icvleba brZolis saxe. avgustine wers, rom saxelis gamocvla iyo swored kurTxeva da rom erTma da
imave iakobma miiRo kurTxevac da sikoWlec: kurTxeva
imaTTvis, vinc misi modgmidan aRiarebs qristes, sikoWle ki _ urwmunoTaTvis (`RvTis qalaqisaTvis~,
16, XXXIX).
magram rasac uSualod mosdevs kurTxeva, es aris SekiTxva iakobisa, romelic ukve israelia, morkinalisadmi: miTxari Seni saxeli. morkinalis pasuxi, kiTxvis

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saxiT gacemuli _ `risTvis mekiTxebi saxels~? _ albaT, imas unda niSnavdes, rom israeli mainc ar aris
mzad uflis saxelis Sesacnobad. uflis saxeli mxolod moses unda gamocxadeboda sinais mTaze.
Zmebis Serigeba
(33:1-15)
`aha, ra kargia da ra saamuria, erTad rom mkvidroben
Zmebi!~ (fsalm. 132:1) _ am sityvebs gvaxsenebs es pasaJi,
romelic moulodnelobiT aris aRsavse: ar elis iakobi
(da arc mkiTxveli) imas, rac moxda, rac aRwerilia am
TxuTmet muxlSi.
rogori sifrTxiliT emzadeba iakobi esavTan Sesaxvedrad, TiTqos igi saomar Setakebas elis; TiTqos mosalodneli Tavdasxmis win _ esavi oTxasi kacis TanxlebiT modis mis Sesaxvedrad _ ganawyobs Tavis banaks, mTels Tavis monagars, xaranidan wamoRebuls,
imisda mixedviT, Tu romeli rogor eTmoba: `win daayena mxevlebi da maTi bavSvebi, maT ukan lea da misi bavSvebi, da sul ukan raxeli da iosebi. Tavad maT win gaemarTa...~ (33:2-3). aq pirvelad iqna iosebi gamorCeuli
danarCen Svilebs Soris.
`...win gaemarTa da, vidre miuaxlovdeboda, Svidgzis mdablad Tayvanisca Zmas. sirbiliT Seegeba esavi,
gadaexvia, yelze moeWdo, gadakocna da atirdnen orTaveni~ (33:3-4). Zveli wyena, Seuracxyofa daviwyebulia;
yvelaferi patiebulia: bavSvobis oini (pirmSoobis gamoZalva), siWabukis droindeli gacureba. sixarulisa
(Tu sinanulis) cremlSi, oriveni rom Rvrian yelgadaWdobilni, gaqarwylebulia yvelaferi avi, SiSic da
Surisgebis vneba. iakobi axla sxvaa iabokis Semdeg da
esavic sxvagvari daxvda mas. iakobi, Tumca is kurTxeulia mamis mier, da TiTqos pirmSoobac miRebuli aqvs
kurTxevasTan erTad, ise iqceva Zmis mimarT, rogorc
kurTxeulisa da ufrosi Zmis mimarT (esavi isev da isev
pirmSoa mis TvalSi) iqcevian. `Svidgzis mdablad Tayvanisca~, mas batonad ixsenebs, Tavis Tavs _ mis msaxurad. ufro metic: mis saxeSi RvTis saxes xedavs. ZRveni,
romelic man adre gaugzavna Zmas, CaTvala kurTxevad
TiTqos im kurTxevis sanacvlod, romelic mamisagan gamosZala mas. `Tu madli mipovnia Cemi batonis TvalSi,
miiRe Cemgan es ZRveni (minxah), radgan Seni saxe rom davinaxe, gind RvTis saxe damenaxos, da Senc wyalobiT Semomxede. miiRe SenTvis gamogzavnili Cemi kurTxeva...~
(33:10-11). iakobi TiTqos ubrunebs mas warTmeul kurTxevas. am aqtiT Cans, rom is patriarqia (Tumca isaki
jer kidev cocxalia) da mas SeuZlia gasces kurTxevac.
am pasaJSi Cans iakobis Tavmdablobac da sidiadec, misi
qedmodrekilobis ukan da upiratesoba esavis winaSe.
ioane oqropiri ase wers am epizodis garCevisas: `am
netarma kacma, romelic cxovrobda (moses) rjulamde,
sxvaTa Segonebis gareSe, Tavisi Sinagani swrafviT, Ta-

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dabadeba

visi gansakuTrebuli TvinierebiT jer sZlia labans,


axla ki _ Zmasac. marTalia, is uzenaesi SemweobiT sargeblobda, magram Tavidanve sakuTari Zalisxmevac gamoaCina~. esavze ra SeiZleba iTqvas? gana RmerTi ar iyo
masTan, roca is sirbiliT Seegeba Zmas da gadaexvia, da
apatia warsuli (rogorc iosebma Tavis Zmebs)? Tu iakobze vityviT, rom man Tavisi simdabliT da morCilebiT sZlia esavs, gana esavi ar iyo, romelic dahyva Zmis
keTilganwyobas, esavi, romelic emuqreboda mas sikvdiliT, ris gamoc gaiqca iakobi? Cans am epizodSi RvTis
Careva? iakobis Svidgzis Tayvaniscema adekvatur gamoxatulebas poulobs esavis SegebebaSi da mTel Semdgom
saubarSi, romelic maT Soris gaimarTa (33:5-15). esavi
Semzadebuli iyo (iqneb kargaxnis winaTac) am SexvedrisTvis, romlis mSvidobiani saxe ufro mas unda CaeTvalos Rirsebad, vidre `srul kacs~, iakobs. Tu iakobma
sZlia esavs, esavma sakuTar Tavs sZlia.
Zmebi mainc iyrebian. RmerTma Tavidanve ganyo isini,
rogorc wers pavle mociquli: `iakobi Seviyvare, xolo
esavi moviZule~ (rom. 9:13), iyrebian iseve, rogorc abraami da loti ganiyvnen, `radgan didZali qoneba hqondaT da ver SeZles erTad cxovreba~ (36:7). iakobi qanaanSi darCa, esavi ki seyiris mTaze dasaxlda, daaxloebiT im midamoebSi, sadac Tavis droze lotma airCia
sacxovrebeli adgili.
esavi da iakobi kvlav, albaT, ukanaskneladac, Sexvdnen erTmaneTs, roca mamis dasamarxavad Seikribnen
xebronSi. `da aResrula isaki da mokvda, SeerTo Tavis
xalxs moxucebuli da xansruli. da damarxes igi esavma
da iakobma, misma Svilebma~ (35:29). am aqtiT Zmebma
kvlav daadastures Tanxmoba.
dina, asuli iakobisa. Seqemis amowyveta
(34:1-31)
iakobi mihyveba abraamis kvals. pirveli adgili, sadac qanaanSi mosuli abrami gaCerda, Seqemi iyo. iakobi
imeorebs Tavisi winapris qcevasac, roca is mindors yidulobs Seqemelebisagan, raTa Tavis sakuTar miwaze
icxovros.
magram iakobi ar rCeba SeqemSi, igi unda gascloda
Seqems. amisTvis ori mizezi arsebobda: erTi _ is sastiki saqcieli, romelic Caidines misma orma vaJma, simonma da levim, SeqemelTa mimarT, ris gamoc mas aRar
daedgomeboda maT mezoblad; meore _ RvTis mowodeba,
rom wasuliyo beTels da aResrulebina aRTqma, romelic dado man im RvTiuri xilvis Semdeg.
simonisa da levis saqcielSi gangebis xeli eria. marTalia, es sisastike da mzakvroba iyo SeqemelTa mimarT, romelnic endnen iakobis ZeTa pirobas, magram ase
rom ar momxdariyo, israelianebi gaiTqvifebodnen SeqemelebSi da ver Seasrulebdnen im misias, romelic
maTze iyo dakisrebuli.

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iakobis erTaderTi asuli dina (leasagan) Seuyvarda Seqems, mTavris Zes (ufliswuli atarebs qalaqis
saxels). magram siyvaruls win uZRoda Zaladoba. Seqems Seuyvarda dina Zlieri siyvaruliT da gadawyvita misi colad moyvana. dinas RviZli Zmebi _ simoni
da levi arad Caagdeben vaJis siyvaruls maTi disadmi
da SeuracxyofisaTvis SurisZiebis mizniT mimarTaven mzakvrul xerxs: mzad arian miaTxovon erTaderTi
da, oRond im pirobiT, Tu Seqemelebi winadaicveTen.
winadacveTil unda iqnas yvela Seqemeli mamri, raTa
maT da israelianTa Soris SesaZlebeli iyos qorwineba, raTa erT xalxad Seiqnan isini. Seqemelni daTanxmdnen winadacveTas da erT xalxad yofnas. winadacveTis momdevno dReebSi, roca Wriloba moSuSebuli
ar hqonda Seqemis mamrovans, simoni da levi Tavs daesxnen maT da yvela amoxoces, da gaZarcves mTeli qalaqi. `rogorc meZavs unda moqceodnen Cvens das?~
(34:31), ase imarTles Tavi Surismgebelma Svilebma
iakobis winaSe.
Zmebs SurisZieba da disaTvis namusis mowmeda amoqmedebdaT, magram maTi am saqcielis ukan maTTvis gaucnobierebeli azri imaleboda. aq siRrmiseulad moqmedebs RvTiuri gangeba. dinas tragikul epizodSi gamoCnda `aCrdili~ moses rjulisa, romelmac akrZala
yovelgvari (garda aReb-micemobisa) urTierToba qanaanelebTan, miT umetes, qorwineba (rjl. 7:1-4). iakobis xanaSi, roca jer kidev ar arsebobda eri, iyo mxolod Canasaxi rCeuli erisa iakobis ZeTa saxiT da arc
rjuli iyo gamocxadebuli. rjuli arsebobda, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, fragmentulad, patriarqebis, abraamidan moyolebuli, cnobierebaSi, ramdenadac isini atarebdnen rCeulobis Segnebas. rCeuli eri Tavis CanasaxSive ar unda Sereoda qanaanel tomebs, romelTa
Soris misi winapari mamamTavrebi mdgmurobdnen. amiT
iyo gamowveuli abraamis daJinebuli moTxovna, rom
isaks Soridan, Tumca sanaTesaodan, da araviTar SemTxvevaSi qanaanelTagan, moeyvana coli. aseve iakobic
Sors midis qalis saTxovad. adgilobrivi mosaxleobidan qalis moyvana gamoiwvevda aucilebel integracias maTTan, rac SeamRvrevda rCeulis `sisxls~, rogorc es `RvTis SvilTa~ (SeTianTa) da `adamianis
asulTa~ (kaenianTa) SeuRlebis Sedegad moxda. unda
acilebuliyo am ucxoTa Soris damkvidreba. amitomac
iyo qanaani `mdgmurobis qveyana~ (gam. 6:4), da patriarqTa cxovrebis wlebic `mdgmuroba~ iyo... ase iyo abraami, ase iyo isaki, ase unda yofiliyo iakobi da Zeni
misni. qveynis damkvidreba, rogorc mudmivi sacxovreblisa, momavlis saqme iyo: qveyana ukve erad qmnil
xalxs unda daemkvidrebina.
simonisa da levis sisastikem mravali saukuniT gansazRvra israelianTa Soris qorwinebis rjuli, romelsac moses rjulma verbaluri gamoxatuleba misca

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da iuridiulad daamtkica. sisastike da veragoba iakobma ar apatia Tavis Svilebs (ix. iakobis winaswarmetyveleba: dab. 49:5-7), magram sisastikem Tavi iCina, raTa
Seqemelni da israelianebi erT xalxad ar qceuliyvnen.
kvlav beTelSi
(35:1-29)
uflis CagonebiT iakobi ganerida Seqems da beTelSi
wavida. unda aRsrulebuliyo aRTqma, romelic dado iakobma am adgilas, roca qanaanidan gadioda.
isaki jer kidev cocxalia xebronSi, magram iakobi iqceva, rogorc mamamTavari, mas hyavs Tavisi xalxi da, rac
mTavaria, Tormeti Ze _ xati momavali erisa. mas aqvs
rwmuneba uflisagan, ise moiqces, rogorc iqceva. `uTxra
iakobma Tavis saxls da yvelas, vinc masTan iyo: gayareT
ucxo RmerTebi, romelnic gyavT, ganiwmideniT da gamoicvaleT samoseli. adeqiT da wavideT beTelSi, rom samsxverplo avugo iq RmerTs, romelmac mismina gasaWirSi
da CemTan iyo gzaze..~ (35:2-3).
es monakveTi datvirTulia cnobebiT. aq mTavrdeba iakobis cxovrebis erTi periodi da iwyeba meore, iosebis
niSniT aRbeWdili.
1. yvela kerpi, rac ki iakobTan myof xalxs hqonda, da
samkaulebi, romelTac atarebdnen, iakobis moTxovniT
dafles SeqemTan, muxis qveS. maT Soris, albaT, is Terafimebi (saojaxo Tu sagvareulo kerpebi), romlebic leam
da raxelma moipares mamiseuli saxlidan. yvelani, Zeni
Tu ymebi, ganwmedilni unda misuliyvnen beTels wmida
adgilze.
2. `da daiZrnen. RvTis SiSi iyo garSemo qalaqebze da
ar daedevnen iakobis ZeT~ (35:5). iakobis ZeT unda dadevnebodnen Surisgebis mizniT, magram yvela mixvda, rom Seqemis daqceva uflis Carevis gareSe ar moxdeboda. uflis
kurTxevas abraamze da isakze, grZnobdnen is mbrZaneblebic, romelTa teritoriaze mdgmurobdnen isini. `uflis
SiSi~ iakobsac mihyveba gzaze, sadac ar unda wavides.
3. iakobi aRmarTavs samsxverplos beTelSi aRTqmisamebr da es meore samsxverploa, romelic man aago qanaanSi
dabrunebis Semdeg.
4. rebekas ZiZis, deboras, sikvdili. zustad aris miTiTebuli misi damarxvis adgili: `beTels qvemoT, muxis
qveS~. am adgilis saxelwodeba iribad gvamcnobs iakobis
wuxilze Tavisi dedis gamzrdelis sikvdilis gamo: `da
uwoda saxelad am adgils alon-baquTi _ muxa glovisa~
(35:8). saidan moxvda aram-fadanidan dabrunebuli iakobis banakSi rebekas ZiZa? _ kiTxulobs ioane oqropiri.
igi varaudobs, rom es moxucebuli qali iakobs wamohyva
Tavisi gazrdilis sanaxavad, magram gzaSi gardaicvala.
Tumca isic unda SeiniSnos, rom avtori ar axsenebs rebekas iakobisa da misi monagris isakTan Sexvedris dros.
5. beTelSi ufali gamoecxada iakobs da, aRsaniSnavia,
rom man isakisave sicocxleSi, ganumeora aRTqma, micemu-

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li abraamisadmi: `inayofiere da gamravldi, xalxi da


krebuli gamova Seni sazardulidan. qveyana, romelic miveci abraams da isaks, SenTvis momicia da Seni STamomavlobisTvis momicia es qveyana~ (35:11-12).
6. `da daiZrnen beTelidan...~ iakobi ar rCeba sacxovreblad beTels. is axorcielebs mdgmurobas _ is arsad
mkvidri ar unda iyos. gzaSi xdeba mniSvnelovani ambebi
misi ojaxis istoriaSi: ibadeba umrwemesi Ze iakobisa _
beniamini da raxeli gadayveba mSobiarobas. aqve axsnilia
misi saxelis mniSvneloba _ ben amin `Ze marjvenisa~, rogorc uwoda mamam im saxelis sapirispirod, momamkvdavma
dedam rom daarqva _ ben yoni `Ze Cemi salmobisa~ (35:18).
7. iakobi erTxans cxovrobs (`gaSala karavi~) `gederis godlis ukan~, romlis adgilmdebareoba ucnobia.
mxolod is viciT, rom beTelidan daZruli iakobi samxreTis mimarTulebiT midis.
`am qveyanaSi yofnisas adga reubeni da Sevida bilhasTan, mamamisis xarWasTan, da gaigo es israelma~
(35:22). teqstSi ar aris mocemuli reubenis saqcielis
Sefaseba. magram `gaigo es israelma~ _ es Zunwi fraza
mravlismTqmelia. aq pirvelad iakobi moxseniebulia
Tavisi xarizmatuli saxeliT _ israeli. reubenis
saqcieli miT ufro mZimdeba, rom igi Cadenilia israelis mimarT, romelic mxolod Tavisi Svilebis mama ar
aris. moses rjuls mkacri ganaCeni gamoaqvs am danaSaulisaTvis: `vinc mamis colTan dawveba, Tavis mamas siSiSvles axdis, oriveni unda mokvdnen. maTzea maTi
sisxli~ (lev. 20:11), magram am dros ar iyo rjuli.
Tumca codva codvad rCeba _ mamis Seuracxyofa. `siSiSvlis axda~ erTi danaSaulia, magram reubenis saqcielSi sxva danaSaulis amokiTxva SeiZleba. am aqtiT
gamoixata pirmSos mcdeloba ufrosobis mopovebisa
ijaxSi, rac sxva araferia, Tu ara janyi mamis xelisuflebis winaSe. aseve, roca abesalomma pretenzia ganacxada mefobisa, `gaSala abesalomma karavi banze da Sevida abesalomi mamis xarWebTan mTeli israelis
Tvalwin~ (2mef. 16:22). reubens SerCa es danaSauli,
magram is aisaxa im kurTxeva-winaswarmetyvelebaSi,
romelic israelma warmoTqva sikvdilis win Tavisi
SvilebisTvis.
8. swored am pasaJis Semdeg kidev erTxel aris CamoTvlili iakobis Zeni (maTi dedebis mixedviT), romlebic
SeeZina mas fadan-aramSi, da maT Soris ratomRac ixseneba
qanaanSi dabadebuli beniamini.
9. dabolos, es Tavi sruldeba iakobis dabrunebiT xebronSi, saidanac gavida igi oci wlis winaT. niSandoblivia, rom xebroni, Zveli kiriaT-arbe (kiraT arbay `oTxqalaqi~), moxseniebulia rogorc adgili, sadac `mdgmurobdnen abraami da isaki~. aq mokvda isaki da aq `damarxes
igi esavma da iakobma, misma Svilebma~. mamis sikvdilma erTxel kidev da ukanasknelad Seaxvedra Zmebi.

88

dabadeba

iosebi _ rCeuli Svili


(37:2-4)
`aha, iakobis modgma. Cvidmeti wlis iyo iosebi...~
(37:2)
gansakuTrebulia Tavad xerxi iosebis Semoyvanisa
TxrobaSi. wina (36-e) TavSi gadmocemuli iyo esavis
STamomavalTa genealogia _ esavis modgma. axla mkiTxveli elis iakobis modgmis Sesaxeb moTxrobas, magram
monakveTis centrSi iosebia. aqedan iwyeba ambavi iosebze. es aris iakobis modgma, aqedan iwyeba axali periodi
iakobis cxovrebaSi. Tavidanve naTqvamia, rom iosebi
mwyemsobda bilhasa da zilfas (iakobis colebis, romlebic mas raxilma da leam misces) SvilebTan anu Tavis
naxevarZmebTan erTad. eseni iyvnen: gadi, aSeri, dani da
nafTali. yvelaferi, rac (metismetad Zunwad) gvecnoba
iosebze, moxmobilia mxolod imis saCveneblad, Tu ratom SeiZules igi Zmebma, ara mxolod bilhasa da zilfas Svilebma, da dasakargavad gaswires.
pirveli is iyo, rom iosebs `cudi xmebi mihqonda maTze maT mamasTan~ (37:2). (asea ebraul dedanSi; septuaginta sawinaaRmdego azrs iZleva, rasac Zveli qarTuli Targmani misdevs: `da dasdves brali boroti iosebs
israelisa mimarT, mamisa Tsisa~).
meore is iyo, rom `yvela Svilze metad uyvarda israels iosebi...~ (37:3). aq meored gvxvdeba iakobis axali
saxeli. am saxeliT misi xseneba iosebTan mimarTebaSi
Rirsebas aniWebs iosebs. gansakuTrebuli siyvaruli
motivirebuli iqneboda da Zmebi bunebrivad CaTvlidnen amas, iosebi rom misi `siberis Svili~ yofiliyo,
Tumca Cven viciT, rom `siberis Svili~ beniamini iyo da
ara iosebi.
mesame is iyo, rom mamam am gamorCeul siyvaruls iosebisadmi nivTieri gamoxatuleba misca: `gaukeTa mas
Wreli kvarTi~. samoseli am siyvarulis niSania. Zveli
aRTqmis enaSi `siyvaruli~ da `amorCeva~, `sayvareli~
da `rCeuli~ sinonimebia. rogori samoseli igulisxmeba ebraul dasaxelebaSi qeToneT Ffassim _ `Wreli
kvarTi~ Tu `grZeli kvarTi~, daudgenelia. mis zust
gansazRvras arc unda hqondes arsebiTi mniSvneloba. aq
mTavari is aris, rom am niSanma iseTi Suri da siZulvili dabada ZmebSi iosebisadmi, rom mas `veRar elaparakebodnen mSvidobianad~ (an: `veRar eubnebodnen mSvidobas~ _ veRar esalmebodnen). es `Wreli kvarTi~ gvagonebs im `samosel pirvels~, romliTac qristes igavSi
mamam Semosa dabrunebuli umrwemesi Ze, rac siyvarulis
sxva niSnebTan erTad ufrosi Zmis guliswyromis mizezi Seiqna (luk. 15).
meoTxe mizezi, risTvisac Zmebma sasikvdilod SeiZules iosebi, misi arcTu bundovani sizmrebi iyo. `daesizmra iosebs sizmari da uambo Tavis Zmebs da kidev ufro SeiZules igi Zmebma~ (37:5). Zmebis siZulvili mamis
siyvarulis wil. `uambo~ iosebis imave siwrfeles da

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gulaxdilobas da, amave dros, windauxedavobas aaSkaravebs, rac gamoixata gamoTqmaSi `cudi xmebi mihqonda
maTze...~ (37:2). ra sizmrebia es sizmrebi, romelTac
windauxedavad uambobda Zmebs iosebi, raTa kidev ufro
SeeZulebinaT igi (37:5)?
iosebis ori sizmari
(37:5-11)
sizmari, erTic da meorec, metismetad lakoniuria,
magram mTeli momavlis damtevia.
`aha, Znebs vkonav Suagul yanaSi. aha, wamodga Cemi Zna
da ze aRimarTa, da gars Semoadgnen Tqveni Znebi da Tayvanisces Cems Znas~ (37:6).
meore sizmari erTaderT winadadebaSia moqceuli,
magram ufro metis Semcvelia da ufro kadnieri, vidre
winamavali: axla mis TayvanismcemelTa rigSi ZmebTan erTad ukve Semodis misi ded-mama _ sizmarTmetyvelebis
niWs ar saWiroebs mze-da-mTvareSi mSoblebis amocnoba.
`aha, mze da mTvare da TerTmeti varskvlavi mcemen
Tayvans~ (37:9).
sizmrebi, romlebic yofierebis gansxvavebuli sferoebidan (miwa da ca) iReben simboloebs, gamWvirvalea da ar moiTxoven ganmartebas. isini gasagebia mkiTxvelisaTvis da msemenlTaTvis, maTTvisac, vinc am simboloebad gardaqmnili monawileoben masSi. iosebi
Tavad TxrobaSive ganmartavs maT. is ambobs am meore
sizmris gadmocemisas ara `Tayvanisces Cems varskvlavs~, aramed `Tayvani mces me~. amaze meti gulaxdiloba warmoudgenelia. es mxolod iosebs SeeZlo. da
man am gulaxdilobiT ZmebSi dauokebeli guliswyroma
dabada, xolo mamam gaikvirva (`nuTu me da dedaSeni da
Zmebi unda geaxlon da Tayvani gceT Sen?~ _ 37:10) da
gulSi Caimarxa es ambavi.
es sizmari, rogorc Tasi, inaxavs momaval xsnas da
swored misi mflobelis daRupva ganizraxes Zmebma. ukeTesi SemTxveva ar miecemodaT, vidre is, rogorc moxda:
mamam gagzavna Tavisi sayvareli Svili mis moZule ZmebTan aramciredi xnis savalze _ xebronidan Seqemis midamoebSi, sadac isini mwyesavdnen mamis faras. mamas unda scodnoda Zmebis mtruli ganwyobileba iosebisadmi, rom isini mSvidobianad ver daelaparakebodnen mas,
da is mainc gzavnis mas Zmebis mSvidobis (Salom) gasagebad, raTa mosaxdeni momxdariyo.
is, rac moxda, aucileblad unda momxdariyo: iosebi
usaTuod unda moxvedriliyo egvipteSi. magram es moxda Suriani da SurismaZiebeli Zmebis xeliT _ gangebam
ki maTi boroteba sikeTes amsaxura, aCvena ra kerZo magaliTze, rogor Zlevs sikeTe sabolood borotebas. Serigebis im didebul wams boroteba ganqarda, roca iosebma gamoumJRavna Tavi Zmebs da maTi saqcielis providenciuli mniSvneloba ganumarta: `nuRar iwuxebT da
nurc Tavs gakicxavT, aq rom gamyideT. Tqveni sicoc-

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xlis saxsrad gamomgzavna RmerTma~ (45:5), rac ase gamoixata fsalmunSi: `waravlina winaswar maTsa kaci da
monad ganisyida iosebi~ (104:17).
iosebis gayidva
(37:14-28)
Tuki odesme raime codva hqonda Cadenili iosebs
(Tundac momakvdinebel codvad CaTvloda ambebis mitana), man yvelaferi aswilad gamoisyida yvela im gansacdelSi, romliTac ganscada igi ufalma. ufali ganscdis swored Tavis nebierT, swored maT ar gadausvams
Tavze xels, Tumca gansacdelSi uvneblad gamoatarebs
misi magari xeli.
Zmebma erTxmad gadawyvites iosebis mokvla da WaSi
Cagdeba, rogorc ki Soridan dainaxes maTken momavali
Zma. magram reubenma, iakobis pirmSom, swored im reubenma, romelmac mamis `siSiSvle~ Seuracxyo, Sevida
ra mis xarWasTan, ixsna iosebi sikvdilisagan. urCia
Zmebs mSral WaSi CaegdoT iosebi _ fiqrobda, amoiyvanda mas Zmebis uCumrad da mamas miuyvanda, SesaZloa,
Tavisi codvis gamosasyidad. axla Zmebma Suri iZies
mis kvarTze, misi rCeulobis niSanze _ gaxades kvarTi, raTa daeglijaT igi da cxovelis sisxliT SeesvaraT, mamasTan mietanaT, rogorc mkvdari Svili, dasatireblad.
WaSi sikvdilisgan axla iudam ixsna is: `ras gvargebs
Cveni Zmis mokvla... modiT, mivyidoT ismaelianebs...~
(37:26-27). amrigad, Zmis gayidva iudas rCeva iyo. sasjeli TiTqos Semsubuqda, magram es moCvenebiTia _ iosebi
samudamod unda amoZirkuliyo Tormetidan.
ras aRniSnavs `oci vercxli~, romelic gadaixades
ismaelianma vaWrebma iosebSi? aq pirvelad iqna naxsenebi vercxlis es raodenoba, romelic mosem yoveli israeliani yrmis (`xuTidan oc wlamde~) sakurTxevlisagan
gamosasyidad daawesa (lev. 27:5). iosebis sanacvlod
Zmebs monis safasuric ki ar auRiaT, Tumca rogorc
fsalmuni ambobs, `monad ganisyida iosebi~ (104:17),
radgan monis fasi ocdaaT Sekels Seadgenda (gam. 21:32),
pirmSos gamosasyidze aTiT mets. es imas niSnavs, rom gayiduli iosebis, iseve rogorc qristes, safasuri ara
mxolod simboluri, aramed damamcirebelic iyo.
egvipteSi Casvla
(37:28; 39:1)
iosebi gadaurCa sikvdils: is amoiyvanes Widan,
magram amieridan is aRar ekuTvnis am qveyanas. iakobma
daitira igi, rogorc mkvdari, roca sisxliT Sesvrili
misi kvarTi ixila. Zmebma ician, rom cocxalia maTi Zma,
magram darwmunebulni arian, rom mas veraviTari Zala
ver amoabrunebs egviptidan. `sxvagan yofna~ ki sikvdilis badalia. sxvagan sicocxle ar aris sicocxle. maTTvis is kvlav WaSia, Wa ki iseTi realobaa, romelic sik-

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vdilis simbolizms itvirTavs, magram es simbolizmi


savsebiT realuria.
teqsti orgzis gvamcnobs iosebis Cayvanas egvipteSi.
erTgzis 37-e TavSi: `maT waiyvanes iosebi egvipteSi~
(37:28), meoregzis 39-e TavSi: `Caiyvanes iosebi egvipteSi da iyida igi fotiferayma, faraonis kariskacma, qondaqarTuxucesma, egviptelma, ismaelianTagan, romelTac Caiyvanes~ (39:1).
pirvel cnobaSi `waiyvanes~ (an: `miiyvanes~ abiu)
aRniSnavs mxolod faqts iosebis gadanacvlebisa erTi
adgilidan meoreze _ qanaanidan egvipteSi. meore cnobis `Caiyvanes~, ufro zustad: `Cayvanil iqna~ (hurad),
arsobrivad axasiaTebs iosebis mdgomareobas, rogorc
gansacdels. Tumca yvela, ara mxolod iosebi, vinc qanaanidan egvipteSi midis, `Cadis egvipteSi~, radgan egvipte fizikur sibrtyeSi qanaanze dabla mdebareobs.
aseve qanaanSi adian egviptidan, radgan qanaani maRali
mxarea. es aris CrdiloeTidan samxreTisaken gawolili
mTagoriani zoli, romelic mdebareobs xmelTaSuazRvispira dablobsa da iordanis xeobas Soris. es aris
sakuTriv `qveyana~ (erec), sadac mimodiodnen rogorc
msxemni da sadac mdgmurobdnen patriarqebi. es aris aRTqmuli qveyana. da dResac iq mimavali misi Svili, romelic brundeba, `amsvlelad~ (yoleh) iwodeba.
iosebi ki Cadis, CahyavT, Camavalia. Wa, rogorc simbolo, aucilebeli gansacdelia mis cxovrebaSi. egvipte Waa, ormoa (bor), radgan iq Cadian. egvipteSi iosebs
daxvdeba kvlav Wa da ormo, radgan sapyrobiles, sadac
Caagdes, aseve bor ewodeba. mTeli gza iosebisa aris
STasvla, dacema socialur safexurze: rCeuli Svili,
ufliswuli monad gaiyideba; ucodveli borotmoqmedTa Soris Seiracxeba. is daeSveba ukidures fskerze, raTa aRzevdes da imaze ufro maRla dadges, sadac idga,
raTa acxaddes misi sizmrebi.
egvipteSi _ msaxurad da patimrad
(39-40)
sadac ar unda moxvdes iosebi, yvelgan masTan aris
ufali. ufali, romelic axilvinebda mas sizmrebs, axla
yvelaferSi xels umarTavs mas. sadac gasaWiria, iq aris
ufalic da es orgzis aris aRniSnuli 39-e TavSi, jer
dasawyisSi, roca iosebi faraonis kariskacis fotiferayis saxlSi moxvdeba monad, mere bolos, roca is patimaria da `WaSi~ zis sxva patimrebTan erTad. uflis kurTxeva iyo egvipteli didebulis mTels saxlze iosebis
gamo, rogorc erT dros misi mamis, iakobis, kurTxeva,
romliTac akurTxa igi ufalma, labanze gadavida. magram ufalma ar aacila mas gansacdeli arc misi batonis
saxlSi, romelsac erTgulad emsaxureboda, risTvisac
man daadgina igi Tavisi saxlis zedamxedvelad. iosebma
gauZlo gansacdels _ daicva Tavisi zneobrivi sispetake _ da cildawamebuli udrtvinvelad Cadis kvlav `Wa-

92

dabadeba

Si~ Tu `ormoSi~ (bor), rogorc iwodeba sapyrobile. da


aqac `ufali iyo iosebTan da moiRo masze wyaloba: madli apovnina sapyrobilis ufrosis TvalSi~ (39:21) da
sapyrobilis ufrosma Caabara `iosebs yvela patimari,
vinc ki sapyrobileSi iyo da mis gareSe iq araferi xdeboda~ (39:22). rogorc mis pirvel batons fotiferays
ar hqonia sazrunavi iosebis gamo (39:6), aseve sapyrobilis ufross ar hqonda araferi sazrunavi, `radgan ufali iyo masTan (iosebTan) da yvela saqmeSi, rasac akeTebda, ufali umarTavda xels~ (39:23). es davlaTi iosebisa
kvlav gamoCnda da ufro maRal xarisxSi, roca is mTeli
egviptis gamgebeli Seiqna _ meore piri faraonis Semdeg. aq nawilobriv asrulda is aRTqma, romelic daudo
ufalma abraams, roca uTxra, rom kurTxeuli iqneboda
misiT (masSi) miwierTa mTeli modgma (dab. 12:3).
sapatimroSi gamoCnda iosebis unari, rogorc sizmarTa amxsnelisa. rogorc RvTisagan aris sizmari, aseve RvTisagan aris misi axsnac. Zmebma boroti ironiiT
uwodes iosebs `sizmarTa patroni~ (bayal ha-xalamoT), magram maT WeSmariteba daamowmes am sityvebiT.
marTlac, iosebi `sizmarTa patronia~: mas Tavadac
esizmreba sizmrebi da sxvis sizmarTa amxsnelic aris.
Tu qanaanSi, Zmebs Soris myofi, windauxedavad naambobma sizmrebma daRupvis karamde miiyvana igi, axla mas egvipteSi sxvaTa sizmrebis axsna gadaarCens. mis am unarSic gamoCnda, rom masTan iyo RmerTi.
mTels bibliaSi sul rva sizmaria gadmocemuli, aqedan dabadebis wignze modis Svidi, romelTagan erTi
iakobs esizmreba (zeciuri kibe), ori _ mis rCeul Zes
iosebs, danarCeni oTxis amxsneli iosebia. es aris sakuTriv sizmrebi, ara uflis gamocxadebani ZilisSorisSi, rogoric hqondaT iakobs fadan-aramSi (dab.
31:10) an solomon mefes (3mef. 3:5) da romlis molodini hqondaT, rogorc Cans, uflis cxebulT (1mef.
28:6:16). aq unda iTqvas, rom sizmari iyo erT-erTi wyaro uflis nebis gamocxadebisa winaswarmetyvelTa xanamde, winaswarmetyvelTa gamoCenidan ki ZalaSi Semodis xilva (xazon), sizmarSi nanaxs ki avtoriteti akldeba da cruwinaswarmetyvelebas uTanabrdeba.
namdvilad, iosebi aRmoCnda `sizmarTa patroni~ _
ara mxolod im azriT, rom mas esizmreboda sizmrebi,
aramed im azriTac (mTavari es aris), rom mas SeeZlo
sxvaTa sizmrebSi amoekiTxa mowevnadi, amoexsna TiToeuli sizmris sakuTrivi azri im SegnebiT, rom sizmrebiT RmerTi laparakobs, acxadebs ra Tavis ganaCens, da
maTi axsnac RvTisagan aris.
sapyrobileSi iosebs mouxda faraonis ori Serisxuli kariskacis _ Rvinis mwdisa da mepuris sizmarTa axsna. Rvinisa da puris kidev erTxel (melqicedekis epizodis Semdeg) erTad xseneba imis niSania, rom es sizmrebi, garda maTi pirdapiri mniSvnelobisa, sxva, Soreuli informaciis matarebelic aris.

93

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

faraonis mwdes esizmra sami lerwi vazisa. lerwebi


gaifurCqnen, gamoiRes yvavili da mere mtevani mis
Tvalwin. mas faraonis Tasi eWira xelSi. mwdem yurZeni
TasSi Cawura da axladdawuruli Rvino faraons miarTva. iosebi dabejiTebiT aRuTqvams mas sizmris keTil
niSnebs: `sami dRis Semdeg agiwevs faraoni Tavs da Sens
Tanamdebobaze dagabrunebs~ (40:13). dabejiTeba imaSi
Cans, rom iosebi gamarTlebuli da Tavis adgilze aRdgenili kariskacisagan samsaxurs moiTxovs, mcireds,
magram misTvis mxsnels _ gaixsenos igi, roca Seundobs
mas (ueWvelad ase iqneba!) faraoni, da sityva Seawios
mas, udanaSaulod Cagdebuls `am WaSi~ (40:15).
`agiwevs... Tavs~ (sityvasityviT: `awevs Sens Tavs~) _
iosebis ganmartebaSi gamoyenebulia ebrauli (SesaZloa, saerTosemituri) idiomi odnav Secvlili saxiT.
`Tavis aweva~ aq cvlis `pirisaxis awevas~, rac patiebis
niSania. pirisaxes maRla swevs adamiani udanaSaulobis
dasturad, damnaSave Zirs uyureba, saxe daxrili aqvs,
ver bedavs Tavis aRmarTvas. Tavis CaRunva cudi gunebis
niSania, rogorc vkiTxulobT kaenis epizodSi: `Zalze
gamwarda kaeni da pirisaxe CaRuna~ (4:5), RmerTma ki
sityvebiT `Tu sikeTis mqmneli xar, gana saxeaweuli ar
unda iyo?~ (4:7) jer kidev Caudenel danaSaulSi amxila
igi. iobis wignSi vkiTxulobT: `Tu codva aqvs Sens
xels, ganiSore da ar daasadguro ukeTureba Sens karvebSi, maSin aRmarTav Sens saxes umwikvlod, ganmtkicdebi da SiSi ar geqneba~ (iob. 11:15).
iosebma mepuris sizmris axsnisas imave idiomiT gamoTqva ganaCeni, magram idiomi aq sityvasityviT mniSvnelobas iRebs: `agiwevs faraoni Tavs~ anu CamogaRrCobs. mepuris sizmaric `profesiulia~, mas esizmreba
sakuTari Tavi faraonis winaSe movaleobis Sesrulebisas. msgavseba Rvinis mwdis sizmarTan moCvenebiTia, es
sizmari sawinaaRmdego informacias Seicavs. amas aRmoaCens iosebi. mepuris sizmarSi, Tu CavukvirdebiT, gamoaSkaravda ara mxolod aRsasruli sizmris patronisa,
aramed danaSaulic, romelic mas Cadenili hqonda faraonis winaSe. mis sizmarSi frinveli Wamda faraonisTvis gankuTvnil saWmels anu es imas niSnavs, rom faraons ar misdis misi kerZi. sizmarma warmoaCina dafaruli _ amxila mepureTuxucesis daudevroba da arakeTilsindisiereba. da igi daisaja kidec. sastiki iyo
sityvebi, romliTac mas iosebma faraonis ganaCeni amcno: `sami dRis [sami kalaTa sami dRes niSnavs] Semdeg
agiwevs faraoni Tavs Sengan da Zelze Camogkidebs, da
SeWams frinveli Sens xorcs Sengan~ (40:19).
mwdeTuxucess keTilad auxda iosebis naTargmanebi
sizmari, magram mas ar gaxsenebia iosebi. kidev ori weli
dahyo man sapyrobileSi, swored im Jamamde, roca aucilebeli Seiqna faraonis sizmrebis axsna, raTa iosebi
sweoda im beds, rasac ewia. aqac gangebis xeli iyo. faraonis kariskacis umaduroba Tu gulmaviwyoba (an orive

94

dabadeba

erTad) kvlav iosebis sasikeTod Semoatriala gangebam.


ioane oqropiri ase ambobs: `Rvinis mwdes rom faraonis
sizmrebamde gaxseneboda iosebi da Tavisi SuamdgomlobiT gaeTavisuflebina igi sapyrobilidan, misi (iosebis) sikeTe bevrisaTvis ucnobi darCeboda. axla ki keTilgangebianma da yovladbrZenma ufalma, rogorc gamocdilma xelovanma, romelmac icis, ramden xans unda
gaaCeros cecxlSi oqro da rodis unda amoiRos iqidan,
daaviwyebina Rvinis mwdes iosebis arseboba ori wlis
manZilze, raTa faraonis sizmrebis Jamic damdgariyo
da Tavad aucileblobis moTxovniT marTali kaci faraonis mTeli samefosaTvis gamxdariyo cnobili~.
faraonis sizmrebi
(41:1-36)
rogorc vxedavT, sizmrebi, ZiriTadad, iosebis dafaruls gvimxels. ori sizmari misia, misi momavlis winaswarmetyvelebaa. faraonis kariskacTa sizmrebis axsnam, Tumca mciredi dagvianebiT, magram mainc Tavis
Jamze amoiyvana is `Widan~. dabolos, faraonis sizmrebma, maTma axsnam, aRazeva iosebi egviptis qveyanaSi
meore kacad.
TiToeuli am sizmarTagan Seicavs informacias momavlis Sesaxeb. magram maTi Rirebuleba da mniSvneloba
imisda mixedviT Sefasdeba, Tu vin aris `sizmris patroni~. faraonis kariskacTa sizmrebi metismetad individualuria, isini Seexeba mxolod da mxolod maT
beds, SemosazRvrulia maTi cxovrebiseuli interesebiT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom isini Tavisi xasiaTiT individualistur-egocentrulia. iwyeba maTiT da mTavrdeba maTiT. maTi am egocentrulobis gamo iyo, rom Tavis saxeloze (Tanamdebobaze) aRdgenilma, keTildReobaSi myofma Rvinis mwdem daiviwya iosebis Txovna.
rogoria iosebis sizmrebi? marTalia, am sizmrebis
centrSi iosebis pirovnebaa da sizmrebi mis didebas winaswarmetyveleben, magram momavlis perspeqtivaSi isini
ufro mets moicaven, vidre erTi pirovnebis bedma SeiZleba moicvas. rac unda aRmatebuli iyos iosebis pirovneba,
misi sizmrebi im xalxis beds exeba, romelic misi mamis wiaRidan unda gamovides (maTgan ori Stos mamamTavari Tavad gaxdeba). Zmebi mixvdnen, rom sizmrebi iosebis momaval didebaze laparakobda, magram maT bolomde ver amoikiTxes maTi Sinaarsi, saxeldobr, rom iosebis es dideba
mxsnelad moevlineboda maT. isini Rupaven iosebs im imediT, rom iosebTan erTad damTavrdeba misi didebac. magram Secdnen: tragikuli ironiiT, isini TavianT Tavs da
TavianT momavals Rupavdnen, magram es ar dauSva RvTiurma gangebam da uflis xelma, romelic mudam iosebTan iyo.
Tavad sizmarSi, ara mxolod mis SinaarsSi, aramed
Tavad faqtSi amgvari sizmrisa Cans iosebis pirovnebis
mniSvnelovneba, misi gamorCeuloba israelis (iakobis)
ZeTa Soris.

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rac ufro mniSvnelovania pirovneba, miT ufro mniSvnelovania misi sizmrebi. es TvalsaCinoa im sizmrebis
mixedviT, romlebic dabadebis wignis am nawilSia Tavmoyrili.
cxadia, ar iqneba Tanabari Zalisa faraonis kariskacTa da Tavad faraonis sizmrebi, Tumca erTnic da meorenic egviptelni arian. Tu faraonis kariskacTa sizmrebi mxolod maT interesebs moicavs, faraonis sizmrebSi mTeli qveynis interesi ixilveba, isini, rogorc
marjved gansazRvra Tomas manma Tavis romanSi `iosebi
da misi Zmebi~, `saxelmwifoebrivi sizmrebia~. ufro metis Tqmac SeiZleba: isini saerTaSoriso sizmrebia. am
sizmrebSi Cans sabediswero gansacdeli ara mxolod egviptisa, aramed mTeli axlo aRmosavleTis xalxTa,
romlebic egviptis gavlenis orbitaSi arian moqceulni. faraons, rogorc egviptis patrons, xelewifeba aseTi sizmrebis xilva, mas swored amgvari masStabis sizmrebi unda daesizmros, radgan is pasuxismgebelia Tavisi qveynisa da xalxis winaSe. garkveuli azriT, misi
pirovneba moicavs egviptis qveyanas, qveyana da faraoni
identuri odenobebia, rasac Tavad sityva `faraonis~
(ebr. faryo) semantikac adasturebs: `didi saxli~.
faraonis sizmrebi, rogorc isini mas iosebma ganumarta (rac axda kidec), Svidi nayofieri weliwadis Semdeg
Svidi unayofo weliwadis dadgomas moaswavebda. weliwadebi gasimbolurebulia ZroxiT da TavTaviT: Svidi
xorcsavse Zroxa da Svidi savse TavTavi Svidi nayofieri
weliwadia; Svidi mWle Zroxa da Svidi fSute TavTavi
Svidi unayofo weliwadia. pirveli sizmris simboloebi
cxoveluri samyarodan aris aRebuli, meoresi _ mcenareuli samyarodan. Svidwliani (realurad or-samwliani)
cikli unayofobisa ufro qanaanis pirobebisaTvis aris
damaxasiaTebeli, sadac miwis nayofiereba sezonur wvimebze da dilis cvarzea damokidebuli, da ara imdenad
egviptisaTvis, sadac nayofierebis garantias nilosis
sezonuri adideba iZleva. Svidwliani unayofoba-nayofierebis ciklebi qanaanuri (kerZod, ugarituli) miTosis kuTvnilebaa. miTosSi erTmaneTs enacvleba es ciklebi: Svidi nayofieri weliwadis meufe da warmarTveli
aris baali (bayal `ufali~), Svidi unayofosi _ moTi
(moT `sikvdili~), baalis saukuno antagonisti. baali
iZleva zamTrobiT wvimas, zafxulobiT _ dilis cvars
(tala), romelic misi asulis saxiT aris warmodgenili. amave dros, Svidi nayofieri weliwadi ganpirovnebulia Svid RmerTSi, romelTac Sobs eli (el), uzenaesi
RvTaeba. eseni brundebian unayofo periodidan moxnul
miwaze, sadac maT egebeba yanis daraji puriTa da RviniT,
rogorc is gamoucnobi melqicedeki, `maRali RmrTis
(el yelon) mRvdeli~ (dab. 14:18). ase, es Svidi RmerTi
akurTxebs miwas da iwyeba Svidi nayofieri weliwadi.
qanaanuri (ugarituli) nayofierebis miToss aqvs samesaqonleo aspeqtic, raTa warmodgenil iqnas mTeli

96

dabadeba

sisrule nayofierebisa. baalis RvTaebrivi cali aris


yanaTi, romelic, garda imisa, rom mouxvneli miwis gansaxierebaa (`yanaTis yana~ = `qalwuli~), warmodgenilia agreTve furad da mas euRleba baali xaris saxiT.
amrigad, faraonis or sizmarSi Zroxebisa da TavTavebis saxiT ugarituli miTosis orive aspeqtia warmodgenili. amgvari miTosi, rogorc safuZveli misteriisa, egviptur werilobiT ZeglebSi ar Cans da, albaT, arc arsebobda: am qveynis geografiul-klimatur
pirobebs ar Seuqmnia amis safuZveli. SesaZloa, amis gamo iyo, rom verc erTma egviptelma brZenma da misanma
ver axsna es `miTosuri~ sizmrebi. maTi axsna mxolod qanaanis mkvidrs Tu SeeZlo. aseTi iyo iosebi, romelic
moipares ebraelTa qveynidan (40:15). ufali sworad mas
ucxadebs sizmris dafarul azrs.
iosebis aRzeveba
(41:37-57)
iosebma ara mxolod axsna sizmrebi, aramed rCevac
misca faraons, rogor unda moqceuliyo igi qveynis gadasarCenad Svid unayofo weliwadSi. brZnulma rCevam
aRazeva igi egvipteSi meore kacad faraonis Semdeg.
`mxolod taxtiT viqnebi Senze aRmatebuli~ (41:40) _
faraonis am sityvebma gamoxatuleba hpova im insigniebSi, romliTac aRWurva man ebraeli tyveyofili. esenia
samefo beWedi, romelic aZlevda mas uflebas faraonis
saxeliT brZanebis gamocemisa, zezis (bisonis) samoseli, romelic emosaT faraons da qurumebs, yelsakidi
oqros Zewkvi pativis niSnad, etli (faraonis `meore
etli~) da misalmebis pativi sityviT abreq (`daiCoqe!~
an romeliRac egvipturi SeZaxili).
am insigniaTa Soris gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobs
iosebis TavgadasavalSi samoseli, romlis Semosva-SemoZarcviT gardatexis zRurblebia miniSnebuli:
_ mama Semosavs mas gansakuTrebuli kvarTiT rCeulobisa da siyvarulis niSnad (37:3);
_ Zmebi SemoaZarcvaven mas siZulvilis niSnad, raTa
SiSveli Caagdon WaSi (37:23);
_ misi Secdenis mowadine qals SerCeba xelSi samoseli misi patronis nacvlad, rac misi utyuari bralis
niSani gaxdeba _ samoselSemoZarcvuls Caagdeben sapyrobileSi, `WaSi~ (39:13);
_ sapyrobilidan amoyvanisas gamoicvlis samosels
(41:14);
_ aRzevebuls faraoni Semosavs samefo samosliT
(41:42).
statusis SecvlasTan erTad, egvipturi wesis Tanaxmad, iosebs saxeli gamoecvleba: faraoni mas uwodebs
cafnaT-faxneaxs (romlis mniSvneloba daudgenelia)
da faraonive SerTavs mas colad qalaq onis (berZnuli
teqstiT, heliopolisis anu mzis qalaqis) qurumis
asuls _ aseneTs. mas eyoleba ori Svili, romelTac is

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daarqmevs ebraul saxelebs _ menaSe da efremi (efraimi). es is ori tomia, romelTac iosebis nacvlad daimkvidres Tavi israelis Tormet StoSi. maTTvis am saxelebis Serqmevis motivacia TiTqos mowmobs, rom iosebi
gaSinaurda egvipteSi: menaSe _ `damaviwya RmerTma
mTeli Cemi tanjva-wvaleba da mamaCemis saxli~ (41:51)
da efraimi _ `nayofiermyo RmerTma Cemi gaWirvebis
qveyanaSi~ (41:52).
yovelive amiT momzadda pirobebi imisaTvis, raTa
amxdariyo Zmebis braziani sityvebi: `nuTu Cvenze imefeb? nuTu patronad gagvixdebi?~ (37:8).
iosebis Zmebi egvipteSi
(42-45)
TandaTanobiT mimdinareobs procesi iosebis sizmarTa axdomisa. axda faraonis sizmrebic da, roca mTels
qveyanaze (axlo aRmosavleTSi) gawyda puris saxsari da
SimSili Camovarda, egvipteSi iosebis gamWriaxobis wyalobiT ipoveboda puri. daiZra egviptisken puris myidveli xalxi, maT Soris iakobis Svilebi, romlebic gaagzavna iq mamam. `aha, Sevityve, puri iSoveba Turme egvipteSi. CadiT iq da gviyideT puri, rom cocxlebi davrCeT da
ar davixocoT~ (42:2). egvipturi werilobiTi Zeglebidan cnobilia semituri tomebis Casvla egvipteSi SimSilisagan Tavis gadasarCenad. es istoriuli faqtia, magram iakobis ojaxisa da Semdeg mis STamomavalTa istoriaSi am faqts _ egvipteSi Casvlas _ simbolur-providenciuli mniSvneloba mieniWa. egvipte, rogorc erTi
mniSvnelovani gzajvaredini, iosebis meSveobiT Semovida maTi cxovrebis gzaze. zemoTmoyvanili sityvebis
(`...ar davixocoT~) Semdeg, romlebic uTxra iakobma Tavis aT Svils, iwyeba iosebis sizmrebis acxadeba.
aSkara paralelizmia: rogorc maSin iakobma gagzavna iosebi mis ZmebTan da, Tavisda uneburad, maT SurismaZiebel vnebas miugdo, axla Tavis aT Svils agzavnis
egvipteSi, raTa kvlav, misda uneburad, iosebix xelSi
Caagdos. magram iosebi ar aris Surismgebeli, Tumca is
Tavs aCvenebs Surismgeblad, roca mkacrad xvdeba masTan puris sayidlad misul Zmebs. Tumca Zmebma ver icnes
igi, egviptel didebulSi ver amoicnes TavianTi Zma.
iosebs sizmari auxda Tavisi konkretulobiT: `iosebis
Zmebic mividnen masTan da mdablad Tayvanisces~ (42:6)
_ aTi Zna qeds ixris erTi Znis winaSe. varskvlavebi
qeds ixrian mis winaSe da male mzec SeuerTdeba maT. da
iosebs axsendeba Tavisi sizmrebi: `gaaxsenda iosebs
sizmrebi, maTze rom daesizmra~ (42:9).
magram axla mxolod pirveli sizmari axda, romelic
mxolod Zmebs exeboda. meore sizmarSi mas mama scemda
Tayvans. mama ki qanaanSia. ase rom, mas moelis Sexvedra
israelTan, romelmac is amoarCia.
iosebis mkacr laparaks ZmebTan, maT dadanaSaulebas
mstovrobaSi, umcrosi Zmis Camoyvanis daJinebul moT-

98

dabadeba

xovnas, simonis mZevlad datovebas, beniaminisTvis cilis dawamebas Tasis moparvaSi da yvelafers, rac amis
Semdeg SeemTxvaT Zmebs, erTi ganzomilebiT ver SevafasebT. am epizodebSi, romelTa msvleloba sam TavSia
(42, 43, 44) gaSlili, TandaTanobiT xorcieldeba iosebis gegma, romelic man Zmebis danaxvisas Caifiqra.
pirvel rigSi, rac xdeba, yvelaferi es ZmebisaTvis
gansacdelia. maT unda aRiaron danaSauli gulis siRrmeSi da xmamaRla gamoTqvan sinanuli TavianTi maSindeli saqcielis gamo; Tqvan, rogorc Tqves erTmaneTSi,
roca faraonis didebulma maTi umcrosi Zmis Camoyvana
moiTxova maTgan: `marTlac damnaSave varT Cvens ZmasTan, radgan vuyurebdiT mis tanjvas da ar SevibraleT,
roca gvevedreboda. amitomac dagvatyda Tavs es gasaWiri... aha, axla mogvekiTxa kidec misi sisxli~ (42:21-22).
maT unda eTqvaT es sityvebi da iosebs unda moesmina
isini da, ganze gamdgari, unda atirebuliyo (42:23-24).
da kidev, maT unda ganecadaT, rac maSin, roca mamas
sayvarel Svils arTmevdnen, ar ganucdiaT; Tavis Tavze
unda ganecadaT mamis mwuxareba; Tu maSin iosebi maTi
msxverpli iyo, axla umrwemesi beniamini, iosebis sanacvlo mamisTvis, maTi dasacavi unda Seiqnas; yvelani isini mis mimarT mamis rolSi unda gamovidnen; axla egvipteSi ityvian isini im sityvebs, romlebic maSin unda
eTqvaT, roca iosebs swiravdnen: `axla rom mivuvalT
mamaCvens da ar mivuyvanT ymawvils, romlis sulTan
aris misi suli gadaskvnili, dainaxavs, rom ar aris
ymawvili, da mokvdeba, da gamwarebuls CaviyvanT Seni
msaxurni mamaCvenis, Seni msaxuris, WaRaras SaveTSi...~
(44:30-31). es sityvebi, romelsac axla imeoreben `egviptelis~ winaSe _ `mgloviare Caval Cems SvilTan SaveTSi!~ (37:35) esmodaT maSin da ar SeZrula maTi guli.
amrigad, Tavisi sastiki moTxovnebiT, _ is ar erideba ciliswamebasac, _ iosebi uqmnis pirobebs Zmebs, rom
maT ara mxolod moinanion Cadenili codva da ganicadon kidec TavianTi saqcielis sisastike, aramed gamoisyidon danaSauli msgavs situaciaSi. maT axla saSualeba eZlevaT, Tavi gamoidon umcrosi ZmisaTvis, daamtkicon misadmi siyvaruli da mamis WaRarisadmi mowiweba-sibraluli.
aseTi iyo iosebis Canafiqri, rasac veraviTari dabrkoleba ver gadaeRobeboda _ is axla ukve ara mxolod
egviptis qveynis, aramed Tavisi xalxis bedis ganmgebeli da baton-patronia: man gadawyvita, egvipteSi sacxovreblad Camoiyvanos mTeli israeli (iakobis modgma). amiT isini gadarCebian SimSils, romelic kidev
xuT weliwads gagrZeldeba. ojaxi SeuerTdeba dakargul Svils da Zmas. dabolos, axdeba abraamisadmi uflis naTqvami, romelic uTxra mas erT-erTi gamocxadebisas: `mdgmurad iqneba Seni STamomavloba sxvis [sityvasityviT: `ara Tqvens~] qveyanaSi, daimoneben maT da
daCagruli eyolebaT oTxas wels~ (15:13).

99

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

iosebi umJRavnebs Tavs Zmebs, roca tragikuli daZabuloba ukidures zRvars aRwevs, roca Zmebis winaSe gamouvali situacia warmoiSva. TiToeuli maTgani (iuda
laparakobs maTi saxeliT) mzad aris beniaminis sanacvlod monad gauxdes `egviptels~. dabolos, sityvebi _
`rogor mivide mamaCemTan, Tu ymawvili Tan ar meyoleba? numc Sevswrebivar ubedurebas, rac mamaCems eweva!~
(44:34) _ ukanaskneli wveTi iyo iosebis moTminebis TasSi. da pirveli kiTxva, rac man dausva SiSisagan gaognebul Zmebs, aseTi iyo: `cocxalia jer kidev mamaCemi?~
(45:3). man ase Tqva: `mamaCemi~, ar uTqvams `mamaCveni~, rasac iqneb kidev ufro gaeZlierebina Zmebis SiSi; maT xom
sruli safuZveli hqondaT efiqraT, rom mamis rCeuli
Svili Surs iZiebda maTze. amitom iyo, rom iosebma Tavis sizmrebSi Sefaruli RvTiuri providenciac ganucxada Zmebs, riTac TiTqos mouxsna maT pasuxismgebloba
TavianT muxanaTur saqcielze da maT sruli simarTle
moismines: `nuRar iwuxebT da nurc Tavs gakicxavT, aq
rom gamyideT. Tqveni sicocxlis saxsrad gamomgzavna
RmerTma... gamomgzavna RmerTma Tqvens winaSe, raTa momeca TqvenTvis natamali qveyanaSi da mecocxlebineT
didi xsnisaTvis. Tqven ki ar gamogigzavnivarT aq, aramed RmerTma damadgina mamad faraonisa...~ (45:5-8).
marTalia, Zmebis saqcieli RvTiurma gangebam warmarTa sasikeTod, magram ra gaamarTlebs Tavad maT saqciels? iosebi unda Casuliyo egvipteSi, magram vai maT,
visi muxanaTuri xeliTac es moxdeboda! (`Ze same kacisa warvals, viTarca weril ars misTs, xolo va kacisa mis, romlisa mier Ze kacisa mieces~ _ maT. 26:24).
RvTis gangeba gardauvalia, magram aseTive gardauvalia adamianis neba, romelic borotebisaken ixreba?
mxolod imis Semdeg, rac iosebma `saTiTaod gadakocna Zmebi~, gabedes Zmebma xmis amoReba, dagvianebuli
pasuxis gacema maT mier gayiduli ZmisaTvis. `mxolod
amis Semdeg daelaparaknen Zmebi~ (45:15). ra Tqves maT,
ra uTxres maT iosebs, amaze biblia dums. iosebis sityvebma, misma saqcielma, cremlTa denam (es sixarulis
cremlebis meore SemTxvevaa xuTwigneulSi) daarwmuna
isini, rom iosebma Seundo maT danaSauli. ufro metic,
man, `faraonis mamam~, moisurva Zmebis siaxloves cxovreba, raTa kvlav gamTlianebuliyo iakobis saxli. `aha,
ra kargia, ra saamuria, erTad rom cxovroben Zmebi~
(fsalm. 132:1) _ gvaxsendeba fsalmunis sityvebi.
israelis Casvla egvipteSi
(46-47)
`gaemgzavra israeli mTeli Tavisi sabadebliTurT...~ (46:1) _ Zveli qarTuli Targmani wers: `warmoitro~, xolo dednis miaxloebiTi mniSvnelobaa `aiyara~. ebr. issay (nasay) yofa-cxovrebis nomadur nirs
gamoxatavs, is aRniSnavs sakuTriv karvis ayras imis niSnad, rom tomi icvlis adgilsamyofels, gadadis erTi

100

dabadeba

adgilidan meoreze. xSiria Tavad iakobis da mis winapar patriarqTa cxovrebaSi es moqmedeba, rogorc realuri gamoxatuleba maTi mdgmurobisa qanaanSi da, sazogadod, am qveynad.
`aiyara israeli...~ _ ojaxis mama naxsenebia im saxeliT, romelic man miiRo uflis angelozTan orTabrZolisas, im saxeliT, romelic misi modgmis sakuTar
krebiT saxelad iqca. `mTeli misi sabadebeli~ (ebr.
qol-aSer-lo _ `yvelaferi, rac misia~), anu mTeli misi STamomavloba (garda iosebisa), colebi, msaxurni da
mxevalni, saqoneli (cxvar-Zroxa), anu yvelaferi, rac
mas SeeZina da rac moixveWa qanaanis qveyanaSi. is aiyara
da, sxva kvali am qveyanaSi Tavisi myofobisa, mama-papis
samarxTa da samsxverploTa garda, ar dautovebia.
`...mivida beerSebas da Seswira msxverpli Tavisi mamis, isakis, RmerTs~ (46:1). biblia Tumca ar ambobs, sad
iyo dabanakebuli iakobi beerSebaSi misvlamde, magram
unda vigulisxmoT, rom es Seqemi iyo. beerSeba ki is adgilia, sadac abraamma gaaSena saRvTo Wala da axsena uflis saxeli; aqedan waiyvana man isaki morias mTaze uflisaTvis Sesawiravad; beerSebadan gavida xaranSi mimavali iakobi da aqedanve gaagzavna man iosebi im sabediswero diliT Zmebis mosakiTxad. beerSebaSi cxovrobdnen umeteswilad misi winaprebi. iakobi CrdiloeTidan (Seqemidan) samxreTiT inacvlebs, beerSeba ukiduresi samxreTia, negebis udabnos piras, sadamdec Casulan da ucxovriaT mamamTavrebs. beerSeba (beer Sebay
`Wa ficisa~ an `Svidi Wa~) axlos aris egviptis sazRvarTan.
beerSebaSi hqonda uflis gamocxadeba iakobs. `nu geSinia egvipteSi Casvlis...~ (46:3) _ ufali erTi sityviT gaumeorebs mas abraamisTvis micemul aRTqmas misi
wiaRidan bevri xalxis warmoSobaze da dausazRvravs
momavals, romelic aseve misgan warmoSobili eris momavalic aris: `...radgan iq gaqcev did xalxad. me Cagyvebi egvipteSi da meve amogiyvan iqidan, da iosebi dagixuWavs Tvalebs Tavisi xeliT~ (46:3-4). aq iakobi aSkarad
gaigivebulia im xalxTan, romelic unda gamovides misi
wiaRidan: iakobis pirovneba atarebs Tavis TavSi momavali eris beds. Tumca egvipteSi Casvla-amosvla pirovnulad abraamis cxovrebaSi ganxorcielda: `SimSili
iyo qveyanaSi da wavida abrami egvipteSi sacxovreblad...~ (12:10), `amovida abrami da misi coli egviptidan...~ (13:1). axla iakobi Cadis egvipteSi imave mizeziT
da Cadis sabolood, raTa Semdeg mTeli eris saxiT amovides iqidan.
46-e TavSi CamoTvlilia saxeldebiT iakobis mTeli
STamomavloba (zeray `Tesli~) _ misi Zeni da ZeTa Svilebi. iosebi da beniamini dasaxelebulni arian am CamoTvlaSi rogorc `raxelis Zeni, iakobis colisa~
(46:9). amgvarad arian gamorCeulni raxeli, iakobis sayvareli coli, da misi Zeni am vrcel totalur, SeiZle-

101

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ba iTqvas, sagvartomo nusxaSi. mTeli STamomavlobis


ricxvi, dedrovanis gamoklebiT, aRwevs samocdaaT
suls _ eseni, iakobis sisxli da xorci (ebr. `Zvali da
xorci~), Cavida egvipteSi. es samocdaaTi iyo Tesli im
mravalricxovani xalxisa, romelic Tavis droze, ramdenime aswleulis Semdeg, egviptidan ukan amobrunda.
maT egvipteSic, rogorc qanaanSi, unda SeenarCunebinaT TavisTavadoba da TviTmyofadoba. isini icvlidnen adgil-samyofels, magram ara cxovrebisa da meurneobis wess. isini unda darCeniliyvnen mwyemsebad da mejogeebad, rogorc aRTqmul qveyanaSi iyvnen, rac eamayebodaT kidec, rogorc maTi mama-papis tradiciuli saqmianoba. `cxvris mwyemsebi varT Seni msaxurni, rogorc
Cveni mama-papa iyo~ (47:3), ase upasuxes maT faraonis SekiTxvas. isini rCebian mwyemsebad, miuxedavad imisa, rom
egviptelTaTvis es saqmianoba saZagelia. arc faraons
gamouTqvams raime pretenzia maT mimarT. ormxrivi interesi moiTxovda, rom axladCamosulni, romelnic faraonma keTilad miiRo, egviptelTagan gancalkevebiT
dasaxlebuliyvnen. ufro metic: faraonma WeSmaritad
mefuri guluxvoba gamoiCina maT mimarT. `Sens winaSea
egviptis qveyana...~ (47:6) _ es sityvebi im aRTqmis badalia, romliTac ufalma abraams da mis STamomavlebs
aRuTqva qanaanis qveyana. es idiomaturi gamoTqmaa teritoriaze sruli baton-patronobisa. amave sityvebiT
istumrebs abraami lots, Tavis Zmiswuls: `gana Sens win
ar aris mTeli es qveyana?~ (13:9).
`Sens winaSea egviptis qveyana~, eubneba faraoni iosebs, `saukeTeso miwaze daasaxle mamaSeni da Seni Zmebi.
daesaxlon goSenis mxareSi...~ (47:6). goSenis mxare, kerZod, ramsesi, unayofieresi adgili mTels egvipteSi,
Seiqna israelianTa sacxovrisi oTxi saukunis manZilze, Tumca maT xuTiode unayofo weli unda daeyoT egvipteSi, rogorc iosebis sityvebidan Cans, romlebic
man Zmebis piriT SeuTvala mamas: `aq Seginaxav-Tqo, radgan kidev xuTi weli gastans SimSili...~ (45:1).
dabadebis wignis bolo sam (47, 48, 49) TavSi gadmocemulia oTxi epizodi, sadac iakobi, rogorc patriarqi, gansxvavebuli mxareebiT aris warmoCenili.
pirvelia faraonTan Sexvedra da saubari. iosebma iakobi warudgina faraons (47:7-10). faraonTan iakobis
Sexvedra iwyeba mis mier faraonis kurTxeviT da am aqtiTve mTavrdeba. `da akurTxa iakobma faraoni~. arsebiTad es SeiZleba iyos misalmeba da damSvidobeba, magram
zmnur moqmedebas baraq/barax (qarT. `baraqa~) Rrma
fundamenturi mniSvneloba aqvs, roca is patriarqis bagidan gamodis. aq Tavs iCens uflis mier abraamisadmi micemuli aRTqma, rogorc mas uTxra erT-erTi gamocxadebisas: `SeniT ikurTxeba miwis yvela tomi~ (12:3). `SeniT~ an `SenSi~ (be-qa) gulisxmobs jer Tavad abraams,
mere mis Tesls, mis STamomavlobas axlo da Soreul
perspeqtivaSi. aRTqma moicavs isaks da iakobs. es madli,

102

dabadeba

romelic iosebma egvipteSi gamoaCina, ar aris mxolod


mamidan Svilze tradiciulad gardamavali kurTxevadalocva. is gadadis ucxozec, Tu amas ufali isurvebs.
faraonis erTaderT kiTxvaze `ramdeni wlis xar?~
iakobma gasca pirdapiri da amomwuravi pasuxi, raSic
gamoCnda mTeli misi damokidebuleba amqveyniuri cxovrebis mimarT. `asocdaaT wels iTvlis Cemi mdgmurobis
xani~, Tqva man. cxovrebas is `mdgmurobas~ (magur) uwodebs. cxovreba, misi warmodgeniT, aris `msxemoba~,
`xiznoba~, geris (ebr. ger) mdgomareoba am qveyanaSi,
rogorc ucxosi ucxoTa Soris. da kidev iakobi eubneba
faraons, TiTqos mis kiTxvaSi isic yofiliyos nagulisxmevi, Tu rogor gaatara man Tavisi sicocxle. `mcirea,
magram tanjviT aris savse Cemi cxovrebis wlebi~, ambobs is. arc erTi misi winapari ase ar ityoda. tanjva
iakobis privilegiaa. SeiZleba mas isic eTqva, rac iobma
Tqva, rom adamiani satanjvelad ibadeba: `aramed kaci
iSvebis salmobad~ (iob. 5:7).
`jer ver mivaRwie Cemi winaprebis xans...~, sinanuliT
ambobs asocdaaT wels miRweuli iakobi. mas arca aqvs
imedi, rom miaRwevs maT asaks. amiT amTavrebs Tavis
wlovanebaze laparaks. es iyo misi faraonTan saubris
erTaderTi sagani.
meore epozodSi iakobs sasikvdilo sarecelze vxedavT. is uxmobs iosebs, swored mas, raxelis Zes (`Tavis
Zes, iosebs..~), raTa ficiT CamoarTvas piroba, rom ar
damarxos egvipteSi, aramed waiRos misi neSti egviptidan da misi winaprebis samarxs miabaros. es adgili Tavisi mizandasaxulobiT da enobrivi qsoviliT gagvaxsenebs im epizods, sadac abraami ficiT avaldebulebs
Tavis saxlTuxucess eliazars, ar mouyvanos coli isaks
qanaanelTagan, aramed wavides mis samSobloSi da iqidan mouyvanos coli (24:2-4)... igive fici, igive rituali _ sazardulqveS xelis amodeba siwrfelis niSnad,
igive erTguleba winaparTa qveynisadmi.
epizodi mTavrdeba mniSvnelovani aqtiT, raSic unda
davinaxoT iosebis meore sizmris (TerTmeti varskvlavi da mze da mTvare) axdoma: `da Tayvanisca israelma sawolis sasTumalze~ (47:1). iakobma maSin, am sizmris mosmenisas, ikiTxa: `nuTu me da dedaSeni da Seni Zmebi geaxlebiT da Tayvans gcemT?~ (37:10). Zmebma xom Tayvani
sces, rogorc egviptis ganmgebels, axla ki iakobi scems
Tayvans Tavis Zes, romelic man Tavidanve airCia. amiT gaixsna is saidumlo, romelic damarxuli iyo avtoris
sityvebSi: `da misma mamam daimarxa es ambavi~ (37:1).
efremi da menaSe
(48:1-20)
iakobs, dasneulebuls (`uTxres iosebs: avad aris mamaSeni~ _ 48:1), vxedavT patriarqis, rogorc Svilebis
makurTxeblis rolSi. kvlav misi yuradRebis centrSia
iosebi. misi rCeuloba kidev erTi aspeqtiT warmoCin-

103

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deba. vidre iakobi Tavis Tormet Zes (israelianebs)


akurTxebdes, man unda akurTxos egvipteSi dabadebuli
iosebis ori Ze.
am epizodSi safuZveli eyreba momavali eris, israelianTa tomobriv struqturas. iakobma iosebis Svilebisadmi gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba imiT gamoxata, rom man isini Tavis ZeTa Soris Caricxa: `Cemebi arian isini, efremi da menaSe, rogorc reubeni da simoni
arian Cemebi~ (48:5). misma nebam ara mxolod Tavis Zeebs,
aramed ZeTa Soris pirmSos da mis momdevnos gauTanabra iosebis vaJebi. amiT iosebi man kidev erTxel da ukanasknelad gamoarCia. misma orma vaJma ara mxolod israelis ZeTa statusi miiRo, aramed isini sabolood tomTa mamamTavrebis Rirsebamde amaRldnen _ maTgan warmoiSva ori tomi, efremi da menaSe, romlebic Caewernen
Tormettomovan erSi da mis istoriaSi. Tumca iosebis
saxelze israelSi tomi ar iricxeba, magram mas ormagi
wili ergo _ misi `Zvali da xorci~ or tomSi iqna gansxeulebuli.
iosebis ZeTa kurTxevisas iakobma daarRvia pirmSoobis upiratesoba. kidev erTxel ganmeorda, rac moxda
wina TaobaSi, roca mocdunebulma isakma umrwemesi iakobi akurTxa, rogorc pirmSo, esavis nacvlad. Tumca
iakobsac siberisagan dasustebuli hqonda mxedveloba, magram man, sruliad Segnebulad, umrwemesi efremi
airCia pirmSod menaSes nacvlad da mas daado Tavze makurTxebeli marjvena. Tumca iosebma ise dauyena win
ori Svili, rom iakobis marjvena mis marjvniv mdgom
menaSes Tavze dadebuliyo. iakobs xelebis gadajvaredineba mouxda, raTa momxdariyo ise, rogorc mas surda. `ganzrax daasxa ase xelebi, Tumca pirmSo menaSe
iyo~ (48:4). roca iosebma moindoma gamoesworebina mamis `Secdoma~ da `daiWira mamis xeli, rom efremis Tavidan menaSes Tavze gadaenacvlebina~ (48:7), imis misaniSneblad, rom menaSe iyo pirmSo, iakobisagan aseTi
pasuxi moismina: `vici, Svilo, vici. esec warmoSobs
xalxs, esec gandiddeba, magram misi umcrosi Zma masze
metad gandiddeba, misi Teslisagan uricxvi xalxi
warmoiSoba~ (48:9).
`da daayena efremi menaSeze win~ (48:20), ambobs biblia, anu is ambobs, rom umcross ufrosis winaSe upiratesoba mieniWa. iosebisTvis es moulodneli ar unda
yofiliyo: gana Tavad umcrosi ar iqna gamorCeuli ZmaTa Soris? ase ar gamoirCa iakobic, Tundac motyuebiT
momxdariyo ase? (RvTiuri providencia mis mxareze
iyo da ara esavisa). an ufro adre romeli iyo aRTqmis
Svili abraamis or Zes Soris _ gana umcrosi isaki ar
iyo? da Tu ufro Sors wavalT, gana abeli da misi
msxverpli ar amjobina RmerTma pirmSo kaens da mis
msxverpls?

104

dabadeba

Tormeti Zis kurTxeva


(49:1-28)
iosebisa da misi Svilebis mimarT Tavisi mamamTavruli nebis aRsrulebis Semdeg iakobi akurTxebs yvela
Tavis Zes saTiTaod. magram es kurTxeva imavdroulad
Seicavs maTi bunebis gaxsnas, maT ganaCens da samomavlo
winaswarmetyvelebas. TiTqos es ukanaskneli unda iyos
mTavari, rogorc iakobis sityvebidan Cans: `SeikribeT,
rom gagimxiloT, ra SegemTxvevaT momaval dReebSi~
(ba-axariT ha-amim), iakobi iyenebs gamoTqmas, romelic
Semdgom esqatologiuri Jamis mniSvnelobiT mkvidrdeba bibliur enaSi. marTlac, TiToeli Zis momavali
xom israelis calkeuli damoukidebeli Stoa. Zis _ pirovnebis saxe xom gansazRvravs saxes tomisa, romelic
misgan warmoiSoba.
pirvelad patriarqi axsenebs Tavis pirmSos reubens.
pirmSooba aq reubenis mimarT Zlieri metaforiT aris
gamoxatuli: `Zali Cemi da saTave Cemi kacobisa~ (49:3).
qoax (`Zala~) aRniSnavs warmomSob unars; on (aseve `Zala~) nayofierebis Zalaa da iakobi am sityviT gamoxatavs Tavisi kacobis Zalas, Sobis unars, romelic pirvelad reubenSi gamovlinda. reubenia is Ze, romelmac Tavisi pirmSoobiT gamoaCina misi, rogorc mamis, manamde
dafaruli Zala. Semdgomi daxasiaTeba misi Seupovroba
da boboqrobaa, swored mamruli Zalis niSniT aRbeWdili: reubeni iyo, rom SebRala mamis sareceli _ Sevida mis mxeval bilhasTan, danisa da nafTalis, iakobis
kanonieri Svilebis, dedasTan. es brali gaxsenebulia
kurTxevaSi, rogorc sasjeli, romelmac eWvis qveS daayena misi pirmSooba: `ar aRzevdebi~ _ aseTia mamis ganaCeni. neStTa pirveli wignis avtori ase wers reubenze: `igi pirmSo iyo, magram roca mamis sareceli wabilwa, misi pirmSooba gadaeca iosebs, israelis Zes, ara
imisaTvis, rom pirmSod Caweriliyo~ (1neSt. 5:1). iosebi arsad ar ixsenieba pirmSod, oRond efremisa da menaSes kurTxevidan viciT, rom misi es ori Ze gauTanabrda
pirmSoebs reubens da simons.
simoni gamocalkevebulia reubenisagan da levisTan
aris dawyvilebuli. maTma saerTo sastikma saqcielma
(SeqemelTa muxanaTuri gawyveta, dab. 34:25) saerTo bedi dausazRvra maT, Tumca es `saerTo~ sxvadasxvagvarad gamovlinda maT mier warmoSobili tomebis cxovrebaSi. `davaqucmaceb maT iakobSi da mimovfantav israelSi~ _ aseTi iyo eris mamamTavris ganaCeni. da marTlac, simonis tomi, romelsac ukidures samxreTSi, iudas mezoblad, mieca samkvidro, ukvalod gaqra, ise Seeria iudas toms. xolo levi, rogorc samRvdelo tomi
israelis yvela StoSi iqna gafantuli. mas ar miuRia
sakuTari miwa-wyali qanaanis danawilebis dros.
iudas kurTxevaSi bundovani adgilebia, magram aSkaraa, rom mas mesianuri datvirTva aqvs. ras niSnavs `ar
waerTmeva kverTxi iudas da arc argani ferxTa Suidan,

105

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

vidre ar mova misi mflobeli da is iqneba xalxTa sasoeba~ (49:10)? `kverTxi~ mefobis niSania da iudas tomidan gamovida israelis mefoba. `argani~ mexokek (Ziridan xok `kanoni~) samsajuloa; is, vinc iTavsebs mefesa
da msajuls, mesianuri piria, `argnis~ WeSmariti
mflobeli; is mova xalxebis imedad. `vazze ubia Tavisi
CoCori, venaxis lerwze _ Tavisi viris naSieri~
(49:11). `Rvino~, `yurZnis sisxli~ _ es yvelaferi qriste-mesiis gamWvirvale simboluri niSnebia maT Soris,
romlebic ki Zvel aRTqmaSi gvxvdeba.
zebulonze araferi gansakuTrebuli ar aris naTqvami. miTiTebulia mxolod misgan warmoSobili tomis adgilmdebareoba _ zRvispireTi. Tumca zabulonis tomi ar saxlobda sanapirosTan.
isaqari mSromelia, uyvars miwa, `xarkisTvis Sromobs~.
dani `msajulia Tavisi xalxisa~. msajuloba misi saxelidan (dan `msajuli~, `mosamarTle~) gamomdinareobs. meore mxriv, danis momavali ar aris sasikeTo Tavad xalxisaTvis: `gveli iqneba dani gzaze~ (49:17). amitomac iakobi SesTxovs winaswar: `Sengan moveli xsnas,
ufalo!~ (49:18). danis agresiuloba kargad gamoCnda im
ubodiSo saqcielSi, ramac asaxva hpova msajulTa wignSi (msaj. 18).
Tu dani agresiulia, aSers momxdurTagan Tavis dacva uxdeba. mSvidobiani Sroma misi saqmianobaa. aSeri
`noyieri puriT~ (49:20) aris ganTqmuli. is adgilmdebareoba, romelic zabulons miewereba kurTxevaSi,
aSers ekuTvnis _ zRvispireTi. cidonTan Tu ara, tvirosTan mainc gadioda am tomis sazRvari.
iosebis kurTxeva, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, mdidruli da uxvia, Tumca viciT, rom mis saxelze tomi ar
warmoSobila israelSi. iosebi erTaderTia, romelic
iRebs sakuTriv kurTxevas _ es misi pirovnuli kurTxevaa: `mamaSenis RmerTi Segewios da gakurTxos yovladZlierma zecaTa kurTxeviT zegardamo, ufskrulis kurTxeviT, qveganrTxmulis, ZuZuTa da saSos kurTxeviT...~
(49:25). igi moxsenebulia, rogorc `ZmaTagan gamorCeuli~ (49:26), gaxsenebulia, oRond metaforulad, misi
Wabukobisdrondeli gansacdelic: gaamwares, daisres... (49:23). is vnebuli iyo, magram `aqedan aris mwyemsi, klde israelis~ (49:24). iosebi qristes winasaxeobrivi piria Zvel aRTqmaSi.
umrwemes beniaminze naTqvamia, rom is `mgelia, mtacebeli, diliT Wams, saRamoTi iyofs nadavls~ (49:27).
es aris da es. beniaminis agresiuloba moulodnelia,
magram Cven gvaxsendeba erTi epizodi beniaminis tomis
cxovrebidan, roca misi uprecedento saqcielis gamo
bewvze ekida misi arseboba israelis StoTa Soris
(msaj. 19-21).
iakobis SegnebaSi misi Tormeti Ze israelis Tormeti tomia, anu is maTSi Wvrets samomavlod ers, rome-

106

dabadeba

lic Tormeti Stosagan Camoyalibdeba. kurTxevis bolos is askvnis: `yvela eseni israelis Tormeti Stoa~
(49:28).
iakobis sikvdili
(49:29-33; 50:1-13)
uSualod kurTxevis Semdeg iakobi anderZad utovebs
Svilebs, rom waasvenon misi neSti qanaanSi da miabaron
mama-papis samarxs. iakobi imeorebs im samarovanis zust
`misamarTs~ (ix. dab. 23:17-20), sadac daimarxnen abraami
da sara, isaki da rebeka, da sadac man damarxa lea (raxeli efraTis gzaze, beTlemTan daimarxa). mis anderZSi
kidev erTxel aris xazgasmuli qveynis patronTagan samarxis yidvis faqti imis niSnad, rom igi maTi (albaT,
erTaderTi) Seuvali sakuTrebaa qanaanis miwaze.
es iyo misi ukanaskneli sityvebi da neba.
iakobi, cxadia, saTiTaod daitires misma Svilebma,
magram matiane iosebis mwuxarebaze aCerebs yuradRebas:
`gadaemxo iosebi mamas, dastiroda da hkocnida~ (50:1).
iosebia am dRis baton-patroni, masze hkidia, rogor pativs miageben iakobis cxedars qanaanSi wasasveneblad.
ormoci dRe egvipturi wesiT mis Semurvas (dabalzamebas) dasWirda. gadaWarbebuli ar unda iyos cnoba:
`dastiroda mas egvipte samocdaaT dRes~ (50:3). es iqneboda ritualuri glova, romelic egvipturi Cveulebisamebr gaimarTa qveynis ganmgeblis mamis pativsacemad.
`mTeli egvipte~ am SemTxvevaSi warmomadgenlobiTobas gamoxatavs, rogorc xSirad `mTeli israeli~, roca
igulisxmeba TiToeuli tomis uxucesTa erTianoba.
`mTeli egvipte~ aq swored is `egviptis qveynis yvela
uxucesia~, romelic gahyva procesias qanaanisaken.
samgloviaro procesiaSi, cxadia, egviptelebi sWarbobdnen ricxobrivad (ramdenime aTeuli pirisagan Semdgar israelis saxls bavSvebi ar wauyolebiaT), amitomac adgils `atadis kalosTan, iordanes gaRma~ (50:10),
sadac SviddRiani glova gaimarTa, abel micraim
(`glova egviptelTa~) uwodes qanaanelebma (50:11).
iosebis sikvdili
(50:15-26)
iosebis Zmebs SeeZloT efiqraT (da kidec ifiqres),
rom iosebs SurisZiebisagan mxolod mamis avtoriteti
akavebda da misi sikvdilis Semdeg gauswordeboda maT.
amitomac egvipteSi dabrunebis Semdeg (isini iZulebulni iyvnen dabrunebuliyvnen, Tumca SimSilis Svidi
weli kargaxnis gasuli iyo), maT aseT eSmakobas mimarTes: SeuTvales iosebs (Tavad ar Cvenebian mas, radgan
tyuodnen): `mamaSenma brZana sikvdilis win, ase uTxariT iosebs: gevedrebi, Seunde codva da danaSauli
Zmebs. Tumca borotad mogeqcnen, amieridan Seunde codva mamaSenis RmerTis msaxurT~ (50:17). es sityvebi iakobs ufro iosebisTvis unda eTqva, Tu ityoda, vidre

107

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

misi ZmebisTvis. Zmebi mxolod maSin movidnen iosebTan,


roca erTxel kidev darwmundnen, rom is aRar gauxsenebda maT danaSauls. `movidnen misi Zmebic da daemxnen mis
winaSe, da uTxres: aha, Seni msaxurni varT!~ (50:18). erTxel kidev axda iosebis sizmari da, rogorc Cans, Zmebis Tayvaniscema iosebisadmi aWarbebda im pativs, romelsac mokvdavT miageben. amitomac ambobs maTi Semxedvare umcrosi Zma: `nu geSiniaT, RmerTi xom ara var?~
(50:19). aq iosebs erTxel kidev uxdeba im sityvebis warmoTqma, romlebSic pirvelad gacxadda Zveli aRTqmis
umniSvnelovanesi Teologumena _ amqveyniur xdomilebaTa metafizikuri saidumlo. ai, misi sityvebi: `Tqven
boroti ganizraxeT CemTvis, xolo RmerTma sikeTed Seracxa igi, raTa ise momxdariyo, rogorc moxda: mravali
xalxis sicocxle exsna~ (50:20).
umcrosi Zma ufros Zmebze adre kvdeba. axla sasikvdilo sarecelze mwolare iosebia mTxovnelis rolSi
Zmebis winaSe. misi erTaderTi saTxovaria, damarxon
igi aRTqmul qveyanaSi. misi sityvebidan TiTqos Cans,
rom mas imedi aqvs Zmebis (anu aqtualuri Taobis) dabrunebisa qanaanSi: `me vkvdebi, magram RmerTi mogxedavT da wagiyvanT am qveynidan im qveyanaSi, romelic
ficiT aRuTqva man abraams, isaks da iakobs~ (50:24).
an SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom iosebi, mamamTavar israelis msgavsad, am Tavis TerTmet Zmas eris perspeqtivaSi
xedavs. sityvebs `roca RmerTi mogxedavT, aqedan waiReT Cemi Zvlebi~ (50:24) is TiTqos im eris StoTa uxucesebs mimarTavs, romelic Soreul momavalSi maTi wiaRidan warmoiSveba.
***

dabadebis wigni mTavrdeba sikvdiliT, iosebis sikvdiliT da egvipteSi israelis ZeTa darCeniT, ramac samomavlod maTi xangrZlivi tyveoba moamzada. ucxoobaSi myofi israelianebi moswydnen qveyanas, romelic
RmerTma maT mama-papas aRuTqva, magram mainc dasasruli
imediania, radgan moxda udidesi aqti Zmebis Serigebisa,
gafantva undoblobisa da SuRlisa; dadga Jami Tanxmobisa da erTgulebis dasadgurebisa. es ki imis winapiroba iyo, rom am Tormetisgan erTiani eri warmoiSveboda.

108

gamosvlani

wignis qarTuli saxelwodeba _ `gamosvlani~ (berZn. eqsodos) gulisxmobs mravalTa gamosvlas, Tumca SesaZlebelia misi amgvari forma (morfologia) dRevandeli normebis fonze
eWvs iwvevdes, magram igi tradiciiT aris ganmtkicebuli.
wignis mTavari sityva-cneba aris `xsna~, romelic ganmartavs misi saxelwodebis sazriss. iosebma, rogorc viciT, xsna
moutana Tavisi mamis saxls. iakobisa da mis ZeTaTvis egvipte
is qveyana iyo, sadac maT Tavi gadairCines SimSilisgan, romelic ramdenime weli mZvinvarebda axlo aRmosavleTSi. magram
maT STamomavlobas kidev eloda gasaWiri da mere kvlav xsna,
magram aw ukve egviptelTa xelidan. Tavad wignis saxelwodeba am ideis kerZo gamoxatulebaa, gamosvlis aqti xsnis ganxorcielebis erTi konkretuli, magram Zlieri ganzogadebis
Semcveli saxea.
magram, aseve, am wignis mTavari sityva SeiZleboda yofiliyo `Seqmnac~. gamosvlaTa wigni TiTqos axali Sesaqmidan iwyeba,
magram amjerad ara samyarosi, aramed erisa, risTvisac mravalgzis mieca aRTqma jer abraams, mere isaks da iakobs qanaanSi. im samocdaaTi kacidan, romelic Cavida egvipteSi, warmoiSva mravalricxovani xalxi. mTeli wigni, misi ormocive Tavi,
eZRvneba israelis anu Tormettomovani eris Camoyalibebas,
rac ar yofila erTjeradi aqti, aramed mZime ormocwliani
procesis Sedegi.
wignis mTavari Temaa israelianTa Tavgadasavali iosebis
sikvdilidan (riTac mTavrdeba dabadebis wigni) udabnoSi pirveli karvis aRmarTvamde. maT Soris aris moqceuli oTxi mniSvnelovani xana:
xana israelis Cagvrisa egvipteSi (1-7),
xana xsnisa anu periodi, roca xorcieldeba sakuTriv gamosvla egviptidan Tavisi peripetiebiT (8-15),
gza mewamuli zRvidan sinais mTamde (16-18),
xana ZiriTad aRTqmaTa da rjuldebaTa pirveli miRebisa
sinais mTidan; israelianTa krebulis `mRvdelTa samefod~ da
`wmida erad~ arCeva da adamianuri cxovrebis konstituciis _
aTi mcnebis gamocxadeba (19-35).
wignis mTavari moqmedi piria mose. misi asocwliani cxovrebis mkveTrad gamoxatuli sami ormoci wlidan am wignSi misiis
TvalsazrisiT amowurulia meore ormoci weli, saidanac, rogorc butkodan, gamoikvirteba misiis axali safexuri da
grZeldeba sxva wignebSi aRmavali xaziT. aq mose gadadis Tavis
mesame ormoceulSi.
wigni iwyeba kavSiriT `da~, rac imis niSania, rom gamosvlani
ar aris sruliad axali da damoukidebeli wigni, aramed agrZelebs winamavals ara mxolod TxrobiT doneze, aramed im aRTqmaTa aRsrulebis dawyebiT da nawilobrivi axdomiT, ranic patriarqebs qanaanSi miecaT, anu am wignidan iwyeba gangebiT warmarTuli istoriis nabijebi. gangeba moses xeliT warmarTavs israelis cxovrebas da mosesve awerinebs misi cxovrebis wigns.

110

gamravleba da damoneba
(1:1-14)
wigni iwyeba egvipteSi Casul israelis (iakobis) ZeTa
CamoTvliT, maTi ricxvis (70) dasaxelebiT da mkveTrad
gadadis maT STamomavalTa mdgomareobaze, romelic
TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs, rom es aRTqma maT cxovrebaSi
xorcieldeba. inayofieres israelianebma, gafufundnen,
mravalricxovanni Seiqnen da metismetad aavses mTeli
qveyana (1:6). aRsrulebulia ara mxolod uflis aRTqma
rCeuli eris mimarT, aramed uflis mowodebac adamisadmi: inayofiereT da imravleT, aavseT miwa (dab. 1:28).
aRsrulda aRTqma da kurTxeva: israelis saxlma inayofiera da gamravlda, magram swored es xdeba imis mizezi, rac israelis cxovrebaSi egviptis monobad
aris cnobili. am ucxo, erT adgilas mWidrod dasaxlebuli xalxis gamravlebam iseTi masStabi miiRo, rom
SiSma moicva egviptelebi israelianTa winaSe (1:12).
da rac ufro metad Cagravdnen maT, miT ufro mravldebodnen isini. es is dro iyo, roca ukve aRaravis axsovda
iosebi da misi damsaxureba qveynis winaSe _ egviptes
sxva dinastia ganagebda.
biblia dums im oTxaswlian periodze, romelmac ganvlo israelianTa egvipteSi Casvlidan im dromde, roca
maT ukve gamravlebulT, magram damonebulT vxedavT. es
mdumare, faruli saukuneebia. samyaros Sesaqmidan is
gvagonebs im suraTs, romelsac mose gvixatavs, raTa gangvacdevinos RvTis SemoqmedebiTi Zala: da suli
RvTisa iZvroda wylebis zedapirze (dab. 1:2). suli
RvTisa (ruax elohim) iZvris, raTa Seqmnas sicocxle,
misi moqmedeba Sedarebulia kruxis moqmedebasTan, romelic Cekavs Tavis wiwilebs. aseve, TiTqos am mdumare
periodSi iCekebian israelianebi. bnelSi xdeba xalxis gamravleba, gazrda. am dros iqmneba eris xorci da
Zvali (basar u-yecem), misi sxeuli. magram es jer kidev
ar aris rCeuli eri. ufals ar ucvnia es xalxi. Tu atarebs igi abraamis, isakisa da iakobis RmerTis codnas?
ar Cans. es xalxi TiTqos sxva xalxia _ is ar misdevs Tavisi winaprebis cxovrebis wess: mwyemsebs aiZuleben
agurebi amzadon da qalaqebi uSenon faraons (1:11). jer
ar dawyebula misi istoria. biblia RvTis gamocxadebis arc erT faqts ar axsenebs am xalxSi, ar Cans pirovneba, romelsac ufali gamoecxadebodes. uflis gamocxadeba Tavis Jamsa da Tavis adamians eloda.
es Jami maTi ukiduresi gasaWiri iyo, roca maT SehRaRades ufals anu gaaxsendaT igi, da ufalmac moxeda maT.
es adamiani iyo mose da igi moZebna ufalma, roca misTvis gankuTvnilma Jamma moawia.

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moses pirveli ormoci weli


(2:1-25)
moses dabadebas win uZRoda faraonis brZaneba ebraelTa Sobadobis Semcirebis mizniT: nilosSi CaegdoT
yoveli axladSobili vaJi (1:22). mosesac unda gaeziarebina es bedi. magram mose gadarCa da es mis saxelSic
aRibeWda: wylidan amoyvanili. mose daibada levianTa ojaxSi, ramac samomavlod gansazRvra levianTa tomis momavali.
roca mose daibada, ebraelTa Tavze terori mZvinvarebda. dainaxa dedam, rom bavSvi kargia (rogorc Semoqmedi xedavda Sesaqmis yoveli dRis bolos, rom
Seqmnili kargia). dedisaTvis Svili ar SeiZleba ar
iyos kargi, magram is, rac naTqvamia bibliis am adgilas _ da Sva vaJi da dainaxa, rom kargia, da sam Tves
malavda (2:2) _ gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisaa. aq
ganiWvrita moses momavali misi dedis _ ioxebedis
mier, rogorc deda rebekam ganWvrita umcrosis rCeuloba. mosec umrwemesi iyo, mas ufrosi Zma hyavda _
aaroni.
Tavisi xalxis mxsneli Sobisas Tavad saWiroebda
xsnas. misi sicocxle bewvze ekida, rogorc mTeli misi xalxisa. deda asrulebs faraonis brZanebas: bavSvs
Sefisul lerwmis kidobanSi Casvams da niloss gaatans. es iqneboda, cxadia, wnuli kalaTa, magram mas
kidobani ( Tebah ) ewodeba, rogorc iwodeba is
uzarmazari WurWeli, romlis meoxebiTac noe da misi
vaJebi gadaurCnen warRvnas. amrigad, Cvili mose gadalaxavs mcire warRvnis wylebs, saidanac mas faraonis asuli amoiyvans (gadaarCens) da iSvilebs. da
moxdeba misi ufrosi dis (miriamis) simarjviT ise,
rom isev da isev misi deda ioxebedi iqneba misi ZiZa _
ZuZus mawovebeli (2:7-9). amis Taobaze grigol noseli wers moses cxovrebaSi~, rom mosem ar iTvisa ucxo rZe, naTesavebis xelSewyobiT igi mainc mSoblis
rZiT gamoikveba.
RviZli deda ZuZus awovebs, faraonis asuli saxels
miscems da egvipturad aRzrdis. magram dedis ZuZuTi is
mkvidrad aris Cafesvili Tavis xalxSi. egviptis faraonis karze mas brwyinvale asparezi eloda, is SeiZleba
meore iosebi gamxdariyo, iqneb faraonic. magram, rogorc kvlav grigol noseli wers, sisxlis naTesavebisaken gaeSura igi da Tavisi tomis xalxSi gaeria. Tumca
ki gvian, ormoc wels miRweuli, is mainc ubrundeba Tavis xalxs da evlineba mas rogorc mxsneli: is daicavs egviptelisagan Cagrul Tavis Tvistoms da Semoakvdeba
egvipteli. meored gamodis xalxSi da amjerad evlineba
mas rogorc msajuli. is Seecdeba gaaSvelos ori moSuRari israeliani, magram maTgan esmis umaduri sityva:
vin dagayena Cvens Tavkacad da msajulad? (2:14). umaduri Tvistomis bagem WeSmariteba iRaRada: is marTlac israelianTa pirveli msajuli Seiqna.

112

gamosvlani

Tavis xalxSi gasvla sabediswero aRmoCnda misTvis:


Tvistomma gaacxada egviptelis mkvlelobis ambavi da
mosec iZulebuli gaxda egviptidan gadaxvewiliyo,
radgan faraoni mosaklavad eZebda moses (2:15).
mose gadis egviptidan da iwyeba misi meore ormoci
weli.
ltolvili mose
(2:15-22)
sicocxlis meore ormoci weli mosem midianSi gaatara. WasTan, sadac midianeli mwyemsebi arwyulebdnen
TavianT faras, mose midianeli mRvdlis reRuel-iTros asulebs Semwed moevlina (daicva isini mwyemsebis
Zaladobisagan) da aqve hpova man coli _ mRvdlis asuli cifora (Citi). mose iseve moiqca am WasTan, rogorc erT dros iakobi, romelmac xaranis maxloblad
gadmougora Widan lodi iq mosul raxels mamiseuli
faris dasarwyuleblad (dab. 29:10). mose daudgeba
mwyemsad midianel mRvdels, Tavis simamrs, raTa samudamod darCes masTan da daubrundes Tavis winapar patriarqTa cxovrebis wess udabnoSi. amieridan is midianis xizani da mdgmuria (ebr. ger), rac man asaxa kidec
Tavisi pirmSos saxelSi: gerSom (an ger-Sam muneburi
mdgmuri), roca Tqva: mdgmuri gavxdi ucxo qveyanaSi
(2:22), rogorc iyvnen mdgmurebi (gerim) abraami, isaki
da iakobi qanaanis qveynad.
mose ara mxolod, Tumca iZulebiT, Tavisi xalxisaTvis ucxo cxovrebis wess ganerida, aramed gaeqca mravalRmerTian warmarTul egviptes. rogorc erT dros
abramma datova qaldevelTa uri da mere _ xarani, raTa
WeSmariti RvTisSemecneba martoobaSi gamoezarda,
aseve mose gadis midianelebTan udabnoSi. isinic xom
abraamianebi iyvnen, abraamis erT-erTi Zis midianis
STamomavalni (dab. 25:2) da, unda vifiqroT, Tu mTeli
tomi ara, iTro-reRueli mainc atarebda erTRmerTianobis Segnebas (egviptidan gamosvlis saswaulis Semdeg man irwmuna ufali da msxverpli Seswira mas, 18:911). aucilebeli iyo moses gasvla udabnoSi, rogorc
aucilebeli iyo mTeli xalxis gamosvla egviptidan _
moses gamosvla providenciulad winauswrebs xalxis
gamosvlas.
uflis gamocxadeba
(3-4:19)
mose, rogorc kerZo kaci, faris mwyemsi, aRar daubrundeboda Tavis TvistomT, rom ara is sakvirveli gamocxadeba, romelic mas xorebze, RvTis mTaze (hor
elohim), hqonda. xorebi (xoreb xmeli, Sdr. xmelgori laSarisjvris samyofeli) saerTo saxelwodebaa im
mTagrexilisa, romlis erT-erTi mwvervali aris sinai,
sadac mosem cecxlwakidebuli, magram Seuwveli mayvali ixila. mosesTvis, romelic, rogorc mwyemsi, cxvars

113

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amohyva am adgilamde, es mxolod erTi sakvirveli sanaxavi iyo, bunebis erTi ucnaur movlenaTagani: mival da
vnaxav am did saxilvels, ratom ar iwvis mayvlovani
(3:3). saxilvels gamafrTxilebeli xmac moyva aalebuli mayvlis buCqidan: mose! mose!.. axlos nu moxval! gaiZre fexsamosi, radgan es adgili, sadac Sen dgaxar, wmida miwaa (3:4-5).
visia es xma? vin uxmobda moses, romelic ase kadnierad miabijebda am wmida miwisaken (admaT kodeS)?
es xma arc erTi israelianis yurs ar Casmenia oTxasi
wlis manZilze. es is xmaa, romelmac aRuTqva iakobs,
rom ar miatovebda da masTan erTad iqneboda egvipteSi,
da amoiyvanda iqidan. magram amdenxans ratom sdumda
xma? es xma sdumda ucxo qveyanaSi, radgan am qveynis
mdgmurebs (gerim) aRar axsovdaT mama-papis RmerTi. es
gaxseneba ukiduresma gasaWirma gamoiwvia. da miswvda
maTi RaRadi RmerTs da moesma maTi kvnesa da... dainaxa
RmerTma israelianebi da icno RmerTma isini (2:24-25).
icno RmerTma... _ es niSnavs: RmerTma icno maTSi
Tavisi xalxi, im winaparTagan warmoSobili, romelTaTvisac dadebuli hqonda aRTqma. RaRads moyva pasuxi
da es pasuxi gaigona mosem. me var mamaSenis RmerTi, abraamis RmerTi, isakis RmerTi, iakobis RmerTi (3:6). Tu
es RmerTi maSin, mamamTavarTa xanaSi, calkeul pirovnebebs ecxadeboda, axla dadga Jami, rom igi mTel ers,
am mamamTavarTagan warmoSobils, gamoecxados. abraami, isaki, iakobi _ Tumca eseni qanaanis miwaSi wvanan,
maxfelas gamoqvabulis samarxSi, magram maTi Tesli am
xalxSia gansxeulebuli, romelTagan erT-erTi mosea,
romelic am xanaSi airCia RmerTma Tavis warmomadgenlad, Suamavlad masa da xalxs Soris.
iyo Tu ara mose mzad imisaTvis, ris aRsasrulebladac mouwoda mas ufalma?
mose ver grZnobs Tavis TavSi Zalas am misiis gansaxorcieleblad _ arc guSin, arc guSinwin mas amaze ar
ufiqria. magram RmerTi ufro mets xedavs, imaze mets,
rac adamians SeuZlia Tavis TavSi dainaxos. ase moxdeba
yovelTvis, roca ufali aRadgens israelidan mis mxsnels (msajulTa xanaSi gedeons, ifTaxs...).
moses isic ar SeeZlo, rom winaswar, xmis gagonebamde, egrZno im niadagis siwmide, sadac is idga sakvirveli xilvis winaSe. Tu gavixsenebT, iakobic manam ver mixvda adgilis siwmides luzSi, sadac man qvis sasTumalze Rame gaaTia, vidre sizmarSi ar ixila angelozebiT
daxunZluli zeciuri kibe (dab. 28:11-22).
am epizodis dasawyisSive naTqvamia, rom xorebis
mTa, sadac mose moxvda Tavisi samwyso cxvris mizeziT,
RvTis mTa aris. mTeli mTa Tu wmidaa, aalebuli mayvlovanis adgili wmidaTa wmidaa, erTi safexuriT maRalia siwmidis xarisxSi. es absoluturi siwmidea, Tuki SeiZleba amgvari realoba arsebobdes nivTier samyaroSi. es is adgilia, sadac RmerTma ineba konkretul sa-

114

gamosvlani

xeSi sCveneboda Tavis rCeuls, da man Seuxedavi eklis


buCqi airCia amisaTvis. sene _ ase ewodeba am buCqs ebraul dedanSi, septuagintaseuli batos, aseve vulgatas
rubus mayvals niSnavs; aqedan aris tradiciulad qarTul TargmanebSi am buCqis saxelwodebac. meore rjulSi RmerTi mayvlovanSi davanebulad iwodeba (rjl.
33:16). ase, mere karvisa da, bolos, taZris wmidaTa wmidaSia davanebuli ufali.
Tumca mose dgas wmida adgilze da esmis RvTis xma,
romelic mas avalebs israelianTa xsnas (amoyvanas) egviptis monobidan, is mainc uRirsad miiCnevs Tavis Tavs.
me vin var, faraonTan rom wavide da gamoviyvano israelianebi egviptidan? (3:11). me vin var? (mi anoxi) _ am
kiTxvaze ufali ar upasuxebs mas: momavalSi gamoCndeba,
Tu vin aris mose. magram Tavad misTvis saidumlod rCeba sakuTari vinaoba. RmerTma airCia, mouwoda mas, erTaderTs, misi xalxis istoriis gariJraJze da esec sakmarisi unda yofiliyo misTvis.
me vin var? _ es kiTxva imasac gulisxmobs, rom SemkiTxvels araraobad miaCnia Tavi. mas axsovs sabediswero marcxi, roca moSuRar TvistomTa Serigebas Seecada. is ganicdis mxolod ususurobas yovladZlieri
RmerTis (el Sadda) winaSe, ra saxeliTac is ecxadeboda mis mama-papas. rogor SeuZlia mas itvirTos RvTiuri, zeadamianuri amocana _ mTeli xalxis xsna, roca
erTi Tvistomis xsnac ki misTvis esoden savalalod
damTavrda? me viqnebi SenTan (3:12) _ iyo pasuxi, romelic araerTgzis mousmenia mis mama-papas, ukanasknelad iakobs, roca is egvipteSi Cadioda: nu geSinia...
mec Camogyvebi egvipteSi... (dab. 36:3-4). da iakobic ganicdida cocxali RmerTis myofobas masTan, radgan sadac RvTismosavia, iq aris RmerTic. aseve, mosec cocxal
gancdaSi unda mixvdes uflis Tanadgomas. RmerTi mxolod am gancdas aZlevs niSnad, rom namdvilad Tavad is
agzavnis egvipteSi. me viqnebi SenTan. es gqondes imis
niSnad, rom Cemi gagzavnili xar... (3:12).
magram moses ufro metis codna surs. Tumca codna
ara codnisaTvis, aramed TvistomTa dasarwmuneblad.
mas surs icodes saxeli im RvTisa, romelmac mas gaacno
(Tu gaaxsena) Tavi, rogorc RmerTma abraamisa, RmerTma isakisa, RmerTma iakobisa. magram es sakmarisi ar
aris. pirovnul RmerTs, romelmac moxeda Tavis xalxs
da airCia mose, unda hqondes saxeli, rom xalxma axsenos,
rogorc egviptelebi axseneben TavianTi RmerTebis saxelebs. da mose ismens pasuxad sityvebs, romlebic ar
mousmenia arc abraams, arc isaks, arc iakobs. es aris pasuxi moses Ziebaze, mis RvTisSemecnebaze: uTxra RmerTma moses: me var, romelic var (3:14). ehe aSer ehe. da
kvlav uTxra: ase upasuxe israelianebs: romelic aris,
mgzavnis TqvenTan (3:14). me var _ ehe, es aris uflis
arsobrivi saxeli, sxvagvarad, veranairi sityviT ver
gamoixateba misi saxeli. Tu sadme uZluria adamianuri

115

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

sityva, aq aris uZluri. ehe niSnavs, rom RmerTi acxadebs Tavis upirveles atributs _ arsebobas. is arsebobs, rogorc absoluturi arsi, romlis arsebobis mizezi Tavad masSia. amis gamoxatvas itvirTavs gamoTqma
ehe aSer ehe _ me var, romelic var. da es saxeli misi
bunebis absoluturobis ganmsazRvrelia. ase gamoiTqmis misi dausazRvreli Tavisufleba, rogorc sxva SemTxvevaSi, roca ambobs: me, ufali, vambob, rasac vambob
adaber eT aSer adaber (ezek. 12:25). es aris misi maradiuli saxeli, anu amiT dasturdeba misi maradiuloba.
es aris Cemi saxeli (Sem) ukuniTi ukunisamde, es aris
Cemi saxsenebeli (zeqer) Taobidan Taobamde (3:15).
RvTis Semecneba am saxelis gamocxadebis Semdeg axal
safexurze adis. am safexurze dgas axla mose, ufro maRla, vidre misi mama-papa _ abraami, isaki da iakobi. am maRal safexurs, am upiratesobas, RmerTi Tavad ucxadebs
moses: me gamovecxade abraams, isaks da iakobs, rogorc
yovladZlieri RmerTi (el Sadda), xolo Cemi saxeli
_ ufali (ahveh) _ ar gamimxelia maTTvis (6:3).
aq pirvelad aris gaxsnili tetragramis (oTxasoedis) hvh semantika _ is Seicavs arsebobis mniSvnelobas. amrigad, Tavad RvTis sakuTari saxeli amxels mis umniSvnelovanes atributs: aheh niSnavs: (is) arsebobs.
raki es iyo RvTis sakuTrivi saxeli, adridanve aikrZala
misi gamoTqma, amitomac mis nacvlad berZnul TargmanSi,
romelic aleqsandriel ebraelebs ekuTvnis, yvelgan
ikiTxeba krios ufali da asevea gadmosuli Zvel qarTul TargmanSi, xolo tradiciis ZaliT _ axalSic.
ufali RvTis saxelad aris damkvidrebuli, magram masSi ukve ver amovikiTxavT arsebobis semantikas.
moses TavmdablobiT naTqvamma, _ me vin var, _ davinaxeT, gamoiwvia uflis mier Tavisi vinaobis gamomxatveli saxelis gacxadeba misTvis. ai, aseTi maradmyofi RmerTi iqneba mis gverdiT, roca Seerkineba faraons
egviptidan xalxis gamosayvanad. es iqneba namdvilad
RmerTkacobrivi aqti, riTac daiwyeba israelianTa istoria. magram mosesTvis esec ar aris sakmarisi. moses
surs, hqondes imis utyuari niSnebi, rom mas, moses, kacs
levis tomidan, romelic mTeli ormoci weli moSorebuli iyo Tavis xalxs, namdvilad gamoecxada mama-papis
RmerTi. niSani esaWiroeba mas am jiuti da urwmuno
xalxis dasarwmuneblad. ufali aZlevs moses sam saswauls _ erTi exeba kverTxs, romelic gvelad iqceva mis
xelSi (4:4), meore _ keTrs, romelic ucabedad Seeyreba
moses xels da aseve ucabedad dastovebs (4:6-7), mesame _
nilosis wyals, romelic xmeleTze daRvrisas sisxlad
iqceva (4:9). samive saswauli Semzaravia, SesaZloa, providenciulic ki israelis istoriis zogierTi momentisaTvis. mesame ki winaswar moaswavebs pirvel sasjels,
romelic mosem uflis ZaliT mouvlina egviptes: moses
kverTxis dacemiT mTeli nilosi gasisxlmdinarda
(7:20-21).

116

gamosvlani

mose kvlav jiutobs _ mZimea tvirTi (iqneb is Wvrets


kidec momavals, Tu ra dRe daadgeba mas udabnoSi am xalxis mwyemsvisas). mose imizezebs bagemZimobas (qebad fe)
da enamZimobas (qebad laSon), sxva adgilas (6:12) _
enabrgvilobas, sityvasityviT bagedaucveTlobas (yaral sefaTaim). winadaucveTeli, viciT, ar ekuTvnis israelianTa sazogadoebas, ara aqvs wili abraam mamamTavarSi; xolo ras unda niSnavdes moses bagedaucveTloba _
imas xom ara, rom mas, faraonis karze gazrdils egviptur
enaze da ganswavluls egvipturi sibrZniT, uWirs Tavis
TvistomTa enaze laparaki? amas xom ar gulisxmobs misi
bagemZimoba da enamZimoba da ara bunebriv nakls? uflis pasuxi erTsac miesadageba da meoresac.
ufali upasuxebs: vin misca bage adamians, vin badebs
munjs an yrus, Tvalxiluls an brmas, Tu ara me, ufali?
axla wadi da me viqnebi Sens bagesTan. gaswavli, ra unda
Tqva (4:11-12). mainc jiutobs mose: gevedrebi, ufalo,
sxva vinme gagzavne (4:13), _ avlens ra Tavisi xalxis am
Tvisebas, rac bevrjer gamovlinda udabnoSi xetialisas. maSin moses braziT aRanTebs maTi sijiute da urwmunoba, axla ki ufali mrisxanebs masze. ganurisxda
ufali moses da uTxra: gana Seni Zma ar aris leviani aaroni? vici, rom laparakiT is ilaparakebs... (4:14).
aq pirvelad aris naxsenebi moses ufrosi Zma aaroni.
kvlav mama-papidan moyolebuli tradiciiT, umcrosi
upiratesobs pirmSoze. arCevaSi, winamZRolobaSi,
pirvelni _ ukana da ukanani _ wina. ufali axsenebs
mas ase: leviani aaroni. magram mosec xom leviania?
leviania, magram is levianobaze maRlaa. mose ar ekuTvnis mxolod im toms, romlis wiaRSic is daibada. dediT da mamiT leviani mTels israelianobas ekuTvnis.
magram wodebas leviani aaronis mimarT am konteqstSi kidev sxva datvirTva aqvs. aaroni aris leviani,
rogorc samRvdeloTa winapari _ winaswarmoswavebulia levis tomis, rogorc RvTismsaxurTa, funqcia israelSi. maT evalebaT moses mier (ba-ad xeliT) gadmocemuli rjulis Senaxva da Tvalyuris devneba mis
dacva-aRsrulebaze (lev. 10:11). asea Zveli aRTqmis
mTeli periodis manZilze.
mose upiratesia ufros Zmaze, aaronze. amas Tavad
ufali ucxadebs mas: is iqneba SenTvis baged, Sen ki misTvis RmerTad iqnebi (4:16). mose RmerTia im azriT,
rom misgan gamodis sityva, aaroni ki _ misi bagea, romelic mis nacvlad metyvelebs. aaroni moses, rogorc
RvTis, winaswarmetyvelia.
misia miRebulia. mose unda dabrundes egvipteSi.
egvipteSi dabruneba
(4:18-31)
gavida meore ormoci weli moses cxovrebisa da, aha,
is kvlav icvlis adgil-samyofels. mesame ormoci weli
mTlianad avsebulia sawinamZRolo da sawinaswarmet-

117

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

yvelo moRvaweobiT. midianeli uCino kacis mwyemsi amieridan mTeli xalxis, uflis rCeuli eris, mwyemsi xdeba. erTaderTi niSani mis xelSi aris kverTxi (mateh),
romliTac unda mwyemsos Tavisi urCi xalxi. jer am
kverTxiT uflismieri saswaulebi unda moaxdinos faraonis Tvalwin. xelSi geWiros eg kverTxi, romliTac
saswaulebs moaxden (4:17), eubneba ufali. es igive kverTxia, anu kombali, romliTac is mwyemsavda da mierekeboda saukeTeso saZovrebisaken Tavisi simamris faras.
ar Cans, rom mas am saistorio misiis miRebisas gamoecvalos kombali, magram amieridan is RvTiur kverTxad
(mateh ha-elohim) iqca.
aRsaniSnavia, rom mose nebarTvas ki iRebs Tavisi simamrisagan (aq misi saxelia iTro) egvipteSi dasabruneblad, magram ar umJRavnebs mas dabrunebis namdvil
mizezs: waval, davbrundebi Cems ZmebTan egvipteSi.
vnaxav, cocxlebi arian Tu ara (4:18).
gzaze midianidan egviptemde ori mniSvnelovani movlena xdeba. pirveli exeba RvTiur Carevas moses bedSi.
mxolod zogadad SegviZlia saubari am epizodze, romelsac, SesaZloa, gadamwyveti mniSvneloba hqonda moses cxovrebaSi. igi gvagonebs iakobis Widils uflis angelosTan (dab. 32:24-30), roca iakobi brundeboda qanaanSi. mose brundeba egvipteSi da gzaze mas elis gansacdeli _ misi sicocxle kidev erTxel safrTxeSia: arc
meti, arc naklebi _ Tavad ufali (septuagintiT: uflis angelozi) xvdeba mas gzaze da mokvlas daupirebs.
es epizodi gadmocemulia uSualod mas Semdeg, rac
ufali ubrZanebs moses, gamoucxados faraons WeSmariteba, romelic TviT mosesTvisac siaxle unda yofiliyo: uTxari faraons, ase ambobs-Tqo ufali: Cemi pirmSo
Zea israeli. geubneba: gauSvi Cemi Ze, raTa Tayvani mces.
Tu ar gauSveb, mogiklav Sens pirmSos (4:22-23). pirmSoobis gansacdeli _ misi yofna sikvdil-sicocxlis
zRvarze niSandoblivia mTeli periodisaTvis am momentidan dawyebuli egviptidan gamosvlamde. moses
pirmSos gerSomis winadacveTiT gzaze, RamiT seforam ixsna (ase unda gavigoT am epizodis azri) moses sicocxle da warmoTqva sityvebi, romlebmac itvirTa am
ritualis saidumlo azris gamoxatva: sisxlis siZe
xar Cemi (4:24), da mere: sisxlis siZe winadacveTiT
(3:25); israeli uflis pirmSoa, romlis gamosyidva aseve sisxlTan aris dakavSirebuli da es sisxli faraonis
pirmSos sisxlia. es gamocxadeba mosesadmi israelis sauflo pirmSoobaze da Rameuli gansacdeli winaswarmoswavebaa im saxifaTo gasvlisa egviptidan, rac faraonisaTvis esoden tragikul pirobebSi moxda.
meore epizodia mosesa da aaronis Sexvedra ormoci
wlis ganSorebis Semdeg (4:27-28). aaroni gadis egviptidan moses Sesagebeblad xorebis mTasTan uflis SegonebiT. erTaderTi niSani moses aRiarebisa aaronis
mxridan es aris kocna, rac Cveulebriv garemoSi mxo-

118

gamosvlani

lod ubralod Zmuri siyvarulis gamoxatuleba iqneboda. da wavida da Sexvda mas RvTis mTasTan, da akoca
(4:27). RvTis mTa anu xorebis mTa _ uflis pirveli gamocxadebis adgili _ maTi Sexvedris adgilia, aq unda
amcnos mosem aarons yvelaferi, rac ufalma gamoucxada;
am mTasTanve unda Seikribon egviptidan gamosulni, raTa miiRon rjuli, romelic erT xalxad Sekravs maT.
uflis sityvisamebr, moses naTqvams aaroni gaumeorebs israelianTa uxucesebs (4:30) _ eseni StoTa mamamTavarni arian, romelnic, Tavis mxriv, Tav-TavianT StoebSi miitanen mama-papis RmerTis gamocxadebis ambavs,
rom RmerTma moxeda israelianebs da daiwyeba xsna (4:31).
sityva gamovida uflidan, miiRo mosem, mosem gadasca aarons, aaronma _ StoTa (an sagvareuloTa) uxucesebs, uxucesebma sasixarulo ambavi yoveli israelianis
yuramde miitanes. da maTac "muxli moiyares da Tayvanisces" (4:31).
pirveli Sexvedra faraonTan
(5:1-23)
mere mividnen mose da aaroni faraonTan da uTxres:
ase ambobs ufali, RmerTi israelisa: gauSvi Cemi xalxi,
rom dResaswauli gamimarTon udabnoSi (5:1).
faraonis pasuxi moulodneli ar unda yofiliyo mosesaTvis. ufalma winaswar gaafrTxila igi, rom faraoni ar gauSvebda xalxs Tavisi qveynidan, vidre uflis
magari xeli (ad xazakah) ar aiZulebda (3:19-20). moses rwmeniT unda gamoeCina sulieri simxneve, rom gaeZlo faraonis gulis gasastikebisaTvis, bolomde mieyvana xsnis saqme.
faraoni, bunebrivia, ar cnobs ufals, _ am damonebuli xalxis, romelic xalxadac ki ar CaiTvleba, RmerTs;
egvipteSi xom uamravi RmerTia. ufro metic: is araTu
ar cnobs uflis avtoritets, aramed Seuracxyofs israelianTa religiur Segnebas: faraoni maT survils _
Tayvani scen TavianT mfarvel RmerTs _ maTi sizarmaciTa da usaqmurobiT xsnis. mis TvalSi udabnoSi sami
dRis savalze (RvTis mTamde) gasvla mxolod samuSaodan mocdenaa xalxisa. zarmacebi arian da amitomac
gahyvirian: wavalT, Cvens RmerTs msxverpls SevwiravTo! (5:8). zarmacebi xarT, zarmacebi. amitom ambobT,
wavalT, msxverpls SevwiravTo ufals (5:17). aseTi iyo
pasuxi mosesa da aaronis Txovnaze. faraoni ara mxolod uars eubneba gaSvebaze xalxs, riTac maT uflisadmi Tayvaniscemis saSualebas uspobs, aramed ganizraxavs
sabolood daTrgunos maTi religiuri grZnoba. faraoni umZimebs maT samuSao pirobebs: israelianebs, romlebic isedac maTTvis Seuferebel samuSaos asruleben,
dasamzadebeli agurebis raodenoba igive dautoves,
alizisTvis saWiro bze ki aRar misces. amieridan maT
Tavad unda moemaragebinaT bze, sadac ipovidnen. wadiT da Tavad moagroveT bze, sadac ipoviT. moklebiT

119

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ki araferi moakldeba Tqvens samuSaos. da moefina xalxi mTels egviptis qveyanas, rom bzis nacvlad namja SeegrovebinaT (5:11). imdenad Zlieri iyo survili israelianTa daTrgunvisa, rom faraonis xelisuflebas arc
ki ufiqria imaze, rom amgvari ZaladobiT Sesrulebuli saqme swored misTvis iqneboda saziano.
faraonis gasastikeba isev moseze da aaronze gadatyda. Tavisianebma uflis msjavrs gadasces mose da aaroni. ufalma daginaxoT da gangsajoT, rom SeaZuleT
Cveni Tavi faraons da mis msaxurebs da Cvens amosaxocad
maxvili mieciT xelSi (5:21). mosec daabrkola faraonis gasastikebam: xsnis nacvlad misma mcdelobam meti
boroteba moutana xalxs. magram RvTis providencias
ganaCeni ukve gamotanili aqvs _ es gaborotebac gaTvaliswinebulia gangebaSi an, ufro swored, provocirebulia misgan; mzaddeba niadagi aTi sasjelisaTvis,
romlebic TanamimdevrobiT daatydeba egviptis qveyanas. faraoni pasuxs agebs, Tu israeli daabrkola uflis Tayvaniscemisagan. msxverpls SevswiravT Cvens
RmerTs, Torem gagvwyvets WiriT an maxviliT (5:3), uTxres maT faraons da, Tu faraoni ar gauSvebs maT, pasuxismgebloba moexsnebaT da faraonze gadava, is iwvnevs
Wirsa da maxvils.
levianTa modgma
(6:16-27)
vidre mkiTxveli aTi sasjeliT egviptis gvemaze sakiTxavs Seudgebodes, me-6 TavSi is Sexvdeba levianTa
tomis mamamTavarTa saxelebs. avtori TiTqos erTxel
kidev gvaxsenebs israelian ZeTa STamomavlebs, romlebic faraonma unda gauSvas egviptidan (6:13). eseni arian, _ gvamcnobs is, _ Tav-TavianT mamissaxlTa ufrosebi, moxseniebs ra mokled pirveli ori Zis, reubenisa da
simeonis sagvareuloebs, gadadis mesame Zeze, levize,
da vrclad gadmogvcems mis genealogias. danarCeni Zmebis STamomavloba mas amjerad ar ainteresebs. avtors
surs axsenos yvela mamamTavari levis modgmisa, saidanac dasabami aqvT aarons da moses, istoriuli aqtis _
egviptidan gamoxsnis aRmasrulebel pirebs. es genealogiac imisaTvis aris moyvanili, rom dasasruls iTqvas: es is aaroni da mosea, romelTac ubrZana ufalma:
gaiyvaneT israelianebi egviptidan mwyobrad (6:26);
...eseni iyvnen mose da aaroni (6:27).
cxra sasjeli
(7:8-10:29)
sasjeli misi mravalnairi gamoxatulebebiT iaraRia uflis xelSi ara mxolod israelis mtrebis, aramed, SesaZloa, pirvel yovlisa, Tavad mis dasasjelad
urCobisa da urwmunoebisaTvis. maTi umravlesoba stiqiuri movlenebia, romlebic kargad iyo cnobili egvipteSi, aseve mTels axlo aRmosavleTSi. aris iseTnic,

120

gamosvlani

romlebic arasodes momxdara manamde da RvTis saswaulTa sferos ganekuTvneba.


pirveli sasjeli (Sefet): moiqnia (aaronma) kverTxi da dahkra nilosis wyals faraonisa da mis msaxurTa Tvalwin da iqca sisxlad nilosis wyali (7:20). es
sasjeli gagrZelda Svid dRes, Svidi dRis manZilze
iyo didi wyurvili egvipteSi. erTi cnobili egvipturi teqsti Seicavs moTqmas imis gamo, rom nilosi sisxlad iqca da mis Semsmels wyurvils ver uklavda. am siwiTles xsnian nilosis wyalSi wiTeli mikroorganizmebis gaCeniT yovelwliuri wyaldidobis dros, rodesac niloss moaqvs Slami tropikuli wiTeli niadagidan. magram bibliis teqsti garkveviT gveubneba, rom
wyali sisxlad iqca da ara sisxlisfrad. misi sma SeuZlebeli iyo da egviptelebi iZulebulni iyvnen Webi eTxaraT qanaanelTa wesisamebr.
faraonze ar imoqmeda am saswaulma, radgan misma jadoqrebma SeZles imave saswaulis Cadena. sakiTxavia, Tu
es sasjeli iyo egviptelTaTvis, ratom daamZimes jadoqrebma sakuTari qveynis mdgomareoba? maT mxolod
aCvenes, rom SeuZliaT imave saswaulis Cadena, sasjelis
arideba ki ver SeZles.
meore sasjeli: es aris gombeSoebis (cefardeay) Semoseva. aaronis kverTxis moRerebiT gombeSoebma dafares
mTeli egvipte. axlac egviptelma jadoqrebma ver SeZles gombeSoTa Semosevis Sekaveba, igive saswauli ki moimoqmedes. faraoni evedreba moses da aarons, ukanve gaixmon nilosSi gombeSoebi, hpirdeba maT gaSvebas uflis
Tayvanis sacemad. mose da aaroni asruleben faraonis
Txovnas, magram faraoni texs sityvas. dainaxa faraonma,
suli rom moiTqva qveyanam da gaisastika guli (8:15).
mesame sasjeli: mumli (qinnam, aseve ZvelqarTul
TargmanSi; zogierTi TargmaniT: koRo, moskito). saswauli xorcieldeba kvlav aaronis kverTxiT. misi Sexeba miwaTan miwis mtvers mumlad aqcevs (8:17). egviptelma jadoqrebma ver gaimeores saswauli, maSin mixvdnen,
rom aq RvTis TiTi iyo (ecbay elohim).
meoTxe sasjeli: buzankali (yarob, ZvelqarTul
TargmanSi: ZaRlis-mweri). es aris mweri, romlis zusti identifikacia ar xerxdeba. buzankals uSualod
ufali moavlens, aq kverTxi ar moqmedebs. Semodis siaxle: aRniSnulia, rom goSenis mxares, sadac ebraelebi
saxloben, buzankali ar mihkarebia (8:22). ufali gamoarCevs Tavis xalxs ara mxolod misi dazogvis mizniT,
aramed, rogorc Tavad ambobs, raTa faraoni darwmundes, rom qveynis SuagulSia ufali.
jadoqrebi amieridan uZlurni arian. amjerad faraoni msxverplSewirvis nebas rTavs israelianebs,
oRond ara udabnoSi, rogorc Tavad moiTxoven, aramed
egvipteSi. SeswireT msxverpli Tqvens RmerTs Cems qveyanaSi (8:25). moses pasuxi koreqtulia TiTqos: nacvlad imisa, rom uTxras: saZagelia egviptis miwa sauf-

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lo msxverplSewirvisaTvis, eubneba: sisaZaglea egviptelTaTvis Cveni msxverplSewirva uflis, Cveni RvTisaTvis. xom Cagvqoles, Tu SevwireT egviptelTaTvis saZageli msxverpli maT Tvalwin! (8:26). rac Seexeba ZiriTad arguments, rom msxverpli wmida adgilze, udabnoSi, saxeldobr, xorebTan, RvTis gamocxadebis mTasTan, unda Seiwiros, es Tavad israelianTa problemaa.
amaze mose sityvas ar Zravs faraonTan.
faraoni daTmobaze midis: wadiT udabnoSi,
oRond Sors ar waxvideT... Cans, faraons ar surs maTi
gaSveba. Tayvani eciT Tqvens RmerTs da dabrundiT
ukan. mose Tanxmdeba. ufalma moaSora buzankali egviptes, magram mainc gaisastika guli faraonma amjeradac da ar gauSva xalxi (8:32), uflis Tayvanis sacemadac ar gauSva.
mexuTe sasjeli: uflis xeli egviptelTa saqonelze.
uflis xeli (ad iahve) aq da sxvaganac bibliaSi
ukurnebel sens aRniSnavs. aseve analogiuri gamoTqma
aqadur teqstebSi _ lifiT-el RmerTis Sexeba imave
mniSvnelobisaa. am sasjelis drosac ebraeloba ar dazaralebula. gawyda egviptelTa saqoneli, xolo isrelianTa saqonelSi arc erTi suli ar daRupula
(9:6). amis miuxedavad, gaisastika guli faraonma da ar
gauSva xalxi (9:7).
meeqvse sasjeli: muwukebi (abaybuyoT, ZvelqarTul
TargmanSi: faqli gamomtkufolvare). kvlav jadoqrebis amao mcdeloba saswaulis ganmeorebisa. mainc jiutobs faraoni. Tumca amieridan naTqvamia ara gaisastika guli faraonma, aramed gausastika ufalma guli
faraons (9:12). faraoni kargavs TavisTavadobas, kargavs Tavisufal nebas... iqneb mas am sasjelis Semdeg gaeSva xalxi, magram ufals jer ar surs, rom ase male motydes faraonis neba. axla igi mxolod iaraRia uflis
xelSi, misi saboloo dacemiT unda emcnos mTel qveyanas uflis saxeli (9:16). ara mxolod mTeli qveynis dasanaxad, aramed, rac mTavaria, Tavad israelianTaTvis,
rom Taobidan Taobas gadascemoda misi saswaulebis ambavi da scodnodaT, rom ufalia igi: rom gcodnodaT,
rom ufali var (10:2).
meSvide sasjeli: setyva, romlis msgavsi ar unaxavs
egviptis qveyanas misi dafuZnebidan dRemde (9:18). am
sasjels axlavs siaxle: moses piriT ufali afrTxilebs egviptelebs, gareT ar datovon ymebi da saqoneli,
raTa setyvam ar gaanadguros. setyvam mospo ara mxolod gareT darCenili pirutyvi, aramed miwis mTeli
mosavali. mxolod goSenis mxare, ebraelTa sacxovrebeli adgili, ar dasetyvila.
pirvelad am sasjelebSi faraonma aRiara Tavisi danaSauli. axla ki vxedav, rom Semicodavs. marTalia
ufali _ davaSaveT me da Cemma xalxma (9:27). magram
Sewyda Tu ara setyva, kvlav gausastikda guli faraons
da ar gauSva isarelianebi... (9:35).

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faraonis msaxurebi Seecdebian gons moiyvanon egviptis mbrZanebeli: rodemdis unda iyos es (mose) CvenTvis maxe? gauSvi eg kacebi da emsaxuron ufals, TavianT
RmerTs. veRar mixvdi, rom daiRupa egvipte? (10:7). faraoni ukan ixevs: Tanaxmaa maT gaSvebaze, oRond bavSvebisa da pirutyvis gareSe. mxolod mamakacebi wadiT da
emsaxureT ufals... (10:11).
aseTi pasuxi, cxadia, uari iyo da mas mohyva axali sasjeli.
merve sasjeli: kalia (ZvelqarTul TargmanSi mkali). axla mosem (ara aaronma) moiRera kverTxi da
ufalma aRmosavleTidan mobera qari, qarma moasia kalia, romelmac dafara mTeli miwis piri da gadaSavda
miwa... da gadaWama qveynis mTeli balaxi da xis yvela nayofi, rac setyvas gadaurCa... (10:15). faraoni isev aRiarebs codvas. erTxel kidev momiteveT codva, SeevedreT ufals, Tqvens RmerTs, oRond amaridos es sikvdili (10:17). da mainc, uflis nebiT, ar gauSva faraonma
israelianebi (10:20).
mecxre sasjeli: wyvdiadi (xoSeq), xeliT SesagrZnobi wyvdiadi, romelic Camowva mTels egviptis qveyanaSi, garda goSenis mxarisa, _ xolo israelianebs
sinaTle hqondaT TavianT samyoflebSi (10:23), _ da
ase gastana sam dRes. faraoni Tanaxmaa maT gaSvebaze, amjerad Tundac bavSvebTan erTad, magram pirutyvis gareSe. isev Sefaruli uari. mose araTu uxvastagod ar
apirebs gasvlas egviptidan, aramed Tavad faraonsac
avaldebulebs, gaatanos saklavi uflisaTvis Sesawiravad. mTeli saqonlis wasxma aucilebelia, radgan iq,
msxverplSewirvis adgilze, unda gamoirCes uflis sakadrisi Sesawiravi. ar gaWra am sasjelmac. kvlav gausastika ufalma guli faraons da man ar ineba maTi gaSveba (10:27). bnelma moicva ara mxolod egvipte, aramed
faraonis gulic. is zeimobs gamarjvebas. momwydi Tavidan! _ eubneba moses, _ frTxilad iyavi, TvaliT aRar
damenaxo, Torem im dResve mokvdebi, ra dResac damenaxvebi (10:28). moses pasuxSi Cans, rom male dasruldeba
es Serkineba, man uTxra: swors ambob: mets aRar dagenaxvebi (10:29).
paseqi
(12:1-27)
meaTe sasjeli: egviptel pirmSoTa gawyveta. es sasjeli gansxvavdeba im cxrisgan, romlebic ufalma moimoqmeda aaronisa da moses xeliT. im sasjelebma Caiara,
maT warmavali mniSvneloba hqonda. meaTe sasjeli Tavisi SinaarsiT waruvali mniSvnelobisa Seiqna israelianTa istoriaSi da religiur cxovrebaSi. ufro swori iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom aqedan iwyeba maTi, rogorc
religiuri xalxis, WeSmariti istoria.
ufali acxadebs egviptelTa pirmSoebis gawyvetas,
rogorc ukanasknel sasjels (11:4-6), magram misi gan-

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xorcielebis Sesaxeb Txrobas win uswrebs darigeba, Tu


rogor unda moiqcnen egviptidan gasvlis win. radgan
is, rasac moimoqmedeben isarelianebi gasvlis winaRamiT, maTi upirvelesi religiuri dResaswauli iqneba,
romelic uSualod aris dakavSirebuli meaTe sasjelTan. laparakia paseqze (fesax), romelsac eTmoba me-12
Tavis pirveli monakveTi (12:1-28), mas mosdevs Tavad
sasjelis aRwera da, bolos, gasvla. paseqi, pirmSoTa
gaJleta da gasvla _ es sami qmedeba erTdroulia, erTsa da imave Rames xdeba.
garda amisa, es dro istoriis dasawyisia. roca israelianebi pirmSoTa gaJletisa da gasvlis RamiT kravs
daklaven, es Jami iqneba istoriis dasabami, drois aTvlis wertili. TveTa dasabami iyos TqvenTvis es Tve.
pirveli Tve iyos igi TqvenTvis weliwadis TveebSi
(12:2). aqedan iwyeba welTaRricxva, araTu axali, aramed, saerTod, welTaRricxva israelianTaTvis. es Tve,
rogorc sxvagan ganimarteba, aris gazafxulis pirveli
Tve _ abibi da Seesabameba Cveni Tanamedrove kalendris mart-aprilis Tves. abib (aviv) niSnavs mwife TavTavs. weliwadis pirveli Tvis saxelwodebad am sityvis gamoyeneba migvaniSnebs, rom israelianTa axali
weliwadi mkaTaTveze modioda. babilonis tyveobis
Semdeg saxelwodeba abib Secvala babilonurma saxelwodebam nisan, romelic dRemde damkvidrebulia ebraul enaSi.
amrigad, abibis ToTxmetSi, rogorc ufalma daudgina israelis mTels sazogadoebas (qol yadaT israel
12:3), TiTo mamissaxli anu TiTo saxli (ojaxi) klavs
kravs; Tu kravi didia, ojaxi ki mcirericxovani, karis
mezoblebi Seamxanagdebian; kravis sisxls asxureben im
saxlis orTave karis wirTxls da balavars (karisTavs),
sadac gadawyveten kravis Wamas; kravi bolomde unda SeiWamos, dilisaTvis araferi unda darCes, garda Zvlebisa; rac morCebaT, cecxlSi unda daiwvas. unda miayolon mware balaxi da xmiadi, radgan safuariani puris
Wama (an safuaris gaCereba sacxovrebelSi) am saRamodan
erTi kviris manZilze ekrZalebaT. sisxlis cxebas, mware balaxsa da ufuar purs Tavisi daniSnuleba aqvs.
radgan es Rame gasvlis Ramea, ukanaskneli Rame maTi egvipteSi cxovrebisa (maT ki oTxas ocdaaTi weliwadi
dayves aq, 12:40), aRaraferi unda akavSirebdeT maT am
qveyanasTan, unda iCqarodnen aqedan gasvlas. amis niSnad da gamoxatulebad fexze mdgarni aCqarebiT unda
Wamdnen, rac SesaWmeli aqvT, raki iCqarian gasvlas;
welze sartyeli unda ertyaT, fexze xamlebi ecvaT, argani eWiroT xelSi, rogorc gamgzavrebisas. kravis
xorci unda Seiwvas, ar unda moixarSos, rom saWiroeba
ar iyos WurWlisa da wylisa; usafuaro puri, rogorc
uwinapro puri imis niSnad, rom warsuli cxovreba
ukan aris motovebuli, radgan safuari wina mosavlis
produqtia, mas egviptis miwaze aqvs safuZveli. ufuari

124

gamosvlani

puri am ukanaskneli RamiT siCqaris niSanic aris. isic


unda gvaxsovdes, rom ufuari puri mwyemsebis puria _
israelianebi mwyemsebad Cavidnen egvipteSi da mwyemsebadve gadian qveynidan. mware balaxi egvipteSi cxovrebis simwares gaaxsenebT maT. Tumca amave teqstSi amgvari yofiTi ganmarteba aqvs ufuarobis wesis warmoSobas: daacxves egviptidan wamoRebuli comisagan xmiadis kokrebi. ver moaswro comma afueba, radgan ar daayenes isini da gamoyares egviptidan (12:39).
kravis sisxli, romelic unda scxon Tav-TavianTi
saxlebis wirTxilebsa da balavrebs, maTi gadarCenis
niSani iqneba, roca damRupveli angelozi Cauvlis maT
saxlebs da daindobs maT pirmSoebs. kravi rom daikvlis amieridan, israelianTa pirmSoebis sanacvlod
daikvlis, kravis sisxli gamosyidvis sisxli iqneba. es
aris berZnulad paseqi, ebraulad fesaxi (fasax Caiara). fesaxi ewodeba kravs, gamomsyidvel msxverpls,
romelic unda SeiWamos yovel am dRes yoveli israelianis mier egviptidan gamosvlis samaxsovrod.
meaTe sasjeli da gasvla
(12:29-42; 13:17-21)
SuaRamisas moakvdina ufalma yoveli pirmSo egviptis qveyanaSi, taxtze mjdomare faraonis pirmSodan
dilegSi mjdari patimris pirmSomde, da pirutyvis yoveli pirvelmogebuli (12:29).
am RamiTve iyo, rom gauSva faraonma xalxi. gauSva
cxvriTa da xvastagiTurT. wadiT da mec damloceT
(12:32), ase uTxra faraonma moses da aarons.
am gansvlis monakveTSi ramdenime momentze amaxvilebs yuradRebas mTxrobeli.
jer gavixsenoT winaswarmetyveleba, romelic miiRo
abramma (is jer kidev ar iyo abraami) uflisagan: icode,
mdgmurad iqneba Seni STamomavloba sxvis qveyanaSi; msaxurad gaixdian da daCagruli eyolebaT oTxas wels. im
xalxs ki, visi msaxurnic Seiqnebian, me ganvsji. Semdgom
amisa didZali qonebiT gamovlen ukan (dab. 15:13-14).
am winaswarmetyvelebaSi yvelaferia naTqvami, rac
moxda: israelianTa Cagvra ucxo qveyanaSi oTxasi wlis
manZilze; sasjeli, romelic daatyda Tavs mCagvrel
qveyanas; ukan dabruneba didZali qonebiT. miuxedavad israelianTa damonebuli mdgomareobisa, ufalma
maTdami ndoba Caunerga egviptelebs, raTa eTxovebinaT
maTTvis vercxlisa da oqros WurWeli, da samoseli
(12:36). am naTxovariT amovidnen isini egviptidan. weria: da gaZarcves egvipte (12:36). es niSnavs: israelianebi gadian egviptidan ara ise, rogorc garbian monebi, aramed dampyrobelni, romelTac aiRes xarki da wavidnen. guSindelma monebma srulad amoiges mZime Sromis sazRauri.
dasaxelebulia ricxvi gamsvlelTa, romelic sakmaod STambeWdavia: ...bavSvebs garda eqvsasi aTasamde

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qveiTi kaci (12:37). es aris monacemi im aRwerisa, romelic Catarda uSualod egviptidan gasvlis Semdeg, roca israelianebi sinis udabnoSi iyvnen dabanakebulni
(ricx. 11:21). fiqroben, rom eqvsasi aTasi mxolod fexiT mosiarule mamakaci, _ qalebi da bavSvebi, albaT,
moxucebic saxedrebze Tu aqlemebze msxdarni mgzavrobdnen, _ warmoudgenlad bevria imdroindeli demografiuli masStabebis kvalobaze. egviptidan gamosul israelianTa ricxvi am monacemis mixedviT or milions Warbobs. rogor miaRwia or milions (da mets)
egvipteSi Casulma samocdaaTma adamianma Tundac oTxasi wlis manZilze? maTi gamravleba idumalebiT iyo moculi egviptelTaTvis da aseve rCeba CvenTvisac. Cven
mxolod viciT da es sakmarisi unda iyos, rom es sakvirveli simravle srul TanxmobaSia maTi winaprisadmi micemul aRTqmasTan.
Tan gahyva maT uamravi Wreli xalxi (12:38). Wreli
xalxi _ yereb zmnidan yarab aRreva; igulisxmeba,
cxadia, israelianTaTvis ucxo, sxvadasxva warmoSobis
adamianebi, romlebic faraonis qveSevrdomobidan Tavis daRwevis mizniT SeuerTdnen maT gamosvlisas. zogi
maTgani JamTa svlaSi SeeTvisa israelis sazogadoebas
winadacveTiT, zogni xiznebad (gerim) darCnen. am
WrelSi egviptelebic iqnebodnen. arsebobs azri, rom
ZiriTadad es xalxi iyo, romelic drtvinavda da sulmokleobis magaliTs aZlevda israelianebs udabnoSi
cxovrebisas (ix. mag., ricx. 11:4). erT-erTi maTgani _ Ze
egviptelisa da israeliani dedakacisa _ uflis saxelis gmobisTvis Caqoles (lev. 24:10).
oTxas ocdaaTi weli cxovrobdnen israelianebi egvipteSi (12:40). es ricxvi moicavs im 215 welsac, romelic gavida abraamis gamosvlidan qaldevelTa uridan
iakobis Casvlamde egvipteSi (anu patriarqebis qanaanuri mdgmurobis xanas). ratom mieTvala es wlebi egvipteSi cxovrebis xanas, gaugebaria. abraamisadmi miRebul winaswarmetyvelebaSi welTa raodenoba damrgvalebulia _ 400, rac oTx Taobas gulisxmobs (mxolod
meoTxe TaobaSi mobrundebian aqeT, dab. 15:16). asea: iakobidan aaronamde da mosemde oTxi Taobaa: levi-kehaTi-yamrami-aaroni da mose (gam. 6:16-20).
am dRes gamovida uflis mTeli mxedroba (12:41).
am dRes _ es aris me-15 dRe abibis Tvisa (15 nisani);
wina RamiT, 14 abibs, daikla da SeiWama paseqis kravi. aq
pirvelad arian israelianebi moxseniebulni am saxelwodebiT cabaoT (sabaoTi mxedroba). es niSnavs, rom
isini mwyobrad gamovidnen, rogorc laSqari.
darajobis Rame iyo es uflisaTvis (12:42). es aris
paseqis Rame, rodesac ufali darajobda israelianTa
simrTeles da usafrTxoebas.
aseTia paseqis wesi... (12:43). amave Tavis dasawyisSi
(12:3-11) aRwerilia paseqis Wamis wesi. Tavis bolos ki
mocemulia wesi, Tu vis aqvs ufleba am ritualis Sesru-

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lebisa. egviptidan israelianebs gamohyva Wreli xalxi, isinic amovidnen egviptidan, maTac monobis saxls
daaRwies Tavi, magram maT ara aqvT ufleba paseqis Wamisa.
ucxo Teslma ar Wamos igi (12:43), radgan mas ar udevs
wili xsnaSi, ar aris israelis sazogadoebis wevri, is ar
Sedis uflis mxedrobaSi. mxolod winadacveTa aZlevs
mas paseqSi monawileobis uflebas. Tu winadaicveTs,
vercxliT nayidi msaxuri iqneba igi Tu mdgmuri (xizani), qveynis mkvidrad (ezrax ha-arec) Seiracxeba.
wmida hyavi CemTvis israelianTa yoveli pirmSo
(13:2), uwesebs ufali Tavis mxedrobas moses piriT. egviptidan gasvlas ukavSirdeba ara mxolod paseqis dResaswauli, roca daikvlis kravi, saRi, mamali, welgamovlili (12:5), aramed yoveli pirmSos _ cxovelisa
Tu adamianis _ uflisadmi gankuTvnebisa da Sewirvis
wesi. Cemia igi, eubneba ufali moses da mose ucxadebs
israelianebs: ganukuTvne ufals saSos yoveli gamRebi (13:12). egviptel pirmSoTa (adamianTa da cxovelTa) gawyvetis gasaxseneblad yoveli israeliani Seswiravs ufals Tavis yovel pirmSos: pirutyvis pirvelmonagebs msxverplad (saklavad) Seswiravs, xolo Tavis
pirmSo vaJs, romelic im gasvlis RamiT daindo ufalma,
dawesebuli safasuriT gamoisyidis.
mewamuli zRvis gadalaxva
(13:17-22:14)
roca gauSva faraonma xalxi, ar wauyvania igi
ufals filistimelTa qveynis gziT, Tumca mokle iyo es
gza. radgan Tqva RmerTma: ar inanos xalxma omis danaxvisas da egvipteSi ar dabrundes (13:17).
Cans, ufalma ukan dasaxevi gza mouWra gamosulebs.
filistimelTa gza anu zRvis gza, romelic xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiros gasdevs aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT, is gzaa, iosebi rom Caiyvanes egvipteSi midianelma
Tu ismailianma vaWrebma. am gzas egvipte akontrolebda da masze mimaval israelianebs faraonis mosazRvre
jarTan Setakeba ar ascdebodaT. amas garda, omi elodaT maT filistimelTa gamagrebuli qalaqebis gavlisas. am gansacdelisaTvis ki guSindeli monebi mzad ar
iyvnen. meore mxriv, is gza, romelic mosem, cxadia, uflis STagonebiT airCia, maxed unda qceoda faraons. raki is udabnoze gadioda, faraoni ifiqrebda, rom israelianebs gza aebnaT qveyanaSi, rom isini udabnom moimwyvdia. daedevneba maT faraoni da ufali erTxel kidev
da sabolood gamoaCens Tavis didebas faraonis ZleviT da arnaxul saswauls egviptelTa da israelianTa
Tvalwin (14:3-4).
iyo ufro mniSvnelovani, arsebiTi, providencialuri argumenti umoklesi gzis uaryofisa da SemovliTi,
Sori gzis arCevisa: uSoresi gza qanaanisaken iyo uaxloesi gza RvTis mTisken, sinaisken. qanaanSi mimavali
gza sinis udabnoze unda gasuliyo. sinis udabno da mTa

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sinai iyo gamosulTa uaxloesi mizani. iosebis ZvlebiTurT, romelic maT moaqvT maTi winaprebis mier umcrosi Zmis mimarT dadebuli aRTqmisamebr, isini mivlen sinais (anu xorebis) mTasTan, saidanac unda daiwyos uflis rCeul erad maTi Camoyalibeba.
da saboloo daZvrisTanave, romelic moxda suqoTSi
(suqqoT karvebi, rogorc Cans, iyo adgili, sadac israelianebs mwyemsuri binebi hqondaT), maT win miuZRodaT dRisiT Rrublis sveti, RamiT ki _ cecxlis sveti.
es iyo pirveli Teofania, romelsac mTeli xalxi ganicdida, Teofania ori saxiT: RrubelSi da cecxlSi, universalizmis niSnad.
magram miuxedavad imisa, rom xalxi uflis mfarvelobis xilul niSnebs xedavda da isini maRali xelis
SemweobiT gadiodnen (14:8), faraonis ukanasknelma gasastikebam mxneoba waarTva maT. amjeradac ufalma gausastika guli faraons, raTa sabolood daeRupa igi da
misi mxedroba. gaqceuli israelianebi aRmoCdnen mewamul zRvasa da dadevnebul egviptes Soris. gaixedes
israelianebma da, aha, mosdevT maT mTeli egvipte
(14:10). araviTari imedi gadarCenisa da, aha, monobas
TavdaRweulma xalxma tragikuli sinanuliT isev monoba inatra, oRond udabnoSi ar enaxa sikvdili. gana
egvipteSi ver davimarxebodiT, udabnoSi rom mogviyvane sasikvdilod? (14:11), drtvinaven moses mimarT da es
drtvinva, romelic gaisma gamosvlis meore dResve, dasabamad daedo im drtvinvebs, mose rom ismenda da iTmenda maTgan udabnoSi mTeli ormoci wlis manZilze.
da roca araviTari amqveyniuri Zala _ verc maTi
mklavi, verc sinanuli, verc mose, verc aaroni, ver ixsnida maT am gansacdelisagan, roca SiSma im Teofaniisadmi sasoebac Caukla, ase gaCxerilni zRvasa da maxvils Soris, mowmeni xdebian arnaxuli saswaulisa saswaulTagan, rac ki odesme Caudenia ufals an Caidenda
momavalSi Tavisi xalxis gadasarCenad. erTaderTi,
vinc am xalxSi (jer kidev brboSi) atarebda gardauvali xsnis rwmenas, iyo mose, is atarebda rwmenas, rogorc
tvirTs, rogorc kverTxs, romliTac uflis saswauli
araerTgzis unda ganxorcielebuliyo. amjerad, kverTxis moRerebiT mewamuli zRva orad iqna gapobili, raTa israelianebi mSralad gasuliyvnen gaRma, xolo egviptis mTeli mxedroba STanTqmuliyo. saswauli moxda, magram ra bunebriv safuZvelze aRsrulda igi, amas
arsebiTi mniSvneloba ar hqonia. bibliuri kritika mewamuli zRvis saswaulis sam versias ganarCevs misTvis,
vinc Tavs idva misi gadmocema. saswauli adamianis gonebisaTvis miuwvdomelia, misi gageba da gadmocema adamianuri gonebisa da sityvis SesaZleblobebs aRemateba.
da rac daiwera, isic sakvirvelia, rogor daiwera. saswaulis faqti SeiZleba sxvadasxva TvalTaxedviT aRweriliyo, Tundac winaaRmdegobrivad, magram momxdaris
sidiade da ganumeorebloba unda gadmocemuliyo.

128

gamosvlani

prozaul monaTxrobSi (14:21-29) ori versiaa TiTqos gaerTianebuli: erTis Tanaxmad, wyali moses kverTxis daRirebiT gaipo orad da israelianebi mSralad
gavidnen zRvis SuagulSi _ wyali kedlad edgaT marjvniv da marcxniv; kverTxis moRerebiT wyali kvlav
Seikra dadevnebul egviptelTa winaSe: da miiqca wyali da dafara etlebi, mxedrebi da faraonis mTeli
laSqari (14:28). meore versiiT, ufali mTeli Rame midenida aRmosavleTis qariT zRvas da gamoCnda fskeri,
romelzec mSralad gavidnen israelianebi. xolo simReraSi, romelic umReres mosem da israelianebma
ufals (15:1-12) yuradReba gamaxvilebulia faraonis
mxedrobis daRupvaze, ar aris moxseniebuli RvTiuri
kverTxis moRereba, arc aRmosavleTis qari _ ufalma
suli Seubera da zRvam dafara isini, tyviasaviT CaiZirnen boboqar wylebSi (15:10).
arc iyo mosalodneli, rom saswauli mwyobrad, sityvier winaaRmdegobaTa gareSe gadmocemuliyo. raRac
rCeba gaugebari, unda darCes gaugebari. SeiZleboda es
zebunebrivi epizodi miTologiuri simbolizmis eniTac aRweriliyo, rogorc vxedavT amis kvals esaias
wignSi: gana Sen ar amoaSre zRva, didi ufskrulis
wylebi? da zRvis siRrmeebi gzad gadaaqcie TavdaxsnilTa gadasasvlelad? (es. 51:10), an fsalmunSi: Sen
gakveTe zRva Seni ZaliT... (fsal. 74:13), romelsac aSkarad kosmogoniur planSi gadahyavs im Zvel dReebSi
momxdari faqti.
kosmogonia aq SemTxveviTi ar aris. aq vxedavT axal
Sesaqmes, Sesaqmes ara samyarosi _ cisa da miwisa, aramed
erisa, romelic gamodis im mdgomareobidan, romelSic
iyo miwa kosmogoniur dReebamde anu Tohu-va-bohu _
xalxi usaxuri da udaburi.
gza sinaimde
(15:22-27; 16-18)
Tumca mewamuli zRvis saswaulma, roca ixila israelma magari xeli (14:31), uflisa da misi msaxuris mosesadmi rwmena Caunerga xalxs, mainc am sami Tvis manZilze, sanam isini sinais mTas miaRwevdnen, samgzis audrtvindnen moses.
jer mware wyalze adrtvindnen, romelic naxes Suris udabnoSi, da mosem uflis SegonebiT Zeli Caagdo
wyalSi da gaamtknara. adgils ki SerCa saxelad mara
(sityvasityviT mwara). es adgili imiT Seiqna SesaniSnavi, rom pirvelad aq daudgina ufalma xalxs wesi
da kanoni da gamoscada igi (15:25). magram konkretulad, ra wesi da kanoni iyo es, ar aris naTqvami. mxolod
sinais mTis Ziras moismina xalxma Tavisi konstitucia. aq ki zogadad iTqva, rom xalxs unda esmina uflis
xmisaTvis da sworad moqceuliyo mis TvalSi, anu ise,
rogorc mose etyoda mas.
meoregzis: sinis udabnoSi, elimsa da sinais mTas So-

129

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ris, moSiebulma israelianebma egvipteSi xorciT savse


qvabebTan inatres sikvdili. maT daadanaSaules mose,
rom man ganzrax moiyvana xalxi udabnoSi, raTa SimSiliT amoewyvita (16:2-3). es drtvinva da sulmokleoba
gaxda sababi kidev axali saswaulisa, romelic mouvlina maT ufalma: aha, purs gawvimebT cidan... (16:4), ufali apurebs Tavis xalxs (da es grZeldeba ormoci wlis
manZilze) zeciuri puriT, magram es saswauli wyalobasTan erTad Seicavs gamocdasac israelianTaTvis.
...gamovides xalxi da yoveldRe akrifos dRiuri samyofi. unda gamovcado, misdevs Tu ara Cems rjuls
(16:4). rjulSi, rogorc teqstidan Cans, igulisxmeba
TavSekaveba (sixarbis daTrgunva) da SabaTis dacva. TiToeulma israelianma imdeni unda akrifos diliT es
nawvimebi puri, ramdenic esaWiroeba sakvebad _ arc meti, arc naklebi. meore dRisaTvis ar unda morCeT, morCenili amxels Semgroveblis sixarbes: nawvimeb purs
matli uCndeba da myraldeba. ufali aZlevs TiToeuls
Tavis samyofs yoveldRiurad; es aris puri arsobisa,
romelsac ufali yoveldRiurad hpirdeba maT. ar fuWdeba mxolod SabaTis winadRidan monarCeni, radgan SabaTi uqmea da ufali am dRes ar awvimebs mananas. eqvs
dRes agroveT igi, meSvide dRes ki SabaTia, araferi iqneba am dRes... gaxsovdeT, SabaTi moucia TqvenTvis
ufals, amitomac mogcaT man meeqvse dRes ori dRis samyofi puri (16:26,29). SabaTis mniSvnelobaze calke iqneba saubari, axla ki unda iTqvas, rom pirveli mcneba,
rac uflis rjulidan mieca xalxs, iyo SabaTis Senaxva.
aqedan Cans am dRis maRali Rirseba, romelsac tradicia egviptidan gamosvlasTan akavSirebs.
ra iyo fizikurad es zeciuri puri _ manana (man),
romliTac ikvebeboda xalxi udabnoSi, vidre iordanes miadgeboda aRTqmul qveyanaSi Seasvlelad? ram
warmoSva manana, romlis Sesaxedaobisa da gemos lakoniuri gansazRvreba fiqsirebulia teqstSi? qinZis Teslis odena iyo, TeTri, Tafliani puris gemo
hqonda (16:31)
saswauli saswaulad darCeba, Tundac gaviziaroT
Tvalsazrisi am nivTierebis bunebrivi warmoSobis Sesaxeb: Tamariskis buCqs, romelic izrdeba sinais naxevarkunZulis zogierT adgilebSi, axvevia mwerebi, romlebic wuwnian mis wvens, romlis zogierTi wveTi kristaldeba da wvril-wvril marcvlebad cviva miwaze. misi webovani substancia uxvad Seicavs karbohidratebsa
da Saqars da SeuZlia suli moaTqmevinos damSeul mogzaurs. mas dRemde mans eZaxian adgilobrivi mcxovrebni
da RvTis wyalobad miiCneven mas (Harper's Bible Commentary, General editor James L. Mays, San Francisco, 1988, p.147). upurobis SemTxvevaSi manis marcvlebs nayaven an fqvaven da
purs acxoben.
zebunebrivi mis movlenaSi is iyo, rom es cvari yoveldRiurad, garda SabaTisa, miecemoda ormilionna-

130

gamosvlani

xevar adamians ormoci wlis manZilze da ara mxolod


fizikurad asazrdoebda maT, aramed zneobrivi niSansvetic unda yofiliyo maT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi.
im fsalmunSi, romelic mokled da arsebiTad gadmoscems israelianTa saswaulebriv msvlelobas mewamuli zRvidan iordanemde, vkiTxulobT: da gadmoawvima
manana maTze sazrdod da zeciuri puri misca maT
(77:24). manana, rogorc xsnis niSani, rogorc niSani uflis myofobisa Tavis xalxTan, raTa momavali TaobebisaTvisac sacnauri yofiliyo misi arseboba, Seinaxes sagangebo WurWelSi aRTqmis kidobnis win (16:32-34).
sinis udabnoSi sinais mTisaken mimaval gzaze israelianTa ukanaskneli dasayovnebeli adgili iyo refidimi, romlis adgilmdebareoba dRes kiTxvis niSniT
aris aRniSnuli bibliur rukebze. aq ar ipoveboda sasmeli wyali (arcTu moulodneli ram udabnos pirobebSi!), rac Seiqna mizezi xalxis morigi drtvinvisa moses
mimarT. drtvinavda xalxi, romelsac yoveldRiurad
Tvalwin hqonda uflis Semweobis niSani. xalxs wyali
swyuroda (17:3) _ es gasagebia, magram am wyurvils axlda SiSi da kvlav egviptis monatreba, iseTi mwveli da
gausaZlisi, rom xalxi mzad iyo moses Casaqolad. risTvisRa amogviyvane egviptidan, Tu wyurviliT dagvxocavdi Cvenc, Cvens bavSvebsac da saqonels? (17:3). magram
xom icoda am xalxma, rom egviptidan isini uflis magarma xelma amoiyvana?! icoda da mainc Tavisi meryeobiT cdida ufals.
ra vuyo am xalxs? (17:4) _ es iyo moses sulis amoZaxili mTels gzaze da cocxali gancda imisa, rom es
xalxi ar daindobda mas. cotac da Camqolaven (17:4),
SehRaRada ufals. da ufalma ixsna xalxi wyurviliT
sikvdilisagan, mose ki _ Caqolvisagan. morigi saswauli aRsruldeba moses xeliT, im kverTxiT, romelmac
nilosis wyali gaasisxlmdinara. axla es kverTxi macocxlebel wyals amouCqefebs maT xorebis kldidan.
dahkari kldes da gamova wyali, da dalevs xalxi
(17:6). asec moxda, xalxi darwyulda, magram am adgilma Tavis saxelwodebaSi samudamod aRibeWda sulmokle israelianTa meryeoba rwmenaSi. da uwoda (mosem)
saxelad im adgils masa (gamocda) da meriba (ciloba)
israelianTa cilobis gamo da imis gamo, rom ufali
gamocades, roca Tqves: aris Tu ara Cvens Soris ufali? (17:7).
omi mainc ver aicila egvitidan gamosulma xalxma. es
moxda aqve, israelianTa cilobisa da uflis gamocdis
adgilas, refidimSi. movida yamaleki da SeebrZola
israels refidimSi (17:8). aq pirvelad gamodis asparezze ieso naves Ze, moses msaxuri, da misi momavali memkvidre xalxis winamZRolad. moses davalebiT ieso
uSualod ebrZvis momxdurs, mose ki (kidev erTi saswauli am adgilas) aRmarTuli kverTxiani xeliT warmarTavs brZolis mdinarebas. roca xels aRmarTavda mose,

131

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

Zlevda israeli; roca dauSvebda xels, yamaleki Zlevda (17:11). magram es mZleveli xeli uflis xeli iyo da
mosemac gamarjvebis Semdeg am usaxelo adgilze aago
samsxverplo da uwoda adonai-nisi anu ufali alami
Cemi (17:15).
iTros rCeva
(18:1-27)
aqamde araferi vicodiT moses simamrze iTroze, romelic sxva saxeliTac (reRuel) ixsenieba, garda imisa,
rom is iyo midianelTa mRvdeli da mama Svidi asulisa
(2:16), da sityvebisa, romelic man uTxra asulebs egvipteli kacis, mosesTvis: sad aris is? ratom miatoveT is kaci? dauZaxeT mas da Wamos puri (2:20). rogori
iyo misi aRmsarebloba? romel RmerTs scemda Tayvans
da emsaxureboda? amaze araferia naTqvami. yuradRebas
(Tu gakvirvebas) imsaxurebas is faqti, rom midianeli
mwyemsebi udierad eqcevian maTi mRvdlis asulebs _
vin iyvnen es mwyemsebi: RmerTi ar hyavdaT? an iTro ar
iyo maTi RmerTis msaxuri, maTi mRvdeli? arc am kiTxvebzea pasuxi.
arc is viciT, Tu rodis da ratom gauSva mosem Tavisi
coli cifora da ori vaJi egviptidan midianSi. axla
iTrom, roca gaigo israelianTa gasvlis ambavi, ewvia
udabnoSi, RvTis mTasTan dabanakebul moses da mihgvara misi col-Svili.
axla vecnobiT mis sibrZnes da religiur Surs, riTac is ganimsWvala moses mama-papis RmerTis mimarT. man
aRiara ufali da msxverpli Seswira. axla ki vici, rom
yvela RmerTze didia ufali... (18:11), iyo misi sityvebi. midianeli mRvdeli aRiarebs uflis didebas, magram
is ar Sedis israelis sazogadoebaSi jer xiznad mainc,
rom winadacveTis Semdeg misi sruluflebiani Svili
gaxdes _ isic xom abraamiania. ara, iTro ukan brundeba
Tavis qveyanaSi, oRond damSvidobebamde sasikeTo rCevas aZlevs Tavis siZes.
iTros stumrobamde mose erTaderTi msajuli da
ganmkiTxveli iyo xalxisa. TiToeuli israeliani masTan modioda saqmis gadasawyvetad; mose arigebda mocileT da moSuRarT, TiToeuls ucxadebda uflis nebas.
es iyo Zalze mZime tvirTi. dilidan saRamomde idga
xalxi moses winaSe (18:13). es dainaxa iTrom da urCia
gaewia mxolod Suamavloba RmerTsa da xalxs Soris, eswavlebina maTTvis rjuli da wesebi, eCvenebina gza da
saqmeebi. yoveldRiuri saWirboroto saqmeebisaTvis
daedgina xalxSi aTasisTavebi, asisTavebi, ormocdaaTisTavebi da aTisTavebi. Tavad mxolod mniSvnelovani saqmeebi gadaewyvita. amrigad, moses unda gaenawilebina xalxis marTvis tvirTi da pasuxismgebloba magar,
RvTismoSiS, uangaro, wrfel adamianebze, anu, mosedan
winaswarmetyveluri wili unda gadasuliyo TiToeul
maTganze, raTa isinic aRWurviliyvnen uflebamosile-

132

gamosvlani

biT, maTac hqonodaT gamocxadeba imave wyarodan da ganesajaT xalxi, saidanac sjida mose. mogvianebiT, rogorc ricxvTa wignSia (11) gadmocemuli, amgvari uflebamosileba xarizmatulad (sulis gadmosvliT) israelis sazogadoebis samocdaaT uxucess gaunawilda.
mose dahyva iTros rCevas da sjidnen isini ers yovel dros. mZime saqmes moses moaxsenebdnen, xolo
wvrilman saqmeebs Tavad wyvetdnen (18:26).
uflis gamocxadeba sinaize
(19)
es moxda imave adgilas, sadac iTro estumra moses da
israelianTa banaks sinis udabnoSi, RvTis mTis gaswvriv _ es aris sinais mTa.
es is adgilia, sadac moses hqonda RvTis gamocxadeba
da sadac man miiRo misia xalxis amoyvanisa egviptidan. axla mose movida aq amosulebTan erTad. uflis davaleba
aRsrulebulia, xalxi amoyvanilia, rogorc weria, arwivis frTebiT (19:4). da axla mose elis axal sityvas.
Tu maSin moses gamoecxada, mxolod mas pirovnulad,
ufali, axla Teofania (RmerTCena) mTeli sazogadoebis
winaSe moxdeba. Tu maSin moses mayvlis buCqSi gamoecxada
ufali, axla masStabi RmerTCenisa grandiozulia _
TiTqos iwvis mTeli sinai mis Ziras Sekrebili sazogadoebis Tvalwin. erTi aalebuli buCqi ar iqneboda xalxisaTvis STambeWdavi. RmerTCinebas axlda xma, magram
ara iseTi, rogoric SeiZleba erTi adamianis yurs miemarTos, aramed grgvinva da mexis-texa, sayviris xma,
Zalze Zlieri (19:16). da mTa, sadac ufali Camovida, aRwerilia ise, rogoric SeiZleba yofiliyo mTa vulkanis
amofrqvevis Semdeg: bolavda mTeli sinais mTa, radgan
masze iyo Camosuli ufali cecxlis alSi. rogorc quras,
ise asdioda kvamli, da Zlierad iryeoda mTa (19:18).
aseT viTarebaSi unda moisminos xalxma sityvebi uflisagan. magram amisaTvis saWiroa misi Semzadeba. garecxili samosliT da dedakacTan Seuxebeli sxeuliT
unda mividnen isini mTasTan, radgan es mTa wmidaa, SeiZleba iTqvas, is taZris bunebrivi saxea. sxva siwmide aqvs
mTis Zirs, sxva _ mis kalTebs, sxva _ wvers mTisa. mTis
irgvliv Semowerilia uxilavi sazRvari, romlis gadalaxvis neba ubralo xalxs ara aqvs. wris iqiT iwyeba
kvrivi sivrce. mTis kalTebze ganlagdebian mRvdlebi,
romlebic aseve ganwmedilni iqnebian. maT zemoT aaronia, mTis wverze mose _ uflis pirispir. Camovida ufali sinais mTaze, mTis wverze, da mouxmo ufalma moses
mTis wverze, da avida mose (19:20). sivrce siwmidis xarisxis mixedviT Sveul RerZzea ganawilebuli, siwmide
matulobs safexurebad xalxidan mosemde _ uflisaken.
moses kvrivTa kvrivSi, wmidaTa wmidaSi udgas fexi.
miuxedavad am ierarqiulobisa, xarisxobrivad gansxvavebul wreSi ganlagebisa, aq Sekrebilni erTian
xalxs warmoadgenen. isini RvTis rCeulni arian. es pir-

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velad aq iqna gamocxadebuli. rogorc ufalma qanaanSi


(Tu, sadac iyo, _ albaT, xaranSi) erTi adamiani abrami
gamoarCia qaldevelTa uridan gamosulTa Soris (TaobebSi: abraami, isaki da iakobi _ eseni erTni arian, erTi mama-papa), axla mTeli xalxia erTianad rCeuli. es
rCeuloba amJamad gamoxsnasTan aris dakavSirebuli. is
gamosyidulia, dabrunebulia, rogorc dakarguli ganZi, patronis xelSi. ufali am mTis wveridan moses piriT ucxadebs am xalxs mis statuss, romelsac is potenciurad atarebs, magram miiRebs im pirobiT, Tu Seasrulebs uflis mcnebebs: amieridan Tu SeismenT Cems sityvas da SeinaxavT Cems aRTqmas, Cemi unji iqnebiT yvela
xalxs Soris, radgan Cemia mTeli qveyana (19:5).
Cemi unji _ es aris segullah, yvelaze Zvirfasi,
rac SeiZleba gaaCndes adamians. SesaZlebelia, suli,
romelic aris erTaderTi _ iexidah, da asec iwodeba
erT fsalmunSi (22:21): Cemi erTaderTi (iexidaTi).
aseTi Zvirfasi iqneba israeli uflisaTvis, Tu misganac
erTgulebas dainaxavs. magram ganZi, unji, maSin ufro
Zvirfasia, roca is gamosyidulia an dabrunebulia, rogorc uZRebi Svili, romelsac mama pirveli samosliT
Semosavs. sxva xalxebic uflis sakuTrebaa (radgan misia
mTeli qveyana), magram sakuTreba Seqmnis ZaliT, israeli ki _ arCeviT, rac siyvaruls gulisxmobs (rCeuli=sayvareli). aq aris gansxvaveba, da es gansxvaveba saidumloebrivia. ra aris arCevis safuZveli? ra Rirseba,
rogori warsuli?
magram israelis unjad yofna ar niSnavs mis privilegias. is tvirTia, rogorc Cans am sityvebSi: mRvdelTa
samefo da wmida eri iqnebiT CemTvis (19:6). es niSnavs,
rom mTeli israeli erTianad kisrulobs mRvdlobis
samsaxurs, anu Suamdgomlobas RmerTsa da danarCen kacobriobas Soris, romelic uflisaa (Cemia mTeli qveyana). am misiis gansaxorcieleblad israeli unda iyos
wmida (kadoS) xalxi, anu gamoyofili yvela sxva xalxisagan, cxovrobdes uflis rjuliT da mcnebebiT. amrigad, israeli Teokratiuli eri unda gaxdes _ uSualod
RvTis nebiT unda iyos warmarTuli misi cxovreba. rogorc mTeli eri, ise yoveli israeliani unda atarebdes
RvTisSemecnebas, radgan is aRTqmas debs, rom moismens
uflis sityvas da Seinaxavs mis aRTqmas (19:5-8).
aTi mcneba
(20:1-21)
eri gamzadebulia uflis rjulis misaRebad. xuTwigneulis danarCeni wignebi (levianTa, ricxvTa, meore rjuli) rjulis gamocxadebas eZRvneba. rjulma unda gamsWvalos israelis mTeli cxovreba, cxovrebis yoveli sfero unda moicvas rjulma. magram rjulis miRebas win uZRvis aTi mcnebis gamocxadeba.
RmerTi, romelic gamoecxada abraams da aCvena mas,
roca cisaken aaxeda, analogia varskvlavian casa da mis

134

gamosvlani

wiaRs Soris, saidanac uricxvi xalxi unda gamosuliyo,


_ ahxede cas da daiTvale varskvlavebi; Tu SeZleb maT
daTvlas. mere uTxra: amdeni iqneba Seni Tesli (15:5),
_ igive RmerTi axla sinais mTaze moses piriT ucxadebs
uricxv xalxs adamianuri cxovrebis wess. aTi mcneba
warmoiTqva grgvinvasa da Weqa-quxilSi, raTa mosmenili sityvebis waruvali mniSvneloba aRqmuliyo, raTa
xalxs uSualod ganecada bunebis movlenebTan erTad,
rom es mcnebani imave xelidan aris gamosuli, romelmac
es samyaro Seqmna da ganagebs mas.
am aTi mcnebiT adamians unda gaego Tavisi vinaoba.
RmerTi am mcnebebiT ar eubneba, ar avalebs mas, iyos imaze meti, rogoradac, rogor arsebadac aris Seqmnili.
vinaidan ra unda iyos imaze meti, rasac adamianSi arsebuli RvTis xati da samomavlod mosapovebeli RvTis
msgavseba gulisxmobs? RmerTi eubneba adamians: daicavi es mcnebebi, raTa adamiani iyo, adamiani RmerTTan mimarTebaSi da adamiani sxva adamianebTan damokidebulebaSi. adamianma unda Seasrulos es mcnebebi RvTis xatis SesanarCuneblad, rac igivea _ adamianad yofnisaTvis. es mcnebebi cidan aris Camosuli da uflis TiTiT daiwera qvis dafebze, raTa adamianebis gulebSi
gadaweriliyo. aTive mcneba erTbaSad gamocxadda, mTeli Zveli aRTqmis istoriis manZilze da arc Semdeg mas
araferi moklebia, arc damatebia. es imas niSnavs, rom
adamianis zneobrivi arseba ucvlelia. ra unda Seicvalos _ RmerTi rasac qmnis, erTxel qmnis. adamiani Seiqmna erTxel, rogorc unda Seqmniliyo, da misi srulyofilebis piroba am mcnebaTa aRsrulebaSia.
aTi mcneba ori nawilisagan Sedgeba: pirveli oTxi
adamians gansazRvravs, rogorc religiur arsebas. es
kvarcxlbekia mcnebaTa an mwvervali, romelic cisken
aris miqceuli. momdevno eqvsi, am kvarcxlbekze daSenebuli, romelic adamianTa simravles sazogadoebad aqcevs.
mcneba pirveli: me var ufali, Tqveni RmerTi, romelmac gamogiyvaneT egviptis qveynidan, monobis saxlidan. ar iyolioT sxva RmerTebi Cems winaSe (20:2).
pirvelad kacobriobis istoriaSi am sityvebiT iqna
dadasturebuli rwmena erTi RmerTisadmi, romelic
WeSmarit RmerTad iqna Secnobili. srulyofili sarwmunoeba unda miiRos da aRiaros egviptidan gamosulma kulturulad sruliad uCino xalxma. rogorc Cans,
kulturuli dawinaureba, civilizaciis gzebi ar Tanxvdeba religiur aRmavlobas. is, rac ar momxdara Sumeris, babilonis, asureTisa Tu egviptis ganviTarebuli
sazogadoebebis SegnebaSi, ganxorcielda im xalxis
cnobierebaSi, romelmac es-esaa Tavi daaRwia fizikur
da sulier tyveobas.
es erTaderTi WeSmariti RmerTi jer am xalxis winapars gamoecxada, roca es winapari poliTeisturi qveynidan gamohyavda, raTa gaeridebina misgan. abraams man

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daagdebina qaldevelTa uri _ fufunebiani, civilizebuli qveyana, urbanistuli saxelmwifo, raTa udabnoSi
daetovebina martodmarto, rom simartoveSi erT RmerTTan siaxlove ganecada. abraamma iwama misi Zaxili da
amisaTvis rwmenis mamad Seiracxa. abraamma Sva isaki,
isakma Sva iakobi, xolo iakobma Sva Tormeti vaJi da erTi asuli, da saxelad ewoda israeli, romelic misi wiaRidan gamosuli xalxis saxeli Seiqna. es israeli
TormetiTurT Cavida egvipteSi sicocxlis gadasarCenad. marTalia, aRsrulda RvTis mier abraamisaTvis micemuli aRTqma, rom mravlis mama (ab raham) gaxdeboda, da misi TesliT mTeli qveynis xalxi ikurTxeboda,
magram am simravleSi miinavla xsovna da Segneba erTi
RmerTisa. marTalia, xalxis fizikuri sxeuli gadarCa
da gadidda egvipteSi, magram RvTis suli, romelic maTi mama-papis karvebSi trialebda, ganSoreboda maT. es
maTi dRevandeli egvipte im qaldevelTa uris gamoZaxeba Tu iyo im uxsovari droidan. qaldevelTa uridan
Tu erTi kaci gamovida, raTa sulierad gadarCeniliyo,
meore gamosvla _ gamosvla egviptidan mTeli xalxis
sulis gadasarCenad unda momxdariyo.
Cveulebriv, fiqroben, rom monoTeizmi gviandeli
movlenaa da igi poliTeizmidan warmoiSva adamianis
religiuri cnobierebis evoluciuri ganviTarebis
gziT. TiTqos JamTasvlaSi adamianis Segneba TandaTan
gaicxrila RmerTebis simravlisagan da adamiani mivida erTi RmerTis rwmenamde. TiTqos mravali sicruis
zRvrulma jamma SeiZleba odesme mogvces erTi WeSmariteba. wmida werili gvauwyebs, rom rwmena erTi RmerTisadmi Tavdapirveli religiaa da mxolod adamianis
cnobierebis dacemis Semdeg warmoiSva mravalRmerTianoba. samoTxeSi myofi adami Wvretda, esaubreboda erT
RmerTs, samyarosa da Tavad mis gamCens. da es codna Tandayolili hqonda adams. samoTxis gareT TandaTan
ikargeboda es codna. damsxvreul sarkeSi, rac misi damaxinjebuli cnobierebis xatad SeiZleba warmovidginoT, erTi RmerTi mraval RmerTad gamoCnda, da bunebis
patronad Seqmnili adamiani daemorCila mis mierve
gaRmerTebul bunebis Zalebs.
samoTxis gareSe yofnis niSniT aris aRbeWdili qaldevelTa uri da mere egvipte, sadac israelianebs mouxdaT cxovreba. am mravalRmerTianobaSi mose iyo egviptelTa da israelianTa Soris (is Tavisi warmoSobiT
da aRzrdiT orive xalxs ekuTvnoda), romelic flobda
erTaderTi WeSmariti RmerTis saidumlos da codnas
misi arsobrivi saxelisa _ me var, romelic var. es is
me da is arsebobaa, romlis mizezi Tavad masSivea _
gauCeneli, upirobo, usafuZvlo, sakuTari Tavis TviTve masafuZvlebeli. aseTi RmerTi gamoecxada moses, amgvari RvTisSemecnebiT unda gamozardos man xalxi da
Seqmnas misgan rCeuli eri, yvela sxva xalxisagan gansxvavebuli, rogoric dainaxa is moabelma winaswarmet-

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yvelma: aha, cxovrobs eri ganmartoebiT da sxva xalxebSi ar iricxeba (ricx. 23:9). abraamma fizikurad, Tavisi sazardulidan Sva eri, mosem ki sulierad Sva da
aRzarda igi udabnoSi.
mcneba meore: ar gaikeTo kerpebi, arc rame xati imisa, rac aris maRla caSi, rac aris dabla mowaze da rac
aris wyalSi, miwaze dabla. ar sce Tayvani maT da ar emsaxuro (20:4-5).
meore mcneba gvafrTxilebs uzenaesi transcendenturi arsebis warmodgenisgan rame movlenis an qmnilebis saxiT Cvens xilul samyaroSi, romelic man Seqmna.
radgan qmnileba ar hgavs Tavis Semoqmeds. RmerTi aris
suli da suls ara aqvs saxe, is usaxoa; is bunebis gareSe
dgas, Tumca asuldgmulebs mas. qmnileba Semoqmedis gamoucnobi da miuwvdomeli bunebidan ar warmoSobila,
mis siRrmeSi ara aqvs fesvi, aramed araraobaSi, radgan
RmerTs Tavisi arsebidan ki ar Seuqmnia, rac Seqmna, aramed araraobidan, iqidan, rac ar iyo. RvTis Semoqmedeba
sruli siaxlea, is absoluturi sxvaa. qmnilebas SemoqmedTan mxolod simboluri msgavseba SeiZleba hqondes.
simbolos ki Tayvans ar scemen.
RvTis transcendenturoba da erTaderToba aris mizezi misi gamousaxvelobisa. ra saxe SeiZleba hqondes
nivTieri samyarosagan ganyenebul, misgan sruliad absoluturad gansxvavebul erTaderTs? RmerTi sulia, uxilavi da misi, rogorc uxilavis, warmodgena xilulad
amcirebs mis Rirsebas, aTanabrebs mas xilul, materialur samyarosTan. Tumca am dros Tavad adamianis Segneba
ecema da ara RvTis maradiuli ucvalebeli buneba.
marTalia, moses ufali gamoecxada cecxlSi, magram
RmerTi ar aris cecxli da is ar gamoisaxeba cecxlis saxiT (rogorc kerpTayvanismcemlur religiebSi); moses
ar uTqvams xalxisaTvis, rom sinaize gamocxadebuli
RmerTi aris cecxli da rom maT SeuZliaT misi warmodgena cecxlad. aTi mcnebis gamocxadebisas RvTis sityva
ismoda elvasa da Weqa-quxilSi, magram RmerTi ar ixilveba bunebis movlenebSi. es movlenebi mxolod misi gamocxadebis niSani, ufro sworad, misi uxilavi da gamoucnobi bunebis energiebia. elia winaswarmetyvelis winaSe, rogorc mogviTxrobs biblia, Caiara ufalma da
amovarda Zlieri qari, magram qarSi ar iyo ufali; iZra
miwa, magram miwisZvraSi ar iyo ufali; amovarda cecxli da arc cecxlSi iyo ufali (3mef. 19:11-12).
amgvari RvTisSemecnebiT israelianTa tomi sabolood unda ganSoreboda ara mxolod egviptes, romelsac fizikurad daaRwia Tavi, aramed winaswar gamijvnoda kerpTayvanismcemel qanaansac, maT Soris Tavis
biZaSvilebs, romelTa qveyanaSic Sedioda dasamkvidreblad.
magram es gardasaqmneli xalxi jiuti da qedficxeli iyo. is advilad ar moiSorebda kerpebs, romelTac
xedavda egvipteSi da iqneb Tavadac eTayvaneboda. mosem

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erTbaSad, erTian gamocxadebaSi iwama WeSmariti RmeTi, gaugona mis xmas; magram am brbos aRzrda-gardaqmna
WeSmariti RmerTis aRmsarebel xalxad JamTasvlaSi
unda momxdariyo. marTalia, xalxma Tavisi yurebiT moismina meore mcnebis sityvebi, magram miefara Tu ara mis
Tvals mose, daJinebiT moiTxoves kerpebi da aaronmac
misca maT oqros xbo Tayvansacemad da mis garSemo sarokvelad, da imedad am udabnoSi: aha, xalxo, Seni RmerTi, romelmac egviptidan gamogiyvana!
am xalxisaTvis Zneli iyo rwmena uxilavisa da ufro
Zneli _ uxilavze dandoba.
mcneba mesame: ar axseno fuWad uflis, Seni RmerTis
saxeli" (20:7).
meore mcneba Tu kerpTayvaniscemisgan gvafrTxilebs, mesame mcneba RvTis saxelis gaufasurebisgan
(profanaciisgan) gvafrTxilebs. uflis saxeli, romelzec davanebulia misi siwmide, adamianis bagidan
ibadeba da adamiani pasuxismgebelia warmoTqmis aqtze.
amaod, fuWad xsenebiT misi saxeli eqceva wuTisoflis
amaoebis qveS, rogorc yoveli sadagi sityva, uflis saxeli ki wmida unda iyos, rogorc qristes locvaSia:
wmida iyavn saxeli Seni...
rogorc Tavad RmerTia wmida, transcendenturi am
wuTisoflisgan, aseve misi saxelic wmidad unda iyos
daculi da ganridebuli sxva saxelTagan. es saxeli erTaderTia da Zveli aRTqmis xalxs misadmi SiSisa da mowiwebis niSnad ar unda gaeria sxva saxelebSi. xalxs unda hqonoda saRvTo ridi am saxelisadmi da ganecada misi saidumlo. SeuZlia ki adamians gamoxatos Tavis enaze
RvTis saidumlo saxeli, sakuTriv misi saxeli? da mere
SeeZlos misi warmoTqma? adamianis mier warmoTqmuli
saxeli, sityva, bgeraTa Tanmimdevroba, mxolod nivTieri xati SeiZleba iyos RvTis WeSmariti saxelisa. magram
es saxeli mainc arsebobs, is mosmenilia uflis gamocxadebaSi, rogorc niavis qrolva, winaswarmetyvel elias
rom moesma erTxel RvTis Cavlisas, da man igrZno es Cavla. RvTis saxeli oTxi bgeraa sunTqvasaviT _ iahu, romelsac TiTqos nivTieri samoselic ar gaaCnia. is TiTqos haerovan bgeraTa karavia, savane, romelSic ufalia
davanebuli. savane, karavi, bolos, uflis saxli iq aris,
sadac dadebulia uflis saxeli (yvelgan, sadac ki davTqvam Cemi saxelis xsenebas _ 20:24), da wmeds am adgils;
aseve, misi saidumlo saxeli, mis siwmides ziarebuli da
adamianur sityvaSi moqceuli, wmeds am sityvas. amitom
adamianma unda warmoTqvas is ganwmedili gulidan da
bageebiT, ramdenadac ZaluZs dacemuli adamis enas. is,
rac wmidaa, wmida Jams da wmida adgilze unda warmoiTqvas: aseTi Jami weliwadSi erTxel mitevebis dRea
(om qifur), aseTi adgili solomonis taZris wmidaTa
wmidaa, sadac am dRes Sedioda mRvdelmTavari Tavisi
da eris codvebisTvis patiebis gamosaTxovad da warmoTqvamda am saxels uflis gasagonad.

138

gamosvlani

mcneba meoTxe: gaxsovdes SabaTi dRe, raTa wmidahyo


igi (20:8).
pirveli xseneba wmidis kategoriisa SabaTTan anu
meSvide dResTan aris dakavSirebuli. jer kidev dabadebis wignis meore TavSi naTqvamia: da akurTxa RmerTma meSvide dRe da wmidahyo igi, radgan am dRes daisvena RmerTma yoveli saqmisagan... (dab. 2:3). arc raime sagani, arc raime arseba, ara adamiani, ara saerTod qmnileba, aramed mxolod monakveTi dro-Jamisa _ SabaTi,
romelic mosdevs Sesaqmis eqvs dRes, ra dResac RmerTma
ganisvena Sesaqmisagan, wmidahyo man anu gamohyo, gamoacalkeva da, sabolood, amoirCia igi, rogorc sruliad
gansxvavebuli realoba eqvsi Tanamimdevari dRidan,
dReTa mdinarebidan. es Sewyvetaa, Sesveneba. amas niSnavs ebrauli sityva SabbaT.
da raki Tavad RvTis xelia meSvide dReze, adamianmac unda Seinaxos igi wmidad, raTa ar garios is sxva
dReebSi, ar gauTanabros maT. adamians ekrZaleba Sroma
meSvide dRes, radgan RmerTma Sewyvita am dros moqmedeba. es uflis dRea, uflisaTvis gankuTvnili.
israelis sazogadoebaSi SabaT dRes yvela (mona da
mxevali) da yvelaferi (muSa pirutyvi) gaTavisuflebulia Sromisagan (20:10). meore rjulis wignSi SabaTis totalur uqmobas is motivic aqvs, rom axsovdes israelians egviptidan anu monobis qveynidan gamosvlis
dRe (rjl. 5:15).
iudaisturi moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, arsebobs sami siwmide samyaroSi: siwmide SabaTisa, siwmide israelisa
(ix. 19:6: wmida eri) da siwmide sakurTxevlisa, anu
wmida Jami, wmida xalxi, wmida adgili. aqedan SabaTis
siwmide upiratesia. SabaTi aris momavali soflis saxe,
niSani momavali saukunisa.
ganTqmuli iudaisti rabini abraham heSeli ase alegoriulad wers SabaTis mniSvnelobis gamo: dasawyisSi dro erTi iyo, maradiuli. am ganuyofel, maradiul
dros araviTari kavSiri ar hqonda sivrcis samyarosTan. roca dro Svid dRed danawilda, is mWidrod daukavSirda sivrcis samyaros. TiToeul dRes, garda meSvide dRisa, Tavis saganTa samefo mohyva. SabaTi calke
iyo, rogorc dRe. is SeiZleba SevadaroT mefes, romelsac Svidi Ze hyavda. eqvs maTgans man Tavisi dovlaTi gaunawila, umrwemess ki keTilSobileba, mefobis privilegia mianiWa. eqvsma ufrosma vaJma, romelnic arakeTilSobilni iyvnen, hpoves Tav-TavianTi cali, keTilSobilma ki ver hpova. Tqva rabi Simeon ben ioxaim: roca
Sesaqme dasrulda, iTxova meSvide dRem: samyaros ufalo, yvela, Seni gaCenili, wyvilad aris; Svideulis TiToeul dRes Tavisi cali mieci, mxolod me var marto.
RmerTma miugo: israelis Temi iqneba Seni cali.
qristianobam SabaTis siwmide mis momdevno dReze,
qristes aRdgomis dReze, gadaitana. es aris Svideulis
pirveli dRe, ZvelqarTulad erTSabaTi (berZn. mia

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sabbaton), romelsac dasavleTSi Seesabameba mzis


dRe (kolx. bJaSdRa); qristianul samyaroSi uflis
dRe berZn. kvriake hemera, aqedan qarTuli kviriake,
kvira. es aris egreT wodebuli qristianuli SabaTi.
SabaTis momdevno dRe esqatologiur planSi aris
merve dRe, romelic Svideulis gareSe dgas, transcendenturia misgan da amis gamo wmidaa.
mcneba mexuTe: pativi eci Sens mamas da Sens dedas,
raTa dRegrZeli iyo miwaze, romelsac ufali, Seni
RmerTi, gaZlevs (20:12).
mexuTe mcneba pirveli da meore mcnebebis proeqciaa
miwaze, ojaxSi, kerZod, Svilebis damokidebulebaSi
mSoblebTan. rogorc erTia saTayvanebeli RmerTi da
mis gareSe (mis winaSe) sxva RmerTi ar unda iyolios
adamianma, ase mSoblebis avtoriteti unda iyos umaRlesi avtoriteti SvilisaTvis. rogorc pavle mociquli wers, mama RmerTiT iwodeba yoveli mamoba caSi da
qveyanaze (efes. 3:15). pativi eci (qabbed) miwieri Sesatyvisia mcnebisa emsaxure an Tayvani eci. Tu RvTis
samsaxuri da Tayvaniscema rogorc kerZo, ise sayovelTao keTildReobis garantiaa, asevea mSoblebis pativiscema SvilTaTvis sadRegrZelod da sasikeTod.
mSoblebis urCi Svili kargavs maT kurTxevas, rogorc
uRvTo adamiani _ RvTis wyalobas.
rjuli iZleva sasjelis normasac ded-mamis SeuracxyofisaTvis: vinc xels Semohkravs Tavis mamas da Tavis
dedas, unda moiklas (21:15); vinc daswyevlis Tavis mamas da Tavis dedas, unda moiklas (21:17).
mcneba meeqvse: ara kla (20:13); ZvelqarTul TargmanSi: ara kac-kla.
lo Tircax _ zmna racax gulisxmobs ganzrax mkvlelobas; mcnebis azri SeiZleba ukeT gadmoices amgvarad:
nu Caiden mkvlelobas (anu nu iqnebi mkvleli); mkvlelobad ar iTvleba kacis kvla omSi an sisxlis danaSaulis SemTxvevaSi sisxlis aRebis mizniT (rjl. 19:11-12).
mcneba meSvide: ar imruSo~ (sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikoniT: mruSoba _ meuRlianis bozoba).
mcneba danaSaulad acxadebs gaTxovil an daniSnul
qalze Zaladobas, risTvisac meore rjulis wignSi sagangebo sasjelia mocemuli (rjl. 22:22-24); kanoni
icavs ara Seuracxyofili qalis, aramed qmris (Tu saqmros) an mamis Rirsebas.
mcneba merve: ar iparo (20:15). parva farTo cnebaa,
is gulisxmobda adamianis motacebas da gayidvasac, rogorc es momdevno TavSi Cans: vinc kacs moiparavs da gayidis, an mis xelSi aRmoCndeba, unda moiklas (21:16).
iosebi Tavis Tavs moparulad Tvlis: momipares ebraelTa qveynidan (40:15). amrigad, iosebis Zmebi, romelTac gayides igi, moses rjulis Tanaxmad sikvdils imsaxureben, magram patriarqebis xanaSi ar iyo rjuli.
mcneba mecxre: ar gamoxvide cru mowmed Tvistomis
winaaRmdeg (20:16). es mZime danaSaulia, romlis sasje-

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li ganizomeba am ciliswamebiT miyenebuli zianiT. meore rjulis wignSi amgvari interpretacia aqvs mecxre
cnebas: `...Tu is mowme crumowme gamodga, tyuilubralod daubralebia Tavisi moZmisaTvis, ise moeqeciT
mas, rogorc Tavad surda moqceoda Tavis moZmes da aRmofxvri borotebas Seni wiaRidan (rjl. 19:18-19).
igive normaa dawesebuli xamurabis kanonebSic (XVIII s.
qristemde): 3. ukeTu kaci sasamarTloSi danaSaulis
mowmed gamovida da Tavisi naTqvami ver daamtkica, Tuki es sicocxlis saqmea, es kaci sikvdiliT unda daisajos. 4. ukeTu xorblis an vercxlis saqmeze gamovida,
mowmed, am saqmis sasjeli unda daekisros.
mcneba meaTe: ar indomo Seni Tvistomis saxli; ar
indomo Seni Tvistomis coli, arc misi msaxuri, arc misi mxevali, arc misi xari, arc misi saxedari, arc araferi Seni Tvistomisa.
saxli (beT) farTo cnebaa, is gulisxmobs colsac
da yvelas da yvelafers, saxlSi arsebuls. saxli mTeli
meurneobis tolfasia. amitomac pirveli fraza _ ar
indomo Seni Tvistomis saxli _ SeiZleba miviCnioT
zogad akrZalvad, romelic konkretdeba momdevno winadadebebSi (coli, msaxuri, mxevali, xari, saxedari da
sxva) saxlis Semadgenlobaa.
mcnebaSi igulisxmeba iseTi ndoma, romelic adamians ubiZgebs praqtikuli nabijisaken _ an saparavad
(merve mcneba) an cilis dasawameblad (mecxre mcneba).
amis sailustraciod SeiZleba gavixsenoT axabis dauokebeli ndoma naboTis venaxisadmi, ris xelSi Casagdebadac man cru mowmeebis saSualebiT RvTisa da mefis gmoba daabrala naboTs (3mef. 21:12-16).
es aris aTi mcneba, romelzec damyarebulia mTeli
rjuli _ religia da sazogadoebrivi cxovreba.
es aTi mcneba, rogorc iTqva, grgvinvasa da Weqa-quxilSi iqna gamocxadebuli uSualod xalxisaTvis, da
xalxma yvelaferi moismina. magram xalxs aRar SeeZlo
metis gaZleba, imdenad SemaZrwunebeli iyo xilva da
smena yovelivesi. Sen gvelaparake da mogismenT,
oRond RmerTi nu dagvelaparakeba, Torem davixocebiT (20:20).
amieridan gaivlo mkveTri zRvari mosesa da xalxs
Soris, maT adgils Soris uflis winaSe. moSorebiT
dadga xalxi, mose ki miadga nisls, sadac RmerTi iyo
(20:21). es nisli, romelic simbolur mniSvnelobas
iZens, niSania xalxisaTvis miuwvdomeli sferosi, sadac
ufalia da mxolod moses SeuZlia dgoma.
kanonebi
(20:23-26; 21; 22; 23)
gamosvlaTa wignis am monakveTSi gadmocemulia samoqalaqo da sisxlis samarTlis calkeuli kazusebi da
normebi. magram maT gamocxadebamde moses ufali ucxadebs sam akrZalvas, romelic kultis samsaxurs Seexeba.

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meordeba meore mcneba: ar gaikeTo vercxlisa da oqros


kerpebi (20:23), ar aSendes samsxverplo Tlili qvisagan da ar hqondes mas asavleli safexurebi, raTa ar gamoCndes iq Seni siSiSvle (20:26). samsxverplos masalisaTvis upiratesoba eniWeba miwas (Tixas) qvis winaSe,
Tlili qva ki kategoriulad akrZalulia. rkina ar Seaxo mas, vkiTxulobT meore rjulis wignSi (rjl. 27:5).
damuSavebuli qva, rogorc rkinis nayofi, ucxo kulturis niSania. Tumca solomonis taZris SenobaSi monawileobs CuqurTmiani qva, magram is gakeTebulia ara adgilobriv, ierusalimSi, aramed sidonSi, saidanac Camozides mSeneblobis adgilze. taZris mSeneblobis aRweraSi sagangebod aris SeniSnuli, rom taZris Senebisas
ar ismoda rkinis xma (2mef. 6:7). qva da rkina, rogorc
fundamenturi sawyisebi, miuRebelia karvebSi mcxovrebTaTvis. rac Seexeba akrZalvas _ safexurebiT nu
axval Cems samsxverploze, raTa ar gamoCndes Seni siSiSvle (20:26): safexurebiani samsxverploebi qanaanuri warmoSobisaa, amas arqeologia adasturebs. siSiSvlis dasafaravad mogvianebiT samRvdelo SesamoselSi Cndeba sawmerTuli (gam. 28:42-43).
yovel adgilas, sadac ki davTqvam Cemi saxelis xsenebas, gamogecxadebi da daglocav (20:24) _ swored ase
iyo patriarqebis (abraamis, isakisa da iakobis) xanaSi,
ase iqceodnen isini: uflis gamocxadebis adgilze agebdnen samsxverploebs (SeqemSi, xebronSi, beerSebaSi...);
TavianTi mdgmurobisas isini moZraobdnen samsxverplodan samsxverplomde, rogorc niSansvetidan niSansvetamde ucxo qveyanaSi. mogvianebiT israelianTa
StoTa Soris imarjvebs rwmena RvTis gamocxadebis erTaderTi adgilisadmi, romelsac RmerTi airCevs Tavisi saxelis dasavaneblad (rjl. 12:11). es adgili ierusalimi iqneba.
erTaderT niSnad RvTis gamocxadebisa rCeba samsxverplo, sxva xiluli niSnebi (gamosaxuleba, kerpi...)
samudamod ukugdebulia. Tumca es imas ar niSnavs, rom
israelis religiur da samoqalaqo cxovrebaSi ar yofiliyo mcdeloba kerpebis aRmarTvisa, rasac dasabami
oqros xbom daudo.
bevri kanoni (miSfat), romelsac aq vxvdebiT, saerToa Zveli aRmosavleTis qveynebisaTvis; gansakuTrebiT babilonur kanonTa krebulSi SegviZlia zogierTi
maTganis met-naklebad zusti oreulis moZebna. aris kanonebi, romlebic specifikurad uflis rCeuli eris kanonebia da sxvagan Sesatyvisi ar eZebnebaT.
aq warmodgenil kanonTa krebuli Sors aris kodifikaciisagan; maTi krebulad miCnevac Znelia. aq ar aris
zogadi cneba-gansazRvrebani, romlebic safuZvlad unda edos yovel konkretul SemTxvevas, kazuss. es kanonebi, ZiriTadad, swored kerZo SemTxvevebia, romlebic
TavianTi sityvieri gamoxatulebiT zogadi kanonis
funqcias asruleben. ar aris daculi raime gansazRvru-

142

gamosvlani

li principi kanonTa TanamimdevrobaSi. SevecadoT davajgufoT isini.


kanonebi monis uflebaTa Sesaxeb (21:2-12). pirvelsave kanonSi gamoyenebulia SabaTis wesi, ramdenadac
kazusi exeba ebrael monas: Tu ebrael msaxurs iyidi,
eqvsi weli gemsaxuros da meSvide wels usasyidlod gaTavisufldes (21:2). es kanoni SabaTis wesis kerZo gamoxatulebaa. msaxuris, monis (yebed) msaxurebis meSvide weli SabaTis welia anu msaxurebisagan misi gaTavisuflebis weli. es wesi vrceldeba ara mxolod da mxolod israelianze, radgan fuZemdeblur wesSi naTqvamia, rom SabaT dRes israelianis yoveli msaxuri, yoveli mxevali, yoveli mdgmuri, yoveli pirutyvi _ yvela, mis saxlSi myofi, SabaT dRes Tavisufldeba samuSaosagan (20:10).
aqve vaxsenoT, rom SabaTis wesi aseve vrceldeba miwazec: eqvs weliwads Tese miwa da aiRe misi mosavali.
meSvide wels ar daamuSavo, miagde igi... (23:11). meSvide, sauflo weli, miwis dasvenebis welia. magram SabaTis wess aq sxva motivaciac axlavs: ...rom sazrdo hqondeT Seni eris Rarib-Ratakebs da rom misi narCenebi gareulma cxovelma Wamos (23:11). migdebul miwaze SabaTis wels amosuli nageralebi ufals ekuTvnis, rogorc Tavad meSvide weli, da is eris upovarTaTvis aris
gankuTvnili. israeliani valdebulia, gareul cxovelebsac dautovos sazrdo, isinic mis karmidamoSi
(saxlSi) Semodian. amrigad, miwis uqmeSi mosuli nayofi imaTTvis aris ganwesebuli, romelTac mis damuSavebaSi monawileoba ar miuRiaT.
davubrundeT ebrael, imave israelian msaxurs. is
sargeblobs SabaTis uflebiT _ mas ufleba aqvs sauflo meSvide wels yovelgvari gamosasyidis gareSe datovos Tavisi patronis saxli. amasTanave, mas arCevanis uflebac aqvs: mas SeuZlia darCes Tavis patronTan
msaxurad (monad), anu Tavisuflebas arCios monoba. is
ityvis: ar waval Tavisuflad (21:5), ar gamoiyenebs
SabaT weliwadis wess da es ar CaeTvleba rjulis
darRvevad. kanoni ar aiZulebs mas Tavisufali iyos
Tavisi nebis winaaRmdeg. magram unda SeiniSnos da es
gadamwyvetia misi arCevanisas, rom meSvide wlis mona
kanonSi aRniSnul SemTxvevaSi alternativis winaSea:
Tavisufleba, magram col-Svilis gareSe an monoba
col-SvilTan erTad. saqme isaa, rom dasaxelebul
SemTxvevaSi misi col-Svili misi patronisaa, radgan
patronma mas, Tavis monas, uTxova coli da Svilebic
monobaSi SeeZina. kanoni ambobs: Tu marto iyo, marto wavides, Tu coliani iyo, colic Tan waiyvanos
(21:3). magram batonis saxlSi moyvanil cols da iq SeZenil Svilebs is Tan ver waiyvans. isini batonisaa,
radgan monobaSi iyvnen coli moyvanili da Svilebi
dabadebulni. col-Svili datovos, Tavad marto wavides (21:4), uwesebs kanoni. aqedan Cans, rom mona ba-

143

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

tonis droebiTi sakuTrebaa, radgan is nayidia da,


gansxvavebiT Tavisi Svilebisagan, batonis saxlSi ar
Sobila.
sagulisxmoa batonis saxlSi monad darCenis motivi:
miyvars Cemi patroni da Cemi col-Svili, ar waval Tavisuflad (21:5). Tu Cveni drois kategoriebiT mivudgebiT, mona batonisa da col-Svilis siyvarulis gamo
Tmobs Tavisuflebas. ubatonod da ucolSvilod mas ar
uRirs Tavisufleba. araa gamoricxuli, rom aRiareba _
miyvars marTlac misi gulispasuxi iyos (patronymul
urTierTobaSi es Cveulebrivi movlena iyo), magram am
SemTxvevaSi siyvaruli ara imdenad grZnobaa, ramdenadac (batonTan dakavSirebiT mainc) arCevanis gamoxatuleba. mona (Tu kanonmdebeli) amgvari gamoTqmiT, arCevanis aqtSi emociuri momentis SetaniT, adasturebs, Tu
raoden gadamwyvetia misTvis es arCevani da raoden sisxlxorceulad aris dakavSirebuli mis momavalTan. Tavisuflad yofnis gaurkvevlobas mona isev da isev nacnob, Tundac samudamo, monur mdgomareobas amjobinebs.
ritualuri qmedeba, romelic sityvieri aRiarebis
beWedia, samudamod tovebs monas batonis saxlSi: miiyvanos igi misma patronma RvTis samsjavroze da miiyvanos igi karTan an wirTxlTan, sadgisiT gauxvritos
yuri da misi msaxuri iqneba saukunod (21:6).
meeqvse mcneba mouwodebs (Tu afrTxilebs, brZanebs):
ara kla, xolo kazuisturi samarTali adgens sasjelis normebs kacis kvlisaTvis. magram nacvlad mkvlelobis, rogorc qmedebis, zogadi ganmartebisa, kanoni
amgvar gansazRvrebas iZleva: kacis sasikvdilod mcemeli sikvdiliT unda daisajos (21:12).
Tumca mxolod mzakvruli, winaswarganzraxuli
mkvleloba isjeba sikvdiliT (21:14). xolo Tu ganzraxva ar hqonia da RmerTma SeamTxvia, me davuniSnav
adgils, sadac unda Seafaros Tavi (21:13). xamurabis
kanoni iTvaliswinebs cemis dros kacis sikvdils, magram krebulSi mxolod uneburi mkvlelobis kazusia
mocemuli: ukeTu cemisas Semoakvda, unda dauficos
da, Tu mokluli (Tavisufali) kacia, naxevari mana vercxli unda miuwonos (207). moses samarTalSi Semodis
Suamdinaruli samarTlisaTvis ucxo momenti _ TavSesafari, sadac uneburi mkvleli Tavs afarebs, vidre misi simarTle gairkveva. me davuniSnav adgils, sadac
unda Seafaros Tavi, brZanebs ufali. es samsxverploa
_ uflis wmida adgili. me davuniSnav _ amiT winaswar miniSnebulia momavali TavSesafari qalaqebi,
romlebic gamoiyofian TiToeuli tomis teritoriaze uneburi mkvlelis TavSefarebis mizniT (ricx.
35:13). samsxverplo aseT romelime qalaqSi icavs unebur mkvlels linCis kanonisagan, magram ar daicavs
ganzrax mkvlels: Tu kacs Tvistomis javri sWirda da
mzakvrulad mokla igi, Cemi samsxverplodan waiyvane
mosaklavad (21:14).

144

gamosvlani

Tu mexuTe mcneba ded-mamis pativiscemisaken mouwodebs Svils, samarTali iTvaliswinebs sasjels Seuracxmyofeli SvilisaTvis: vinc xels Semohkravs Tavis mamas da Tavis dedas, sikvdiliT unda daisajos (21:15).
zustad amgvar kazuss Seicavs xamurabis kanonTa krebuli, oRond sasjelis ukidures zomas ar awesebs: ukeTu
Svilma mamas gaartya, xelis mtevani unda moaWran
(195). moses rjulis Tanaxmad, aseve sikvdilis Rirsia
ded-mamis maginebeli Svili (21:17).
amas mosdevs kacis moparvis, rogorc qurdobis damamZimebeli SemTxvevis, samarTali: kacis mparavi da misi gamyidveli sikvdiliT isjeba (21:16). rogorc, vxedavT, iosebis Zmebs es sasjeli unda daemsaxurebinaT,
magram patriarqebis xanaSi rjuli ar arsebobda.
21:18-23 Seicavs muxlebs, romlebic awesebs kompensacias fizikuri ZaliT miyenebuli zianisaTvis, rasac
aseve iTvaliswinebs xamurabis samarTali. cemiT dasaxiCrebisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia mkurnaloba mcemelisagan da gacdenili drois anazRaureba (21:18-19),
albaT, vercxliT (fuliT) an naturiT.
monis cemiT mkvlelobisaTvis patronma pasuxi unda
agos (21:20), magram ra saxiT, ar aris miTiTebuli. samarituli xuTwigneuli am muxlSi, nacvlad zogadi pasuxisgebisa, iZleva: sikvdiliT unda daisajos (moT iumaT). xolo Tu mona gadarCa, ufro zustad, erTs an or
dRes gaawia, anu uSualod cemis dros ar mokvda, pasuxs
ar agebs, radgan igi misi vercxlia (21:21), anu nayidia, da isedac zaraldeba.
kanoni iTvaliswinebs ayal-mayalis dros muclis
mowyvetisaTvis kompensacias jarimis saxiT, romelsac
niSnavs orsuli qalis qmari da amtkicebs msajuli
(21:22). xamurabis kanonis Tanaxmad, muclis nayofis
kompensacia Seadgens 10 Sekel vercxls (209).
talionis kanoni (danaSaulis Tanabari sasjeliT
zRvevineba) bevri Zveli sazogadoebis samarTalSia gatarebuli; mas efuZneba cxadad Tu SeniRbuli saxiT xamurabis kanonebis bevri muxli, mag.: ukeTu kacma kacs
Tvali amougdo, masac unda amougdon Tvali; ukeTu kacma kacs Zvali gautexa, masac unda gautexon Zvali (196,
197). klasikuri saxiT am kanonis sityvieri gamoxatuleba mocemulia moses rjulSi. mogvyavs mTlianad: Tu
ubedureba moxda, mieci sicocxle sicoxlis wil, Tvali Tvalis wil, kbili kbilis wil, fexi fexis wil,
damwvroba damwvrobis wil, Wriloba Wrilobis wil,
natkeni natkenis wil (21,23-25).
SeiZleba Tqvan, rom amgvari norma sasjelisa primitiulia da amdenadve sastiki (Tumca roca saqme exeba
mkvlelobas, talionis kanoni anu sikvdiliT dasja
mRaRadebel sisastiked ar miiCneva). ar Cans, rom moses
rjulis zemoTmoyvanil muxlebSi realuri zoma igulisxmebodes, anu Tvalis amomTxrels aucileblad
Tvals Txrian, cecxlis wamkidebels Tavad ukideben

145

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

cecxls da a.S. SevxedoT normas sicocxle sicocxlis


wil, rogorc gafrTxilebas an muqarian variants mowodebisa: nu gaukeTeb sxvas imas, rac Sen ar ginda, rom
Tavad Sen gagikeTon; amgvari gafrTxilebani bibliis
sxva adgilasac ipoveba: vinc adamianis sisxls daRvris, adamianis mierve daiRvreba misi sisxli (dab. 9:6);
yvela, maxvilis amRebi, maxviliTve daiRupeba (maT.
26:52). kanoni am SemTxvevaSi laparakobs danaSaulis mimarT ekvivalentur sasjelze, romelsac unda elodes
moZalade.
Tvali Tvalis wil da kbili kbilis wil ar aris
ZalaSi, roca dazaralebuli mona an mxevalia, agresori ki misi patronia, radgan monisa da patronis sxeulis
nawilTa Rirebuleba ar aris erTmaneTis ekvivalenturi. amoTxrili Tvalisa Tu Camtvreuli kbilis wil mona Tavisufldeba (21:26-27).
sagulisxmoa, rom moses rjuliT zogierT kazusebSi
Sinauri pirutyvi samarTlis subieqtis rolSi gamodis: Tu xari kacs an qals urqens da moklavs, xari unda
Caiqolos; misi xorci ar iWmeva. xaris patroni ubraloa (21:28). es ar unda iyos moulodneli: xari da sxva
Sinauri saqoneli, rogorc zemoT davinaxeT, SabaTis
wessac eqvemdebareba. xari SeiZleba iyos damnaSave da
am dros misi xorci ar iWmeva, uwmiduria (anu usurmagi).
Tumca aq motivad SeiZleba iyos kanoni, romlis mixedviTac saWmelad mxolod wesis mixedviT dakluli pirutyvia vargisi _ misi sisxli bolomde unda daiRvaros miwaze. oRond xorciels cocxlad, mis sisxlTan
erTad nu SeWamT (dab. 9:4), miiRo noem uflisagan gafrTxileba. xaris patroni mxolod im SemTxvevaSia damnaSave da pasuxs agebs xaris saqcielze, roca man icis xaris zne, magram ar auvneblebs _ ar abams mas. xaris
patroni xarTan erTad isjeba (22:29). magram patrons
SeuZlia sisxlis gamosasyidi gaiRos da gadarCeba sikvdiliT dasjas (22:30). xamurabis kanoni ufro lmobieria _ is mxolod fulad kompensacias moiTxovs: ukeTu
mrColeli xaris patroni misma ubanma gaafrTxila, rom
misi xari mrColelia, magram man Tavis xars rqebi ar gaubanda anda xari ar daaba da xarma kacis Svils urCola
da mokla, naxevari mana vercxli unda gadaixados (251).
morqinal xars, romelic patrons dabmuli ar hyavda,
SeuZlia ziani miayenos mezoblis xars _ moklas rqeniT. am kazussac iTvaliswinebs kanoni: patronma xaris
wil xari unda uzRos, mkvdari ki mas darCes (22:36).
morqinali xari am SemTxvevaSi ar isjeba CaqolviT,
radgan misi msxverpli aris ara adamiani, aramed xari,
romlis sazRauri isev xariT gaiRo patronma (anu: xari
xaris wil).
magram, unda SeiniSnos, rom talionis (anu ekvivalentobis) kanoni _ xari xaris wil ar moqmedebs qurdobis SemTxvevaSi: moparuli da dakluli (Tu gayiduli) xari xuTwilad, xolo cxvari oTxwilad unda uz-

146

gamosvlani

Ras mparavma patrons (22:37). xolo Tu xelze cocxlad


unaxes moparuli saqoneli (xari, cxvari Tu viri), ormagad unda zRos (23:3).
qurdma ormagad unda zRos naparavi (22:3,7) _ sxva
sasjeli mas ar edeba. Tu ar zRavs, monad gaiyideba
(22:2). kanoni iTvaliswinebs imasac, Tu ra SemTxvevaSi
Tavisufldeba sasjelisagan patroni an saqonlis mcveli, romelic cemiT moklavs mparavs. mkvlels ar moekiTxeba moklulis sisxli im SemTxvevaSi, roca RamiT,
danaSaulis adgilze waaswrebs mparavs (22:1). ar isjeba Tavdacvisas Cadenili mkvleloba. magram dRis sinaTleze, roca mis Tavze mzea amobrwyinebuli (22:2),
moekiTxeba mokluli mparavis sisxli. igulisxmeba, rom
man gadaaWarba Tavis uflebas: misi moqmedeba mkvlelobad aris kvalificirebuli (22:2). mas SeeZlo mkvlelobis gareSe daecva Tavisi saqoneli qurdis xelyofisagan. kanoni am SemTxvevaSi icavs ara imdenad qurds, ramdenadac adamianis sicocxles (Tundac qurdisas), romelsac saqonelze met Rirebulebas aniWebs.
pirutyvis patroni, romelic Tavis pirutyvs mezoblis yanas an venaxs moaZovebinebs, sakuTari mosavlidan
saukeTeso nayofebiT uzRavs zarals (22:4). xamurabis
kanoni analogiur SemTxvevaSi yanis farTobis kvalobaze gansazRvrul gadasaxads akisrebs zaralis mimyenebels (57,58).
moses rjuli calke samarTals uCens mibarebul qonebas. saxlis patroni pasuxismgebelia misTvis mibarebul qonebaze, vercxli iqneba Tu sxva ram nivTi. Tu
qurds ver aRmoaCens, imis dasamtkiceblad, rom dakarguli nivTi mas ar miuTvisebia, saxlis patronma RvTis
samsjavroze unda daificos da gamarTldeba (22:7).
analogiuri kazusebi ipoveba xamurabis kanonTa krebulSi (123-126).
mibarebuli pirutyvis SemTxvevaSi, roca saxlis
patrons mowmeebi ar hyavs, rom pirutyvi mokvda an daimtvra, igi uflis winaSe warmoTqvams fics da araferi
gadaexdeba (22:10).
sagulisxmoa, rom am kazusebs, romlebic mibarebuli
an naTxovari pirutyvis saqmes exeba, mosdevs muxlebi,
sadac dadgenilia kompensacia dauniSnavi qalwulis
gaupatiurebisaTvis (22:5-16). rogorc Cans, dauniSnavi
qalis gaupatiureba qonebis samarTlis sferos ekuTvnoda da ara sisxlis samarTlisa (Sdr. rjl. 22:2-27,
sadac qali, gaTxovilic da daniSnulic, isjeba Tavis
gamaupatiurebelTan erTad). gauTxovari qali mamis sakuTrebaa. aq naxsenebi qalwulTa urvadi (mohar ha-beTuloT), romelic unda gadaixados Semcdenelma im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mama Tanaxma ar aris, miaTxovos mas Tavisi
asuli (22:6), rogorc meore rjulis wignidan Cans, Seadgenda 50 Sekel vercxls (rjl. 22:9).
kanoni moiTxovs jadoqrebis (meqaSefah qali jadoqari) ganadgurebas (22:7); sasikvdilo ganaCens uwesebs

147

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

pirutyvTan sqesobrivi kavSiris damWers (22:18); levianTa wignis Tanaxmad, isjeba ara mxolod adamiani, aramed pirutyvic masTan erTad (lev. 20:15-16); meore rjuliT es kazusi wyevlis saxiT aris gadmocemuli: wyeulimc iyos pirutyvTan mwoleli! (rjl. 27:21); kanoni
ganadgurebis muqariT afrTxilebs uflis garda sxva
RmerTebisaTvis msxverplis Semwirvels (22:19) anu pirveli mcnebis damrRvevs; pirwminda ganadgureba anu xeremis wesisamebr elis ara mxolod piradad msxverplis
Semwirvels, aramed misi ojaxis wevrebs da qonebasac (e.
i. mTels mis saxls).
moses rjuli gansakuTrebiT esarCleba israelianTa
Soris mcxovreb ucxotomels, anu mdgmurs (ger) im motiviT, rom israelianebic mdgmurebi iyvnen egvipteSi
(22:21); qvriv-oblebis qomagi Tavad ufalia: qvrivsa
da obols nu daCagrav, Tu daCagrav, me SemomCivleben da
Sevismen maT Civils, risxviT avinTebi da maxviliT mogsravT... (22:21-23); ufali imave mdgomareobaSi Cayris
mCagvrelT, romelSic qvriv-oblebi arian: ...colebi
dagiqvrivdebaT da Svilebi dagiobldebaT (22:23).
mdgmurebisa da qvriv-oblebis Seviwroebisagan mudam
afrTxilebdnen ama qveynis ZlierT yvela xanis winaswarmetyvelni (ier. 7:6; ezek. 22:7; zaq. 7: 10). maTi gamosarCleba da dacva pirveli rigis saTnoebad iTvleboda da ara mxolod Zveli aRTqmis winaswarmetyvelTa,
aramed Zveli aRmosavleTis mbrZanebelTa TvalSic.
Zlierisagan sustis ardasaCagravad, oblisa da qvrivisaTvis samarTlis misacemad babilonSi... Zvirfasi
sityvebi Cemi qvaze davwere... _ ambobs xamurabi Tavisi
kanonebis epilogSi.
kanoni ukrZalavs israelians Tvistomze gasesxebul
vercxlSi sargeblis aRebas (22:24), radgan rCeuli
(wmida) eri ar unda Seiryvnas mevaxSeobiT. es akrZalva
gameorebulia meore rjulis wignSi (rjl. 23:20). nebadarTulia vercxlis sargebliT gacema mxolod ucxotomelze (rjl. 23:24).
ufalive aris qomagi Raribi israelianisa, romelsac misma Tvistomma erTaderTi Sesamoseli gamoarTva
giraod da mzis Casvlamde ar daubruna. misi kanis safarvelia. raSi daiZinos? roca SemomCivlebs, Sevismen,
radgan gulmowyale var (22:25-26). amave dros, samoseli Tavad pirovnebis warmomadgenelia da misi dakaveba
Tavad patronis dakavebis (anu monobis) tolfasia.
22:27 afrTxilebs: RmerTs nu Seuracxyof da mTavars Sens xalxSi nu daswyevli. es ori instancia aris
mosaridebeli israelianisaTvis: maRla RmerTi da
dabla miwieri mTavari (nasi, romelic xSirad mefis
aRmniSvnelic aris); maT Soris dgas mama, romlis Seuracxyofisagan aseve afrTxilebs Svils kanoni.
22:28-29 acxadebs erT-erT upirveles valdebulebas,
romelsac unda asrulebdes yoveli israeliani uflis
mimarT: Seni mwife nayofi da Seni dawuruli ar daagvi-

148

gamosvlani

ano. Sens SvilebSi pirmSo me unda momce. aseve Zroxisa


da cxvris pirvelmogebulic. Svid dRes dedasTan iyos,
merve dRes me unda momce. es moTxovna meordeba mTels
xuTwigneulSi _ wignidan wignSi.
rogorc wmida xalxs, israelianebs ekrZalebaT namxecavis anu mxecisgan daglejili pirutyvis xorcis Wama (22:30), radgan aseTi xorci uwmiduria. es aris kerZo
SemTxveva im rjulisa, romelic ganasxvavebs wmidas uwmidurisagan, saWmelad nebadarTuls _ akrZalulisagan (lev. 11).
23:1-9-Si marTlqcevis normebi kategoriuli moTxovnebis saxiT aris Camoyalibebuli, iseve, rogorc dekalogis (moses aTsityveulis) mcnebebi. ufali moses
piriT afrTxilebs adamians, ar gaavrcelos cru xmebi
(Worebi) da ar dauWiros mxari borotmoqmeds cru mowmobiT _ es imas ar niSnavs, cxadia, rom marTlis saqmeSi
dasaSvebia crumowmeoba. samarTlis interesebisaTvis
SeRavaTi ar unda gaewios adamians, Tundac gaWirvebuls, anu samarTalze ar unda imoqmedos sibralulma
adamianis mimarT (aseve lev. 19:15). samagierod, kanoni
afrTxilebs mosamarTles, ar gaamrudos upovari kacis
samarTali (23:6). adamianisTvis avtoritets ar unda
warmoadgendes umravlesobis azri, roca samarTali
mruddeba. adamians marTebs keTilismsurveli, samarTliani damokidebuleba mtris mimarTac, ufro sworad, mtris qonebis mimarT: dakarguli, xari iqneba Tu
saxedari, Tu sadme waawydeba, unda daubrunos patrons,
mtersac ki. gaTvaliswinebulia aseTi kerZo SemTxvevac
ki: Tu Seni mtris saxedars tvirTis qveS moyolils dainaxav, nu miatoveb, gamoxsnaSi miexmare (23:5) anu adamians marTebs gulisxmiereba gaWirvebaSi Cavardnili,
rogorc mtrisa, aseve pirutyvis mimarT. pirutyvis Sebraleba da misi Sromis dafaseba rom marTebs adamians,
es Tavad saswaulebrivad alaparakebuli saxedris bageebma iRaRada (ix. balaamis epizodi, ricx. 22:28).
kanoni ZRvenis miRebisagan afrTxilebs msajuls da
ganmartavs im zians, rac mas moaqvs samarTalSi: ZRveni
abrmavebs Tvalxiluls da asxvaferebs marTalTa saqmeebs (23:8); kvlav meordeba, misi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis gamo, gafrTxileba mdgmuris mimarT avad mopyrobis gamo _ motivi: Tavad iciT mdgmuris yofa,
radgan mdgmurebi iyaviT egviptis qveyanaSi (23:9); meordeba gafrTxileba miwis SabaTis (anu meSvide wels
miwis dasvenebis) gamo, rom sazrdo hqondeT Seni eris
Rarib-Ratakebs da rom misi narCenebi gareulma cxovelebma Wamon (23:11); SvideulSi SabaTis Senaxvis motivi amjerad ara imdenad religiuria, ramdenadac humanuri: raTa Seisvenos Senma xarma da saxedarma, suli
moiTqvan Seni mxevlis Svilma da mdgmurma (23: 12).
ufali moiTxovs israelianTagan dResaswaulebs:
weliwadSi samjer gamimarTe dResaswauli (23:14). es
dResaswaulebia (vrclad da dawvrilebiT maT Sesaxeb

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lev. 23-25 mogviTxrobs): pirveli da umTavresi dResaswauli egviptidan gamosvlis aRsaniSnavad, abibis TveSi _ aq iwodeba, rogorc ufuarobis dResaswauli
(xag ha-maccoT); meore, pirvelnayofTa dResaswauli
ufuarobidan ormocdaaTi dRis Semdeg; da mesame, mosavlis (krefis) dResaswauli wlis bolos (23:15-16),
romelic karvobis (suqqoT) saxeliT aris cnobili.
20-23 muxlebiT cnobili xdeba, rom israeli am gzaze ar aris marto _ mas win miuZRvis angelozi (malaq), romelic miiyvans xalxs aRTqmul qveynamde. masSia uflis saxeli, amitomac marTebs xalxs misi sityvis dajereba. gafrTxileba _ ismine misi sityva _
imas unda niSnavdes, rom ufali ara uSualod, aramed
Tavisi angelozis piriT acxadebs Tavis nebas. fizikuri xati am angelozisa, rogorc Cans, cecxlisa da
Rrublis svetia, romlebic morigeobiT _ dRiTa da
RamiT miuZRvis israelianTa banaks. amrigad, uflis
angelozi mxolod im pirobiT daifaravs israelis banaks da miiyvans mas usafrTxod qanaanSi, Tu yvela mis
sityvas Seasrulebs. es sityva mTeli rjulia, romelic israelma unda miiRos axla sinais mTis ZirSi. magram manamde mas eZleva miTiTeba, Tu rogor unda moiqces qanaanSi Sesvlisas, romlis mosaxleobis mospobasac hpirdeba mas ufali: ar emsaxuros maT RmerTebs, ar
icxovros maTi wes-Cveulebisamebr, dalewos maTi saTayvano svetebi _ mxolod am pirobiT iqneba kurTxeuli israelianTa puri da wyali, da arc sneuleba iqneba maT Soris. qanaanSi mcxovrebi xalxebis _ amorevelebis, xivielebis, ferizevelebis, iebuleselebis _
damarcxeba da ayra mTlianad uflis xeliT moxdeba,
romelic aris misi SiSiszari (Cemi SiSiszari _
23:27), amoqmedebuli imis samagierod, rom israeli Seasrulebs rjuls da moiqceva misi yoveli sityvis mixedviT. es SiSiszari iqneba, rom daaxevinebs ukan qanaanelebs israelianTa winaSe da gauTavisuflebs mas
qveyanas _ mewamuli zRvidan filistimelTa zRvamde (23:31) anu arabeTis yuridan xmelTaSua zRvamde
(samxreTidan CrdiloeTisaken) da udabnodan mdinaremde (23:31), anu arabeTis udabnodan evfratamde
(aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken). es is sazRvrebia,
romlebSic ganivrco israelis samefo solomon mefis
dros (3mef. 5:1).
kavSiris Sekvra ufalsa da israels Soris
(24:1-17)
kavSiri ikvreba israelTan, anu ufali aRTqmas udebs
mas eris warmomadgenlobis winaSe. eseni ki arian: Tavad
mose, romelsac mimarTavs ufali; aaroni da misi ori Ze
_ nadabi da abihu, da israelis samocdaaTi uxucesi,
romelnic ganawesa mosem Tavisi simamris iTros rCeviT.
xolo mTis Ziras aRimarTa samsxverplo da Tormeti
sveti israelis Tormeti Stos niSnad. msxverplis sis-

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gamosvlani

xlma, romelic or nawilad gaiyo, moaswava aRTqmis kavSiris Sekvra: erTi naxevari sisxlisa samsxverplos asxura mosem, meore naxevari, romelic TasSi Seagrova,
xalxs miasxura, mas Semdeg, rac aRTqmis wigni waukiTxa
xalxs da xalxmac miiRo aRTqmis pirobebi sityvebiT:
yvelafers aRvasrulebT da SevismenT, rac ubrZanebia
ufals (24:7). es iyo aRTqmis sisxli (dam ha-beriT) _
orad danawilebuli erTi sisxli, romelmac SeakavSira ufali da xalxi erTmaneTTan. ese ars sisxli Cemi
axlisa aRTqmisa mravalTaTvis daTxeuli (maT.
26:28), eubneba qriste Tavis mowafeebs ukanasknel serobaze, sisxli, romelmac gaaerTiana axal aRTqmaSi jer
mociqulni, mere mravalni. am sisxlis erTma wveTma gadawona mTeli is sisxli, romelic emsaxureboda samsxverplos da romelic Zvel aRTqmaSi qristes momaval
msxverpls moaswavebda.
mxolod am aRTqmaSi gaerTianebulT _ eseni iyvnen
moses, aaronisa da misi ori Zis garda, samocdaaTi uxucesi _ SeeZloT exilaT is sanaxavi, rac Zunwi sityvebiT aris aRwerili bibliis im adgilas. ixiles maT
israelis RmerTi. mis ferxiT iyo raRac msgavsi safironis qvafenilisa, sufTa, rogorc Tavad zeca
(24:10). magram es, cxadia, ar yofila RvTis xilva, aramed misi kvarcxlbekisa, romelic misi didebis erTerTi fizikuri gamoxatuleba iyo. mis ferxiT (TaxaT raglau) niSnavs, rom maT ixiles ara Tavad RmerTi, rac SeuZlebelia, aramed misi kvali, magram aq iyreba gzebi mosesi da danarCenTa. moses ufro maRlisaken uxmobs ufali, avida mose RvTis mTaze (24:13), mas
Tan axlda erTaderTi adamiani _ ieso, Ze navesi. magram aq kvlav iyreba gzebi: mose Sedis RrubelSi, saidanac mouwodebs mas ufali, ieso rCeba mis gareT. ormoci dRe da ormoci Rame mose moSorebuli iqneba xalxis Tvals. Rrubeli (yanan) RvTis gamocxadebis, misi
didebis niSania, magram is misi idumalebis niSanicaa.
Rrubeli _ uflis dideba faravs axla moses da igi usmens ufals.
Semowirulobani. savane
(25:1-9)
yvelaferi, rac gadmocemulia am monakveTebSi, momdevno TavebSi meordeba. jer ufali moses piriT acxadebs kidobnis, tablis, savanis, samsxverplos da sxva sakulto daniSnulebis nivTTa mowyobilobas, mere ki aRwerilia, rogor gakeTda yovelive (Tavebi 36, 37, 38, 39).
mzadebis pirveli etapi nebayoflobiT SemowirulobaTa dawesebaa. es Sesawiravi sakulto nivTTa masalisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili. oqro-vercxli da brinjao,
sami feris _ lurji, Zoweuli, Wiaferi _ matyli, selis qsovili da Txisuri; cxvrisa da TaxaSis tyavebi,
romlebic winaswar damuSavebuli (daTrimluli) unda
yofiliyo, da akacia; zeTi da mosaoWavi Zvirfasi qvebi.

151

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba
[Zneli gasarkvevia, ras gulisxmobs TaxaSis tyavebi
(yoroT TaxaSim), ras aRniSnavs ebrauli sityva TaxaS _ romelime cxovels, tyavis xarisxs Tu fers. septuaginta Targmnis: lurji (iisferi) tyavebi (asevea mogviano TargumebSi, sadac mas SeRebili tyavis mniSvneloba aqvs), romelsac miyveba Zveli qarTuli Targmanis gelaTuri versia:
tyavni iakinTni, oSkurSi: tyavi siavi(?). Tumca muxlSi,
sadac cxvris tyavia moxseniebuli, bunebrivia, mis gverdiT aseve romelime cxovelis tyavi iyos dasaxelebuli da
ara zogadad tyavis feri. axali Targmanebi ar iZlevian TaxaSis damakmayofilebel mniSvnelobas: delfini, zRvis
Rori, zRvis Zroxa (udabnos pirobebSi gaugebaria maTi
moxsenieba). ufro damajerebelia misi gageba, rogorc tyavis xarisxis aRmniSvneli terminisa _ daxvewili tyavi an
mtkice tyavi. Talmudis mixedviT, TaxaSi kvernaaa, Tanamedrove ebraulSi ki maCvs niSnavs. ezekielis wignSi TaxaSis tyavi Zvirfasi fexsamosis masalaa (16:10).]

sakulto nivTTa Soris pirvelad naxsenebia savane


(miSqan), rogorc yvelaze mniSvnelovani sagani. gamikeTon sawmidari, rom davivano maT Soris. rogorc me
giCvenebT savanis saxes, imgvaradve gaakeTeT yvelaferi (25:8-9). am sakulto Senobas, romelic karvis saxiT
unda iyos aRmarTuli, rogorc taZris winasaxes, orgvari saxelwodeba aqvs, oriveni misi pirveli xsenebisTanavea moyvanili. es aris sawmidari (mikdaS) da savane (miSqan). orive es saxelwodeba amowuravs mis mniSvnelobas, ramdenadac sityvas ZaluZs gamoxatos sakraluris sfero.
wmidis kategorias Cven gavecaniT SabaTTan (meSvide dResTan) dakavSirebiT. moses meoTxe mcneba kategoriulad awesebs SabaTis siwmides anu SabaTSi
moqceuli drois monakveTis gamocalkevebas droJamis dinebisagan, mis transcendenturobas Svideulis
sxva dReebis mimarT. axla ufali ucxadebs ers moses
piriT, rom mas Seuqmnan sawmidari anu iseTi adgili,
romelic SabaTiviT gamocalkevebuli iqneba garSemo
sivrcisagan, transcendenturi iqneba yvela im adgilis mimarT, sadac cxovrobs da yoveldRiur saqmianobas eweva eri. qarTuli sityva sa-wmid-ar-i zedmiwevniT gamoxatavs, rogorc Sinaarsobrivad, ise morfologiurad ebraul sityvas mi-kdaS _ es is adgilia, romelic gankuTvnilia wmidisaTvis, romelic
unda ivsebodes wmidiT. rogor xdeba es? ra Zala aniWebs adgils siwmides, ras gadahyavs igi wmidis kategoriaSi? es Zala ufalia, romelic moisurvebs aq davanebas (Saqan/Saxan) da Seiqneba misi sa-van-e _ miSqan. miSqani is adgilia, sadac unda daivanos (iSqan)
ufalma, ufro sworad, misma Sexinam (Seqinah), romelic RvTis myofobis, garkveul droSi da adgilze misi daswrebis gamoxatulebaa. rogori unda iyos,
RvTaebrivi gangebiT, savanis agebuleba, 26-e TavSia
aRwerili.

152

gamosvlani

kidobani wmidaTa wmidaSi


(25:10-22)
savanis mTavari siwmide kidobania (aron) da mis aRweras eZRvneba momdevno monakveTi (25:10-22).
kidobani mTavari siwmidea imis gamo, rom ufali swored masze, mis saxuravze inebebs davanebas. mis siwmides
unda Seesabamebodes xalasi oqro, romliTac moWedili
iqneba misi Sida da gareTa kedlebi. aseve, mas oqros
gvirgvini unda hqondes Semortymuli garedan. oqrosive
rgolebi unda hqondes mimagrebuli oTxsave kideze, rom
oqroTive moWedili ketebi gaeyaros rgolebs kidobnis
satareblad. misi saxuravic oqrosagan unda iyos. Tavad
kidobani, rogorc saTavsi (zardaxSi), sagangebo xisagan
unda Seikras. am xis ebrauli saxelwodebaa Sittah
(mravl. Sittim), Zveli qarTuli TargmaniT Zeli ulpolveli (septuagintas mixedviT); Cveulebriv, iTargmneba rogorc akacia, romelic kargad xarobs udabnos pirobebSi. am xisaganve unda iyos damzadebuli ketebi. kidobnis zoma unda iyos: sigrZe ornaxevari
wyrTa, sigane erTnaxevari wyrTa, simaRle erTnaxevari
wyrTa (wyrTa=daaxl. 45 sm). kidobnis saxuravze, sadac
daunjebulia kidobnis mTeli siwmide, mis orsave mxares, erTmaneTis pirispir damagrebulia oqrosagan gamoWedili ori qerubimi, romlebic frTebiT faraven
sarqvels. isini pirisaxiT erTmaneTisaken arian miqceulni. sarqvels unda dahyurebdnen qerubimebi (25:20).
risTvis aris mowodebuli kidobani anu srulad
mowmobis kidobani, an aRTqmis kidobani? mas, rogorc uflis siwmidis nivTier gansaxierebas, ori daniSnuleba aqvs. erTia: masSi unda Caiwyos mowmobani
an aRTqmani (25:21), romelic israelianebs uflisagan
gadmoecaT moses xeliT. nivTierad es aris ori dafa im
aTi mcnebiT, romelic israelis religiisa da eTikis
safuZvelTa safuZvelia. ufro adre naTqvamia, rom aarons masSi manana, zeciuri cvari, udabnoSi cxovrebis
samaxsovrod unda Seenaxa (16:34). mogvianebiT ki kidobanSi Caido aaronis ayvavebuli kverTxi, misi samRvdelo msaxurebis legitimurobis niSani (ricx. 17:10). kidobnis meore daniSnulebas mistikuri gamoxatuleba
aqvs: garkveul Jams qerubimebs Soris kidobnis sarqvelze Rrublis saxiT Camowolili uflis dideba evlineba moses, raTa xalxs gamoucxados misi neba. amrigad, kidobani da, sakuTriv, saxuravi qerubimebiTurT
uflis davanebis da amis gamo yvelaze wmida adgilia.
Tavis mxriv, savanis is adgili, sadac kidobani asvenia,
wmidaTa wmidaa da aseve ewodeba mas.
qerubimebi _ es ebrauli sityva berZnulis gavleniT
yvela enaSi damkvidrda mravlobiTi ricxvis formiT,
unda yofiliyo ki: qerub. pirvelad naxsenebi arian dabadebis wignSi: isini RmerTma dauyena darajad sicocxlis xes (dab. 3:24). saxelwodeba nasesxebia aqaduridan: qarubu. ase ewodeba babilonel da aSurel mefeTa

153

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

sasaxleebis SesasvlelebTan wyvil-wyvilad mdgar xarissaxian qandakebs. aRTqmis kidobnis sarqvelze gadmomxobili qerubimebi ki gamoxataven uflis taxts, romelzec uflis didebaa davanebuli (1mef. 4:4; es. 37:16.).
didi adgili eTmobaT qerubimebs ezekielis xilvaSi.
aq isini dinamikuri oTxsaxovani (xari, adamiani, lomi,
arwivi) da oTxfrTiani arsebani arian, romlebic erTdroulad oTxive mimarTulebiT moZraoben (ezek. 10)
da es unda iyos uflis universalobisa da yvelganmyofobis niSani. ierusalimis dacemis momaswaveblad ezekielma ixila, Tu rogor datova qerubimebze davanebulma uflis didebam taZris wmidaTa wmida adgili da
dadga zRurblTan, raTa qerubimebTan erTad sabolood gasuliyo taZridan (10:18-19).
tabla, sasanTle, sasakmevle wmidaSi
(25:23-40; 30:1-9)
Tavisi mniSvnelobiT meore siwmide unda yofiliyo
tabla (Sulxan), romelic taZris wmidaSi unda dadgmuliyo. tabla damzaddeba imave ulpolveli Zelisagan,
moiWedeba xalasi oqroTi da oqrosave gvirgvini Semoevleba irgvliv. tablasac eqneba mimagrebuli oqros
rgolebi oqroTi moWedili ketebis gasayrelad, rom
SesaZlebeli iyos uflis kidobaniviT misi tareba. ra
daniSnuleba aqvs tablas? tablaze mudmivad unda ewyos Tormeti puri israelis Tormeti Stos Sesabamisad.
wmidaTa wmidaSi uflis winaSe Setanil am sawinaSeo
purs (lexem fanim), rogorc mas ewodeba, Tumca misi
simbolizmi ar aris ganmartebuli, unda gamoexata imis
madlieri aRiareba, rom israelis yoveldRiuri arsobis puri uflis wyalobaa.
tablis zomebia: sigrZe _ ori, sigane _ erTi, simaRle _ erTnaxevari wyrTa.
tablas unda xleboda saTanado wmida WurWeli _
TefSebi, kovzebi, Tasebi da samwdeoebi saRvreli _
saRvrelad, yvelaferi xalasi oqosagan (25:29).
wmidaSi unda mdgariyo sasanTle (menorah), raTa gaenaTebina misi bneli. igi aseve xalasi oqrosagan unda
yofiliyo gamoWedili. es aris cnobili SvidStoiani
sasanTle. ufalma brZana: gaakeTe sasanTleebi (25:31),
magram ar aris naTqvami, ramdeni sasanTle unda gakeTebuliyo (solomons Tavis aSenebul taZarSi aTi sasanTle da aseve aTi tabla hqonda, 2neSt. 4:7). sasanTlis
rtoebze nuSiseburi jamebi unda yofiliyo zeTisaTvis. ratom mainc da mainc nuSiseburi? ar axlavs axsna.
magram nuSi kidev ramdenjerme gvxvdeba wmida werilSi: aaronis kverTxi, romelic saswaulebrivad ayvavda,
daadastura ra RvTis neba, nuSis xisagan iyo (ricx.
17:8); nuSis yvaviloba, romelic gazafxulis niSania (is
yvelaze adre yvavis, adre iRviZebs), eklesiastes wignSi raRac mniSvnelovan mijnaze miuTiTebs (12:5); ufali eremias axilvinebs nuSis rtos (Tu kverTxs) Ta-

154

gamosvlani

visi xalxis mimarT RvTis sifxizlisa da daucadebeli


mzrunvelobis niSnad (ier. 1:11-12). nuSisa (Saked) da
mRviZaris (Soked) araSemTxveviTi, SesaZloa, siRrmismieri Tanaxmiereba garkveuli simbolizmiT tvirTavs nuSis xes, romelic yvelaze adre iRviZebs gazafxulze. da mainc misi xseneba wmida werilSi zemoTmoyvanili adgilebiT amoiwureba.
sasanTleebs erTvis oqrosagan naWedi maSebi da aqandazebi, rogorc saWiro iaraRi cecxlis momsaxurebisaTvis (25:38).
sasanTleebze da mis Tanmxleb nivTebze erTi qanqari (igive talanti) anu samocamde kilogrami oqro unda daxarjuliyo israelianTa nebayoflobiTi Semowirulobidan. es aris erTjeradad gaRebuli Semowiruloba, xolo rac Seexeba gasanaTebel zeTs, israelianebs evalebaT periodulad mohqondeT is, raTa mudmivad enTos lampari (27:30).
dabolos, wmidaSi unda dadgmuliyo kidev erTi
mniSvnelovani sagani _ sakmevlis samsxverplo, romlis
aRweriloba mocemulia ara wmidasaTvis gankuTvnil
sagnebTan erTad, aramed ratomRac 30-e TavSi (1-10). sasakmevle oTxkuTxedi unda yofiliyo: sigrZe-sigane _
erTi wyrTa, simaRle _ ori wyrTa; ulpolveli xisagan
unda gakeTebuliyo is; sruladdasawvelis samsxverplos msgavsad, masac rqebi unda hqonoda amozrdili
oTxsave kuTxeSi, _ spilenZis rqebi, xalasi oqroTi moWedili; garSemo oqros gvirgvini unda Semovleboda
mas; oqros rgolebi unda mimagreboda or gverdze ketebis gasayrelad; urTxelis ketebi oqroTi unda yofiliyo moWedili. am sakurTxevelze aaron mRvdelmTavars unda ekmia saRamoobiT, sanTlebis anTebisas. mxolod misTvis momzadebuli da nakurTxi sakmeveli (recepti mocemulia: 30:34-38) unda damwvariyo masze. ufali afrTxilebda: nu dasdebT masze ucxo sakmevels,
nurc aRsavlens, nurc fqvils, nurc saRvrels nu daRvriT masze (30:9).
savane
(26)
savanes (miSqan) udabnos xalxis sacxovreblis saxe
aqvs, magram misi zomebi gacilebiT didia, vidre Cveulebrivi karvisa: sigrZe _ 15 metri, sigane _ 5 metri,
simaRle _ 5 metri. savanis masala _ sxvadasxvagvari
tyavebi _ wina TavSia CamoTvlili. am TavSi ki dasaxelebulia karvis elementebi (selisa da tyavis calkeuli naWrebi kedlebis, saxuravisa da fardebisaTvis) da
aRwerilia karvis Sekvris wesi. erTi da imave zomis
(28X4 wyrTa) aTi farda (eriyah), lurji, Zoweuli
da Wiaferi qsovilis naWeri, qerubimTa gamosaxulebebiT daqarguli; am aTidan unda Seikeros ori farda
(xuT-xuTi naWrisagan), romlebic erTmaneTs gadaebmeba
ormocdaaTi oqros kauWiT, raTa savane mTliani gamo-

155

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vides (26:6). aseve erTiani unda iyos savanis gadasaxuri, risTvisac Txisuris naWrebi unda damzaddes (TiTo
28X4 wyrTa), romelTagan ori didi farda Seikereba:
erTi _ xuTi naWrisagan, meore _ eqvsi naWrisagan, rom
meeqvse (zedmeti) naWeri, romelic karvis wina mxares,
SesasvlelTan, moxvdeba, orad moikecos. Txisuris naWrebic kauWebiT (oRond spilenZisa) Seikvreba. savanes
ormagi gadasaxuravi eqneba: erTi _ cxvris tyavisa, meore _ mas zemoT TaxaSis tyavisa.
saWiro iqneba boZebi: oci ulpobeli boZi samxreTis
mxares, oci CrdiloeTis mxares _ es mxareebi sigrZivi
mxareebia. dasavleTiT anu ukana ganiv mxares _ rva boZi. TiToeul boZs or-ori vercxlis fexi aqvs Casamagreblad. boZebs mTels sigrZeze xuT paralelur wyebad
ulpobeli xis mooqrovili lartyebi eqneba mimagrebuli, oqros rgolebSi iqneba gayrili. boZebi oqroTi
mopirkeTdeba.
savanis sivrce or araTanabar nawilad gaiyofa: wina
nawili (aRmosavleTis mxridan) _ wmida (kodeS), ukana
nawili _ wmidaTa wmida (kodeS ha-kadaSim). savanis umniSvnelovanesi nawilia kretsabmeli (faroqeT/faroxeT), romelic savanis wmidas mis wmidaTa wmidisagan
gamohyofs. kretsabmeli lurji, Zowisferi da Wiaferi
qsovilisa da grexili selisagan damzaddeba, zed qerubimebi amoiqargeba, Camoikideba oTx mooqrovil
svetze, romelTac oqros kauWebi da vercxlis fexebi
eqneba. Seitane mowmobis kidobani kretsabmels ukan...
(26:33), ubrZanebs moses ufali. rogorc viciT, erTaderTi sagani, romelic daidgmeba savanis wmidaTa wmidaSi, mowmobis kidobania, sadac ivanebs ufali Tavisi
nebis gamosacxadeblad. amis ZaliT aris savanis es nawili wmidaTa wmida. ...kretsabmeli gagimijnavT wmidas
wmidaTa wmidisagan (26:33), brZanebs ufali.
es is kretsabmelia, romelic Camoixa mTels sigrZeze solomonis taZarSi qristes sikvdilisas jvarze
(mark. 15:38). am aqtiT farda aexada im saidumlos, romelsac Zveli aRTqma imarxavda saukuneebSi. ebraelTa
mimarT epistolidan (9:7) viciT, rom wmidaTa wmidaSi, am kretsabmelis miRma, erTaderTi mRvdelmTavari
Sedioda, isic weliwadSi erTxel, Sendobis dRes (om
qifur), Sehqonda Tavisi da eris codvebis gamomsyidveli sisxli da kidobnis sarqvels asxurebda. axla ki,
qristes jvarcmis Semdeg, iq aRaraferi darCa sasaidumlo: qriste Sevida iq, rogorc wers pavle mociquli, ara vacTa da zvarakis sisxliT, aramed sakuTari
sisxliT da erTxel da samudamod gamoisyida adamis
Secodeba (ebr. 9:11-14). mociquli kidev wers, rom moses karavi da solomonis taZaric igavia im xelTuqmneli karvisa, romelic aris caSi, sadac qristem aitana
Tavisi sxeuli. amitomac gauqmda miwieri wmidaTa wmida, romlis niSani kretsabmelis Suaze gapoba iyo, raTa gamoCeniliyo gza da WeSmariteba yvelasaTvis. so-

156

gamosvlani

lomonis taZris dangrevisas, qristes Semdeg 70 wels,


sabolood gasrulda Zveli aRTqmis xana.
meore farda, romelic savanis SesasvlelTan aris Camofarebuli, imave masalisgan aris, risganac kretsabmeli, oRond masze ar aris amoqarguli qerubimebi (26:36).
am fardis ukan, wmidaSi idgmeba, rogorc zemoT iTqva,
tabla da SvidStoani lampari mis pirispir (26:35).
aRweriloba savanisa imgvarad aris agebuli, rom
Txrobas gavyavarT Signidan gareT, sagnebi aRwerilia
maTi siwmidis klebis TanamimdevrobiT _ wmidaTa wmidaSi: erTaderTi mowmobis kidobani; wmidaSi: tabla da
lampari, da farda, romelic gamoyofs wmidas da mTlianad savanes gare samyarosagan, anu ezosagan (26:35-37).
ezoSi samsxverplo da sabaneli
(27:1-19; 30:18-20)
savane Semokavebul ezoSi dgas. iseve, rogorc savanis
karavs, ezos esaWiroeba fardebi (grexili selisagan)
sigrZe-siganeze (samxreT da CrdiloeT mxares) Camosafareblad _ asi wyrTa, da farda lurji, Zowisferi
qsovilisagan da grexili selisagan SesasvlelisaTvis
_ oci wyrTa, svetebi spilenZis kvarcxlbekebiTurT,
svetebisaTvis vercxlis kavebi da samagrebi. ezos sigrZe _ asi wyrTa, sigane ormocdaaTi wyrTa, simaRle _
xuTi wyrTa. Cveni saTvalaviT, ezos farTobi Seadgenda
daaxloebiT oriaTas xuTas kvadratul metrs.
ezoSi daidgmeba samsxverplo, romelic aseve ulpobeli xis ficrebisagan iqneba gakeTebuli Rrud, garSemo spilenZiT moWedili. samsxverplo oTxkuTxa iqneba:
sigrZe-siganiT xuTi wyrTa, simaRliT sami wyrTa. oTsave kuTxeSi rqebi eqneba, kuTxeebidan unda amodiodes
rqebi (27:7); rqebi spilenZiT moiWedeba. samsxverplos
axlavs msxverplSewirvisas saxmarebeli iaraRebi: spilenZis qvabebi (nacrisaTvis), aqandazebi, Canglebi,
cxauri, romlis funqcia arcTu bolomde gasagebia. iseve, rogorc kidobans da tablas, samsxverplosac eqneba
ketebi, spilenZiT moWedili, mis satareblad, rgolebSi iqneba gayrili mudmivad (17:6-7).
samsxverplos oTxive kuTxidan amoSverilia spilenZiT moWedili oTxi rqa. rqiani samsxverploebis arseboba arqeologiuri monacemebiT aris dadasturebuli.
Tumca ganaTxari samsxverploebi mTliani qvisaa, rqebic
qvis aris da ara spilenZiT moWedili xisa. ra daniSneleba aqvs samsxverplos rqebs? SesaZloa, is ganasaxierebdes samsxverplo cxovels; SesaZloa, rqebi samsxverplod miyvanili pirutyvis dasabmelad yofiliyo gamoyenebuli, rogorc aRwerilia erT fsalmunSi: miabiT
sadResaswaulo (msxverpli) sabeliT samsxverplos
rqebs (118:27). namdvilad, es dadasturebulia bibliis
teqstSi, dauyonebliv SurisZiebas gamoqceuli uneburi
damnaSave (mkvleli) eWideba samsxverplos rqebs, riTac
is Tavs acxadebs uflisadmi Sewirul msxverplad, xolo

157

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

rac uflisaa, wmidaa da mas veravin xelyofs (3mef. 1:50;


2:28), Tu rqebs moWidebuls ganzraxi mkvleloba ara
aqvs Cadenili. moses rjuli ambobs masze: Tu kacs Tvistomis javri sWirda da mzakvrulad mokla igi, Cemi samsxverplodan waiyvane mosaklavad (gam. 21:14).
samsxverplo sruladdasawveli (aRsavleni) SesawiravisaTvis aris gamiznuli. gamoTqmulia eWvi xis, Tundac spilenZiT moWedili, nagebobis cecxlgamZleobis
mimarT. gaugebaria isic, Tu ratom keTdeba sacecxlo
msxverplis sakurTxeveli xisagan, roca, pirveli gamocxadebis Tanaxmad, igi miwisagan an gauTleli lodebisagan unda agebuliyo (gam. 20:24-25).
ezoSi samsxverplos gverdiT dgas kidev erTi sakulto sagani, romelic ratomRac am TavSi ar aris naxsenebi
_ es aris sabaneli, masze saubaria 30-e TavSi (30:18-20).
sabaneli aaronisa da misi Svilebis, anu mRvdelmTavrisa da mRvdlebis, gansabanad aris ezoSi dadgmuli. maT
unda ganibanon xel-fexi, sanam savaneSi Sevidodnen an
samsxverplos mieaxlebodnen msxverplis Sesawiravad.
ganibanon xelebi da fexebi, raTa ar daixocon (30:21).
samRvdelo Sesamoseli
(28:1-43)
ufali awesebs mRvdlobas da pirvel mRvdlad is irCevs aarons, moses ufros Zmas. amrigad, aaroni pirovnulad RvTis rCeuli mRvdelia, misi sikvdilis Semdeg ki
mRvdloba memkvidreobiT unda gadavides mis Svilebze,
romlebic CamoTvlilni arian 28-e Tavis dasawyisSi.
ufali eubneba moses: miiaxlove aaroni... (28:1) _ es
imis niSania, rom aaroni Tavis vaJebianad gamoeyofa danarCen israelianebs da amieridan uSualod uflis samsaxurSi Cadgeba. Tumca misi msaxurebis xarisxi maRalia
da sapasuxismgeblo, magram CamorCeba moses msaxurebis
xarisxs. moses xelidan gamodis aaronis mRvdlobis nivTieri pirobebi: gauwyve wmida Sesamoseli aarons...
(28:2). mose xelmZRvanelobs am metad mniSvnelovan aqts
_ Sesamoslis Seqmnas, romelic RvTaebriv sibZnesTan
aris wilnayari. samRvdelo Sesamoslis gamwyobi uflis
mier sibrZnis suliT (ruax xoqmah) iqneba STagonebuli. Sesamoseli winapirobaa jer mRvdlad (aaronis SemTxvevaSi, mRvdelmTavrad) kurTxevisa, mere samRvdelo
msaxurebisTvis.
samRvdelo Sesamoslis masala igive unda iyos, rac
savanisaTvis iqneba gamoyenebuli _ oqro, lurji da
Zowisferi da Wiaferi qsovili, da grexili bisoni. amrigad, Sesamoslis siwmide savanis siwmidesTan aris gaTanabrebuli, ris meoxebiTac aaronze gadmodis siwmide. Sesamoseli misi matareblis or mxares gamoxatavs _
RvTaebrivs da adamianurs, radgan is Suamavalia ufalsa da adamianebs Soris. sibrZniT damzadebuli Sesamoseli aris didebisaTvis (qabod) _ es RvTiuri wilia
da dasamSveneblad _ es kacebrivi wilia.

158

gamosvlani

samRvdelo Sesamoseli eqvsi nawilisagan Sedgeba:


samkerduli (xoSen), efodi (efod), mosasxami (meyil),
kvarTi (qeToneT), Tavsaburavi (micnefeT) da sartyeli
(abnet). amaTgan Tavisi daniSnulebiT yvelaze mniSvnelovania efodi, samkerduli da Tavsaburavi. ra daniSnuleba aqvs TiToeul maTgans?
efodi usaxelo zeda samoselia, muxlebamde CamoSvebuli, ori _ wina da ukana nawilisagan Sedgeba, romlebic erTmaneTze mxrebTan samxreebiT aris mimagrebuli.
orive samxreze TiTo oqros budea mimagrebuli, TiToeulSi TiTo oniqsis Tvalia Casmuli, Tvlebze israelis StoTa saxelebia amokveTili maTi Sobis TanamimdevrobiT: eqvsi saxeli _ erT Tvalze, eqvsi saxeli _
meore Tvalze. naTqvamia: ataros es saxelebi aaronma
Tavis samxreze uflis winaSe samaxsovrod (28:12).
samkerduls, romelsac srulad gankiTxvis samkerduli (xoSen miSfat) ewodeba, efodzea damagrebuli. masze oTx rigad aris gawyobili Tav-Tavis budeebSi Casmuli patiosani Tvlebi. Tormeti Tvali israelis Tormet Stos Seesabameba, TiTo Tvalze israelis TiTo Stos saxelia amotvifruli. am Tvlebis
garda, samkerduls mimagrebuli aqvs saRvTo nivTebi
urimi (naTelni) da Tumimi (sisruleni), romelTa saSualebiT mRvdelmTavari mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis
gadasawyvetad ekiTxeboda RmerTs. ra saxis sagnebi
unda yofiliyo es urimi da Turimi, daudgenelia. SeiZleba mxolod is iTqvas, rom gankiTxvis samkerduls es saxelwodeba swored am sagnebis mixedviT
ewodeba: urim-TumimiT acxadebs ufali Tavis
msjavrs, Tavis nebas (am funqciiT isini naxsenebia
1mef. 14:2-3, 16-23, 36-46). aRsaniSnavia, rom am or sityvaTagan erTi iwyeba anbanis pirveli asoniSniT
(alef), meore _ ukanaskneliT (Tau).
mosasxami ar aris damoukidebeli samoseli, is efods
ekuTvnis: gaakeTe efodis mosasxami mTlianad lurji
qsovilisagan (28:31). mosasxami mTliani naqsovi unda
yofiliyo, Tavis gasayofis pirs arSia unda hqonoda,
rom ar morRveuliyo xmarebisas. mRvdelmTavari mas
efodis qveS atarebs. mis kalTebze broweulebia amoqarguli da maT Soris oqros eJvnebia Camokidebuli.
eJvnebis xmam unda amcnos xalxs mRvdelmTavris (isini
ver dainaxaven mas) Sesvla wmidaSi da gamosvla anu dasawyisi da dasasruli RvTismsaxurebisa. amave dros eJvnebis xma, rogorc Cans, daicavs mas uflis risxvisagan:
...da ar mokvdeba (28:35).
Tavsaburveli aucilebelia, magram ufro mniSvnelovania is, rac mimagrebulia Tavsaburvelze, mis wina
mxares. es aris oqros jiRa, diadema (cic), romelzec
dabeWdilia sityvebi: siwmide uflisaTvis (28:36). es
aris niSani imisa, rom mRvdelmTavari Tavis Tavze
iRebs Sewirvis dros daSvebul yvela codvas da ufali
Seundobs mas.

159

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

samRvdelo SesamoselSi Sedis selis kvarTi da sartyeli, aseve tilos sawmerTuli, rom dafaros siSiSvle karavSi Sesvlisas an samsxverplosTan miaxloebisas da ar daekisroT uneblie codva (28:42-43).
mRvdlis kurTxeva
(29)
Semosva erT-erTi nawilia mRvdelmTavrad kurTxevisa, romelsac Tavad mose asrulebs. igi, rogorc dedanSia, auvsebs xels aarons. xelis avseba (mille
adayim) teqnikuri terminia mRvdlad kurTxevis gamosaxatavad. es idiomi gvxvdeba Zvel asurul dokumentebSi mcire aziidan (qalaq-saxelmwifo mari) sruli
xelisuflebis miniWebis mniSvnelobiT. amave semantikisaa qarTuli xel-mwifeba, xel-mwife anu piri,
romlis xelic mwifea, srulia, savsea (uflebiT).
xelis avsebis wesi, romelic Svidi dRis manZilze
unda sruldebodes (29:35), sami aqtisagan Sedgeba:
1) ganbana xdeba sakrebuli karvis SesasvlelTan, sadac dgas sagangebo avazani (29:4), romlis mowyobiloba
aRwerilia momdevno TavSi (30:17-21).
2) Semosva. aaroni, pirveli mRvdelmTavari, imoseba
yvela im SesamosliT, romelic zemoT iyo dasaxelebuli. mose, uflis brZanebis Tanaxmad, Tavisi xeliT Semosavs aarons (29:5-6).
3) zeTiscxeba aseve moses xeliT xdeba. aarons Tavze
unda daeRvaros cxebis zeTi (Semen ha-miSxah), romlis
Semadgenloba momdevno TavSia mocemuli (30:22-33). am
dros aaronis Tavi ukve Seburvilia TavsaburveliT da
zed jiRa adgas. Tavze dauRvare da scxe (29:7); cxebulia rogorc samoseli, ise aaronis pirisaxe (ebrauli
tradiciiT, aaronis kefa SiSveli unda yofiliyo zeTis sacxeblad). amis Semdeg is aris maSiax _ cxebuli
(aqedan mesia) Tavisi amosavali mniSvnelobiT. am aqtiT
aaroni ukve gamocalkevebulia mTeli krebulidan, masze gadmosulia is siwmide, romelic SeaZlebinebs mas
wmidaTa wmidaSi Sesvlas da mRvdelmsaxurebis aRsrulebas. mogvianebiT, mefobis SemoRebis pirvel xanebSi,
zeTis cxebiT RvTis rCeul pirovnebaze sulis xarizmatuli niWi gadmodioda (1mef. 10:6, saulis mefed cxebis
epizodi). aaronis SemTxvevaSi xarizma ar Cans, radgan
mRvdloba israelSi imTaviTve dawesda, rogorc memkvidreobiT gardamavali da ara xarizmatuli movaleoba. xarizmas mose atarebs da is am uflebamosilebiT
uvsebs xels aarons da mis ZeT.
es aris xelavsebis wesi. am ritualis Semdeg adamiani
sruliad ganaxlebulia sami aqtiT: sxeulis ganbaniT,
axali samoslis SemosviT da zeTis cxebiT.
am wess mosdevs msxverplSewirva (29:10-37).
Seiwireba sami msxverpli. pirveli aris kurati (mozveri), romelsac ewodeba codvis (gamosasyidi) kurati. mis Tavze xelebs daasxamen ukve xelavsebuli aaroni

160

gamosvlani

da misi Zeni, romlebic mamis kurTxevis paralelurad


ekurTxebian mRvdlebad. xelTa dasxma niSnavs, rom pirutyvis sikvdili maTi sikvdilis sanacvloa, maTi codvis mtvirTvelia. codvis kurati daikvlis sakrebulo
karvis karTan, misi sisxli mosem Tavisi TiTebiT unda
scxos samsxverplos rqebs, mTeli sisxli ki samsxverplos ZirSi daRvaros. misi Signeuli da qoni samsxverploze iwvis sakmevlad, xorci, tyavi da ganavali banakis gareT unda daiwvas. misi xorci ar iWmeva (29:10-14).
meore msxverplia verZi, romelic aseve aaronisa da aaronianebis mier xeldasxmis Semdeg ikvlis moses xeliT.
es verZi srulad dasawvelia, sxva sityviT, aRsavleni _
is mTlianad adis ufalTan, Semwirvels araferi rCeba.
misi sisxli irgvliv esxureba samsxverplos (29:15-18).
mesame msxverplic verZia. es aris sakuTriv xelavsebis verZi, romlis sisxli mosem unda scxos aaronsa da
aaronianebs marjvena yuris bibiloze niSnad morCilebisa (SeadareT gam. 21:6) da marjvena xelis cerze da
marjvena fexis cerze, imis niSnad, rom maTi xelebi da
fexebi ganwmedilia uflis samsaxurisaTvis (SeadareT
msaj. 1:6, sadac damarcxebul mefeebs xelisa da fexis cerebs aWrian, rac maT umweoebs xdis). sisxli samsxverplosac unda miesxuros irgvliv. amis Semdeg mironSi
Sereuli sisxli xelavsebulTa Sesamosels esxureba
mis gansawmedad. radgan ara mxolod aaroni da misi Svilebi unda iyvnen ritualurad wmidebi, aramed maTi Sesamoselic. gansxvavebiT pirveli verZisagan, romelic
mTlianad uflisaa (sruladdasawveli), am verZidan xelavsebulTaTvis gankuTvnilia mkerdi da marcxena beWi, romelTac ewodeba Sesarxeveli mkerdi da aRsamarTavi beWi. msxverplis Signeulis qoni da marjvena
beWi puris kokorTan, zeTian namcxvrebTan da erT kver
xmiadTTan erTad samsxverploze unda daiwvas _ sacecxlo msxverplia uflisaTvis (29:18). verZis xorci,
romelic wmida adgilze ixarSeba, aaronma da misma
Svilebma unda SeWamon karvis SesasvlelTan, ucxo, gareSe adamiani ver SeWams mas, radgan wmidaa igi. ai, am wesiT unda ekurTxebodes israelSi mRvdelmTavari da
mRvdlebi (29:19-35).
ufali moses piriT awesebs samsxverplos gansawmedel yoveldRiur saklavs _ codvis (gamosasyid) kurats. samsxverplo yoveli msxverplSewirvis win, rogorc SebRaluli, unda ganiwmidebodes, ufro zustad,
unda Sendobil iqnas an, sityvasityviT, daifaros
(quffar) is codva, romelic daedo samsxverplos.
wmida saklavis (kuratis) sisxli Camorecxavs codvas
samsxverplodan. es aris misi Sendoba. amgvarad Sendobili samsxverplo wmidaTa wmidis statuss iRebs da,
yvelaze, vinc ki mas miekareba, gadadis misi siwmide
(29:36-37), romelic ganuwmedelTaTvis sabedisweroa
(rjuli sastikad afrTxilebs eriskacs wmidaTa wmida
sagnebis Sexebisagan).

161

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

cxebis zeTi anu wmida mironi da sakmeveli


(30:22-38)
ritualuri ganwmedis saboloo aqti wmida zeTiT
cxebaa. mironcxebulia ara mxolod samRvdeloeba da
misi Sesamoseli, aramed yvelaferi, rac ki monawileobs
sakulto cxovrebaSi _ sakrebulo karvidan dawyebuli
sakmevlis samsxverploTi damTavrebuli.
aq pirvelad aris mocemuli im Zalze mniSvnelovani
da sapasuxismgeblo nivTierebis Semadgenloba, romelic cxebis zeTis (Semen miSxah) saxelwodebiT aris
cnobili Zvel aRTqmaSi. es aris mironi. igi mzaddeba
saukeTeso surnelovan nivTierebaTagan. es nivTierebania: muri (Zv. qarT. agr. zmirini), surnelovani dariCini (Zv. qarT. kinamo), surnelovani lerwami (Zv. qarT. kalami), kasia, zeTisxilis zeTi. magram wesze, Tu rogor
unda Sezavdes es yvelaferi, araferia naTqvami. mxolod zogadad: menelsacxebelTa xelovnebiT. wmida
mironiT cxebuli unda iqnes karavi da yvela nivTi, rac
karavSia: mowmobis kidobani, tabla da mTeli misi WurWeli, sakmevlis samsxverplo, aRsavlenis samsxverplo
mTeli misi WurWliTurT, sabaneli mis kvarcxlbekianad. es zeTia, romelic siwmides aniWebs yvelafers, misgan cxebuls. araferi sxva, gareSe kultisa, adamiani iqneba, Tu nivTi, ar unda icxos am wmida mironiT. amgvari
nazavis damzadeba saero xmarebisaTvis mkacrad ikrZaleba, rogorc siwmidis profanacia. Tu cxebis zeTi
ganwmeds RvTis samsaxurad ganwesebul adamians, gareSesaTvis mis cxebas piruku moqmedeba aqvs: yoveli saero, misiT cxebuli, uwmiduria da unda amoiZirkvos
xalxis wiaRidan, da ara mxolod cxebuli, aramed
isic, vinc am mizniT daamzadebs mirons.
aqvea mocemuli Sedgeniloba sakmevlisa, romelic
unda ikmeodes aaronis xeliT sakmevlis samsxverploze
(30:1-6) dReSi orgzis: dilaobiT da saRamoobiT, sanTlebis danTebisas (30:7-8). esenia: Staxsi, ambri (Zv.
qarT. frcxili), surnelovani xelbana, sufTa gundruki
(30:34). am nivTierebaTagan mzaddeba sasakmevle nazavi.
sakmeveli kidev ufro wmidaa. igi ikmeva iq, sadac uflis
gamocxadebis adgilia. amitomac is wmidaTa wmidaa.
siwmided gqondeT igi uflisaTvis (30:10), brZanebs
ufali. xalxidan amoZirkva elis mas, vinc amgvar sakmevels daamzadebs saynosavad, radgan es sakmeveli uflis
saynoselad aris gankuTvnili.
mcire ram zeTsa da sakmevelze:
zeTi, rogorc sakvebi, erT-erTi nayofia miwisa, purTan da RvinosTan erTad, rogorc sauflo dovlaTi (ix.
ier. 31:11), rogorc RvTis madlis nivTieri gamoxatuleba. aha, gigzavni purs, Rvinosa da zeTs... (iov. 2:19),
aRuTqvams ufali xalxs; aivseba beRlebi xorbliT da
galiclicdeba kodebi RviniT da zeTiT (iov. 2:24). zeTi ara mxolod sakvebia, misiT cxebas adamianisaTvis
sixaruli moaqvs: gcxo Sen RmerTma, Senma RmerTma, sac-

162

gamosvlani

xebeli sixarulisa (fsalm. 44:8); sacxebelman mxiarulyves piri (fsalm. 103:15). zeTi abrwyinebs adamianis saxes, magram is _ macocxlebeli _ Rrmad atans adamianis sxeulis SigniT, msWvalavs mas, Zvlebsac ki poxavs: STaxda viTarca wyali nawlevTa misTa da viTarca zeTi ZualTa misTa (fsalm. 108:18). is aucilebeli
sagzalia, rogorc sakvebi da rogorc sacxebeli, mgzavrisa udabnoSi. iakobs Tan hqonda zeTi, romelic scxo
man qvis sasTumals im adgilas, sadac cadawevnili angelozTa kibe gamoecxada ZilSi (dab. 28:18). da, rac mTavaria, wmida zeTis cxeba uflis rCeulobis, kurTxeulobis niSania adamianze. am aqtiT is ganekuTvneba
ufals, masze gadmodis RvTis suli, suli winaswarmetyvelebisa, rogorc davinaxavT saulisa da daviTis _
israelis pirvel mefeTa mironcxebisas.
sakmeveli erT-erTi saxea Sesawiravisa. misi surneleba, romelic adis uflis taxtamde, Svebisa da imedis
momniWebelia mlocvelisaTvis. sakmevlis kmeva locvis
Tanmxlebia da misi simboluri gamoxatulebac: waremarTen locva Cemi viTarca sakumeveli Sen winaSe
(fsalm. 140:2). aseve ioanes gamocxadebaSi: da aRvida
kuamli igi sakumevelTa locvisa mimarT wmidaTasa
xelisagan angelozisa mis winaSe RmrTisa (gamocx. 8:4).
gamocxadebisve mixedviT locva da sakmeveli identuri
realobebia: ...da lanknani (Tasebi) oqrosani, savseni
sakumeveliTa, romel arian locvani wmidaTani (gamocx. 5:8). garda amisa, sakmevlis kvamli uflis myofobis niSania. ufro metic: sakmevlis Rrubeli mianiSnebs
uflis myofobasac da mis idumalebasac. ufali kvamlSi
myofobs da kvamlSivea dafaruli morwmuneTaTvis. sakmevlis kvamli im zrqeli Rrublis ritualuri saxea,
romelSic Seburvili gamoecxada ufali moses sinais
mTaze (gam. 19:9).
Zvel aRTqmaSi sakmevlis kvamli buravs mowmobis kidobans, anu uflis gamocxadebis adgils, axal aRTqmaSi
sakmevlis kvamlTan saidumlos gamocxadebaa dakavSirebuli: kmevisas gamoecxadeba zaqarias angelozi, romelic amcnobs mas, rom misi berwi coli Sobs Zes (luk.
1:9-13).
becalieli _ uflis xelovani
(31:1-11)
ufalma moses gamoucxada gegma karvisa, saxe yoveli
samsaxurebeli WurWlisa, Targi da moxatuloba samRvdelo Sesamoslisa, saxe da aRnagoba mowmobis (anu
aRTqmis) kidobnisa, samsxverplosi da sabanelisa, da
yvelafrisa, rac ki saWiro iqneboda RvTismsaxurebis
aRsasruleblad. axla ki ufali ucxadebs moses im xelovanis saxels, romelmac unda Seasrulos es saqme.
ufalma gamoarCia becalieli iudas tomidan da aavso
igi RvTis suliT, sibrZniT, gonierebiT, codniT da
yoveli xelovnebiT (31:3).

163

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

vin iyo becalieli, romlis saxeli niSnavs: elis


(RvTis) CrdilSi [myofi]? igi iyo SviliSvili im xurisa, romelsac aaronTan erTad mzis Casvlamde eWira
moses aRmarTuli xeli yamalekTan brZolis dros (gam.
17:10-11). uflis sityvebi aha, movuwode becaliels
saxeliT (gam. 31:2) da misi saxeli elis CrdilSi (an
mfarvelobaSi) myofi, romelsac exmaureba fsalmuniseuli romeli damkvidrebul ars... safarvelsa
RmrTisasa, zecas ganisuenos (90:1), migvaniSnebs im pasuxismgeblobaze, romelic ekisreba sauflo nivTTa
Semqmnel xelovans. is marTlac uflis safarvelqveS
unda akeTebdes yvelafers, rac ufalma dausaxa moses.
movuwode ...saxeliT niSnavs, rom ufalma gamoarCia
igi usaxelo masidan, mniSvneloba mianiWa mis pirovnebas (pirovnulobas), ramdenadac saxeli da pirovneba
ganuyofelia. sakraluri Semoqmedi, miuxedavad
RvTis CrdilSi yofnisa, sxvaTagan gamorCeuli pirovneba unda iyos.
ra monacemebi hqonda becaliels, vidre ufali mouwodebda mas? wigni arafers ambobs amaze. unda vifiqroT, rom mis mowodebas, rogorc xelovanisas, swored
uflisagan misi mowodeba aZlevs dasabams. xelovneba
mowodebaa da es mowodeba uflismieria, miT ufro, Tu
saqme sakralur xelovnebas exeba. mowodeba gulisxmobs
sam rasme, romliTac unda aivsos wodebuli: RvTis suli (ruax elohim), sibrZne (xoqmah), goniereba, an Wkua
(Tebunah) da codna (dayaT).
ufalma mas miuCina damxmared _ oholiab axisamaqis
Ze, danis tomidan, da kidev sxvani mravalni, romelTa
saxelebi ar aris naxsenebi. sibrZne Cavdevi yoveli
gulbrZenis gulSi, raTa yvelaferi gaakeTon, rac gamogicxade (31:6). arc maTi ricxvia moxseniebuli, magram
yvela maTgani imave unarebiT aris mimadlebuli, riTac
becalieli, maTi didostati, amave dros, TiToeuli
maTgani Tav-Tavisi saqmis mcodnea (36:4). am saqmeSi
igulisxmeba agreTve mironisa da surnelovani sakmevlis damzadeba (31:11). rogorc vxedavT, xelovneba aq
farTo cnebaa _ is moicavs adamianuri Semoqmedebis
yvela sferos.
aRmosavleTis mogvebma axalSobil yrmas beTlemis
bagaSi miarTves sami ram: oqro, gundruki da muri (maT.
2:11). oqro mefobis niSnad, gundruki _ rogorc
RmerTs, muri _ rogorc kacs. es gundruki da muria
swored sakmeveli da cxebis zeTi, romelTac Zveli aRTqma rjulSi aqcevs. marTlac, rogorc davinaxeT, sakmeveli kvamlis saxiT RmerTamde adis, umaRles sferoebs aRwevs: mimarTuleba qvemodan _ zemoT. zeTi ki is
nivTierebaa, romlis meSveobiTac RvTis suli gadmodis adamianze: mimarTuleba zemodan _ qvemoT.

164

gamosvlani

uflis sityvebis dasasruli.


qvis dafebis gadacema
(31:12-18)
es yovelive, rasac ufali ucxadebs moses sinais mTaze, rac gadmocemulia 25-31 TavebSi, gvirgvindeba erTi
ukanaskneli mowodebiT: SeinaxeT Cemi SabaTebi!
(31:13). aq gaRrmavebulia SabaTis mniSvneloba israelianTa cxovrebisaTvis. amasTan erTad, gamkacrebulia
kanoni SabaTis SembRalavTa mimarT: aseTi piri unda
mokvdes. ras niSnavs SabaTi israelis erisaTvis? is aris
niSani imisa, rom arsebobs ufali, maTi wmidamyofeli.
rogorc SabaTi ganwmida ufalma, rogorc SabaTia wmida, aseve uflis eri unda iyos wmida _ ufalia misi ganmwmedeli. rac aris dReTa Soris SabaTi, is aris xalxTa
Soris israeli. SabaTi aris niSani saukuno aRTqmisa,
romelic daido RmerTsa da israels Soris. israelma
wmidad unda Seinaxos Tavi, rogorc wmidad unda inaxavdes SabaTs, Svideulis im dRes, rodesac eqvsdRiani Sesaqmisagan daisvena RmerTma. amrigad, dasabamSi, samyaros Sesaqmis dasasruls, gamorCeuli dRe SabaTi rCeuli eris mimaniSnebeli iyo.
ratom mosdevs SabaTis mowodeba RvTivSTagonebuli ostatis becalielisa da yvelafris imis xsenebas,
rac man da misma Segirdebma unda Seasrulon sakrebulo
karvisaTvis? uTuod im mizniT, rom gaafrTxilos israeli: TviT sawmidaris Senebis drosac ki SabaTis siwmide saqmisagan SeubRalavi unda iyos.
bolos, roca mosem moismina yvelaferi, roca ufalma
Sewyvita masTan laparaki sinais mTaze, mosem miiRo
uflis xelidan aTi mcnebiT warwerili ori qvis dafa,
RvTis TiTiT naweri qvis dafebi (31:18).
israelianTa dacema.
oqros xbo
(32)
ormoci dRe ismenda mose sinais mTaze uflis sityvas. ricxvi ormoci misi cxovrebis Tanamdevia, ormocTan aris dakavSirebuli gardatexani mis cxovrebaSi:
ormoci wlis iyo, roca gamovida Tavis xalxSi msajulad da iZulebuli Seiqna daetovebina egvipte; ormoci
wlisa iyo, roca hqonda uflis gamocxadeba aalebul
mayvlovanSi; kidev ormoci weli unda exetiala udabnoSi Tavis urC xalxTan erTad. axla mose, romelic Camodis sinais mTidan uflis sityvebiT savse da qvis dafebiT xelSi, mesame meormoceSia gadamdgari.
xalxma mTeli ormoci weli gaatara udabnoSi, aRTqmuli qveynis siaxloves, magram arasodes ise mZime ar
yofila misTvis lodini, rogorc axla sinais mTis Ziras, roca eloda moses. xalxma veRar aitana lodini,
amoewura imedi. sasowarkveTilebisa da SiSisagan moiTxova im RmerTebis saxe, romelTac gamoiyvanes is egviptidan, radgan ar Canda maTi winamZRoli, is kaci

165

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

mose (32:1). ase _ is kaci mose _ uxsenes igi aarons, mis


Zmas, roca miadgnen mas kerpis moTxovniT. kvlav gauucxovdnen mas, TiTqos kvlav aRar Tvlian Tavisianad, rogorc maSin Tvistoms rom gamoesarCla da TviTmarqvia
msajulobiT moayivnes. SiSma moaTxovnina maT uxilavi
RmerTis saxe. da es iyo tragikuli Secdoma, romelic
kvlav orasi wlis Semdeg ganmeorda, roca mefe moiTxoves, rogorc sxva xalxebs hyavdaT. axla ki moisurves
hqonodaT TavianTi RmerTis kerpi, rogorc sxvebs, da
aRar eqnebodaT SiSi. magram es SiSi ar iyo RvTis SiSi,
mowiweba. es martoobisa da oblobis SiSi iyo, egzistencialuri SiSi. moiTxoves xiluli uxilavis wil, ascdnen ra mamamTavar abraamis gzas, romelic uxilavs
irCevda xilulis wil, romelic mis Tvalwin iyo. surdaT xiluli kerpi, rogorc sxva xalxebs, imaT, visi
qveynidanac amovidnen.
25-e Tavidan viciT, rom sakulto nivTebis damzadeba SesawiraviT iwyeba (25:1 da Smd.). erma Tavisi SesaZleblobiT, nebayoflobiT gaRebuli SesawiraviT unda
moawyos kultis garegani saxe. axlac aseTi gza airCia
aaronma: daxseniT oqros sayureebi Tqvens colebs, vaJebsa da asulebs da aq momitaneT (32:2). teqstidan
Cans, rom Tavad aaronia oqros xbos Semoqmedi, man Tavisi xeliT gamokveTa misi saxe, ufro sworad, man Seqmna
yalibi, romelSic Camoisxa kerpi. Seuqmna maT Camosxmuli xbo (32:4), gvauwyebs teqsti. Tumca, roca pasuxi
unda ego uflisa da moses winaSe Tavisi qmedebisaTvis,
ase imarTla Tavi: cecxlSi Cavyare (oqros samkaulebi)
da es xbo gamovida (32:24). TiTqos misda moulodnelad miiRo gadamdnarma oqrom im kerpis saxe, romlis
msgavsi aarons egvipteSi unaxavs.
daismis kiTxva: romeli mcneba daarRvia israelma
kerpis moTxovniT? pirveli, romelic krZalavs sxva
RmerTis Tayvaniscemas, uflis garda, Tu meore, romelic krZalavs uxilavi uflis warmodgenas raime arsebis saxiT? pirveli mcneba afrTxilebs israels mravalRmerTianobisagan, meore ki ukrZalavs kerpTayvaniscemas. amaTgan romel codvaSi Cavarda xalxi?
kvlav kiTxva: romeli xalxi? gamoTqmulia varaudi,
rom kerpi moiTxova im Wrelma xalxma, romelic egviptidan amohyva israelianebs _ uflis laSqars. Tu asea,
moulodneli araferia, radgan es xalxi imTaviTve ar
ekuTvnoda israelis sazogadoebas, rom rjulis mixedviT etvirTaT sasjeli kerpTayvanismcemlobisaTvis.
magram biblia ar laparakobs Wrel xalxze. uflis
sityvebidan Cans, rom damnaSave isev da isev uflis laSqarSia saZebari. ufali eubneba moses: Zirs Cadi, radgan gairyvna Seni xalxi, romelic egviptidan gamoiyvane. male gadauxvies gzidan, romelic davudgine. Camoasxes xbo, Tayvans scemen da msxverpls swiraven, amboben:
eseni arian, israel, Seni RmerTebi, romlebmac egviptidan gamogiyvaneso (32:7-8).

166

gamosvlani

gairyvna (Zv. qarT. urCulo yo, usjulo iqmna),


igive ebrauli Ziri (SxT) gamoxatavs kacobriobis saqciels da mdgomareobas warRvnis win: wairyvna (niSxeTah) qveyana RvTis winaSe... aha, gaeryvna (hiSxiT) yovel
xorciels zne am qveyanaze... (dab. 6:11-12). oqros xbos
epizodSi es zmna gamoxatavs religiur gandgomas, ufro dacemas, ganadgurebas, dakargvas, daRupvas _ SxT
Ziri moicavs am mniSvnelobebsac. ufali eubneba moses,
rom dakargulia CemTvis Seni xalxi, am saqcieliT man
dakarga ufleba uflis xalxad yofnisa: is aRar aris Cemi xalxi, ambobs ufali. ufali Tavis rCeul xalxze ambobs, rom is aRar aris misi, rom igi ver cnobs mas. is ar
laparakobs Wrel xalxze, romelic ar CauTvlia mas
rCeuli xalxis ricxvSi. amitomac pretenziebi mas ar
hqonia dabadebiT kerpTayvanismcemelTa mimarT.
davukvirdeT aaronis SeZaxils: eseni arian, israel,
Seni RmerTebi, romlebmac egviptidan gamogviyvanes
(32:4). RmerTis aRmniSvneli sityva elohim, marTalia,
morfologiurad mravlobiTi ricxvia (mxol. eloah),
magram, Cveulebriv, zmnas mxoloobiT ricxvSi iTanxmebs. am kerZo SemTxvevaSi, elohim gagebulia, rogorc
RmerTebi _ aaroni mimarTavs im xalxs, romelic sulierad jer kidev mravalRmerTian egvipteSi imyofeba.
aaronisaTvis oqros xbo, SesaZlebelia, uflis imaginaciuri xati yofiliyo, im RmerTisa, romelmac egviptidan gamoiyvana xalxi (da aq is arRvevs mxolod meore
mcnebas), magram xalxma am kerpSi RmerTebis gamoxatuleba dainaxa. aaronma gaunamdvila maT mravalRmerTianobis rwmena. es iyo aaronis danaSauli. ase daiwyo
man Tavisi samRvdelo samsaxuri.
am xalxma, romelic cota xnis winaT dandobili mihyveboda dRisiT Rrublis svets da RamiT naTlis svets,
daiviwya es saswaulebrivi winamZRoloba da moiTxova
xelTqmnili RmerTebi, romlebic egvipteSi hyavda
nanaxi. araTu egviptemde, romelic axlaxan datoves
maT, aramed qaldeuri uris donemdec ki dasces TavianTi religiuri Segneba. sulmokleoba kidev araerTgzis
gamovlindeba aRTqmul qveyanaSi gadasvlamde, magram
rac aq, sinais mTis Ziras moxda, namdvilad arqetipuli
Seiqna maTi Semdgomi religiuri istoriisaTvis. magram mTavari mainc sxva ram iyo am epizodSi.
uTxra ufalma moses: davinaxe es xalxi da, aha, es xalxi
qedficxelia. axla mimiSvi da aRinTeba Cemi risxva maTze
da warvxocav maT, da Sen gagxdi did xalxad (32:9-10).
keSe yoref, romelic qarTulad iTargmneba, rogorc
qedficxeli, da arsebiTad niSnavs qedudrekels,
utexs, rCeuli eris substanciuri daxasiaTebaa (ix.
agr.: gam. 48:4; rjl. 9:6,13; 31:27). es xalxi aseTia mTeli
misi istoriis manZilze. aseTi iyo udabnoSi, aseTi
darCa aRTqmul qveyanaSi. Tviseba, romelsac mtrebTan,
garesamyarosTan urTierTobaSi, dideba moaqvs misTvis, _ es xalxi Znelad Tu daidgams monobis uRels, _

167

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ufalTan mimarTebaSi damRupvelia: igi ar uxris qeds


ufals, raTa misi nebiT iaros. aseT xalxSi ufali ver
gaatarebs Tavis nebas, ver aRsruldeba xsnis gangeba,
ver ikurTxeba misiT yoveli xalxi, rogorc abraamisaTvis hqonda aRTqmuli ufals. aSkaraa, am xalxma gadauxvia uflis gzas da igi aRar gamodgeba rCeul erad.
Sen gagxdi did xalxad (32:10), eubneba ufali moses, anu amieridan ara Zeni israelisa, ara Tormettomovani eri iqneba rCeuli xalxi, aramed Zeni mosesi _ anu
moses sazardulidan gamova axali tomi. gauqmdeba abraamTan dadebuli aRTqma da yvelaferi Tavidan daiwyeba? mosem unda daanebos Tavi am xalxis mwyemsobas,
udabnoSi ugzo-ukvlod saxetialod miuSvas is da sakuTari wiaRidan warmoSvas axali samwyso? da mosem Tavad veRar ixilos TvaliT is Taoba, romelic gadalaxavs iordanes aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesasvlelad? mosem
unda gaakeTos arCevani. mose gamocdisa da gansacdelis
winaSea. Tumca aq uflis gansacdelic aris: ra pasuxs
gascems mas mose, misi rCeuli? ufali gansacdelSia adamianis Tavisufali nebis winaSe.
TiTqos yvela piroba iyo imisaTvis, rom moses mieRo
uflis winadadeba da eTqva: neba Senia, ufalo, dae, me
viyo axali eris mamamTavari; raki Sen ambob, rom qedficxelia es xalxi, dae, CemiT daiwyos istoria. magram
ara, mose uaryofs am perspeqtivas. mas sami argumenti
mohyavs uflis samsjavroze. es argumentebi vedrebis
saxiT moaxsena ufals.
yovlisSemZle da yovlismcodne uflis winaSe dgas
kaci da Seaxsenebs ufals: Sen ar gamoiyvane es xalxi egviptidan diadi ZaliTa da magari mklaviT? pirvel
mcnebaSi gana samudamod ar Caiwera: me var ufali, Seni
RmerTi, egviptidan Seni gamomyvani? es xom igive xalxia, sxva xalxi xom ar aris? an amaod gaisarja magari
mklavi? es erTi. daRupav am xalxs da ras ityvis egvipte, saidanac gamoiyvane is? xom ityvis, sakuTarma RmerTma dasaRupad gaiyvanao. faraoni gamarTldeba uflis
winaSe. es meore. da mesame, rac mTavaria: gaixsene abraami, isaki da israeli, Seni msaxurni, romelTac Sen Tavi
daufice da uTxari: cis varskvlavebiviT gagimravlebT
Tesls... (32:13). mose axsenebs ufals mis pasuxismgeblobas abraamis winaSe, romelic gamoarCia man mTeli kacobriobidan, gamoiyvana qaldevelTa uridan qanaanSi,
raTa iq Tavis droze misi daTesili amosuliyo. gana
mxolod abraams ar aRuTqva man: Segqmni did xalxad...?
ase esarCleba mose Tavis xalxs, erTi wamiT uaryofils uflisagan, da ase amxilebs ufals.
da gadaifiqra ufalma da aRar daatexa ubedureba
Tavis ers (32:14).
rogor gavigoT es adgili? moses aRmoaCnda iseTi Zala, rom ufals gadaafiqrebina ganzraxuli? sxvagvarad
es sityva (ebr. innaxem) SeiZleba iTargmnos rogorc inana, magram gana warmosadgenia RvTis sinanuli? amgvari,

168

gamosvlani

rogorc mas uwodeben, anTropopaTizmi (adamianuri cnebebiT RvTis moqmedebis gamoxatva) xSiria bibliaSi, rogorc Zvel, ise axal aRTqmaSi. amas verc erTi religiuri
wigni ver ascdeba. adamianur enas sxva saSualeba ar gaaCnia RvTis bunebisa da qcevis gamosaxatavad. warRvnis winac naTqvamia, rom inana ufalma, rom Seqmna adamiani
(dab. 6:6), Tu inana, rogorc adamiani nanobs, maSin mis
gangebaSi da SemoqmedebaSi bzari gaCenila. magram Sesaqmis yoveli zRurblis Semdeg, xom ambobda, rom kargia?
am inanaSi gamoxatulia mxolod ufliseuli Sefaseba
adamianis saqcielisa, misi dacemuli mdgomareobisa. aq
gamoxatulia sinanuli adamianis mimarT, romelmac dakarga is simaRle, romelic mas RmerTTan aaxlovebda.
aqac, israelianTa mimarTac, aris sinanuli maTi uzneo
saqcielis gamo, rom uRalates ufals, da aris patiebac.
am aqtebs _ orives gamoxatavs inana.
magram isic unda iTqvas da es, SesaZloa, mTavaric
iyos, rom moses argumentebi srul TanxmobaSia uflis
gangebasTan. uflis neba SezRudulia moses TavisuflebiT: mose uflebamosilia mosTxovos ufals aRTqmis
Sesruleba, usayveduros mas pirobis darRveva. mosesa
da uflis urTierToba, rogorc dialoguri urTierToba, uSvebs amas. moses aq, sinais mTaze, abraamis pozicia uWiravs uflis mimarT, romelsac xalxis mospoba
ganuzraxavs. maSin abraami misTvis ucxo xalxs, sodomgomoris marTlebs esarCleboda, mose ki _ Tavis RviZl
xalxs, romelTa mwyemsoba ufalma mas Caabara. mose, SeiZleba iTqvas, Caswvda uflis gangebas, misi sityvebi
uflis gangebis gamoxatulebaa. mosem icis da Seupovradac acxadebs, rom ufali ar gaauqmebs Tavis aRTqmas, ar
dascems Tavis saxels mtris winaSe, ar gaawbilebs Tavis
rCeul xalxs da, sabolood, ar gaacudebs im did saswaulebs, romlebic egviptidan gamosvlas axlda.
amrigad, ufalma ers apatia Secodeba. mosem gamoiTxova es patieba da is pirnaTeli Camodis mTidan. axla ki
iwyeba misi gansacdeli.
is, rac mosem ixila mTis Ziras, mis yovelgvar molodins aRemateboda. man xom icoda uflisagan oqros xbosa
da xalxis gandgomis ambavi, magram oqros kerpisa da mis
garSemo mrokveli xalxis xilvam imdenad Sezara, rom
man RvTis nakeTebi da RvTis TiTebiT warwerili
dafebi kldeze miamsxvria. rad amsxvrevs mose rjulis
dafebs, romlis erT-erTi mcneba kerpTayvaniscemas
krZalavs? es mcneba xom imaTTvis arsebobs, visac ucxovria kerpTayvanismcemelTa Soris da midrekilia kerpTa
Tayvaniscemisaken? gana moses msgavsi adamianebisaTvis
iyo es mcneba? marTalia, xalxma daarRvia es mcneba, romelic mas ukve mosmenili hqonda, magram Tu aZlevda es
uflebas moses, rom am dacemul xalxamde ar mietana uflis TiTebiT warwerili dafebi. roca arsebobs codva,
ibadeba rjulic. Tumca isic marTalia, rogorc pavle
mociquli ambobs, rom rjulisagan ars gamocnoba

169

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codvisa (rom. 3:20), anu rjuli gamoavlens codvas. ase


moxda sinais mTis Ziras: rjulma, romelic Semovida israelianTa cnobierebaSi, gamoaCina maTi codva. es niSnavda, rom maT esaWiroebaT rjuli imisaTvis, rom uflis rCeulebi iyvnen, rom ukan moitovon is mdgomareoba, roca rjuli ar irRveva rjulis ararsebobis gamo
(rom. 4:15). xalxi unda dasjiliyo am mcnebis darRvevisaTvis, magram ara imiT, rom maT warTmeodaT codvis amkrZalavi rjuli. mosem Tavis risxvaSi waarTva xalxs es
rjuli. es sulmokleoba Tavad moses CaeTvala codvad,
ramac kidev sxva, uflisaTvis uTno saqcielTan erTad,
aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesasvleli gza mouWra.
Teodorite kvirelis ganmartebiT, raki qvis dafebi
ufalsa da mis ers Soris dadebuli saqorwino xelSekruleba iyo, sasZlom ki siZis saxlSi Sesvlamde Sescoda, Ralati Caidina, amitomac mosem sruliad samarTlianad gaanadgura isini.
am ganmartebas mxars uWers moses es moqmedeba: aiRo
maTi gakeTebuli xbo, cecxlSi dawva da mtvrad aqcia,
wyals moafrqvia da israelianebs Seasva (32:20). SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom oqros xbos gacamtverebiT da misi
ferflis SesmiT mosem aCvena xalxs maTi saTayvanebeli
RmerTebis uZlureba _ maT mucelsve Caaylapa isini.
magram am simbolur aqts unda hqondes sxva datvirTvac,
rasac gamoZaxili aqvs ricxvTa wignSi, sadac qmris RalatSi dadanaSaulebul qals asmeven damawyevar
wyals, mware wyals (masSi savanis niadagidan aRebuli miwaa Cayrili), romelmac unda amxilos misi Ralati. Tu qali damnaSavea, qals gausivdeba muceli da daudneba saSo (ricx. 5:14-31). TiTqos am
eWvianobis"
rjuliT icdebian uflis, maTi zecieri qmris moRalate israelianebi moses mier, Tumca mTeli pasuxismgebloba xalxis am saqcielSi aarons ekisreba.
uTxra mosem aarons: ra dagiSava am xalxma, aseT did
codvaSi rom Caagde? (32:21).
aaronma ver upatrona xalxs, rogorc bavSvs, moses iq
aryofnaSi. aaronma gza misca maT dabal religiur instiqtebs, _ aaronma, romelic mosem Tavis nacvlad datova xalxTan. misi pasuxi arafriT gansxvavdeba adamis
sityvebisagan, romliTac is Tavs imarTlebda RvTis
winaSe (dab. 3:12). aaroni, adamis msgavsad, ar cnobs Tavs
braleulad, piriqiT, brali maTze gadaaqvs, visac gza
misca codvis Casadenad. Sen ici, _ pasuxs scems igi moses, _ rom borotebisken aris midrekili es xalxi. miTxres: gagvikeTe RmerTebi, romlebic mogviZRodnen win,
radgan ar viciT, ra daemarTa am moses, kacs, romelmac
egviptidan gamogviyvana... (32:22-23), da obieqturad
gadmoscems momxdars. aaroni sruliad icilebs pasuxismgeblobas: igi gamodis, rogorc ubralo aRmsrulebeli xalxis nebisa. aq yvela damnaSavea, mis garda _
TviT mosec, romelic agvianebda Camosvlas da, iqneb,
arc ki dabrunebuliyo ukan. nacvlad imisa, rom mas, sam-

170

gamosvlani

Rvdelos, uflis nebiT emoqmeda, igi xalxis nebas dahyva. marTlac, es xalxi midrekilia borotebisaken (es
aris adamis codvis gamovlineba), rac araerTgzis aCvena am xalxma Tavisi istoriuli gzis manZilze, rogorc
udabnoSi, ise qanaanSi damkvidrebisas, magram risTvis
aris winamZRoli? unda anacvalos winamZRolma RvTis
nebas xalxis ukeTuri neba da amiT codvaSi Seiyvanos
xalxi, romelic es-es aris gamovida egviptis monobidan? Tu SeunarCunos mas is simaRle, is rwmena, is Segneba, romliTac amodioda egviptidan? cecxlSi Cavyare
da es xbo gamovida (32:24), imarTlebs Tavs aaroni,
TiTqos is yofiliyos ara winamZRoli da moZRvari
xalxisa, aramed xelovani, romlis saqme kerpebis Seqmnaa. es xbo gamovida, ambobs aaroni, TiTqos kerpma misi nebis gareSe miiRo xbos saxe, anu is gulisxmobs, rom
kerpi saswaulebrivad warmoiSva, rogorc xalxis cnobierebaSi arsebuli RvTaebis warmosaxviTi xati.
ra Tqma unda, mose ar Seiwynarebs amgvar TavismarTlebas aaronisgan, rogorc RmerTma ar Seiwynara adamis TavismarTleba _ sinaize gamocxadebis Semdeg mose
RmerTia aaronisTvis: Sen RmerTi iqnebi misTvis
(4:16). mose rogorc RmerTi Wvrets sinamdviles, is sakmaod mkacrad afasebs aaronis brals: dainaxa mosem,
rom miSvebulia xalxi, rom miuSva igi aaronma misi
mtrebisagan ybadasaRebad (32:25). magram mainc isjeba
ara aaroni Tavisi sulmokleobis gamo, aramed es miSvebuli xalxi _ msxverpli am sulmokleobisa.
Cadga mose banakis karibWeSi da Tqva: vinc uflisaa,
CemTan! da Segrovda masTan yvela leviani (32:26). uflisa da mosesadmi erTguleba daadastura moses mSobliurma tomma. unda vifiqroT, rom aaronic imaT ricxvSi iqneboda (es Tu ixsnida mas uflis risxvisagan),
vinc garsSemoekriba moses. magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom
erTaderTi levis tomi darCa SeubRalavi da danarCenma
israelobam mTlianad gadauxvia uflis gzas. levianebs
mosem imisaTvis uxmo, raTa isini uflis meamboxeebs gasworebodnen _ maT maxviliT daxoces sami aTasamde kaci.
SeiZleba gvefiqra, rom es sami aTasi iyo swored is xalxi, vinc oqros xbos garSemo rokavda, magram ramdenadac
es ricxvi ar aris mainc da mainc STambeWdavi ormilionnaxevriani erisaTvis, SesaZloa, masSi rokvis warmmarTvelni igulisxmebodnen, an isini, visac adgilze waawydnen uflis javris amosayrelad gasuli levianebi.
rogorc Cans, levianebs es moqmedeba RvTismsaxurebis
aqtad CaeTvalaT _ am toms xom kultis samsaxuri daekisra. aq pirvelad moxda, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, maTi kurTxeva. ase mimarTa maT mosem: aivseT xeli dRes uflisaTvis... raTa kurTxeva gadmovides dRes Tqvenze
(32:29). aqedan daiwyo maTi samsaxuri, uflis moRalate
adamianebis es xocva-Jleta unda yofiliyo msxverplSewirva maTi kurTxevisaTvis. uflis gamosarClebis
dros, romelic mTeli sisastikiT Sesrulda, maT ar un-

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da daendoT arc Zma, arc axlobeli: mokaliT Zmam Zma,


megobarma megobari, axlobelma axlobeli (32:28). maT
uswordebian rogorc uflisa da rCeuli xalxis mtrebs,
rogorc xdeboda udabnoSi maTi cxovrebisas (mag., ix.
ricx. 25:10-13) da rogorc mosem dauwesa levianebs rjulad sikvdilis win, rom isini ityvian Tavis mamaze da
Tavis dedaze, ar minaxavso isini da rom uflis aRTqmas
Zmebsa da Svilebs anacvaleben (rjl. 33:9). fsalmunis
avtoric amas ambobs pirovnulad, Tavisi, ara mTeli tomis, saxeliT: rogor ar SeviZulo, ufalo, Seni moZuleni, da Seni winaRmdgomni ar SeviZago? (138:21).
magram amiT ar amoiwura oqros xbos tragikuli epizodi. Cadenili iqna codva da is Sendobili unda iqnes uflis mier, codva unda wairecxos. xalxi, mTeli
eri, unda gaTavisufldes codvisagan. im sami aTasi kacis Sewirva codvis gamosasyid msxverplad adamianis
xeliT moxda, ara uflis xeliT. mose elis, rom ufali
daatexs sasjels mTels ers, da aha, igi gamodis Suamdgomlad uflis winaSe. ufro metic: mose mzad aris,
sakuTari Tavi gaswiros, oRond xalxs Camoerecxos
codva, an Tu mTeli eris daRupva gardauvalia, daiRupos mTel erTan erTad. axla miuteveb maT codvas? Tu
ara da, amomSale Seni dawerili wignidan (32:32), ai,
ras eubneba mose ufals. ras niSnavs uflis dawerili
wigni? sxvagan bibliaSi igi iwodeba sicocxlis (an
cocxalTa) wignad: aixocnen igini wignisa misgan
cxovelTasa da marTalTa Tana nu daiwerebian
(fsalm. 68:29). uflis dawerili wigni is wignia, sadac
marTalni arian Cawerilni (marTalni da cocxalni aq
sinonimebia). mose ambobs uars sicocxlis wignze anu
marTalTa xvedrze, sTxovs ufals, rom Seiwiros misi
sicocxle mTeli xalxis codvis gamosasyid msxverplad. ufali ar miiRebs am msxverpls _ mose adamiania
da yoveli adamiani, rogorc pirovnuli nebis matarebeli, Tavisi sicocxliT agebs pasuxs RvTis winaSe.
vinc Semcoda, imas amovSli Cemi wignidan (32:33), aseTia uflis gadawyvetileba.
rogor gamoixata sasjeli, romelic ufalma gadauwyvita xalxs? ufali dasjis xalxs ara mxolod am konkretuli, Tundac fundamenturi codvisaTvis, aramed
imisaTvis, rom misi buneba codvisaken aris midrekili,
rogorc sworad amoicno maTi buneba aaronma. es xalxi
kidev araerTgzis gamoavlens sulmokleobas udabnos
gzaze. oqros xbos Tavisi recidivebi eqneba. aseTi Segnebis patronebi ki ver daudgebian, ver sZleven qanaanelebs, amitomac qanaanSi Sesvla Tavad maTTvis ar iqneba
sasikeTo. ufali dasjis am xalxs imiT, rom mTels mis
amJamindel Taobas udabnoSi daayrevinebs Zvlebs. da es
sasjeli maTTvisve iqneba sasikeTo: ufali iseve daindobs maT qanaanSi Sesvlisagan, rogorc daindo maSin,
roca pirdapiri gziT, filistimelTa miwa-wyalze gavliT ar Seiyvana aRTqmul qveyanaSi (gam. 13:17).

172

gamosvlani

oqros xbos epizodi mTavrdeba Semajamebeli muxliT: da gawyvita ufalma xalxi imis gamo, rom gaakeTes xbo, romelic aaronma gaakeTa (32:35). fiqroben,
rom gawyvetaSi im sami aTasi kacis gawyveta igulisxmeba, magram is aqti win uZRvis moses am Suamdgomlobas
uflis winaSe, maT Soris garkveuli xania gasuli. fiqroben, es gawyveta aris is sasjeli, romliTac mTeli
Taoba daisaja udabnoSi. vxedavT, ufals ar gadaufiqrebia xalxis dasja. aris azri, rom fraza da gawyvita
ufalma xalxi unda iTargmnos rogorc da Savi Wiri
mouvlina ufalma xalxs (iggof Ziridan negef Savi
Wiri), da TiTqos Savi Wiris uSualo gamomwvevi oqros xbos ferflnarevi wylis Sesma yofiliyo, rac naklebad sarwmunoa.
bolo frazaSi sagangebod aris gaxazuli aaronis
wvlili (avtoroba) kerpis SeqmnaSi (...xbo, romelic
aaronma gaakeTa) da ratom ar Seiwira aaroni Savma
Wirma? viciT, rom aaroni daisaja mTels xalxTan da
Tavad mosesTan erTad imiT, rom ver dadga fexi aRTqmul miwaze.
aha, Cemi angelozi wagiZRveba win (32:34), ambobs
ufali. es imas niSnavs, rom amieridan icvleba winamZRolobis xasiaTi. Tu adre, Tavidanve, ufali Tavad
uSualod miuZRoda xalxs (13:21), axla igi gzavnis angelozs maT sawinamZRvrod.
samkaulebi
(33:1-6)
ufali ar Secvlis abraamTan dadebul aRTqmas misi
TeslisaTvis qanaanis damkvidrebis Sesaxeb. magram es
moxdeba ara misi uSualo CareviT, aramed misi angelozis xeliT, romelsac warumZRvanebs maT win. qedficxeloba xalxis is sabediswero Tvisebaa, romelic maTTvis autanels gaxdis uflis myofobas maT SuagulSi.
me aRar vivli Sens Soris, radgan qedficxeli xalxi
xarT da vaiTu mogspoT gzaSi (33:2-3). da es isev da
isev Tavad xalxis sasikeTod. magram es sityvebi sastiki (ray sakuTr. avi, boroti) sityva (33:4) iyo
xalxis TvalSi. da man gamarTa glova. glovis garegani gamoxatuleba iyo uarisTqma samkaulebze (aravis
gaukeTebia samkauli _ 33:4). magram es ar iyo sakmarisi. ufali moiTxovs maTgan, rom es droebiTi uarisTqma mudmivi iyos. es is samkaulebia, romlebic ar gaRebula oqros xbos Sesaqmnelad. axla es samkaulebi
ufals unda Seswiron. CamoixseniT samkaulebi (33:5),
iyo uflis brZaneba. samkaulebi codvis niSania. isini,
rogorc potenciuri matarebelni codvisa, momavalSi
SeiZleba kidev qceuliyo sacdurad qedficxeli xalxisaTvis, SeiZleba dasdeboda masalad axal kerps.
amitomac unda gadadnes samkauli sawmidaris samsaxurebeli WurWlisaTvis.

173

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

mose da sakrebulo karavi.


uflis pirispir
(33:7-23)
ufali ar miatovebs xalxs, magram is ar darCeba maT
uSualo siaxloves. imis niSnad, rom ufali aRar aris
maT Soris, maT SuagulSi, uflis gamocxadebis karavi
gadatanili iqna banaks gareT. amiT TiTqos gamoixata
uflis wyromac da misi transcendenturoba, miRmuroba. es aris sakrebulo karavi anu sadResaswauli karavi (ohel moyed), ase uwoda mas mosem. amieridan masTan miaxloeba mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi
SeuZlia israelians, uflis mZebnels (mebakkeS adona). rac Seexeba moses, mxolod is Sedis karavSi, romlis karTan uflis iq myofobis niSnad CamoeSveba Rrublis sveti da xalxi, TiToeuli israeliani, xedavs mas
Tavisi karvis Sesasvlelidan da Tayvans scems mas.
pirispir elaparakeboda ufali moses, rogorc kaci
elaparakeba kacs (33:11). ras niSnavs es? rogor unda gavigoT pirispir (fanim el fanim) dgoma? Tu gavigebT
mas pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, rogorc gvesmis pirispir
dgoma ori adamianisa fizikurad, roca isini erTurTis
saxes xedaven, es ewinaaRmdegeba 33:20-s, sadac ufali eubneba moses: ver SeZleb Cemi piris xilvas... Tumca meore
rjulSi vkiTxulobT: pirispir gelaparakebodaT ufali mTaze cecxlis Suagulidan (5:4), magram viciT, rom
xalxs mxolod uflis xma esmoda, mis saxes ki ver xedavda.
asea moses SemTxvevaSi. igi Tavad sTxovs ufals, axilvinos Tavisi dideba (33:18). amaze mets is ver moiTxovs. dideba (qabod) didebaa, magram is mxolod aCrdilia uflis pirisa. uflis piris xilva ki cocxali adamianisaTvis, Tundac igi mose iyos, momakvdinebelia (33:20). erTaderTi, risi xilvac SeuZlia moses, es uflis zurgia:
Cems zurgs dainaxav, piri ki uxilavi iqneba (33:23).
maS, ras unda niSnavdes pirispir... rogorc kaci...
kacs? amiT biblia migvaniSnebs moses sulieri Wvretis
unarze: mas esmis uflisa, rogorc SeiZleba kacs esmodes
mis pirispir mdgari adamianis fiqrebi da zraxvebi. sulieri da zneobrivi srulyofileba SeaZlebinebs moses,
Caswvdes uflis gangebas am sabediswero Jams, roca marTlac wydeboda rCeuli xalxis bedi _ iqneboda kvlav
maTTan Tavad ufali Tu Tavisi angelozis sapatroneblad gaxdida. magram yvela ers Tavisi angelozi hyavs miCenili da TiToeuli mfarvelobs Tavis wilxvedrils.
israeli ki uflis rCeulia, misi sakuTreba (segullah),
misi wilxvedrili da, Tu ufalma miatova is, sadRaa misi rCeuloba? ai, es aris sagani moses saubrisa ufalTan.
moses TviTSegneba: mosem icis, rom mas madli aqvs napovni uflis TvalSi, sxvanairad ufali ar Caabarebda
mas am qedficxel saymos... amitomac moses aqvs pretenzia: man, rogorc mwyemsma, unda icodes, vis moavlens
ufali Tavis sanacvlod, romeli angelozi iqneba maTi
gzamkvlevi danarCen gzaze? mose erTmaneTTan akavSi-

174

gamosvlani

rebs madlsa da rCeulobas. man icis, rom ara mxolod


man pova madli uflis TvalSi, aramed _ xalxmac (ufro
sworad, jer xalxma, mere mosem). rogorRa mivxvdeT,
rom madli vpoveT Sens TvalSi me da Senma erma? gana
imiT ara, rom CemTan erTad ivli da gamorCeuli viqnebiT me da Seni eri yvela xalxidan...? (33:16). da gana es
saTxovari Tu ufro moTxovna uflis gangebaSi ar iyo
imTaviTve? da ufalic upasuxebs: mag Sen naTqvamsac
avasruleb, radgan madli gaqvs napovni Cems TvalSi da
saxeliT gicnob (33:17). amrigad, israeli rCeul xalxad rCeba da mosesaTvis amis utyuari garanti is aris,
rom ufali saxeliT icnobs mas anu mniSvnelobas aniWebs mis pirovnebas.
da swored amis Semdeg bedavs mose da sTxovs ufals,
axilvinos uflis dideba (33:18).
axali dafebi. moses vedreba.
aRTqmis sityvebi
(34:1-28)
me davwer dafebze sityvebs, romlebic ewera im pirvel dafebze, Sen rom daamsxvrie (34:1), ambobs ufali.
am sityvebiT is ganaaxlebs aRTqmas. adamiani amsxvrevs,
RmerTi ganamrTelebs, riTac is iZleva sulgrZelobisa
da moTminebis magaliTs. me davwer, ambobs ufali,
Tumca amave TavSi vkiTxulobT, rom mosem dawera dafebze aRTqmis sityvebi (34:28). ras niSnavs es SeuTanxmebloba? visi xeliT daiwera aTi mcneba, uflisa Tu
mosesi? me davwer niSnavs, rom aTi mcneba RvTiuri
warmoSobisaa, misi gamoxatulebaa miwier planSi, adamianTa sazogadoebaSi. RvTiuri sibrZne aTi mcnebis saxes iRebs, roca is safuZvlad edeba adamianTa urTierTobas RmerTTan da erTmaneTTan. aseve, am azriT, mTeli biblia, ara mxolod aTi mcneba, dawerilia uflis
xeliT (imave magari xeliT, romelmac isini egviptidan
gamoiyvana). magram am SemoqmedebaSi adamianis xeli arsebiTia. adamiani iRebs uflis dawerils da gadascems
xalxs, da es miReba-gadacema TanaSemoqmedebiTi aqtia.
rjulis dafebis xelmeored miRebac Teofaniis procesSi xdeba. magram, Tu pirveli dafebis gadacemis
dros bunebis stiqionebSi iCina Tavi ufalma, axla Camovida ufali RrubelSi da dadga masTan iq... da Caiara
ufalma mis win... (34:5-6). da sanam Cauvlides ufali moses, is moaswrebs locva-vedrebiT mimarTos mas isev da
isev im saTxovariT, rom ufalma kvlavac iaros maT SuagulSi, rom epatios Secodeba am qedficxel xalxs da
kvlavac misi samkvidro iyos. da ufalic ara Tu moiZulebs xalxs, aramed debs aRTqmas, rom kvlavac ganagrZobs saswaulTa moxdenas maT Tvalwin, rogornic, egviptis garda, arc erT qveyanaSi ar mouxdenia. ufali ambobs, rom is saqme, rasac moimoqmedebs igi maTTvis, saSineli (nora an: sakvirveli) iqneba. ra igulisxmeba
masSi? ra aris is saSineli saqme, an saswaulebi (nif-

175

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

laoT), romelsac ufali Caidens maTTvis da egvipteSi


Cadenil saswaulebs gautoldeba? es aris qanaanis mosaxleobis ayra maTi miwebidan, am qveynis mkvidri tomebisa, romlebic saxeldebiT arian CamoTvlilni _ amorevelTa, qanaanelTa, ferizelTa, xivielTa, iebusevelTa (da es rigi araerTxel meordeba xuTwigneulSi).
es iqneba sasjeli, am tomebisaTvis gamzadebuli da,
imavdroulad, wyaloba rCeuli erisaTvis. es aqti sakvirvelia, SemaZrwunebelia, radgan is araadamianuria,
adamianur SesaZleblobebs aRemateba. gana aseve RvTiurma saswaulebma (niflaoT) ar dasaja egvipte, xolo
israelianebs xsna moutana?
magram aRTqma ar aris calmxrivi. mis erT mxares dgas
ufali, meore mxares _ xalxi. es saswaulebi rom moxdes,
xalxma unda Seasrulos valdebulebani, romelic rCeul ers ekisreba. es xalxi unda iyos wmida anu ganridebuli qanaanis mkvidrTagan. ar dado aRTqma am qveynis
mcxovrebTan (34:12), brZanebs ufali. aRTqmis dadeba
gulisxmobs ormxriv valdebulebebs: aRTqmis dadebis
SemTxvevaSi israeli valdebuli gaxdeba qanaanis mosaxleobis winaSe. is iZulebuli iqneba moiqces maTi wesebisamebr da gaxdes erTi maTgani.
ra pirobebi unda Seasrulos israelma, rom ufalma
saswaulebrivad ahyaros qanaanis mkvidrni mis winaSe (es
aris ZiriTadi momenti)? pirveli: israeli ar unda daumoyvrdes qanaanelebs, ar gaiziaros maTi religia, ar
Seswiros msxverpli maT RmerTebs (piriqiT, unda aCexos
maTi kerpebi), radgan es garyvnileba iqneba maTi mxridan. ebrauli zanah _ amosavali mniSvnelobiT gadaxra, gadaxveva (gzidan) _ Tanabrad gamoiyeneba rogorc xorcieli (sqesobrivi) garyvnilebis, ise ucxo
RmerTebis Tayvaniscemis anu WeSmariti rwmenidan gadaxvevis azriT: es ori moqmedeba gaTanabrebulia maTi
gamomxatveli am saerTo leqsikiT. amave zmniT gadmoicema ucxo xalxTan kavSiris daWera, rasac gardauvalad
mohyveba ucxo rjulze gadasvla. amisgan afrTxilebs
ufali xalxs, roca ukrZalavs qanaanelebTan aRTqmis
(rac igivea, kavSiris) dadebas. amave mizeziT ikrZaleba
saqorwino urTierTobac _ moiyvan maT asulTagan Seni
vaJebisaTvis da miecemian garyvnilebas (zanu) maTi asulebi TavianTi RmerTebis kvalze da garyvnian (hiznu)
Sens vaJebsac TavianTi RmerTebis kvalze (34:16).
meore mcneba aq amgvarad aris Camoyalibebuli: nu
gaakeTeb Camosxmul RmerTebs (34:17), rac ar niSnavs
imas, rom dasaSvebia RmerTebis (an RmerTis, Tundac uflis) gamosaxulebis Seqmna sxva romelime gziT. Camosxmuli RmerTebiT miniSnebulia axlaxan Cadenili
codva (oqros xboc xom Camosxmuli iyo!).
ufali sagangebod axsenebs maT ufuarobis dResaswauls, rogorc fuZemdeblur dReobas, radgan is dakavSirebulia egviptidan gamosvlasTan abibis TveSi (34:18);
aseve egvipteSi Cadenili saswaulis _ egviptel pir-

176

gamosvlani

mSoTa gawyvetisa da israeliis pirmSoTa gadarCenis _


samaxsovrod pirmSoobis rjuls, romlis Tanaxmadac
israelSi yoveli saSos gamRebi, adamiani iqneba, Tu
pirutyvi, uflisaa (34:19-20).
ufali gaaxsenebs maT SabaTis siwmides, misi Senaxvis
gardauvalobas TviT gacxovelebuli Sromis procesSic ki, roca wydeba materialuri dovlaTis bedi:
xvnisas da mkisas daisvene (34:21). SabaTi yovelgvar
nivTierze maRlaa, is wmidaa da xelSeuxebeli.
ufali avaldebulebs yovel mamrovans israelianTagan, rom weliwadSi samgzis gamarTos uflis dResaswauli _ samgzis eCvenos ufals. ufali iZleva imis garantiasac, rom mosalocad wasulis miwas aravin daxarbdeba (meaTe mcneba afrTxilebs israelians, rom man ar indomos axloblis qoneba).
am TavSi, rogorc vxedavT, ganmeorebulia is rjuli,
romelic adre gamoucxada ufalma moses. magram aq yvelaferi ar aris gadmocemuli. roca ufali eubneba mas:
Caiwere es sityvebi, radgan am sityvebis mixedviT gidebT aRTqmas Sen da israels (34:27), igulisxmeba, rom
mose imaze mets Cawers, rac am TavSi CvenTvis mokled
aris Tqmuli. aqve unda iTqvas, rom mose or Canawers akeTebs: erTs _ aRTqmisas, meores _ aTi mcnebisas ormoci
dRisa da ormoci Ramis marxvis Semdeg (34:27-28), rac CanawerTa siwmideze migvaniSnebs.
moses pirisaxe
(34:29-35)
aha, mose Camodis sinaidan da kvlav ori dafa uWiravs
xelSi. rogorc dafebia ganaxlebuli, aseve Tavad mosec
ganaxlebulia. ormoci dRisa da ormoci Ramis marxvis
Semdeg mosem feri icvala _ ufalma Seusrula moses
Txovna: axilvina Tavisi dideba, romelic gadavida mis
saxeze, mis piriskanze misda Seucnoblad. mTidan Camosvlisas ar icoda mosem, brwyinavda misi piriskani
masTan laparakis gamo (34:29). bunebrivia, ubralo
xalxi Sezara moses xilvam, ginda RmerTi gamocxadebodaT, da ver gabedes miaxloeba (34:30). aaronic ki Sedrka. mxolod mas Semdeg gabedes misvla mosesTan, roca
man uxmo maT, roca darwmundnen, rom es RvTiuri, arabunebrivi, naTliT mosili adamiani isev is mose iyo, maTi
sisxli da xorci. Tumca maT xorciel Tvalebs ver unda
gaeZloT uflis didebisaTvis, romelic moseze iyo
gadmosuli, da mainc vkiTxulobT: Sewyvita mosem maTTan laparaki da ride Camoifara saxeze (34:33). es muxli TiTqos gveubneba, rom mose gabrwyinebuli pirisaxiT idga maT winaSe. Tumca Semdeg irkveva, rom mose ridis gareSe mxolod uflis winaSe Sedioda, gareT gamosvlisas da xalxis winaSe Cvenebisas ki isev ifarebda
rides (34:34-35). aRsaniSnavia, rom ride ( masveh)
mTels Zvel aRTqmaSi mxolod am erTaderT adgilas
gvxvdeba, rogorc moses brwyinvalebis safarveli.

177

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba
[brwyinavda, didebul iyo (Zv. qarT.) gadmoscems
dedniseul zmnas karan, romelic warmomdgaria arsebiTi
saxelisagan keren rqa. am semantikis safuZvelze netarma
ieronimusma laTinurad es adgili amgvarad Targmna: tE ignorabat quod cornuta esset facies sua ar icoda, rom rqiani iyo misi saxe.
teqstis amgvari Targmani-interpretacia iyo mizezi imisa,
rom dasavleTSi moses rqadasxmulad gamoxatavdnen (miqelanjelo, botiCeli...). ebrauli sityvis keren gadataniT
mniSvnelobaTa (Zliereba, Rirseba) Soris aris sxivic, rogorc es dasturdeba Zveli aRTqmis winaswarmetyvelur da poetur wignebSi. magaliTad: `da mTovare misi viTarca naTeli iyos, rqani xelTa Sina misTa (amb. 3:4), mun
aRmouceno rqa daviTs da ganumzado sanTeli cxebulsa
Cemsa (fsalm. 131:17). wevrTa paralelizmi aTvalsaCinoebs
orsave teqstSi rqisa da naTlis identurobas. analogiuri paralelizms vxedavT Sumerul himnografiaSi: taZari varskvlaviviT brwyinavs, xariviT rqa maRla aRumarTavs; am ideas exmaureba svanuri sagalobelis sityvebi:
mze SemoaqvT rqebiT xarebs... zogierT Zvel enaSi (SumerulSi, egvipturSi da, mosalodnelia, sxvaganac) es ori
realoba erTi da imave leqsemiT gamoiTqmis. rqis dafaruli sxivuri buneba aSkaravdeba daviT guramiSvilis striqonSi: misTvis sawuTros mnaTobma mzem TinaTini irqosa,
vaJa-fSavelas eposSi: rqamnaTi da rqanaTliani _ jixvTa da iremTa saxiT, aseve msxverplSewirvis ritualSi,
romlis drosac samsxverplo pirutyvs rqebs oqroTi uferaven (odisea) an anTebul sanTlebs adgamen (svaneTSi, afxazeTSi...), rasac exmaureba erTi xalxuri leqsis striqoni: Camoqnes wyvili sanTeli, miakres orTav rqazeda...
ieronimusis Targmani mcdaria, Tumca is RvTaebaze ZvelTaZvel warmodgenas aaSkaravebs: sinais mTidan Camosuli
mose israelianTa TvalSi rqadasxmuli gamoCnda msgavsad im
xbosi, romelSic maT egviptidan maTi gamomyvani RmerTi dainaxes. cnobilia, rom Zvel SuamdinareTSi RmerTebs, adamianTagan gansxvavebiT, rqiani tiariT gamosaxavdnen, gaRmerTebul adamians (mefes) ki _ rqiani muzaradiT.]

ebrauli tradiciiT, moses Sobas da aRsasruls axlavs Seuqmneli naTeli: erTi apokrifis (moses apokalifsi) mixedviT, moses Sobisas saxli, sadac is iSva,
naTliT avsebula. aseve sikvdilis Semdeg mose Seuqmnelma naTelma moicva, is msoflio naTelSi daimarxa.
uflis brZanebaTa aRsruleba
(35-40)
arsebiTad aq meordeba is, rac moses gamoecxada
sityvierad uflisagan, rac Seadgenda wina Tavebis masalas.
meordeba SabaTis siwmidis Sexseneba sawmidaris
samuSaoTa dawyebis win. viciT, rom am dRes ikrZaleba
yovelgvari Sroma, romelic oflis denasTan aris dakavSirebuli. axla mose, cxadia, kvlav uflis SegonebiT, ucxadebs sazogadoebas: cecxls nu daanTebT
Tqvens sacxovreblebSi SabaT dRes (35:3).
samuSao iwyeba ZRvenis SewirviT. es ZRveni is masalaa, romelic nivTieri safuZveli unda gaxdes sawmi-

178

gamosvlani

darisaTvis da yoveli misi WurWlisaTvis _ dawyebuli qsoviliT, damTavrebuli patiosani TvlebiT,


romlebic samRvdelo Sesamoslis mosaoWavad unda
iqnes gamoyenebuli. mose CamouTvlis maT ZRvenis saxeobas saTiTaod (35:5-9) da mouxmobs gulbrZenT,
romelTac unda Seqmnan sawmidris karavi (savane) da
sakulto sagnebi (35:10-19). ZRveni, romelic maT miitanes _ yvelam Tavisi guluxvobiT, nebayoflobiT,
sauflo ZRvenad aris wodebuli: TerumaT adona
aRsamarTavi uflisa (35:21).
vin ZRveniT emsaxureba ufals, vin _ Tavisi xelovnebiT. magram xelovani Tavad uflis amorCeulia,
radgan xelovneba mowodebaa. RvTis suli iseve gadmodis maTze, rogorc msajulebze da winaswarmetyvelebze. uyure, ufalma mouwoda saxeldebiT becaliels, Zesa urisa, Zisa xurisa, iudas Stodan. aavso igi
RvTis suliT, sibrZniT, gonebiT, codniT da yoveli
xelovnebis unariT... (35:30). genealogiis xseneba
(Tundac mxolod mesame Taobamde) aaSkaravebs xelovanis Rirsebas. igi uflis mier ara mxolod qmnis niWiT aris mimadlebuli, RmerTma mas sxvaTa damoZRvris unaric misca, magram ara mxolod mas, aramed
oholiab axisamaqis Zesac, romelic danis Stodan iyo
(35:34). rogorc vxedavT, xelovnebis niWiT ufalma
iudasa da danis tomelni gamoarCia.
sawmidris mowyobaSi mTeli israeli iRebs monawileobas, es maTi saerTo saqmea. am dros isini erTsulovanni arian. roca mosem Caibara Semowiruloba, is
imaze meti aRmoCnda, vidre sawmidris mSeneblobas
sWirdeboda. Sesawiravis motana ar Sewydeboda, moses
rom sagangebod ar gamoecxadebina.
36:8-39:31 gadmogvcems savanisaTvis fardebisa da
mowyobilobis damzadebis, kidobnis, tablis misi saWurWliTurT, sasanTlis, sakmevlis samsxverplos,
sabanelis keTebis da ezos mowyobis, samRvdelo Sesamoslis damzadebis process. aq gulbrZen ( xaxam
leb) ostatTa xeliT xorcs isxams is gegma, romelic
mosem miiRo uflisagan sinais mTaze, da es yvelaferi
miutanes moses da naxa mosem mTeli namuSevari da,
aha, ise gaukeTebiaT yvelaferi. rogorc gamocxadebuli hqonda ufals, ise gaukeTebiaT. da akurTxa isini
mosem (39:43). es niSnavs, rom mosem moiwona gulbrZenTa Semoqmedeba, rogorc RmerTma Tavisi qmnileba,
romelsac eqvsi dRis manZilze qmnida, da Tqva, rom
Zalian kargia (dab. 1:23).
yvelaferi mzad aris, magram kultmsaxurebis dawyebisaTvis TiToeulma sakulto saganma Tavisi adgili unda povos. pirvel rigSi unda aRimarTos karavi
(savane) da, aha, ufali ubrZanebs moses mis aRmarTvas
pirveli Tvis pirvel dRes (40:1-2). es is Tvea _ Tve
abibisa, romlis meTxuTmete dRes israelianebi egviptidan amovidnen. ase rom, gamosvlidan TiTqmis

179

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

wlis Tavze iwyeba sakulto cxovreba.


ufali avalebs moses ara marto aRmarTvas karvisa,
aramed mowmobis kidobnis, sasanTlis, sakmevlis samsxverplos dadgmas mofardagulSi, xolo sabanelisa
da aRsavlenis samsxverplosi _ gareT, savanis ezoSi;
zeTis cxebas savanisaTvis da yoveli nivTisaTvis, rac
masSi dgas, maTi ganaTvlis mizniT; samRvdelod gamzadebuli aaronisa da misi Svilebis ganbanas, maT Semosvas da cxebas, rom am mironcxebam saukuno
mRvdloba mianiWos maT Taobidan TaobaSi (40:3-15).
da, roca yvelaferi gaamzada mosem, man Tavisi xeliT
pirvelad Seasrula RvTismsaxureba, romelsac Semdeg aaroni da misi Svilebi, rogorc samRvdeloni, Seasruleben: tablaze ganalaga sazedaSeo purebi, akmia
sakmeveli da Seswira aRsavleni msxverpli da pureulis Sesawiravi samsxverploze (40:22-29).
ufali, romelic adre sinais mTaze RrubelSi ecxadeboda moses, axla karavSia davanebuli _ is misi savanea (miSqan). amrigad, karavi sinais mTis Semcvlelia israelianTaTvis. karavi TiTqos sinais ganfenaa
miwaze horizontalur sibrtyeze; sinaim TiTqos karvis saxiT Crdili daafina miwas; an mTa karvis saxiT
aRimarTa niSnad imisa, rom RmerTi myofobs adamianTa Soris.
am karvis saxelwodebaa ohel moyed, romlis mxolod erTi, Tumca yvelaze wmida nawilia savane _
miSqan, sakuTriv, uflis samyofeli. ras gulisxmobs
ohel moyed, romlis adekvaturi, ramdenadme damakmayofilebeli Targmani ar xerxdeba? ohel niSnavs karavs, xolo sityva moyed gansazRvravs am karvis specifikas misi funqciis mixedviT.
moyed warmodgeba zmnisagan ayad, romelic niSnavs daniSvnas, dawesebas, daTqmul Sexvedras
(paemans) an Sekrebas salaSqrod an karvis karTan
RvTis sityvis misaRebad. amrigad, misgan nawarmoebi
saxeli moyed ganmartavs karavs (ohel) rogorc Sexvedris an Sekrebis adgils, sadac daTqmul dros adamiani xvdeba ufals. moyed iTavsebs adgilisa da drois mniSvnelobas: daTqmuli adgili, anu taZari, da
daTqmuli dro, vada, anu is Jami, rogorc dResaswauli, roca xalxi ikribeba ufalTan _ am adgilas da am
dros. moyed mkvidrdeba enaSi dResaswaulis mniSvnelobiT da, amrigad, ohel moyed SeiZleba iTargmnos, rogorc Sekrebis (Sesakrebeli, sakrebulo)
karavi, an sadResaswaulo karavi.
magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT moyed sityvis morfologias, saxeldobr imas, rom igi, rogorc mimReobiTi saxeli kauzativuri formisaa (hoyid), misi mniSvneloba amgvarad unda gadmoices: is, vinc krebs
xalxs an axvedrebs am adgilas da am daTqmul Jams. amrigad, ohel moyed gadaiTargmneba rogorc karavi,
romelic adamians axvedrebs (RmerTs). aseTi iqneba

180

gamosvlani

misi Sinaarsi. karavi ar aris pasiuri Sesakrebeli, is


dinamikuria, is Semoikrebs israelianTa sazogadoebas (yedah sazogadoeba, aseve zmnidan ayad), raTa
Seaxvedros is Tavis RmerTs.
imis niSnad, rom gansrulda sakrebulo karavi, uflis saxelis dasavanebeli, Rrubelma dafara igi
mTlianad, xolo uflis didebam aavso igi, ris gamoc
mosemac ki ver SeZlo iq Sesvla (40:34-35). amiT dadasturda, rom ufali kvlav Tavis xalxTan aris da is
uwinamZRvrebs mas aRTqmuli qveynisaken mimaval gzaze. dRisiT kvlav Rrublis sveti iqneba maTi winamZRoli da RamiT ki _ cecxlis sveti (40:36-38).

181

levianni

ebraul tradiciaSi am wignis saxelwodebaa `da mouwoda~


(va-ikra), rogorc iwyeba is. aleqsandrielma mTargmnelebma
mas uwodes levitikon biblion, anu levianTa wigni, radgan wigni samRvdelo rjulisadmia miZRvnili, levianebi ki, rogorc
samRvdeloebis deda-tomi, swored rjulis saqmeTa gamrigeni
da aRmasrulebelni iyvnen. Tumca saxeldebiT levianebi am wignSi mxolod erT adgilas ixseniebian (25:32-34). aq gadmocemulia is rjuli, romelic mosem Camoitana sinais mTidan da Semdeg damatebiT sakrebulo karvis karTan gamoecxada.
levianTa wignis mTavari sityva-cnebaa wmida (kodeS), romelic Tavidan bolomde gasdevs mis Txrobas _ is igulisxmeba dausaxelebladac wignis yovel TavSi, yovel muxlSi, rogorc misi (siwmidis) fundamenturi kategoria. wmida da siwmide teqstSi 80-ze metjer aris naxsenebi. wignis mTavari piri
mRvdelmTavaria (aaroni), romelic 70-jer ixsenieba.
levianTa wignis ukeT aRsaqmelad arsebobs ramdenime cda
misi danawilebisa: ornawiledad, oTxnawiledad da Svidnawiledad. SesaZlebelia kidev ufro dawvrilebiTi danawileba.
1. ornawiledi: I. ganwmeda im Seryvnisagan, romelic aSorebs
adamians RvTisgan (1-16), II. aRdgena adamiansa da RmerTs Soris
kavSirisa (16-27).
2. oTxnawiledi: I. msxverplSewirvis rjuli (1-5), II. mRvdelTa da saRvTismsaxuro rjuli (6-10), III. ganwmedis rjuli (1116), IV. kurTxevis rjuli da dResaswaulebi (17-27).
3. Svidnawiledi: I. msxverplSewirvis rjuli (1-7), II. samRvdelo rjuli (8-10), III. wmidisa da arawmidis garCevis rjuli (1115), IV. mitevebis dRe (16), V. ritualis rjuli (17-25), VI. kurTxevani da SeCvenebani (26), VII. aRTqmaTa da SesawiravTa rjuli (27).
levianTa wigni iwyeba da kavSiriT, rac imas miuTiTebs,
rom is gamosvlaTa wignis uSualo gagrZelebaa. israelis banaki kvlav sinais ZirSia. es aris Seyovneba gzaze. mose dgas karvis
SesasvlelTan da ufali ucxadebs mas rjuls anu kanonebs _
konstitucias, romlis Tanaxmadac unda icxovron ara aq, udabnoSi, aramed aRTqmul qveyanaSi, saiTkenac miemarTebian. am
rjuls isini aRasruleben im qveyanaSi, romelsac daimkvidreben, magram rjuli udabnoSi, qveynis gareT eZlevaT, TiTqos
imis niSnad, rom is maTi yofisagan transcendenturia, ar aris
Sedegi maTi cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebisa. is mocemulia zegardmo RvTis kacis, moses, xeliT, romelic axla dgas sadResaswaulo (an sakrebulo) karvis karTan, romelSic ver Sedis,
radgan uflis didebas avsebuli aqvs karavi, da moses esmis Signidan gamomavali xma.
da mouwoda moses ufalma da elaparaka mas sakrebulo karvidan (1:1) _ ase iwyeba levianTa wigni da mTeli wignis manZilze, mcireodeni TxrobiTi pasaJis CanacvlebiT, romlebSic
gadmocemulia uflis nabrZanebis aRsruleba an raime sagangebo SemTxveva (8:4-36; 9-10; 24:10-23), moses esmis es xma: 31-gzis
mimarTavs mas ufali. levianTa wigni mTlianad RvTis nalaparakevia, RvTis sityvaa.

184

msxverplSewirvis rjuli
(1-5)
israelianTa rjulis fundamenturi qmedeba, rogorc yvela sxva religiaSi, msxverplSewirvaa. wignSi
gadmocemulia msxverplSewirvis wesi mTeli Tavisi
mravalferovnebiT, mis gansxvavebul aspeqtebSi.
msxverplSewirvis fenomeni SeiZleba ramdenime
mxriT iqnes ganxiluli:
1. Sesawiravi obieqtis raoba: cxoveluri (sisxliani) _ mcenareuli (usisxlo). cxovelis gvari _ mcenareuli Sesawiravis saxe.
2. Sesawiravi cxovelis ragvaroba.
3. msxverplSewirvis saxeoba, tipi. ritualis formaluri mxare.
4. msxverplSewirvis daniSnuleba, motivi.
daviwyoT pirveliT: 1. Sesawiravi obieqtis raoba.
samsxverplo cxoveli unda iyos msxvilfexa (xari an
Zroxa, ZvelqarTuli terminologiiT: zroxa) an
wvrilfexa saqoneli (cxvari, Txa), da frinveli: mtredi an gvriti. sxva saxeoba cxovelTa samyarodan samsxverplo Sesawiravad Zvel aRTqmaSi ar aris dadasturebuli.
samsxverplo cxoveli usaTuod Sinauri pirutyvi unda iyos, romelic, rogorc viciT, Tavisi gvarisda mixedviT aris gaCenili uflis mier. roca RmerTi qmnida
cxovelebs, maTgan erTi nawili imTaviTve Sinaur cxovelebad (behemah) Seqmna, Tumca adamiani, misi patroni,
jer ar iyo Seqmnili. RmerTma ganumzada adamians ara
mxolod miwa sacxovreblad, aramed arsebanic, romlebic misi saxeldebulni, aRsazrdelni da sapatronebelni unda yofiliyvnen. SesaZlebelia, Tavidan ar yofiliyo mkveTri garCeva Sinaur da gareul cxovelebs
Soris, ramdenadac bibliaSi vkiTxulobT, rom RmerTma
yvela cxoveli miuyvana adams maTTvis saxelTa misacemad _ maT Soris garCeva ar Cans. adamis dacemis Semdeg,
roca buneba, miwidan dawyebuli, gauucxovda mas, maSin
iCina, albaT, Tavi cxovelTa bunebaSi Semoqmedis mier
Cadebulma gansxvavebam, saxeldobr, kvlav adamis sasikeTod, raTa is eulad ar darCeniliyo am misTvis gaucxoebul da mtradqceul bunebaSi, Sinauri cxovelis
gulma adamisaken gaiwia, anu Seicno masSi Tavisi patroni da miekedla mas. da ai, misi sapatronebeli cxoveli
axla adamians emsaxureba, rogorc msxverpli.
2. Sesawiravi pirutyvis ragvaroba.
msxverpli (zebax) unda iyos saRi, mrTeli, unaklo
_ Tamim (1:3). nakliani an saxiCari pirutyvi gamousadegaria samsxverplod. Tamim _ is sityvaa, romliTac
sruli, ucodveli adamianebi arian daxasiaTebuli

185

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

Zvel aRTqmaSi. pirvelad noea sruli, meored _ iakobi, romelic swored am sisruliTa da simrTeliT gansxvavdeba Tavisi tyupiscalisagan. sisrulis gamoxatulebaa RmerTTan siaruli anu RvTis nebisaebr qceva, rac axasiaTebs yvela bibliur srul adamians. sruli adamianebi RvTis nebis WurWelni arian, ufro sworad, maTi neba igive RvTis nebaa, isini RvTis nebis gamtarni arian. rac Seexeba cxovelebs, maTi fizikuri sisaRe da unakloba ucodvelobis gamoxatulebaa da mis
metaforad SeiZleba miviCnioT. radgan samsxverplo
cxoveli Semwirvelis codvas unda kisrulobdes, amisaTvis is Tavad unda iyos ucodveli. da, marTlac, cxovels, RvTis gaCenil qmnilebas, wili ar udevs adamis
codvaSi. rogorc mociquli pavle ambobs, amaoebas
daemorCila qmnileba ara nebiT, aramed dammorCileblis mier... (rom. 8:20). es dammorCilebeli adamia,
romelmac cxovelTa (zogadad, yoveli qmnilebis) patronoba dacemis Semdeg batonobad Secvala. cxoveli
ver daecemoda Tavisi nebiT, radgan mas neba ar gaaCnia,
adamianis nebam daamona igi. magram am saxecvlilebaSi
cxoveli ucodveli rCeba da swored ucodvelobis gamoa, rom mis bunebas SeuZlia itvirTos adamianis codva, abelidan moyolebuli Zveli aRTqmis ganuwyvetel
msxverplSewirvebamde.
rogorc samsxverplo pirutyvi unda iyos fizikurad
unaklo, aseve mis Semwirvel mRvdelsac ar unda hqondes
raime fizikuri nakli (21:17-23), rac isev da isev Sinagani siwmidis ukufenaa sxeulze. mRvdelic iseve saRi
unda iyos, rogor uflisaTvis gankuTvnili pirutyvi,
mRvdelic xom uflis wilxvedria, amave dros, is mTeli
israelis codvas kisrulobs, roca wmidaTa wmidaSi
Sedis samsxverplo pirutyvis sisxliT.
Sesawiravi pirutyvi ZiriTadad mamali (1:3) unda
iyos. Tu ratom, amis axsnas ar iZleva rjuli. es TavisTavad igulisxmeba, es uZvelesi wesia, romelic ganmartebas ar saWiroebs. dedali pirutyvi dasaSvebia samsxverplod, ar ikrZaleba, magram mamali upiratesia (is
ufro Zviric aris).
3. msxverplSewirvis saxeoba
a) upiratesi da, albaT, uZvelesi saxeoba msxverplisa aris sruladdasawveli msxverpli anu, Tu dednis erTgulni viqnebiT, aRsavleni (yolah) msxverpli _ iseTi msxverpli, romelic mTlianad iwvis sakurTxevelze, mTlianad aRevlineba kvamlis saxiT ufals, adamians araferi rCeba. pirvelad swored am msxverplis
rjuls ucxadebs ufali moses. aRsavleni msxverplia
zroxa (xari da sakuTriv Zroxa), wvrilfexa saqoneli
(ebrauli coon ori gvaris wvrilfexa pirutyvs aRniSnavs, cxvarsac da Txasac. qarTulSi dakargulia maTi
aRmniSvneli saerTo sityva) da frinveli. Semwirveli
Tavad irCevs Tavisi SeZlebisda mixedviT saklavs _
xars, cxvarsa Tu frinvels.

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ar aris ganmartebuli (biblia definiciebs ar iZleva) mizani aRsavleni msxverplisa. magram naTqvamia, rom
sakrebulo karvis SesasvlelTan sruladdasawvelad
Sewirul msxverpls uflisagan Sewynarebis, wyalobis
moRebis Zala aqvs. Semwirveli Tavze adebs xels saklav
pirutyvs da am xelis dadebiT misi codva gadadis pirutyvze da pirutyvis sikvdilTan erTad kvdeba Semwirvelis codvac. xelis dadeba Zlieri nebelobiTi aqtia Semwirvelis mxridan, romelic msxverplSewirvis
procesSi ar aris pasiuri, aramed aqtiuri monawilea.
man unda daados xeli aRsavlens Tavze da miecema wyaloba, raTa Seendos (1:4). saklavis sisxli samsxverplos esxureba. ar Cans, rom mRvdlebs, aaronianebs, rame
teqstis Tqma evalebaT, Tumca gamoricxuli ar aris misi arseboba. mRvdeli Tavisi xeliT klavs saklavs, Tavisi xeliT miasxurebs samsxverplos irgvliv sisxls
mis gansawmedad, gaatyavebs msxverpls, wilobebad daWris, daanTebs cecxls, SeukeTebs SeSas. gatyavebuli
saklavi mTlianad iwvis garecxili kidurebiTa da SigneuliTurT. es aris aRsavleni msxverpli, sacecxlo
msxverpli keTilsurnelebad uflisaTvis (1:9).
frinvelTagan samsxverploni arian mtredi da gvriti. Raribs, xelmokles SeuZlia maTi Sewirva _ ufali
Seiwynarebs maT aRsavlens. esec sacecxlo msxverplia,
keTilsurnelebad uflisaTvis (1:17).
amrigad, aRsavleni anu sruladdasawveli Sesawiravi gamomsyidveli msxverplis umaRlesi saxeobaa. codva
saklavis xorcTan erTad mTlianad iwvis (is msxverplSewirvis monawilis saWmelad ar aris gankuTvnili),
mTlianad ewireba RmerTs kvamlis saxiT, keTilsurnelebad uflisaTvis (1:13).
aRsavleni mTeli Rame iwvis, dilamde. amitomac ambobs rjuli: cecxli mudam enTos samsxverploze, ar
Caqres (6:13). selis samosliT Semosili mRvdeli emsaxureba aRsavlenis samsxverplos: Tavisi xeliT dadebs
aRsavlen msxverpls samsxverploze da gadmoiRebs nacars aRsavlenis dawvis Semdeg. mRvdels ekuTvnis saZRveno Sesawiravi (minxah), romelic mcenareulisgan
Sedgeba, magram mxolod misi nawili, romelic samsxverploze ar midis aRsavlenad (anu sruladdasawvelad). sxvanairad, es aris sacecxlo msxverpli, saidanac mRvdels ekuTvnis wili. igi unda SeiWamos wmida
adgilze, sadResaswaulo karvis ezoSi, radgan wmidaTa wmidaa. aravis ara aqvs ufleba igemos misgan, ufro
metic, veravin miekareba mas. Tu miekara, misi siwmide
masze uaryofiTi niSniT gadava.
mcenareuli, kerZod, pureuli, romelsac ewodeba
minxah (ZRveni), usafuvro comisagan cxveba. safuarTan
da gafuebul purTan moses rjuls, Cven viciT, rTuli
damokidebuleba aqvs. misi akrZalva saTaves iRebs egviptidan gamosvlis droidan, roca israelianebi saCqarod gavidnen mtruli qveynidan da mxolod usafuaro

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puri (xmiadi) waiRes sagzlad. oRond misi akrZalva paseqis dResaswaulis dReebiT aris Semofargluli. sxva
dReebSi is ar ikrZaleba. metic: pirvelmoweul nayofTa Sewirvisas safuari dasaSvebia (23:17). rjuli ar
krZalavs safuariani puris Wamas, radgan swored safuaria, rac purs aZlevs gemos, rac purs purad xdis. safuariani puri saWmelad vargisi puria, is cocxalia, radgan safuaria masSi da, raki cocxalia, is SeiZleba mokvdes gzaze... amitomac aris, rom egviptidan gamosulebma sagzlad xmiadebi waiRes, rasac ar elis gafuWeba.
usafuvro purs Wamen israelianebi ufuarobis dResaswaulis Svid dRes imis gasaxseneblad, rom erT dros
isini mgzavrebi iyvnen TavianTi arsebobis gadamwyvet
dReebSi. usafuaro puris maRali statusi safuarianTan mimarTebaSi swored iqidan Cans, rom msxverplad
mxolod xmiadi Seiwireba, sayoveldRiurod ki, rogorc sakvebi, safuvriani gamoiyeneba.
yoveli Seni saZRveno Sesawiravi mariliT daamarile da ar dastovo saZRveno Seni RvTis aRTqmis marilis
gareSe. yovel Sesawiravze Seswire marili (2:13). marili aSkarad upirispirdeba safuars Tavisi TvisebiT,
romelic gamoxatavs uxrwnelebas da sisufTaves (mariliT xexen axalSobilis sxeuls _ ezek. 16:4). marils
Wamen samegobro kavSiris dadebisas niSnad urRvevi aRTqmisa. sauflo Sesawiravi, romelic levianebs ekuTvnis, iwodeba saukuno aRTqmad marilisa (ricx. 18:19)
g) samSvidobo msxverpli _ zebax Selamim (3:1-17),
nebayoflobiTi Sesawiravia. esec sacecxlo msxverplia, Seiwireba imave wesiT, rogorc aRsavleni msxverpli, oRond Seiwireba dedali pirutyvic (mxolod xerxemlianebi, ara frinveli) da, rogorc teqstidan Cans,
iwvis ara mTeli saklavi, aramed mxolod misi Signeulis qoni da orive Tirkmeli qonianad. mTeli qoni uflisaa, adamians ekrZaleba qonis Wama, rogorc sisxlis,
romelic miwaze unda daiRvaros samsxverplos Ziras an
irgvliv miesxuros samsxverplos. am Sesawiravis xorcs
Wams Semwirvelis ojaxi (7:15).
rac Seexeba Tavad termins _ zebax Selamim. zebax gulisxmobs msxverpls, magram etimologiurad niSnavs
saklavs (zmnidan zabax daklva) uflisadmi msxverplSewirvis mizniT (misi fonetikuri varianti tabax
daklva araritualuri mizniT, daxocva). Selamim
aris mravlobiTi ricxvi saxelisa Selem, rac niSnavs
simrTeles, sisrules, mSvidobas (var. Salom).
septuaginta Targmnis zebax Selamim-s rogorc samSvidobo (eirenike), Tumca Targmani pirobiTia. am kategoriis msxverpli Seiwireba urTierTkavSiris dasamyareblad an gawyvetili kavSiris gasamrTeleblad an ficis dros, roca Serigebas Tan sdevs fici. swored samSvidobo msxverpli unda SeewiraT iakobs da labans,
roca isini Serigdnen galaadis mTaze. samSvidobo
msxverpli msxverplis is kategoriaa, romlis drosac

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saklavis wilobebs Wamen mxareebi _ isini RvTis nadimze imyofebian an RmerTi eswreba maT lxins. ...da daifica iakobma Tavisi mamis, isakis, SiSi. da dakla iakobma saklavi mTaze da awvia saxlikacebi puris saWmelad.
da maTac Wames puri (dab. 31:54).
am saxis msxverpls aqvs Semarigebeli msxverplis daniSnuleba da SesaZlebelia iTargmnos, rogorc Semarigebeli msxverpli. am kategoriis msxverpli iwireba
madlobis aRsaniSnavad uflis mimarT, roca Sesrulebulia aRTqma. amitomac SesaZlebelia zebax Selamim
gavigoT, rogorc samadlobeli msxverpli.
samSvidobo msxverpls, qonisa da Tirkmelebis garda, romlebic uflisaa, da im nawilis garda, romelic
mRvdels ekuTvnis, Wamen mxareebi aRTqmis (kavSiris)
dadebis anu Serigebis niSnad _ RmerTi maTi lxinis monawilea, raki aRTqma RvTis winaSe ideba sazeimod.
codvisa da danaSaulis gamosasyidi msxverpli
(4:1-6:7)
codva SeiZleba iyos ucabedi da Segnebuli. es ZvelTaganve gaazrebuli iyo. codvis es ori tipi asaxulia
asurul-babilonur locvebSi. mlocveli mimarTavs
romelime RvTaebas, miutevos mas codva, romelic ki
uneburad Caudenia mas. babiloneli amgvarad aRiarebs
codvebs marduqis winaSe da SesTxovs Sendobas: vis ar
Seucodavs, vis ar dauSavebia? RmerTis gzas vin Seicnobs.... Cadenili codva RmerTTan momeTxoveba. Sens mimarT codva Cavidine, RvTiuri kanoni davarRvie. codva
Cemi siWabukisa, Secnobili da Seucnobeli, momiteve...
mRvdels, cxebul RvTismsaxurs, romelic uflebamosilia wauZRves ritualebs, didi pasuxismgebloba akisria erze uflis winaSe. misi yoveli Secodeba gadaedeba mTels xalxs, rogorc erT pirovnebas. mRvdelma unda gamoisyidos codva da xalxic gaaTavisuflos misgan. aris SesaZlebloba imisa, rom israelis sazogadoebam, mTelma krebulma, rogorc erTma pirovnebam, Caidinos codva. am codvis gamosasyidi igive iqneba, rac
mRvdlis codvis gamosasyidi. es aris mozveri, yvelaze
mniSvnelovani samsxverplo pirutyvTa Soris. amdenad,
codvis Camdenis rangi (mRvdeli da mTeli krebuli gaTanabrebulni arian) gansazRvravs msxverplis rangs.
orive SemTxveva _ mRvdlisa da mTeli krebulis Secodeba unebur SecodebaTa klass ekuTvnis.
rogor Seiwirvis mozveri?
mozveri unda iyos saRi _ es saerTo moTxovnaa. igi
daikvlis karvis win, mis SesasvlelTan, anu uflis winaSe. dakvlis win mozvers Tavze adebs xels mRvdeli
imis niSnad, rom mozverze gadadis codva, romlis gamosasyidadac Seiwireba msxverpli. es mRvdlis codvaa.
magram Tu codva sazogadoebisaa, mozvers xeli sazogadoebis uxucesebma unda daasxan da maTi codva gadava
samsxverplo pirutyvze. msxverplSewirvis ZiriTadi

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komponentebia sisxli da Tirkmelebi misi qoniTurT.


nawili sisxlisa mRvdels Seaqvs sakrebulo karavSi da
TiTiT scxebs Svidgzis wmidis fardas, nawils scxebs
surnelebaTa sakmev samsxverplos rqebs, nawils Rvris
aRsavleni samsxverplos Ziras. rac Seexeba Tirkmelebs
da qons, isini Seiwireba samsxverploze sruladdasawvelad. ar iWmeva misi xorci, ar gamoiyeneba misi tyavi,
rogorc codviani (maszea gadasuli Sendobili codva).
mTeli mozveri mis SigneulTan erTad unda daiwvas banakis gareT, nacris dasayrel adgilze.
igive wesi aqvs individualuri codvis gamosyidvas,
oRond samsxverplo pirutyvis kategoria icvleba. Semcodveli Tavkacis (nasi) SemTxvevaSi daikvlis mamali
saRi Txa, rigiTi israelianis SemTxvevaSi _ dedali
saRi Txa (an cxvari). xelis dadebasa da dakvlas win uZRvis aucilebeli aRiareba codvisa, amas niSnavs gamoTqma mixvdeba Tavis codvas, rac Caidina (4:23).
rjuli ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisagan codvas (xata)
da danaSauls (aSmah). danaSaulis kategorias ekuTvnis
uneburi gauwmidureba, romelic SeiZleba adamians daemarTos raime uwmiduri sagnis (cxovelis Tu qvemZromis
mZori, adamianis raime wviri) SexebiT. danaSaulia ficis daufiqreblad warmoTqma, wamocdena. ra aris saWiro amgvari danaSaulis gamosasyidad? Segneba danaSaulisa, aRiareba, da mere saklavi _ dedali cxvari an
Txa; xelmokleTaTvis _ ori gvriti an mtredis ori
xundi, erTi codvis gamosasyidad, meore _ aRsavlenad.
codvis gamosasyidis sisxli samsxverplos miesxureba
da mis ZirSi CaiRvreba. aRsavleniT mRvdeli SemwirvelisaTvis danaSaulis Sendobas (dafarvas) gamoiTxovs. gaTvaliswinebulia ukiduresi siRatake, roca
adamians gvritisa Tu mtredis Sewirvac ar SeuZlia. maSin misTvis nebadarTulia usisxlo msxverpli _ es
aris fqvili (uzeTod da usakmevlod). erT muWas aqedan
mRvdeli dawvavs samsxverploze sacecxlo msxverplad,
danarCeni misi ZRvenia _ minxah.
arsebobs danaSauli uflis siwmideTa mimarT, romlis gamisasyidad, Sesawiravi saRi verZis garda, Semcode materialurad zRavs Senacodars da mis mexuTedsac
amatebs. uflis romelime mcnebis winaaRmdeg Semcode
mxolod saR verZs miuyvans mRvdels da gamoiTxovs
misTvis mRvdeli codvis Sendobas... da mieteveba
(5:18). aseve verZia dawesebuli maxlobelisadmi Cadenili danaSaulis gamosasyidad (uari Sesanaxad mibarebulze, miTvisebulze, warTmeulze, daubrunebel napovnze), romelic uflis mimarT Secodebad iTvleba
(6:2), radgan dazaralebuli uflis ers ekuTvnis da
ufalia misi sakuTrebis mcveli. cxadia, zaralic anazRaurebuli unda iqnas (mexuTedis damatebiT). unda
daubrunos patrons braldebis dResve (6:5).
codvis gamosasyidi, romelic ikvlis aRsavlenis
dakvlis adgilze, wmidaTa wmidaa. es imas niSnavs, rom

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misi Wamis ufleba mxolod Semwirvel mRvdels aqvs.


yvela, vinc am xorcs miekareba, wmidaa (6:27), rac niSnavs: es siwmide, romelic mRvdels axlavs, gareSe adamianisTvis uaryofiTi Tvisebis matarebelia da igi unda ganiwmidos misgan. aseve samoseli, romelsac esxureba saklavis sisxli, unda gairecxos wmida adgilze. da
WurWelic, romelSic ixarSeba mRvdlis kuTvnili wili, Tu spilenZisaa, unda gaixexos, Tu Tixisaa, unda daimtvres.
msxverplSewirvis adgili mkacrad aris gansazRvruli (droze araferia naTqvami). dauwesebel adgilas
saklavis dakvla sisxlis ukanonod daRvris anu mkvlelobis tolfasia. Tu vinme israelis saxlidan an xars,
an cxvars, an Txas banakSi daklavs an banaks gareT daklavs, sadResaswaulo karvis SesasvlelTan ar miiyvans,
rom uflis savanesTan Seswiros ufals, am kacs sisxli
moekiTxeba. man sisxli daRvara da unda moikveTos Tavisi xalxidan (17:3-4).
aaronisa da mis ZeTa kurTxeva
(8-10)
mosea aq mTavari moqmedi. aaroni da misi Svilebi pasiurni arian. `waiyvane aaroni da misi Svilebi... (8:2),
ubrZanebs ufali moses.
gamosvlaTa wignSi gadmocemuli iyo, Tu ra unda gaekeTebina moses aaronisa da misi Svilebis mRvdelmTavrad da mRvdlebad kurTxevisaTvis. axla wigni mogviTxrobs, rogor Sesrulda es wesi, romelic unda sruldebodes Taobidan TaobaSi, roca ki amis saWiroeba dadgeba.
aaronisa da mis ZeTa samRvdelod kurTxeva, rogorc
umniSvnelovanesi aqti israelis religiur da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, sakrebuli karvis win, mis SesasvlelTan xdeba. am aqts unda eswrebodes mTeli sazogadoeba, radgan is mTlianad mTeli israelis, rogorc
eris, da TiToeuli israelianis saWiroebisTvis xdeba.
amitomac aris es mravalaqtiani rituali (ceremoniali) sajaro-sayovelTao. mRvdlad xeldasxma (xelis
avseba) Semdegi TanamimdevrobiT xdeba. mose Tavisi xeliT aRasrulebs yovelives: mose ganbans aarons da mis
ZeT. isini simbolurad gasufTavdebian TavianTi codvebisgan, mxolod simbolurad, radgan realuri ganwmeda damoukidebeli ritualia. daismis kiTxva: rogor
xdeba ganbana _ sabanelSi CaRrmavebiT? udabnos pirobebSi, wylis naklebobis mizeziT, mTeli tanis ganbana,
albaT, SeuZlebeli iqneboda. teqsti ar azustebs, rogor xdeboda ganbana. gamosvlaTa wignis (30:19-21) Tanaxmad, aaroni sakrebulo karavSi samsaxuris dawyebis
win ganibans mxolod xelebs da fexebs.
mose Semosavs aarons im SesamosliT, romelic
mRvdelmTavrisTvis aris gankuTvnili. isini CamoTvlilia da aRwerili gamosvlaTa wignSi (gam. 28). gavixsenoT, esenia: kvarTi, sartyeli, mosasxami, efodi,

191

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gulispiri, romelzec damagrebulia urimi da Tumimi, mitra, oqros jiRa. es Sesamoseli, romelic sibrZniT iqna damzadebuli RvTaebrivi mowodebis Tanaxmad, gamoarCevs aarons Tavis TanamoZmeTagan, rogorc
sulier da zneobriv winamZRols. Sesamoseli misi statusis xiluli niSania, gansakuTrebiT ki jiRa, romelsac amSvenebs warwera: siwmide uflisaTvis.
[rac Seexeba urims da Tumims, ra saxisaa es sagnebi an rogor gamoiyeneba, Zneli dasadgenia. aqvs Tu ara mniSvneloba
imas, rom pirveli (urim) iwyeba ebrauli anbanis pirveli
asoTi (alef), meore ki _ bolo asoTi (Tau)? TiTqos isini
gamoxataven samRvdelo kultis ansa da hoes. yovel SemTxvevaSi, maTi mniSvneloba imiTac aris xazgasmuli, rom isini
memkvidreobiT gadadian mRvdelmTavridan mRvdelmTavramde (ix. ricx. 20:28).]

mose mirons scxebs savanes da yvelafers, rac savaneSia: samsxverplos da mis samsaxurebel WurWels, sabanels misi kvarcxlbekiTurT. es yvelaferi unda ganiwmidos, radgan isini monawileoben am sapasuxismgeblo
ritualSi.
mose Tavze aRvris mirons aarons da scxebs. amieridan aaroni cxebulia (maSiax, aqedan mesia). siwmidis
gvirgvinTan erTad mironiT cxeba mefobis niSnebia.
gavixsenoT, rom ufalma israeli samRvdelo da samefo
erad airCia.
mose mosavs aaronianebs kvarTiT, sartyliT da TavsaburveliT. aaronis ZeTa Sesamoseli ufro martivia _
igi mianiSnebs ufro naklebi xarisxis samRvdelo statusze. mRvdlebi (aaronianebi) ar arian cxebulni.
cxebuli erTaderTi aaronia. cxebuli arc mosea,
radgan misi wodeba uSualod RvTisganaa. mas ar esaWiroeba rCeulobis garegnuli niSnebi. mas arc Sesamoseli aqvs gansakuTrebuli. misi rCeulobis niSnebi Sinagania, sulieri.
cxeba aaronis (mRvdelmTavris) kurTxevis mniSvnelovani nawilia, magram arasakmarisi. Znelia iTqvas, romeli ufro mniSvnelovania _ cxeba Tu msxverplSewirva,
romlis Semdeg ritualSi Semodis erTi mniSvnelovani
elementi _ sisxli. cxeba zeTiT mxolod gamoarCevs mas
sazogadoebidan, magram ar ganwmeds mas codvebisgan.
codvebisgan ganwmeda, ufro sworad, miteveba sisxlis
meSveobiT damoukidebeli ritualia. aarons anu yovel
mRvdelmTavars, romelic mas Semdeg dadgeba, unda mietevos codvebi, rom man SeZlos RvTismsaxurebis ZiriTadi miznis aRsruleba _ mTeli israelis da yoveli
israelianis codvaTa miteveba. es ki mxolod sisxliT
SeiZleba, im mozvrisa da verZis sisxliT, romlebic samsxverploze unda daiklas mas Semdeg, rac aaroni da misi
Svilebi Tavze xels daasxamen mas imis niSnad, rom maT
codvebs es samsxverplo pirutyvebi ikisreben.
samsxverpli pirutyvebia: codvis gamosasyidi mozveri da ori verZi; erTi _ aRsavleni (sruladdasawveli),

192

levianni

meore _ xelavsebis. mozvris sisxliT ganiwmideba samsxverplo, romelzec daiwveba msxverplis mTeli qoni,
Signeuli maTi qonianad. xolo tyavi, xorci da ganavali
banaks gareT iwvis. aseve esxureba samsxverplos aRsavleni verZis sisxli, xolo Tavad msxverpli mTlianad
iwvis samsxverploze. xelavsebis verZs gansakuTrebuli
daniSnuleba aqvs: misi sisxli moses xeliT ecxeba aaronis da misi Svilebis marjvena yuris bibiloebs da marjvena xelisa da fexis cerebs. yuri gamoxatavs smenas,
rom mRvdeli ismendes uflis sityvas, xelis ceri _ marTal moqmedebas, fexis cerebi _ marTlad svlas uflis
gzaze. danarCeni sisxli samsxverplos esxureba. msxverplis Signeulis qoni, RviZlis badeqoni, orive Tirkmeli maTi qoniTurT da marjvena beWi usafuaro da zeTian namcxvrebTan erTad xelze dauwyo mosem aaronsa da
mis Svilebs da Searxia is aaronma uflis winaSe.
es aris sakuTriv xelavsebis rituali. amis Semdeg
mose wvavs maT aRsavlen msxverplTan erTad samsxverploze. moses rCeba mkerdi, rogorc Semwirvelis kuTvnili wili, romelic Semdeg aaronisa iqneba, roca aaroni Seudgeba RvTismsaxurebas.
xelavsebis ritualis damagvirgvinebelia mirongareuli sisxlis sxureba aaronisa da misi Svilebis Sesamoselze. amiT kidev erTxel ganiwmidebian isini da maTi Sesamoseli.
saklavis xorci ixarSeba Sesakrebeli karvis SesasvlelTan da Wamen mas aaroni da misi Svilebi. morCenili xorci unda daiwvas.
xelavsebis ceremoniali Svid dRes grZeldeba. es
aris xelavsebis dReebi, romelTa ganmavlobaSi ar
unda moscildnen isini Sesakrebeli karvis Sesasvlels.
pirveli msxverplSewirva
(9)
aqamde msxverplSewirvis warmmarTveli, msxverplSemwirveli mose iyo. mose uflis brZanebiT iRvwoda
imisaTvis, rom aarons da mis Svilebs, aaronianebs, SesZlebodaT aResrulebinaT metad sapasuxismgeblo samsaxuri, rac mdgomareobda maT SuamdgomlobaSi israelsa da RmerTs Soris. mas Semdeg, rac mosem xeli auvso maT, aaroni da aaronianebi iwyeben TavianTi movaleobis Sesrulebas.
Tu me-8 Tavi iwyeboda sityvebiT: elaparaka ufali
moses da uTxra: waiyvane aaroni da misi Svilebi..., me-9
Tavi ase iwyeba: merve dRes uxmo mosem aarons... uTxra
aarons: aiyvane xbo, mozveri... amieridan aaronma unda
Seasrulos Tavisi xeliT msxverplSewirva, romelic
pirvelad mosem Seasrula. man unda gaimeoros moses mier aRsrulebuli qmedeba.
aaroni da misi Svilebi, romlebic exmarebian mas
RvTismsaxurebaSi, sami tipis msxverpls swiraven, romelTa wesi da daniSnuleba levianTa wignis dasawyisSia gan-

193

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

martebuli. es sami tipia: a) codvis gamosasyidi msxverpli an Semoklebulad, rogorc dedanSi ixsenieba: codvis
msxverpli; b) aRsavleni msxverpli, romelic mTlianad
iwvis uflisaTvis imis niSnad, rom adamiani mTlianad miuZRvnis Tavs _ Tavis sicocxles da Tavis Wirnaxuls _
ufals; g) samSvidobo msxverpli, romelic damagvirgvinebel aqtSi gulisxmobs saerTo trapezs ufalTan erTad
(adamiani ganicdis Tavs uflis sazogadoebaSi).
aaroni jer Tavisi codvis gamosasyid msxverpls swiravs _ xbos, mere israelianTa codvisaTvis _ Txas. ramdenadac es pirveli msxverplSewirvaa israelis istoriaSi, mis aRsaniSnavad mose uflis didebis gamocxadebas aRuTqvams maT (9:4, 6). msxverplSewirvis Semdeg aaronma xeli gaiwoda xalxisken da daloca (Tu akurTxa)
isini, da Camovida sakurTxevlidan. Semdeg aaroni mosesTan erTad Sedis Sesakrebel karavSi. Tu ra xdeba
karvis SigniT, amis Taobaze teqsti dums. SesaZlebelia,
mosem swored aq gadasca aarons mTeli pasuxismgebloba
uflisa da eris winaSe. isini gamodian gareT da dalocaven xalxs. swored am dros mTels xalxs (qol ha-yam)
gamoecxadeba uflis dideba, albaT, im saxiT, rogorc es
aRwerilia gamosvlaTa wignSi (16:10; 40:34). da imis niSnad, rom aRsrulebuli RvTismsaxureba (msxverplSewirva) moiwona ufalma, gamovida cecxli uflisagan da
SeWama samsxverploze dawyobili aRsavleni (9:24). rogorc didebis, ise cecxlis gamoCena im TeofaniaTa
ricxvs ekuTvnis, romlis mowme mTeli eri iyo, ara calkeuli rCeulni. aseTi sayovelTao Teofaniebi xSiria
udabnos periodSi, qanaanSi damkvidrebis Semdeg ki
wydeba. rac Seexeba msxverplis SemWmel cecxls, romelic gadmodis uflisgan (ufro sworad: didebis Rrublidan), raTa aiRos Tavisi kuTvnili wili (sruladdasawveli), es movlena dasturdeba abraamis (dab. 15:17),
gedeonis (msaj. 13:19-20), elias (3mef. 18:38) msxverplSewirvebSi. es maTi individualuri gamocdileba
iyo. aq ki uflis cecxlis moqmedeba ixila mTelma erma,
da aRmoxda sixarulis xma da pirqve daemxnen (9:24).
mTelma erma ixila msxverplSewirvis metafizikuri saxe, misi Sinagani arsi. sixarulis xma swored imis
gamoxatuleba iyo, rom xalxi Rirsi Seiqna am saxilvelisa, ramac maTi ufalTan erTianoba daadastura.
nadabi da abihu
(10)
levianTa wignis erTaderTi xdomileba, rac xdeba
droSi da sivrceSi, es msxverplSewirvaa. danarCeni nawili wignisa eTmoba rjulis gadmocemas, romelic iwyebs formuliT elaparaka ufali moses da uTxra. marTalia, es laparaki, romelic esmis moses, dinamikuria
da droSi grZeldeba, magram mas ara aqvs erTjeradi xasiaTi, rogoric xdomileba unda iyos, _ xdomileba, romelic moxda erTxel da aRar ganmeordeba Tavisi kerZo-

194

levianni

obiTi xasiaTis gamo. am azriT, SeiZleba, aaronis mier


Sesrulebuli qmedeba (msxverplSewirva) ar iyo xdomileba, aramed arqetipuli aqti, ramdenadac is gulisxmobs momavalSi mTeli sizustiT ganmeorebadobas.
erTaderTi ambavi, romelic SeiZleba namdvil xdomilebad CaiTvalos misi ganumeorebadi xasiaTis gamo,
aris ambavi, romelic aRwerilia ukiduresi lakonizmiT meaTe Tavis pirvel or muxlSi.
da aiRes aaronis Svilebma _ nadabma da abihum TavTavisi sacecxlurebi, Cades Sig cecxli, zed sakmeveli
daayares da miitanes uflis winaSe ucxo cecxli, rac ar
iyo maTTvis nabrZanebi. gamovida cecxli uflisagan da
STanTqa isini. da daixocnen uflis winaSe (10:1-2).
es epizodi uSualod agrZelebs me-9 Tavis damasrulebel muxlebs. orivegan gamoCndeba cecxli uflisagan, magram sawinaaRmdego SedegiT. da kidev: aq upirispirdeba erTmaneTs ori cecxli _ ucxo cecxli da
cecxli uflisa. dabolos, Tu winamaval epizodSi sixarulis xma gaisma, momdevnoSi mwuxarebis dumilia.
nadabi da abihu aaronis ufrosi Svilebi iyvnen, maTi
momdevnoni _ eliazari da iTamari. eseni iyvnen Teofaniis mxilvelni mosesTan, aaronTan da samocdaaT uxucesTan erTad (gam. 24:9-10). isini Seracxilni arian israelis rCeulTa Soris, romlebic ar gaanadgura
ufalma, Tumca maT RmerTi ixiles (gam. 24:11). da naTqvamia: maT ixiles RmerTi, Wames da sves (iqve). am privilegiiT gaTamamebulni nadab da abihu TavianTi iniciativiT Sedian wmidaTa wmidaSi da garedan SeaqvT iq
sakmevliT cecxli. ucxo cecxli niSnavs iseT cecxls,
romelic ar aris mopovebuli uflis mcnebaTa mixedviT, ar aris aRebuli samsxverplodan. is ucxoa samsxverplosaTvis, wmidaTa wmidisaTvis da, saerTod,
RvTismsaxurebisaTvis. garda amisa, is, rac nadabma da
abihum moimoqmedes, mxolod mRvdelmTavris prerogativaa. marTalia, nadabi pirmSoa, magram mRvdelmTavari igi mxolod aaronis sikvdilis Semdeg gaxdeboda.
manamde is mRvdelia, arafriT gamorCeuli, Tavis ZmebTan erTad. amrigad, maTi qmedeba gaazrebuli iqna, rogorc uzurpacia mRvdelmTavris movaleobisa da uflebisa. maTi saqcieli sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara hubrisi,
gabudayeba, rac kidev ufro mZimdeba imis gamo, rom is
siwmidis mimarT aris Cadenili.
am uzurpaciis gasaRebi moses sityvebSia mocemuli.
moses daskvna lakoniuria, mose, rogorc yovelTvis, ar
aris mravalsityva. ufali ambobs moses piriT: Cems
maxlobelTa mier ganviwmidebi da mTeli eris winaSe
ganvididebi (10:3). am frazis gageba ar SeiZleba calmxrivad, calazrovnad. erTi gagebiT, mxolod RmerTTan daaxloebuli pirebi arian uflebamosilni, Caataron ganwmedis rituali da uflis dideba mTeli
eris winaSe unda gamoCndes. nadab da abihu ar iyvnen es
pirebi da arc mTeli eris Tvalwin CautarebiaT maT Ta-

195

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

vianTi RvTismsaxureba. meore gagebiT, ufali ambobs:


is, rac moxda, rom uflis cecxlma SeWama isini, aris
swored uflis siwmidis gamovlena. ekkadeS niSnavs
ganviwmidebi anu yovelTvis gamovaCen Cems siwmides
(Zveli aRTqmiseuli azriT), rogorc transcendenturs yoveli aqauris mimarT, kerZod, iseTi cecxlis mimarT, romelic SemoitaneT wmidaTa wmidaSi, da mTeli
eris winaSe gamovaCen Cems didebas, rogorc saswauls.
ucxo cecxli sxvanarad arawmida cecxlia.
damatebiT am danaSaulze SeiZleba iTqvas: raki amave TavSi, am katastrofis (nadab da abihus daRupvis)
konteqstSi, RmerTi iZleva gafrTxilebas, rom sakrebulo karavSi Sesvlis win mRvdlebma ar dalion Rvino
an sxva magari sasmeli (10:9), unda vifiqroT, rom nadab
da abihus hubrisi swored simTvralem gamoiwvia _ maT
ar daicves garCeva wmidasa da arawmidas Soris, rac moses rjulis erT-erTi fundamenturi kategoriaa. roca sakrebulo karavSi xarT Sesasvleli, nu dalevT
nurc Sen da nurc Seni Svilebi Rvinos da maTrobel sasmels, rom ar daixocoT. es aris saukuno wesi Tqvens TaobebSi. rom gairCes wmida da sadagi, uwmiduri da ganwmedili (10:9-10).
es saukuno wesi am gauTvaliswinebelma incidentma
gamoiwvia. da SemoRebul iqna kidev erTi wesi: samRvdeloebas aekrZala glova gardacvlilze, Tundac is axlobeli naTesavi, Tundac RviZli iyos. uTxra mosem
aarons da mis Svilebs _ eliazars da iTamars: Tavs nu
gaiSiSvlebT da tanisamoss nu SemoiglejT, rom ar daixocoT... Tqvenma Zmebma, mTelma israelis saxlma, itiros damwvari, rac daswva ufalma (10:6).
aarons da mis darCenil Svilebs ar egebodaT glova
im pirebisa, romlebmac Sescodes siwmides, daarRvies ra
samRvdelo wesi, uflisgan dadgenili. amave mizeziT
verc erTi aaroniani, rom aRar vilaparakoT Tavad aaronze, ver miekareba uflisgan dasjilTa gvamebs. es wesi
gavrceldeba TaobebSi, imuSavebs im SemTxvevaSic, roca
samRvdeloTa axloblebis sikvdilSi uflis damsjeli
xeli ar iqneba Careuli. wesi, rom micvalebuli naTesavebma unda damarxon, wesad rCeba am gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSic: moses brZanebiT, daxocilebs aaronis biZaSvilebi _ misaeli da elcafani, Zeni yuzielisa, gaitanen
banaks gareT kvarTianad. kvarTis arseboba migvaniSnebs,
rom uflisagan cecxls ar dauwvavs nadabi da elihu da
rom am cecxlSi mexis elva unda igulisxmebodes.
am tragikulma incidentma uneblie danaSauli Caadenina aarons, mRvdelmTavars, da mis Svilebs,
mRvdlebs. aaronma mTlianad Tavisi religiuri SegnebiT itvirTa daRupuli Svilebis pasuxismgebloba. saidan Cans? im dumilidan, riTac is Sexvda moses mamxilebel sityvebs: da dadumda aaroni (10:3). swored am pasuxismgeblobis mizeziT iyo, rom man da misma Svilebma
ar SeWames sacecxlo da samSvidobo msxverplidan mo-

196

levianni

narCeni, ris Wamasac avaldebulebda maT rjuli (6:2630), risTvisac moses guliswyroma daimsaxures. rom
SemeWama, vaiTu ar moswoneboda ufals (10:19), iyo aaronis pasuxi moses risxviT savse sayvedurze. msxverplidan Wama gulisxmobs sixaruls, radgan es sauflo
trapezia, magram aarons ar SeeZlo gamoexata sixaruli
Tavis mwuxarebaSi. mosem miiRo misgan Tavis marTleba:
moismina mosem da moewona (10:20).
nadabisa da abihus tragikuli aRsasruli andrezad
daido TaobebSi. magram analogiuri danaSauli kidev
iqna Cadenili, amjerad, mefis mier, romelmac xelyo
RvTismsaxurebis siwmide: sacecxluriT xelSi Sevida
wmidaTa wmidaSi sakmevlad, risi uflebac mas, Tundac
cxebuls, ar hqonda. keTili mefe yuzia amisaTvis keTriT daisaja (2neSt. 26:16-21).
wmida da uwmiduri
(11-15)
Cveulebriv, mTels rjuls, romelic levianTa da
sxva wignebis Sinaarss Seadgens, ufali moses piriT ucxadebs sazogadoebas da, pirvel rigSi, aarons da mis
ZeT. magram erTxel ufali uSualod moZRvravs aarons,
raTa Seagnebinos mas, rom es aris misi pirdapiri movaleoba, sakuTriv, garCeva wmidisa da sadagisa, uwmidurisa da ganwmedilisa (10:10). jer aaroni unda arCevdes, mere israelianebs aswavlos wesi garCevisa (10:11).
wmida da sadagi, uwmiduri da ganwmedili _ ra aris
erTi da ra aris meore? es iseTi kategoriebia, romlebic
avseben mTeli israelisa da yoveli israelianis yoveldRiur cxovrebas. aq ar aris laparaki raRac zneobriv
idealze, moralur siwmideze da simaRleze. es kategoriebi ar aris ganyenebuli, aramed sruliad konkretuli
da savsebiT miRwevadi TiToeuli israelianis mier.
mTeli realoba ori donisgan Sedgeba: aris wmida (kadoS) da aris sadagi (xol). pirveli kultis, RvTismsaxurebis sferoa, meore _ yoveldRiurobisa. Cveulebrivi
adamiani sadagis sferoSi cxovrobs (fSav-xevsurul saymoebSi am sferos nalaxs uwodeben), levianebi ki, ramdenadac maT Sexeba aqvT saRvTo ritualTan, wmida nivTebTan da WurWelTan, wmidis sferos ganekuTvnebian
(fSav-xevsurulad kvrivs). da, rac ufro metia siwmide,
rasTanac dakavSirebulni arian isini, miT ufro metia
maTi siwmidis xarisxi. cxadia, aaronis (mRvdelmTavris)
siwmide, ufro metia, vidre aaronis ZeTa, am ukanasknelTa ki ufro meti, vidre sxva levianTa. magram rigiT israelians ar acxia siwmide, misi cxovrebisa da saqmianobis sfero sadagia, nalaxi. magram sakmarisia, igi ganzrax
an uneburad Seexos siwmides, rom is sadagis safexuridan
arawmidas safexurze daecema. anu: siwmide masze arawmidis kvals tovebs da adamiani unda ganiwmidos.
Zveli aRTqmis rigiTi adamiani SeiZleba or mdgomareobaSi imyofebodes: bunebrivi sisufTavis (tahor)

197

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

mdgomareobaSi da Seryvnil-Sebilwul (tame) mdgomareobaSi. adamiani sxvadasxva gziT kargavs bunebriv


mdgomareobas, is qveiTdeba Seryvnil-Sebilwulis safexurze. magram mas SeuZlia da movalec aris, daibrunos bunebrivi sisufTavis mdgomareoba. amisaTvis arsebobs msxverplSewirvisa da sxva ritualebi.
uwmidureba mxolod mdgomareoba ar aris adamianisa, mxolod misi qmedebidan gamomdinare Sedegi rodia. igi ontologiuri Rirebulebis kategoriaa, Tumca adamianTan aris dakavSirebuli. SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom adamiani aris arseba, romlis mimarT yoveli qmnileba ganxilulia wmida-arawmidis principiT. ver vifiqrebT, cxadia, rom RmerTs Seeqmnas raime uwmiduri
da rom mas dasabamieri arseboba hqondes. absoluturi
anu RvTiuri TvalTaxedviT mTeli qmnileba wmidaa,
radgan masze iTqva Seqmnisas, rom is kargia. Tumca imasac viTvaliswinebT, rom adamis dacemis Semdeg mTeli
qmnileba daeca, magram ara im zomamde, rom totalurad uwmidurobis kategoriaSi gadasuliyo. warRvnis
win adamianTa saqcielma miwac waryvna da, SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom masSi, fizikur realobaSi Semovida sibilwe, mwikuleba, usufTaoba _ Cven SegviZlia am kategoriis _ tames _ gamosaxatavad gamoviyenoT sityva-cnebebi, romlebic bunebrivad sufTa, umwikvlo
mdgomareobas aRniSnaven.
amrigad, yoveldRiur yofaSi fundamenturia dapirispireba: tahor (sufTa) da tame (usufTao). adamianis
mTeli cxovreba am or mdgomareobaSi yofnis ritmSi gadis, romelsac wmidis kategorias mikuTvnebili pirebic (samRvdeloeba, levianebi) arian daqvemdebarebulni. isini ufro maRali safexuridan ecemian usufTaobis
safexurze.
sufTa da usufTao cxovelebi
(11)
albaT, yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rac aarons (mRvdelmTavars) unda eswavlebina xalxisaTvis, es iqneboda
cxovelebis Tu arsebebis garCeva sufTisa da usufTaos
kategoriis mixedviT. Zveli aRTqmis mixedviT, adamiani ar aris is arseba, romelic yvelafers unda Wamdes.
mTavari aq akrZalva ar aris. mTavaria, adamiani arCevdes saWmels imis mixedviT, Tu ra aris sufTa da ra ar
aris sufTa. marTalia, Wama fizikuri (ufro sworad,
fiziologiuri) procesia, magram is dakavSirebulia
kultTan, religiasTan da, aqedan gamomdinare, zneobasTan. religiebi da kulturebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian imis mixedviTac, Tu ras Wamen da ras ar Wamen maTi warmomadgenlebi.
adamiani yvelafers ar unda Wamdes da arc Wams (da es
asea nebismieri kulturisa da religiis xalxSi). gansakuTrebiT ki rCeuli eri gamoirCeva am mxriv TavSekavebiT, miT ufro, rom is RmerTma mRvdelTa samefod air-

198

levianni

Cia. rogorc RmerTma gamoarCia isini, aseve maTac unda


gamoarCion erTmaneTisgan qmnilebani.
mTeli meTerTmete Tavi eZRvneba imas, Tu ra SeuZlia
da ar SeuZlia Wamos israelianma. igive Tema ufro gaSliT warmodgenilia meore rjulSic. niSandoblivia,
rom saWmelad vargis da uvargis cxovelTa sias win uZRvis sityvebi: radgan uflis, Seni RmerTis wmida eri
xar Sen... (rjl. 14:2).
cxovelebi, arsebebi, oTx kategoriad aris dajgufebuli: miwis oTxfexni (11:3-11), wylis arsebani (11:912), frinvelebi (11:13-19) da mwerebi (11:20-23). maTi
sisufTave-usufTaobis (an siwmide-uwmidurobis) gasarCevad sxvadasxva kriteriumebia gamoyenebuli.
saWmelad vargisi oTxfexi pirutyvis (behema) niSania:
gapobili Cliqi da mcoxneloba. aucilebelia orive es
niSani. Tu amaTgan erT-erTi aklia, pirutyvi ar iWmeva, is
aris tame, qarTulad usurmagi. Zroxa, cxvari sufTa (tahor) pirutyvebia, radgan Cliqic gayofili aqvT da icoxnian kidec. meore rjulSi CamoTvlilni arian sufTa
cxovelebi: xari, cxvari, Txa, iremi, qurciki, kameCi, niamori... (14:4-5). usurmagia aqlemi, radgan is mxolod
icoxnis, Cliqi ki gaupobeli aqvs; usurmagia Rori, romelsac Tumca Cliqi gapobili aqvs, magram ar icoxnis. moses rjuli aqlemis kategoriaSi aqcevs bocvers (icoxnis,
Cliqgaupobelia), kurdRels, Tumca unda iTqvas, rom arc
kurdReli da arc bocveri ar ekuTvnian mcoxnel cxovelTa ricxvs (maTi ybebis moZraoba coxnis iluzias qmnis).
usurmagia TaTebze mosiarule oTxfexi (11:27). saxeldebiT ar arian dasaxelebulni, magram eseni unda
iyos kata, ZaRli da sxva maTi gvarisani.
wylis arsebaTa sisufTavis niSania tanze farflebi
da qereWi. romel arsebasac eseni ara aqvs, usurmagebia,
ar iWmeva. pirvelni, cxadia, Tevzebia, meoreni (ufarflebo-uqereWoni) ki _ gvelebi da sxva.
frinvelebisTvis rjuli ar iZleva ganmasxvavebel
niSans. meore rjuli kmayofildeba sityvebiT: yoveli
sufTa frinveli WameT (14:11,20) da CamoTvlis usurmagebs. levianTa wignSic CamoTvlilia mxolod is frinvelebi, romelTa Wama ar SeiZleba: arwivi, svavi, fsovi,
Zera, qori, yorani, siraqlema, bu, Tolia, mimino, Woti,
wero, bukioti, kodala, yaryati, yanCa, ofofi, Ramura
(11:13-19).
mwerTa sisufTavis niSania muxliani wvivebi miwaze
saxtomad. ar iWmeva, usurmagia oTxze mosiarule da
mfrinavi mweri. saWmeli mweri unda daxtodes. aseTni
ki arian kalia da misi gvarisani da sxva, romelTa qarTuli saxelwodeba ar arsebobs (11:22). kalia (Zv. qarT.
mkali) cnobilia, rogorc saWmeli, Tundac maTes saxarebidan (maT. 3:4).
usurmagobis niSania miwaze mZromoba. esenia: kverna,
Tagvi, xvliki, zRarbi, bayayi, lokokina, Txunela
(11:29-30).

199

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

usurmagis, oTxfexi iqneba, frinveli Tu mweri, araTu Wama ikrZaleba, rogorc adamianis wambilwvelis
(gamabinZurebelisa), aramed misi leSis mikarebac. mimkarebeli usufTao iqneba saRamomde. ara mxolod Semxebi adamiani, aramed yvelaferi uwmidurdeba. Tixis WurWeli Tu kera, romelsac moxvdeba, unda daimtvres, tanisamosi an sxva ram nivTi wyalSi unda Caidos da saRamomde ase gauwmidurebuli darCeba.
yoveli leSi, saerTod, ara mxolod usurmagis, uwmiduria, ar iWmeva. Tu iseTi pirutyvi mokvdeba, romelic geWmevaT, da mis leSs vinme miekareba, gauwmidurebuli iqneba saRamomde. misi leSis mWamelma tansacmeli unda gairecxos da saRamomde gauwmidurebuli iqneba. misi leSis wamRebma tansacmeli gairecxos da saRamomde gauwmidurebuli iqneba (11:39-40).
amgvari radikalizmi sakvebis sakiTxSi mkveTrad gamoarCevda ebrael xalxs danarCeni kacobriobisagan. tacitusi erTgan wers, rom sakvebis aseTi garCeviT kedelia
aRmarTuli iudevelebsa da sxva xalxebs Soris (ist. 5,5).
mSobarobisSemdgomi ganwmeda
(12)
principi, rom mSobiarobis Semdeg qali unda ganiwmidos, universaluria, yvela Zvel da tradiciul kulturaSia miRebuli uryev wesad. raRa Sors wavideT,
CvenSi, gansakuTrebiT, mTis mosaxleobaSi ukanasknel
xanamde daculi iyo es wes-Cveuleba, romelsac xevsureTSi bosloba ewodeboda. qali mSobiarobs soflis
gareT, farRalala qoxSi, romelic sanexvezea gakeTebuli. mSobiarobis Semdeg qali oTxi dRis Semdeg sxvagan gadadis, sadac oTxi kviris ganmavlobaSi sufTavdeba. mere brundeba saxlSi, magram jer kidev usufTaod
iTvleba, sanam xatis xucesis dalocviT ar gainaTleba.
ikvlis saklavi, romlis sisxli momSobiarebuls Sublze da gul-mxarze ecxeba. cxra kvirisa da cxra dRis
Semdeg mas mwikvli aRara aqvs, Tumca xatSi gasasvlelad ufleba unda moipovos kvlav saklavis, amjerad samadlobelis, dakvliT. aseve saklavi sWirdeba mSobiaris ojaxis ganaTvlas, romelic ori kviris manZilze
uwmidurad miiCneva. amgvarivea, met-naklebi gansxvavebebiT, fSauri da TuSuri wesebic meloginisaTvis.
Zveli aRTqmis mSobiaris rjuli lakoniurad aris
gadmocemuli, ris gamoc CvenTvis ucnobia bevri detali. ar viciT, sad mSobiarobda qali, arsebobda Tu ara
sagangebo saTavso misTvis. mxolod is viciT, rom biWis
Sobisas misi uwmiduroba Svid dRes grZeldeba (merve
dRes vaJs winadacveTen) da ocdacameti dRis manZilze
unda imyofebodes sufTa sisxlSi, gogos Sobisas ki _
or kviras da samocdaeqvs dRes unda iyos sufTa sisxlSi. es imas niSnavs, rom pirvel Svid dRes (vaJis SemTxvevaSi) da or kviras (gogos SemTxvevaSi) momSobiarebulis sisxlis dena uwmiduria, mxolod ocdacameti

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da samocdaeqvsi dRis Semdeg sufTavdeba SedarebiT.


cxadia, aRebulia drois maqsimumi. mxolod amis Semdeg
SeuZlia mas sawmidarSi salocavad misvla.
riT aris ganpirobebuli qalis uwmiduroba mSobiarobisa da mis Semdgom periodSi? mis usufTaobas apirobebs gamonadeni, romelic Tanaxlavs mSobiarobas da
ramdenime xans grZeldeba.
Sobis rjulSi swored es bunebrivi, magram usufTao
procesia nagulisxmevi, romelic ori stadiisgan Sedgeba imisda mixedviT, Tu rogoria gamonadeni: lochia rubra (cruenta) _ sisxliani gamonadeni mSobiarobis pirvel
Svid dRes da lochia alba _ TeTri, usisxlo gamonadeni
mis momdevno dReebSi, romelsac rjuli SedarebiT nakleb usufTaod miiCnevs.
am vadis gasvlis Semdeg vaJi Tu gogo mihyavT sakrebulo karavTan da mRvdeli Seswiravs misTvis erTwlian kravs aRsavlen msxverplad da mtredis xunds an
gvrits codvis gamosasyidad. am aqtiT qali sabolood
ubrundeba sisufTaves, romelic mSobiarobamde hqonda. upovari, visac kravis Sewirva ar SeuZlia, or
gvrits da mtredis or xunds swiravs, rogorc moxda mariamisa da iesos SemTxvevaSi (luk. 2:22-24). aqedan Cans,
rogori Raribi iyo saxli, sadac ieso iSva.
ganwmedis rituali dedisaTvis aris gamiznuli, bavSvi ki Sobidanve sufTaa. sxvanairad, ar moxdeboda misi
Sesvla merve dRes uflis aRTqmaSi winadacveTis wesiT.
mSobiarobis rjuli imis arapirdapiri mxilebaa,
rom mSobiaroba da, maSasadame, Sobac, axali sicocxlis dabadeba, uwmiduri procesia da misi Sedegebi
ritualur gasufTaveba-ganwmedas moiTxovs. es TiTqos ewinaaRmdegeba RvTis brZanebas, romelic mouwodebs adams gamravleba-nayofierebisaken (dab. 1:18).
Semdgomi periodis wignebSic igive azria: Seni coli
nayofieri vazia Seni saxlis yureebSi, Seni Zeni zeTisxilis rtoebiviT arian Seni sufris irgvliv (fsalm.
127:3). Svilis yola ki uflis wyalobad aris Seracxili: aha, uflis memkvidreobaa Svilebi, jildoa muclis nayofi (fsalm. 128:3). Soba RvTis madlia, magram
Tavad procesi, rogorc is warimarTeba, codvis daRia
adamianze. gavixsenoT cnobili sityvebi 50-e fsalmunidan (7):
rameTu esera usjuloebaTa Sina miudga
da codvaTa Sina mSva me dedaman Cemman.
keTris diagnozi da ganwmeda
(13:1-14:57)
is daavadeba, romelic aRwerilia am TavSi da gadmocemulia ebrauli sityviT carayaT, septuagintas kvalze Cveulebriv iTargmneba, rogorc keTri (berZn. lepra). Tumca, rogorc komentatorebi aRniSnaven, berZnuli lepra ar aRniSnavs sakuTriv im daavadebas, rome-

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lic am terminiT gaxda cnobili. lepra berZen medikosebTan farTo, xSirad ganusazRvreli mniSvnelobiT
ixmareba kanis sxvadasxva daavadebebisaTvis, romelsac
gamonayari (qeci da sxva) axasiaTebs. aseTive viTarebaa
ebrauli carayaTis SemTxvevaSic. aq saqmes is arTulebs, rom carayaT gulisxmobs ara mxolod sokovan
Sres an mSral Cirqs qsovilze, aramed mineralur gamonayars Senobis kedlebze. ase rom, keTris wyluli SeiZleba sagnebzec daadasturos mRvdelma, romelsac miiwveven da daaTvalierebineben saxls (14:36-44).
amrigad, mRvdeli diagnostikosis funqcias itvirTavs. kanze saeWvo simsivnis, gamonayaris Tu laqis gaCenis SemTxvevaSi masTan mihyavT adamiani da mRvdels
SeuZlia daadginos, aris Tu ara es keTri. Tu mRvdelma keTri daadastura, snebaSeyrili uwmidurad cxaddeba. mRvdels zogjer uxdeba snebaSeyrilis Caketva
Svidi dRiT da mocda, sanam sneulebis saxe ar gamoikveTeba da mRvdeli an uwmidurad (tame) ar cnobs mas,
an sufTad (tahor).
ramdenadac es sneuleba, keTri iqneba Tu sxva ram
(mag., muni), uwmiduris (usufTaos) kategoriaSia ganxiluli, misi mkurnalobac mxolod da mxolod mis
ganwmeda-gasufTavebaSi unda mdgomareobdes. Sedegs
SviddRiani izolacia aCvenebs, amave dros, nadgurdeba misi tanisamosi. Tu diagnozi ucilobelia, misi,
rogorc keTrovnis, izolacia xdeba, is gancalkevebiT
unda cxovrobdes, Tavisi sacxovrebeli banakis gareT,
TavSiSveli (roca keTri Tavze aqvs) da piramde Seburvili unda dadiodes da patiosnad Tavisi piriT
acxadebdes: uwmiduri! uwmiduri!. mkurnalobis araviTari mcdeloba. keTri RvTis sasjelia da gankurnebac mis xelTaa. amitomac gankurneba drois faqtorzea
miSvebuli. am dros ki RmerTi ganagebs. ramden xansac
wylulia masze, imden xans iqneba uwmiduri (13:42-46).
keTris moqmedeba adamianis kaniT ar Semoifargleba.
keTris wyluli SeiZleba adamianis tanisamosze, qsovilze an tyavis raime saganzec aRmoCndes, momwvano an
mowiTalo feris wyluli (13:47-49). dawylulebuli
tanisamosis patrons Svidi dRiT Cahketaven da, Tu
wyluli (axal) samosze gadavida, keTris SemTxveva saeWvo aRar aris _ samosi da yoveli dawylulebuli nivTi unda daiwvas cecxlSi.
mRvdels keTris gankurnebis araviTari saSualeba
ara aqvs, mRvdeli ar aris mkurnali _ igi ganmwmedelia mxolod. keTrisgan gankurneba uflis xelSia da,
Tu gankurna keTrovani, mRvdels isRa rCeba, rom aRasrulos ganmwmedelis funqcia. gankurneba erTia, ganwmeda-gasufTaveba _ meore. Tavad is faqti, rom adamians keTri Seeyara da masze iyo es sasjeli, ukve niSnavs,
rom es adamiani uwmiduria, Tundac gankurnebuli iyos,
vidre mRvdeli ganwmedis rituals ar Cautarebs mas.
mxolod amis Semdeg aRidgens igi bunebriv sisufTaves

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da, amasTanave, ubrundeba israelis krebuls, rogorc


misi sruluflebiani wevri.
ganwmeda mRvdlis xeliT ramdenime etapisagan Sedgeba. pirvel rigSi, mRvdelma banaks gareT, sadac aqamde imyofeba keTrovani, unda gasinjos igi, unda darwmundes,
rom keTris wyluli gankurnebulia (14:3). amas mosdevs
sakuTriv ganwmedis rituali, romlis Sesaxeb rjulSi
aqamde araferi iyo naTqvami. ganwmedisTvis saWiroa: ori
frinveli, kedris rto, xe, wiTeli narTi, usupis kona,
Tixis WurWeli. yovelive amiT keTrovans, cxadia, amarageben misi axloblebi _ mas xeli ar miuwvdeba maTTvis,
is xom moSorebulia Tavis karavs, meurneobas.
erTi frinveli daikvlis wyaroze Tixis qoTans zemoT, raTa sisxli CaiRvaros qoTanSi. frinvelis sisxli Svidgzis esxureba gasasufTavebels cocxali
frinvelis, kedris Stos da usupis meSveobiT. risTvis
aris saWiro sisxlisferi Zafi? albaT, usupis konis Sesakravad. am sxurebiT pacienti gasufTavebulia. cocxal frinvels gauSveben, rac simbolurad keTrovanis
tyveobis, misi izolaciis dasasruls gamoxatavs. frinveli brundeba Tavis budeSi, rogorc gankurnebuli unda daubrundes Tavis karavs (gvaxsendeba erTi Sumeruli Tqma: Sepyrobili Citi Tavisi budisken gafrindes,
Sepyrobili moyme Tavisi dedis wiaRs daubrundes).
simboluri daniSnuleba aqvT ritualSi monawile
sagnebsac.
kedari, rogorc gamZle da ulpobeli xe, warmogvidgens adamianis sxeuls, romelmac gauZlo keTris
wyluls.
usupi, mware balaxi, sneulebis simwares ganasaxierebs (Sdr. misi roli paseqis ritualSi), amave dros,
mas ganwmedis Zala aqvs, rac asaxulia fsalmunSi: masxuro me usupiTa da ganvwmidne me; ganmbano me da ufros
Tovlisa ganvspetakne (50:9).
fsalmunis es sityvebi TiTqos keTrovnis ganwmedis
saritualo sityvebia: usupiT sisxlis sxurebis Semdeg
irecxeba keTrovnis samoseli da Tavadac ganibaneba, gadaiparsavs mTels Tmas (14:8).
amis Semdeg mas SeuZlia Sevides banakSi, oRond karavSi ver icxovrebs. Svid dRes dahyofs aq da meSvide
dRes iwyeba ganwmedis axali safexuri.
meSvide dRes xelmeored iparsavs Tmas, gairecxavs
samosels, ganibaneba. adamiani TiTqos xelaxla ibadeba, uTmo, wylidan ibadeba, axali samosliT Seimoseba.
merve dRe msxverplSewirvis dRea. is xdeba ukve Sesakrebeli karvis SesasvlelTan. unda Seiwiros sami
saxis msxverpli: erTi kravi _ danaSaulis gamosasyidad, erTic _ codvis gamosasyidad, welgamovlili
cxvari _ aRsavlenad (sruladdasawvelad), amasTanave, mcenareuli Sesawiravi (zeTSi Sereuli fqvili).
msxverplSewirvis sirTule (kompleqsuroba) da mravalsaxeoba TavisTavad mowmobs, Tu raoden sapasuxis-

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mgeblo problemaa keTrisagan gankurnebulis dabruneba sazogadoebaSi.


es Cans Tundac iqidan, rom danaSaulis gamomsyidveli msxverplis sisxliT igive rituali tardeba, rogoric aaronisa da misi Svilebis kurTxevis dros (8:24).
saxeldobr, mRvdeli am sisxls scxebs keTrisgan gankurnebuls marjvena yuris bibiloze, marjvena xelis
cerze da marjvena fexis cerze (14:14). igive ganmeordeba zeTis im nawiliT, romelic morCeba sxurebis Semdeg
(14:16-17). sisxliT da zeTiT (es ar aris, cxadia, cxebis
zeTi anu mironi) mRvdeli unaTlavs mas im organoebs,
romelTa meSveobiT adamiani Cadis danaSauls da codvas (uyuradRebobidan dawyebuli ukuRmarT gzaze siaruliT damTavrebuli). marjvena xelisa da fexis cerebi adamianis qmediTunarianobis simboluri (da fizikuric) gamoxatulebaa da amitomac aris, rom urC
mtrebs maTi mokveTiT sjian (ix. msaj. 1:6).
saxlis keTri
(14:34-53)
ufali keTriT sjis ara mxolod adamianebs, aramed
saxlebsac. rogorc keTri adamianze misi danaSaulisa
da codvis, uflis wyevlis niSania, asevea saxlis qvebze,
mis kedlebze, mTels saxlze.
rodesac SexvalT qanaanis qveyanaSi, romelsac samkvidreblad gaZlevT, da keTris wyluls Sevyri Tqveni
samkvidrebeli qveynis saxlebs... (14:34), auwyebs ufali
moses da aarons. am SemTxvevaSic, cxadia, mRvdlis Carevaa aucilebeli, man unda gasinjos saxli. aq, ra Tqma unda, igulisxmeba ara sakuTriv keTri, rogorc sneuleba,
aramed mineraluri dakristaleba an obi, an sokovani gamonayofi qvaze. kedlebze is Cndeba momwvano an mowiTalo Rrmulebis saxiT (14:37). aseT saxls mRvdeli dabeWdavs Svidi dRiT, mere isev daaTvalierebs da, Tu wyluli modebulia kedlebze, gamoangrevinebs qvebs da uwmidur adgilze gadaayrevinebs. Caiwyoba axali qvebi da xelaxla Seileseba. Tu kidev gamoCnda saxlSi wyluli,
saxli unda daingres. yvela, vinc am saxlSi imyofeboda
dasaZineblad Tu saWmelad, tanisamosi unda gairecxos.
Tu wyluli gaivlis, saxli gankurnebulad iTvleba,
oRond misi gasasufTavebeli rituali unda Catardes.
ori frinvelidan erTi daikvlis. dakluli frinvelis
sisxls kedris totis, usupisa da cocxali frinvelis
meSveobiT Svidzis asxureben saxls. meore frinvels Tavisuflad gauSveben mindorSi. da gasufTavebis ritualic damTavrebulia. saxli ubrundeba mis binadarT.
gamonadenis rjuli
(15)
visac sxeulidan gamonadeni aqvs, uwmiduria igi Tavisi gamonadenis gamo (15:2). winadadebis meore nawili
SeiZleba amgvaradac iTargmnos: ...misi gamonadeni uw-

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miduria. azri igive darCeba: gamonadeni auwmidurebs


adamians. muxlSi dadgenilia gamonadenisa da sxeulis
uwmidureba.
sxeuli basar (xorci) am muxlSi evfemisturad
aRniSnavs sasqeso organos, saidanac xdeba gamonadeni. fiqroben, rom aq mxedvelobaSia gonorea (Teslis dena). fiqroben agreTve, Sorsac midian, rom laparakia aTaSangze, romelic adreve iyo gavrcelebuli aRmosavleTSi, cxeli klimatis pirobebSi. gamonadeniani Tavis garSemo avrcelebs uwmidurebas, is
gadamdebia: uwmiduria ara mxolod gamonadeniani,
aramed yvelaferi, rasac ki is mihkarebia: tansacmeli, romelic acvia; sawoli, sadac is wevs; yvela sagani, razedac mjdara; uremi, riTac umgzavria; yvela
adamiani, visac ki Sehxebia; WurWeli, saidanac usvams
da uWamia _ Tixis unda daimtvres, xisa gairecxos. gamonadenians an mis mier naxmar sagans gakarebuli adamiani tansacmels gairecxavs, ganibaneba da saRamomde
uwmiduri iqneba.
ganwmedis procesi Svid dRes grZeldeba: irecxeba
misi tansacmeli, wyaros wyalSi ganibaneba tani.
meSvide dRes mRvdelTan mihyavs ori gvriti an mtredis ori xundi, rogorc momSobiarebuls (Cans, gamonadeni loxiebTan aris gaTanabrebuli). erTi frinveli
codvisaTvis, meore _ aRsavlenisaTvis. Seiwireba Sesawiravi da Seundobs mas mRvdeli uflis winaSe misi gamonadenis gamo (15:15).
sagulisxmoa, rom am fizikuri wvirisgan (ritualuri usufTaobisgan: tuma) ganwmeda-gasufTaveba moraluri kategoriis cnebebiT aris gamoxatuli. saboloo
jamSi, yvela fizikuri sneuleba RvTis risxvisa da sasjelis niSania adamianis sxeulze.
polucia (uneburi Teslisdena) auwmidurebs imas,
visac SeemTxveva (mamakacs) da qalsac, visTanac dawveba
mamakaci. isini unda gasufTavdnen tanisamosis garecxviT da tanis ganbaniT (15:16-18).
uwmiduria widovani qali (dedaTa wesSi myofi) da
auwmidurebs yvelas, vinc ki miekareba rames mis Senaxebs
(samoseli iqneba, sawoli Tu sxva ram sagani), magram ara
imdenad, rom gansawmedelad danaSaulis an codvis gamosasyidi msxverpli dasWirdes. es bunebrivi usufTaobaa da sakmarisia tanisamosis garecxva da tanis ganbana.
rac Seexeba qmars, romelic dawveba widovan colTan,
Svidi dRis manZilze uwmiduria Tavad da is sawolic,
romelzec wevs (15:19-24).
codvis niSnad aris Seracxili gamonadeni, romelic
ar aris gamowveuli dedaTa wesis mizeziT (anu imiT,
rac bunebiT aris dawesebuli). esec widovnebis uwmidurebaa, magram misgan ganwmedas, tanisamosis garecxvisa da tanis ganbanis garda, codvis gamosyidvis rituali sWirdeba. gamonadenis Sewyvetidan merve dRes daikvlis erTi frinveli (mtredi an gvriti) codvis gamo-

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sasyidad, meore _ aRsavlenad, romliTac mas Seendoba


gamonadenis uwmidureba (15:25-30).
marTalia, am TavSi warmodgenili kazusebi adamianis pirad higienas exeba, magram isini sazogadoebriv
mniSvnelobas iZenen, raki adamiani ara gancalkevebiT,
aramed sazogadoebrivad cxovrobs. adamianebi dakavSirebuli arian erTmaneTTan mravalgvari kavSirebiT da
TiToeulis uwmidureba meoreze gadadis. sabolood,
piradi higienis sakiTxi religiur problemad iqceva,
rogorc am Tavis dasasruls aris naTqvami: ..ar gaauwmiduron Cemi savane, romelic maT Soris aris (15:31).
mTeli israelis siwmide yoveli israelianis siwmidezea damokidebuli. mTeli israeli wmida unda iyos,
rogorc misi ufalia wmida.
gantevebis vaci
(16:5-22)
sakulto ceremoniali, romlis dagvirgvinebaa gantevebis vacis gaSveba udabnoSi, centraluri ritualia. is gadmocemulia erT TavSi Cveuli bibliuri lakonizmiTa da dramatizmiT. es ceremoniali, romelic
erTian sakulto qmedebad warmogvidgens sruladdasawvel da codvis gamosasyid msxverplSewirvas, israelis mTels sazogadoebas Seexeba.
arsebobs individualuri codva da individualuri
danaSauli da arsebobs sazogado codva, romlis subieqti aris mTeli israelis krebuli, rogorc erTi krebiTi pirovneba. am ceremonialSi israelianebi namdvilad adastureben erTianobas, amave dros, TiToeuli israelianis pirovnuli pasuxismgebloba gadazrdilia
koleqtiur pasuxismgeblobaSi da, piruku, koleqtivi
(krebuli, sazogadoeba: kahal, yedah) erT pasuxismgebel pirovnebad aris qceuli. Tu odesme, swored am dros
erwymis erTmaneTs israelianTa (israelis ZeTa) simravle da israelis, rogorc erTi pirovnebis, mTlianoba.
ceremoniali mimdinareobs or, erTmaneTis ukiduresad sapirispiro punqts Soris. es aris, erTi mxriv,
israelis, rogorc religiuri Temis, uwmidesi adgili, wmidaTa wmidad saxeldebuli, da, meore mxriv,
udabno, gareul mxecTa da avsulTa samyofeli. es qmnis
am ceremonialis daZabulobas. Zlieri statusiT da
sakraluri funqciiT gamovlinda wmidaTa wmida, romelmac amave wignis me-10 TavSi gadmocemul tragikul
epizodSi pirvelad iCina Tavi. aaronis Zeebma _ nadabma da abihum TviTneburad Seitanes cecxli uflis
winaSe anu wmidaTa wmidaSi. raki maT amis ufleba ar
hqondaT, maTi sacecxluris cecxli ucxo cecxlad
(eS zarah) CaiTvala da uflisgan gamosulma wmida
cecxlma gadabuga isini (10:1-2). es tragikuli SemTxvevaa gaxsenebuli im ceremonialis dadgenisas, romlis mTavari warmmarTveli aaronia, uflis cecxliT
ganadgurebuli vaJebis mama.

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uTxra ufalma moses: uTxari aarons, Sens Zmas, yovel dros nu Seva wmidaSi, kretsabmels iqiT, Tavsarqvelis win, romelic kidobans axuravs, raTa ar mokvdes, radgan RrubelSi gamovCndebi Tavsarqvelze
(16:2). es Tavsarqveli (qafforeT) saSiSi adgilia,
rogorc uflis davanebis adgili. mis winaSe warsadgomad ori msxverplia saWiro _ codvis gamosasyidi
mozvris saxiT da aRsavleni verZis saxiT. aaroni unda
Seimosos selis SesamosliT, Seirtyas selis sartyeli. codvis gamosasyidi mozvris sisxli amgvarad Semosilma aaronma unda Seitanos wmidaTa wmidaSi da
Tavsarqvels asxuros. erTi vaci unda Seswiros xalxis, mTeli israelis, codvis gamosasyid msxverplad
da misi sisxlic, msgavsad mozvris sisxlisa, asxuros
Tavsarqvels. samsxverplo sisxli ganwmeds Tavsarqvels, uflis dasavanebel adgils, yvela im uwmidurobisa da codvebisagan, romelnic Cadenili aqvs Tavad aarons da israelis sazogadoebas, rogorc erTs.
aseve ganiwmideba samsxverplo mis rqebze sisxlis
sxurebiT.
iqvea meore vaci, romelic ar ikvlis, is rCeba cocxal msxverplad, romelmac unda itvirTos israelis
codvebi, raTa waiRos isini Sors israelianTa sacxovrisidan, udabnoSi. Tavze daasxams orTave xels aaroni cocxal vacs da aRiarebs masze israelianTa yvela
ukeTurebas, yvela Secodebas da yvela codvas, atvirTebinebs vacs da gauSvebs udabnoSi sagangebo kacis xeliT. waiRebs vaci yvela maT ukeTurebas dasakargavisken, gauSvebs Txas udabnoSi (16:21-22).
amrigad, erTi vaci uflisaa, meore _ gantevebisa,
anu, rogorc dedanSia, yazazelis, romlis ramdenadme
miaxloebiTi Targmani ar xerxdeba. vin aris Tu ra aris
yazazeli, gaugebaria. SesaZloa, es saxeli, romelic
Zveli aRTqmis mxolod am adgilas gvxvdeba, gulisxmobdes udabnos demons, SesaZloa, udabnos adgils. rasac ar unda niSnavdes yazazeli, cxadia, rom masTan gagzavnili vaci ukan aRar brundeba imis niSnad, rom Cadenili ukeTurebani da codvebi aRar daubrundeba israelis sazogadoebas.
sayovelTao codvis mitevebis ceremoniali yovelwliurad sruldeba meSvide Tvis meaTe dRes. dResaswaulTa Soris es dRe mitevebis (an Sendobis) dRed (om
qifur) iwodeba. es swored is erTaderTi dRea weliwadSi, roca mRvdelmTavari (aaroniani) wmidaTa wmidaSi Sedis da uflis saxels, bibliis teqstSi tetragramiT (hvh) gamoxatuls, warmoTqvams.
sxvadasxva ritualuri wesebi da akrZalvebi
(17-19)
Tu vinme israelianTagani an xars, an cxvars, an Txas
banakSi daklavs da banaks gareT daklavs, Sesakrebeli
karvis SesasvlelTan ar miiyvans, rom uflis savanesTan

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Seswiros ufals, am kacs sisxli moekiTxeba. man sisxli


daRvara da unda moikveTos Tavisi xalxidan (17:3-4).
am akrZalvis Zala is aris, rom ar SeiZleba daiklas pirutyvi, Tu ara msxverplad Sewirvis mizniT. yoveli
dakvla unda iyos msxverplSewirva, amitomac aris,
rom ebrauli sityva zabax, romelic warmoSobiT (etimologiurad) niSnavs ubralod kvlas, msxverplSewirvis
mniSvnelobas imkvidrebs. dakvla da msxverplSewirva erTi aqtia. dakluli niSnavs msxverplad Sewiruls. ra saWiroebisTvisac ar unda moindomos israelianma sakuTari pirutyvis dakvla, igi msxverplSewirvis
xasiaTs unda atarebdes: pirutyvi miyvanili unda iqnas
Sesakrebel karavTan mRvdlis winaSe, romelic Seasrulebs dawesebul wess. ...miuyvanos mRvdels Sesakrebel
karavTan da dauklan samSvidobo msxverplad ufals
(17:5). samSvidobo msxverpli (Selamim), rogorc viciT,
gulisxmobs msxverpls, romelic Seiwireba rame xelSekrulebis Tu ficis dadebis, rame saqmis aRsrulebis Semdeg. am msxverplSewirvis bunebrivi gagrZeleba da Sedegia saerTo trapezi, sadac mxareebi usxedan sufras da
ufalic maTi Tanameinaxea. iseTi SemTxvevebi, romlebic samSvidobo msxverpls moiTxovs, Zalze xSiri iqneboda israelis sazogadoebaSi rogorc udabnos, ise qanaanur periodSi. rjuli, cxadia, krZalavs samsxverplos gareSe ara mxolod samSvidobo msxverplis dakvlas, romelic sanaxevrod saeroa, aramed codvis gamosasyidisac da
aRsavlenisasac, romelTa banaks gareT an banakSi
mRvdlis gareSe Sewirva sruliad warmoudgenelia.
akrZalvidan kidev is daskvna gamodis, rom yoveli
aseTi TviTneburi msxverplSewirva mkvlelobis badalia. am kacs sisxli moekiTxeba. man sisxli daRvara
(15:4). sisxli moekiTxeba, rogorc mkvlels _ man daarRvia moses rjulis meSvide mcneba: ara kla (gam. 20:13),
rac mxolod adamianis mkvlelobis akrZalvas ar gulisxmobs, aramed yoveli cocxali qmnilebisa.
man sisxli daRvara _ kicxavs damkvlels rjuli
da mokveTiT emuqreba. sisxli msxverplSewirvis drosac iRvreba, magram es sisxli mRvdlis xeliT esxureba
uflis samsxverplos. danaSaulia sisxlis daRvra samsxverplos gareSe, umRvdlod da uwesod.
amasTanave, es akrZalva amxilebs velze Txis msgavsi
demonebisadmi (satirebisadmi) msxverplSewirvis Cveulebas, rac TiTqos israelianebs egviptelTagan unda
SeeTvisebinaT. aRar dauklan saklavi vacebs, romelTa
kvalze garyvniloben (17:7).
sisxli
(17:10-14)
akrZalulia sisxlis Wama. es akrZalva noes xanidan
modis: sisxli gaTanabrebulia sicocxlesTan (dab.
9:4). levianTa rjuli aseve ganmartavs: sisxlSia xorcielis suli (17:11), SesaZlebelia sxva Targmanic, uf-

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levianni

ro zusti: sisxlSia xorcielis sicocxle. sisxlia,


rom acocxlebs xorcs, xorciel qmnilebas; amis ZaliT
aris dawesebuli msxverplis sisxli adamianis sulis
anu sicocxlis (nefeS) gamosasyidad da Sesandobad.
amitomac ar iWmeva sisxli arc calke, arc xorcTan erTad. msxverplis sisxlis nawili, rogorc viciT, esxureba samsxverplos da ecxeba mis rqebs, danarCeni iRvreba samsxverplos ZirSi. magram sad midis sisxli nanadirevisa? nanadirevi xom samsxverploze ar Seiwireba, is
xom msxverpli ar aris? rjuli awesebs: Tu vinme israeliani da vinme mdgmuri, romelic Tqvens Soris aris
mdgmurad, moinadirebs an nadirs an frinvels, romelic iWmeva, sisxli unda gamouSvas da miwiT daifaros
(17:13), anu sisxli imarxeba, rogorc adamiani, miwas ubrundeba, saidanac iqna aRebuli.
11:39 krZalavs da uwmidurebis mizezad Seracxavs
pirutyvis leSis an namxecavis gakarebas. xolo 17:15-16
krZalavs mis Wamas. daukvleli, Tavisi sikvdiliT momkvdari an mxecis mier daglejili pirutyvis sisxli mis
xorcSia CarCenili. albaT, amitom ikrZaleba misi Wama.
mWameli, mkvidri israeliani iqneba is, Tu mdgmuri, gauwmidurebulia da, Tu tanisamoss ar gairecxavs da
tans ar ganibans, danaSauli daekisreba, anu mouxdeba
danaSaulis msxverplis Sewirva.
akrZalvebi sqesobriv urTierTobaSi
(18:6-23)
erT-erTi fundamenturi niSani, riTac unda gansxvavdebodnen israelianebi egviptelTagan, romelTa Soris cxovrobdnen, da qanaanelTagan, romelTa mezoblad mouwevT cxovreba, qorwinebisa da xorcieli kavSiris siwmidea. nu mihyvebiT maT wesebs. Cemi samarTali aRasruleT da Cemi wesebi SeinaxeT (18:4-5). pirvelad kacobriobis istoriaSi werilobiT aris dadgenili akrZalvebi sqesobriv urTierTobaSi, romlebic unda daicvas adamianma. da dRemde civilizebuli kacobrioba icavs am akrZalvebs. levianTa rjuli CamoTvlis
sisxliT naTesaobisa da moyvruli siaxlovis TiTqmis
yvela SemTxvevas, romelic gamocxadebulia tabuirebulad sqesobrivi urTierTobisaTvis.
zogadi akrZalva aseTia: aravin dauaxlovdes Tavis
xorciT naTesavs misi siSiSvlis asaxdelad. me var ufali (18:6).
xorciT naTesaoba levianTa rjulisTvis farTo
cnebaa, igi moicavs rogorc uSualo, aseve SeZenil naTesaobasac.
garda uSualo naTesavebisa (mSoblebi: ded-mama, daZma; SvilisSvili: vaJis asuli da qaliSvilis asuli;
mamis da dedis da), levianTa rjulis mixedviT, xorciT
naTesavad iTvlebian: mamis coli, vaJis coli, Zmis coli, mamis Zmis coli, colis asuli, colis vaJis asuli
da asulis asuli. maT saerTo aqvT xorci (Seer) da maTi

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

siSiSvlis axda dauSvebelia, garyvnilebaa. saerTo


xorcis gatexva incestia. magaliTad, incestia mamis
Zmis colTan kavSiri, radgan mamis ZmasTan Zmiswuls saerTo xorci aqvs. colsa da qmars erTi xorci aqvT (da
iyvnen erT xorc, dab. 2:24), amitomac colis Svili an
colis SvilisSvili qmrisTvis tabudadebulia.
am TavSi gamoyenebulia evfemisturi gamoTqma siSiSvlis axda sqesobrivi aqtis gadmosacemad. ganvixiloT igi oriode sityviT. siSiSvle (yavlah) gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT sasqeso asos niSnavs da igi
sircxvilTan aris dakavSirebuli (sarcxvineli).
gavixsenoT Tundac adamisa da evas maTTvis axladaRmoCenili siSiSvle da sircxvili. samoTxidan gamoZevebis Semdeg adamiani ifaravs siSiSvles. SiSvladyofna, siSiSvlis axdiloba adamianis damcirebuli,
Seuracxyofili mdgomareobaa. gavixsenoT noe, romlis siSiSvle ixila xamma da dascina (dab. 9:22). SiSvelis Semosva orsave aRTqmaSi _ ZvelSi (dab. 9:23; es.
58:7; ezek. 18:7) da axalSi (maT 25:36) udidesi madlia,
da piruku, gaSiSvleba damcireba da sasjelia. ufali
siSiSvlis axdiT emuqreba gandgomil israels, ucxoTa winaSe siSiSvlis perspeqtivas uxatavs mas (es.
47:3; ez. 23:29; os. 2:10).
aris adamianis siSiSvle da aris qveynis siSiSvle,
romelic aseve dafaruli unda iyos gareSe, ucxo TvalisaTvis. rogorc adamians aqvs saidumlo, romelic
mxolod misi mflobelisTvis aris xiluli, aseve qveyanasac aqvs Tavisi saidumlo, rasac mxolod misi mkvidrni ganicdian. gavixsenoT, rom iosebma egvipteSi Casul Tavis Zmebs egviptis siSiSvlis zverva daabrala
(dab. 42:9,12). Tu xorciT naTesavis siSiSvlis axda
zneobrivi danaSaulia, qveynis siSiSvlis zverva politikuri danaSaulia. niSandoblivia, rom gaSiSvleba Zveli aRTqmis enaSi gatialebis, ganadgurebis sinonimia.
amrigad, siSiSvlis axda, erTi mxriv, adamianis
(aseve qveynis) damcireba-SeuracxyofasTan aris dakavSirebuli, meore mxriv, is teqnikuri terminia incesturi urTierTobis gamosaxatavad.
ar ahxado siSiSvle mamaSenis cols. es mamaSenis
siSiSvlea (18:8). rogor gavigoT es muxli? SesaZlebelia ornairi gageba. pirveli: coli qmris siSiSvlea
im azriT, rom mxolod qmars ekuTvnis misi siSiSvle.
amitom aravis aqvs ufleba, ahxados vinmes cols siSiSvle, Seuracxmyofelis mama iqneba es vinme Tu, ubralod, moyvasi misi (TanamoZme israeliani). coli, sazogadod, qmris siSiSvlea da misi siSiSvlis axda moses meSvide mcnebis (ar imruSo) darRvevaa. meore: mamis siSiSvle SeiZleba aq niSnavdes mamis Rirsebas,
romlis Selaxvis zneobrivi ufleba ara aqvs Svils.
es mamaSenis siSiSvlea _ rjuli TiTqos axsenebs israelians, rogor moeqca erTi Svili noes siSiSvles

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levianni

da rogor moeqca danarCeni ori. mamis colis siSiSvlis xelyofa mamis siSiSvlis xelyofaa, radgan qmari
da coli erT xorc arian.
levianTa rjuli sxva adgilas sasikvdilo codvad
Tvlis mamis colTan kavSirs: vinc mamis colTan dawveba, Tavisi mamis siSiSvles axdis, oriveni unda mokvdnen. maTzea sisxli (20:11). bibliaSi aris SemTxveva
am rigis codvisa. reubenze gakvriT naTqvamia, rom adga reubeni da Sevida bilhasTan, Tavisi mamis xarWasTan,
da gaigo es israelma (dab. 35:22). gaigo israelma (iakobma), magram ar Cans, ra moimoqmeda. magram es saqcieli
kurTxevisas ar dauviwya iakobma Tavis pirmSos: zRvasaviT boboqrob, ar aRzevdebi, radgan axvedi mamis sarecelze, maSin SebRale Cemi sareceli (dab. 49:4).
SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom siSiSvlis axda incests
gulisxmobs da ara imdenad sxvisi siSiSvlis, rogorc
sakuTrebis, xelyofas. rodesac rjuli afrTxilebs
ar ahxado siSiSvle Seni vaJis asuls an Seni qaliSvilis asuls, radgan es Seni siSiSvlea (18:10), Seni siSiSvle sxvas ras unda gulisxmobdes, Tu ara xorcs.
rjuls SeeZlo eTqva: Seni xorcia, radgan adamianis
sisxli da xorcia misi Svilis Svili.
levianTa rjuli krZalavs mamidis da deidis siSiSvlis axdas (18:19), magram mose da aaroni swored amgvari qorwinebis Sedegad daibadnen: da SeirTo yamramma ioqebedi, Tavisi mamis da, colad da uSva qalma
aaroni da mose (gam. 6:20). mamis dis siSiSvle mamis
siSiSvlea, sxvanairad, erTia xorci. asea gamoTqmuli: radgan es misi (mamis) xorcis gaSiSvlebaa (18:19).
magram egviptis xanaSi jer ar iyo rjuli.
ar ahxado siSiSvle Sens rZals. Seni vaJis colia
igi, ar ahxado mas siSiSvle (18:15). aq mxolod akrZalvaa, me-20 TavSi ki is gamocxadebulia sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulad: oriveni unda mokvdnen. sisaZagle
aqvT Cadenili. maTzea maTi sisxli (20:12). levianTa
rjuli krZalavs debis colad moyvanas erTmaneTis
gverdiT (18:18), rac patriarqTa xanaSi bunebrivi iyo.
gavixsenoT Tundac iakobis ojaxi, sadac ori da _ lea
da raxeli erTmaneTis gverdiT colobdnen iakobs.
gvaxsovs agreTve usiamovnebani, romlebsac ver ascda
iakobi maT gamo. roca rjuli awesebs am akrZalvas: ar
moiyvano coli misi dis gverdiT metoqed, rom xdide
mis siSiSvles misi TandaswrebiT, mTeli misi sicocxle (18:18), iakobis mware gamocdilebis gaxsenebiT is
zrunavs ojaxis simtkicesa da simSvideze.
ikrZaleba Tanadrouli kavSiri qalTan da mis asulTan, misi vaJis asulTan an qaliSvilis asulTan (18:17)
isev da isev siSiSvlis gamo, radgan isini erTi xorcni arian da ar SeiZleba erTdroulad maTi siSiSvleebis axda. dedisa da qaliSvilis colad Txova (Tanadroulad) me-20 TavSi sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulia
da cecxlSi dawviT isjebian kacic da qalebic (20:14).

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akrZalul urTierTobaTa CamonaTvalSi ver vxvdebiT kacis asuls, rogorc Cans, im mizeziT, rom sakuTar
qaliSvilTan urTierToba miuRebeli iyo egviptelTa
da qanaanelTa Sorisac da TviT imaT Sorisac, vinc
amoanTxia miwam israelianTa misvlamde qanaanSi maTi
ukiduresi uwmidurebis gamo (18:28), romelTa ukuRmarTi Cveulebebisgan afrTxilebs israelianebs rjuli. dabadebis wignSi, Cven gvaxsovs, aris moTxrobili
SemTxveva mamis (lotis) urTierTobisa sakuTar asulebTan. qaliSvilebma isargebles mamis simTvraliT
da morigeobiT dawvnen masTan, raTa aRedginaT misTvis
STamomavloba (dab. 19:31-36). teqstSi ar ikicxeba es aqti, ramdenadac aq mizani (STamomavlobis gaCena, rogorc upirvelesi vali adamianisa amqveynad) amarTlebs
saSualebas. arafers ambobs rjuli sisxliT axlo naTesavebze _ Zmiswulis, diswulisa da biZaSvilis Sesaxeb,
nebdarTulia Tu ara maTTan qorwineba. magram Cven viciT patriarqTa xanis praqtikidan, rom amgvari (kroskuzenuri) qorwineba ar ikrZaleboda, piriqiT, sasurvelic iyo. iakobma da Semdeg isakma TavianTi biZaSvilebi moiyvanes colebad. aseve abraami da sarac erTmaneTis biZaSvilebi iyvnen. abraami saras dadac ki moixseniebs: marTlac Cemi da aris es qali. mamaCemis asulia
igi, oRond dedaCemis asuli ar aris. amitomac viTxove
colad (dab. 20:12). mamaCemSi abraami, SeiZleba, ar
gulisxmobdes Teraxs, Tavis mSobel mamas, aramed papas
an romelime winapars. Tumca isic dasaSvebia, rom sara
marTlac misi naxevarda yofiliyo mamis mxridan, rac
TiTqos nebas rTavda mas, colad moeyvana igi, rac saerTo dedis SemTxvevaSi gamoricxuli iqneboda. mefeTa
xanaSi, rogorc Tamarisa da amnonis epizodidan Cans
(2mef. 13:1-13), uCveulo ar unda yofiliyo erTi mamis
naSierTa qorwineba. rodesac amnonma, Tamaris naxevarZmam mamis mxridan, misi gaupatiureba moindoma, Tamarma uTxra: nu, Cemo Zmao, nu Seuracxmyof... sTxove mefes,
ar dagiWers Cems Tavs (2mef. 13:12-13). teqsti komentars ar ukeTebs am sityvebs, magram levianTa rjuli
mZime, Tumca ara sasikvdilo, codvad acxadebs da-Zmas
Soris qorwinebas, ganurCevlad imisa, erTi mamis Svilebi iqnebian isini, Tu erTi dedisa. vinc waiyvans Tavis das, Tavisi mamis asuls, an Tavisi dedis asuls, da
oriveni dainaxaven erTmaneTis siSiSvles, samarcxvinoa da unda moikveTon TavianTi xalxis Tvalwin. Tavis
das siSiSvle ahxada. codva awevs (20:17).
am kardinalur akrZalvebTan erTad, romelic awesrigebs sqesobriv da saqorwino urTierTobebs israelianTa Soris, TiTqos damatebis saxiT, CamoTvlilia
kidev oTxi akrZalva, romelic sqess exeba.
ikrZaleba widovan (dedaTa wesSi myof) colTan urTierToba (18:19), ramdenadac widovanis sisxli uwmiduria da sikvdils atarebs. sikvdils (am sisxls) ar unda Seerios sicocxle (Tesli). amaSi mdgomareobs ak-

212

levianni

rZalvis arsi. me-20 Tavis Tanaxmad, amis Camdeni kaci


qalTan erTad sazogadoebidan mokveTiT isjeba. danaSaulis arsi dazustebulia: kaci sadinels gauSiSvlebs da qali sisxlis sadinels gamoaCens (20:18).
axloblis colTan urTierTobis akrZalvisas aq
mxolod ritualuri gauwmidurebaa mxedvelobaSi: ar
Seeyo TesliT Seni axloblis cols, gagauwmidurebs
(18:20). sxvagan es danaSaulia: vinc Tavisi axloblis
colTan imruSebs, unda mokvdes rogorc memruSe kaci,
ise memruSe qali (20:10).
ikrZaleba mamaTmavloba: ar dawve mamakacTan dedakacuri woliT (18:22) da cxovelTmavloba, rogorc kacis, ise qalis mxriv. es ukanaskneli, rogorc gamosvlaTa
wignidan Cans, sasikvdilo danaSaulia: pirutyvTan kavSiris damWeri sikvdiliT unda daisajos (gam. 22:18).
ratomRac sqesobriv danaSaulTa Soris aris naxsenebi moloqis cecxlSi gatarebis qanaanuri wesi (18:21),
romelsac, albaT, sqesTan dakavSirebuli rituali axlda (ufro dawvrilebiT moloqis Sesaxeb _ qvemoT).
yvela es akrZalva, yvela gafrTxileba amzadebs israels qanaanis qveyanaSi sacxovreblad, rom ar gaauwmiduros miwa, sadac icxovrebs; rom ar gaiziaros imaTi
bedi, romlebic maTze adre cxovrobdnen iq da amoanTxia miwam maTi uwmidurobis gamo (19:28). magram qanaanSi kidev darCa xalxi, romelic am akrZalul qmedebebs Cadis da bRalavs ara mxolod Tavis Tavs, aramed
miwasac. ar SeiZleba aq ar gagvaxsendes xalxisa da miwis
mdgomareoba warRvniswina periodSi, roca adamianTa
garyvnilebam waryvna miwac, da ufro adreuli xana, roca miwa daiwyevla adamis dacemis gamo. israelma, Tu mas
surs, rom qanaanis qveyana namdvilad aRTqmuli miwa
iyos misTvis, ar unda gadaiRos mis mkvidrTa wesebi,
arc israelianma da arc ucxo modgmisam, romelic mis
Soris mdgmurobs (18:26). mdgmurma ar unda SeamRvrios
sazogadoebis siwmide, razedac miwis siwmide da SeubRalaobaa damokidebuli.
qanaanSi cxovrebis wesebi
(19-20)
am wesebis xseneba msWvalavs levianTa wigns da momdevno wignebs. isini sxvadasxva aspeqtiT aris warmodgenili, xSirad TiTqos usistemod CarTuli, ganmeorebuli. ZiriTadi laitmotivi, romelic gasdevs yvela
wigns, amgvaria: wmidebi iyaviT, radgan wmida var me,
ufali, Tqveni RmerTi. aqedan gamodis yvelaferi. uflis siwmide aris winasaxe rogorc individualur-pirovnuli, ise sazogadoebrivi siwmidisa. siwmide ukuifineba adamianTa cxovrebaSi rogorc zneoba, samarTlianoba, siyvaruli, sikeTe, WeSmariteba.
me-19 Tavis dasawyisi (19:1-18) gvagonebs aT mcnebas.
ara im TanamimdevrobiT, rogorc gadmoica igi pirvelad sinais mTidan. yoveli mcnebis Semdeg meordeba (eq-

213

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vsgzis) Sexseneba: me var ufali (Tqveni RmerTi). pirvel rigSi dayenebulia mowiweba mSoblebisadmi. aq unda SeiniSnos, rom zmna, romliTac gamoxatulia mSoblebis mimarT damokidebuleba, igive zmnaa, romelic
gamoxatavs israelis damokidebulebas uflis mimarT:
SiSi (Zveli qarTuli TargmaniT: eSinoden, SeiSineT), mowiweba, nacvlad pativiscemisa, rogorc
aris gamoxatuli es damokidebuleba aT mcnebaSi (gam.
20:12). mSoblebis SiSisa da mowiwebis pirvelsaxe
RvTis SiSi da mowiwebaa, radgan Tavad ufali aris arqetipi mamobisa miwier sinamdvileSi (Sdr. efes. 3:15).
SabaTis, israelis religiis udidesi siwmidis, Senaxvis Sexseneba gaerTianebulia amave muxlSi, rac kvlav
mSoblebis udides pativze metyvelebs. sagulisxmoa,
rom ebrauli teqsti iZleva uCveulo Tanamimdevrobas
ded-mama, nacvlad Cveuli mama-dedisa, rogorc aris
aTi mcnebis pirveli gadmocemisas (gam. 20:12). aseTi
wyoba ar aris damaxasiaTebeli ebrauli enobrivi cnobierebisaTvis, ar Cans mizezi misi darRvevisa, arc indoevropuli enebi icnoben mas: septuaginta berZnul yaidaze asworebs am gadaxvevas (jer mamri, mere dedri).
aTi mcnebidan erTi kerpTayvaniscmelobisgan afrTxilebs israelianTa sazogadoebas: pirs nu miabrunebT kerpebisken da nu gaiCenT Camosxmul RmerTebs
(19:4). aSkarad mxedvelobaSia oqros xbos incidenti,
roca egviptisgan Tavdaxsnilma sazogadoebam isev egviptisken gaiwia. udabnoSi eulad yofnis SiSma xiluli kerpebi moanatra, romelTa imedi, rogorc Cans, jer
kidev hqondaT israelianebs.
moses dekalogi (aTi mcneba) arafers ambobs msxverplSewirvis wesze. es levianTa rjulis saqmea da sakmaod dawvrilebiT iqna gadmocemuli. aq teqsti ubrundeba samSvidobo msxverpls, kerZod, mis im aspeqts, romelic dakavSirebulia msxverplSewirvisSemdgom trapezTan. samSvidobo msxverpli erTaderTia, romelic
uflis wilis Sewirvis Semdeg mTlianad iWmeva SemwirvelTa mier. es saerTo serobaa, romelzec simbolurad
monawileobs ufali. es msxverpli or dRes unda iWamos,
mesame dRes misi Wama sisaZaglea, rac bilwavs uflis
siwmides. mesame dRes dakluli pirutyvis xorcis Wama
codvaa da misi mWameli moikveTeba sazogadoebidan.
wyalobis nacvlad, igi sasjels imsaxurebs (19:5-8). sisaZaglea _ migvaniSnebs warmarTul wesze, romelic
reglaments ar uwesebs serobas. israeli aqac unda gamoirCes maTgan. warmarTul sisaZagles uflis siwmide
upirispirdeba.
moses dekalogSi didi adgili uWiravs kategoriul
imperativs moyvasis winaaRmdeg gamovlenili yoveli
borotebisa da Zaladobis mimarT. mcnebebs _ ar kla,
ar imruSo, ar iqurdo, ar gamoxvide cru mowmed...,
ar indomo Seni Tvistomis saxli da a.S. (gam. 20:13-17)
_ ganavrcobs levianTa rjuli, akonkretebs maT da, bo-

214

levianni

los, askvnis zneobrivad gansakuTrebulad Rirebuli


SegonebiT: giyvardes Seni axlobeli, rogorc Tavi Seni (19:18), magram ara mxolod axlobeli: giyvardeT
igi (mdgmuri), rogorc Tqveni Tavi (19:34). sakmarisi
ar aris gaTavisufleba axloblisa Tu mdgmuris mimarT
mtrobisagan, mtrobis adgili siyvarulma unda daikavos. yovelma israelianma zneobrivi ZalisxmeviT unda
SeZlos, rom sxvaSi sakuTari Tavi warmoidginos. aqedan gamodis sxva Segoneba, romelic Talmudma wamowia
win: ise moeqeci sxvas, rogorc Sen gsurs, rom mogeqcnen. Tumca Talmudi ambobs, rom es aris Tavi da Tavi
rjulisa da yvela danarCeni misi komentarebia.
levianTa rjuli avalebs israelianebs zrunvas Rarib-Ratakze da mdgmurze, radgan Tavad iyvnen mdgmurebi egvipteSi. mdgmurTan urTierTobisas yovel israelians eZleva Sansi gaixsenos Tavisi eris warsuli, Tavisi mdgmuroba da es xsovna zneobriv aqtSi ganaxorcielos, siyvarulis gamomxatvel aqtad aqcios.
ra SeuZlia gaakeTos israelianma, uflis sazogadoebis sruluflebianma wevrma, Rarib-RatakisaTvis an
mdgmurTaTvis, romlebic amoyvnen israels egviptidan
amosvlisas da masTan erTad dasaxldebian qanaanSi,
magram ar eqnebaT miwis sakuTrebis ufleba israelis
teritoriaze? rasac rjuli moiTxovs misgan im droisaTvis, roca is ukve dasaxlebuli iqneba aRTqmul miwaze, ar aris Zneli. rjulis mier masze dakisrebuli
zrunva gaWirvebulze ganxorcielebadia mxolod qanaanSi damkvidrebis Semdeg, roca is gaiCens sakuTrebas.
rjuli uwesebs: roca samkali geqnebaT Tqvens miwaze,
erTianad nu momki Sens yanas: samkalSi dacvenils nu akreb. venaxsac nu moimcvrev, yurZnis bimbilebs nu akreb
Ziridan, Rarib-Rataksa da mdgmurs dautove isini
(19:9-10, agreTve 23:22).
mTels Zvel aRTqmaSi Cans erTi ZiriTadi kanoni,
romelic gansxvavebul sferoebSi da yofierebis gansxvavebul doneebze xorcieldeba. es aris ganyofa-gamijvna. dasabamSi RmerTma gamijna erTmaneTisagan naTeli da bneli (aseve dRe Ramisagan), wyali da xmeli,
wmida da rioSi, rCeuli xalxi da danarCeni kacobrioba da a.S. RmerTma gamijna erTmaneTisagan, roca Seqmna
mcenareuli da sulieri qmnilebani _ yvela Tesli Tavisi gvarisda mixedviT Seqmna. israeliani, rogorc
rCeuli, gamijnuli eri, valdebulia daicvas es wesi.
levianTa rjuli afrTxilebs israelians sxvadasxva
gvaris pirutyvis Sejvarebisgan. Sens pirutyvs nu Seajvareb erTmaneTTan (19:19); ufro zustad: Sens pirutyvs nu daawven sxva gvaris pirutyvTan. es aqti ewinaaRmdegeba uflis wess, romlis Tanaxmadac yvelaferi
Tavisi individualobis mixedviT Seiqmna da es individualoba daculi unda iqnes samaradisod.
nu daTesav Sens yanaSi ornair (ori gvaris) Tesls.
matylisa da selisgan moqsovili samosi nu gecmeva

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

(19:19). am gamijvnas TiTqos praqtikuli daniSnuleba


aqvs: erT nakveTze ori kulturis Tesva, nacvlad maTi
Senacvlebisa wlebis mixedviT, nayofierebas arTmevs
niadags iseve, rogorc unayofoa ori gvaris cxovelis
Sejvarebis nayofi, konkretulad, jori (virisa da cxenis naSieri).
rac Seexeba akrZalvas matylisa da selis naqsovisa,
rasac dedanSi Sayatnezi ewodeba, TiTqos is higienuri
an sxeulis janmrTelobis moTxovnebidan gamomdinare
mosazrebiT iyo gamowveuli. TiTqos aseTi samosi cxeli
klimatis pirobebSi statikur eleqtrobas (uZravi muxtis dagrovebas) iwvevs da mouxerxebelia satareblad.
matylisa da selis SeuTavseblobas sxva aspeqti da
safuZvelic aqvs. igi, SesaZloa, dasabams iRebdes abelkaenis sabediswero dapirispirebidan. es aris gamoZaxili im SeuTavseblobisa, romelic arsebobs israelis
istoriaSi mwyemsur (arsebiTad, msxemur) da samiwaTmoqmedo (arsebiTad, mkvidr) yofasa da kulturebs Soris. israelianTa patriarqebi abraami, isaki da iakobi
mwyemsebi iyvnen da amis gamo israelis religiisa da
kulturis ganmsazRvreli mwyemsuri kultura iyo. is
upirispirdeboda, erTi mxriv, qanaanis da, meore mxriv,
egviptis samiwaTmoqmedo kulturasa da kultebs.
es akrZalva, rogorc Cans, Semofargluli iyo saero
yofiT da sakralur-sakulto sferoze is ar vrceldeboda. Tu sazogadod akrZaluli iyo matylisa da selis
qsovilis erTdroulad gamoyeneba tansacmlad,
mRvdelmTavris Sesamoseli swored matylisa da selis
qsovilebisgan mzaddeboda (gam. 28:5-6, 8, 15). aseve Sesakrebeli karavi da misi fardebi orive masalisgan iyo
nakeTebi (gam. 26:1, 31, 36).
sagulisxmoa, rom meore rjulSi yanis ori TesliT
daTesvis akrZalva amgvarad aris gadmocemuli: nu daTesav Sens venaxs ori gvaris TesliT, raTa wmida ar hyo
mosavali... (rjl. 22:9). igulisxmeba, rom amgvarad miRebuli mosavali wmidaa anu uflisaa da akrZalulia
sayofacxovrebo miznebisaTvis.
windacveTiloba, romelic rCeuli xalxis niSania,
rogorc ufalTan misi dawindvis gamomxatveli,
vrceldeba im xexilzec, romelsac israeliani pirvelad dargavs aRTqmul miwaze. xexili misi dargvidan
sami wlis manZilze daucveTlad iTvleba da misi nayofi ar moisTvleba. meoTxe wlis nayofi uflisaa. mxolod mexuTe wels SeuZlia damrgvels Wamos nayofi.
ufali aRTqmas aZlevs, rom mexuTe wels uxvad Sehmatebs mosavals wina wlebis sazRaurad (19:23-25).
levianTa rjuli krZalavs (rame sanqciis gareSe)
Cveulebebs, romelTac israeli Sexvdeba qanaanis qveyanaSi an, SeiZleba, ukve Sexvda egviptelTa Soris: sisxlTan erTad xorcis Wama (amaze zemoT iyo saubari),
jadoqroba da mkiTxaoba (19:26), radgan erTi RmerTis
saymo mxolod RvTisgan unda elodes ganCinebas: ufali

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levianni

Tavis nebas uSualod moses xeliT an sxva ram saSualebiT (magaliTad, urimiTa da TumimiT, gam. 28:30; lev.
8:8) acnobebs israelis sazogadoebas.
ikrZaleba glovis niSnad, rogorc warmarT xalxebSia gavrcelebuli, Tavis kideebis (safeTqlebis) SekreWa da wveris kideebis moparsva, an sxeulis dakawvra da
warwerebis gakeTeba (19:27-28), radgan es upatios qmnis
RvTis xats adamianSi da Seuracxyofs uflis siwmides.
adamianis garyvnileba da biwi gadadis miwaze, radgan adamiani pasuxismgebelia miwis mimarT, romlis baton-patronic aris igi. levianTa rjuli zneobriv simZimes akisrebs mamas, romelic moralur siwmideSi ver
Seinaxavs Tavis asuls. nu miuSveb Sens asuls gasaryvnelad, raTa ar gairyvnas qveyana (miwa) da ar aivsos biwierebiT (19:29). aq mxolod zneobrivi garyvnileba ar
igulisxmeba. TavisTavad cxadia, rom qalwulma gaTxovebamde Tavi unda Seinaxos. es muxli afrTxilebs sazogadoebas ritualuri roskipobisgan, romelic gavrcelebuli iyo qanaanis xalxebis samiwaTmoqmedo kultSi.
kadeSa (wmida) erqva qals, romelic Sewiruli iyo samiwaTmoqmedo RvTaebas da eweoda egreT wodebul saRvTo prostitucias. amgvarad Sewirul qalTa rangebi
cnobilia Suamdinarul sakulto cxovrebaSi, isini
gilgameSis eposSic arian naxsenebi. levianTa rjuli
Tanabrad krZalavs rogorc saRvTo-ritualur, ise
yofiT roskipobas.
levianTa rjuli erTxel kidev Seaxsenebs sazogadoebas SabaTis siwmides. amave muxlSi axsenebs uflis
sawmidars. Cemi SabaTebi SeinaxeT da Cemi sawmidarisa
geSinodeT (19:30). SabaTis SenaxviT kurTxeulia
drois monakveTi droJamis usasrulo dinebaSi, uflis
sawmidari ki aRniSnavs garRvevas homogenur sivrceSi.
SabaTisa da sawmidris siwmide erTmaneTis Sesatyvisi
kategoriebia.
levianTa rjuli krZalavs nekromantias, ukrZalavs
israelianebs mesulTaneebTan siaruls micvalebulis
sulebis gamosaxmobad. maTTan (nekromantebi, ZiriTadad, qalebi iyvnen) urTierToba auwmidurebs adamians,
radgan micvalebulia uwmiduri, romlis sulsac isini
iZaxeben. Zvel aRTqmaSi sulis gamoZaxebis erTaderTi
SemTxveva ukavSirdeba saulis, israelis pirveli mefis, saxels, sasowarkveTil mefes surs, rCeva hkiTxos
winaswarmetyvel samuels, risTvisac is erT Sunamel
mesulTane dedakacs miakiTxavs, arRvevs ra Tavis mierve
dadebul akrZalvas (1mef. 28:8-25).
levianTa rjuli mouwodebs axalgazrdas: WaRaras wamoudeqi fexze, pativi miage moxucebuls da Seni
RvTisa geSinodes (19:32). mTels Zvel aRmosavleTSi
WaRara, mxce pativdebuli iyo, ramdenadac masSi sibrZnis niSans xedavdnen. moxuci brZenia da brZenisaa
rCeva (ier. 18:18). mrCevlebi yovelTvis moxucebi iyvnen. ase modis Sumeris epoqidan mTeli Zveli aRmosav-

217

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leTis civilizaciis manZilze. asea Zvel aRTqmaSi,


Tumca iobis wignSi eWvqveSaa dayenebuli es WeSmariteba (iob. 32:9).
levianTa rjuli kvlav wamoWris mdgmurobis problemas israelianTa sazogadoebaSi. mdgmuris usafrTxoebis garantia Tavad ufalSia, radgan mis xalxs hqonda
mdgmurobis mware gamocdileba egvipteSi. rogorc
mkvidri, erTi TqvenTagani, ise iyos TqvenTvis Tqvens Soris mdgmurad damdgari kaci. giyvardeT igi, rogorc
Tqveni Tavi (19:34). marTalia, mdgmurs mkvidris statusi ver eqneba _ ar eqneba miwis nakveTi da aqedan gamomdinare, uflebebi, magram aman israelians ar unda SeuSalos xeli, rom masSi dainaxos adamiani, Tavisi msgavsi,
da pativi sces mas, rogorc Tavis Tvistoms, mkvidrs.
dasasrul, uflis siwmidis, WeSmaritebisa da samarTlianobis ukufenaa adamianTa sayofacxovrebo urTierTobaSi swori saswori, swori sawonebi, swori efa
(sawyao), swori pina, romlebic ar unda SeSalos rCeulma xalxma, uflis sazogadoebam (19:36).
moleqi
(18:21; 20:2-5)
Tu vinme israelianTagan an mdgmurTagan Tavis naSiers gascems moleqisTvis, igi unda mokvdes, qveynis
erma qvebiT unda Caqolos (20:2).
xolo 18:21 ase gadmoscems am kanons: Seni naSieridan aravin gasce moleqisTvis Sesawiravad.
ra aris moleqi da ras niSnavs adamianis gacema moleqisTvis?
moleq ZvelaRTqmiseuli saxecvlilebaa sityvisa meleq mefe. mefe zedwodebaa yamonelTa nacionaluri
RvTaebisa (3mef. 11:7), igi gaigivebulia baalTan (ier.
32:35), romelic aseve zedwodebaa (ufali). meleqis saxeliT samarcxvino kultis moxsenieba, cxadia, uxerxulobas Seqmnida israelianTa religiuri SegnebisTvis,
radgan meleq-mefe uflis erT-erTi epiTetia (es. 6:5).
am saxiT teqstSi misi mxolod arsebobac ki saZulveli
kultis aRsaniSnavad Tavad uflis Seuracxyofa iqneboda. yoveli ucxo kulti sibilwe iyo maT TvalSi. am
mizeziT sityvas meleq mieca boSeT-is (sircxvili) gaxmovaneba (oe nacvlad ee-si).
ZvelqarTul TargmanSi es adgili (20:2) septuagintas kvalze amgvarad ikiTxeba: ...romelman misces naTesavi Tsi mTavarsa... sityva mTavari aq Targmnis berZnul arxons, romelic, Tavis mxriv, ebrauli meleqis
Targmania. cxadia, amgvari Targmani ver gamoxatavs im
azrs, romelsac dedani gulisxmobs. vin aris es mTavari _ adamiani Tu RmerTi?
aris mosazreba, TiTqos moleq RvTaebis saxeli ki ar
iyo, aramed msxverplSewirvas aRniSnavda, rogorc karTagenul-puniuri warwerebis (400-150 ww) molq. rogorc Cans, yamonianelTa mlq, rogori gaxmovanebac ar

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unda hqondes mas (meleq Tu ufro gavrcelebuli moloq), aseve moabelTa qamoSi (es ori tomi, rogorc viciT, erTi winapridan _ lotidan modis) moiTxovda
CvilTa msxverpls cecxlSi gatarebiT (ebr. heyabir
ba-eS) anu dawviT. SesaZloa, es sruladdasawvelis anu
aRsavlenis yamonur-moaburi saxeoba iyos. yovel SemTxvevaSi, mefeTa meoTxe wigni mogviTxrobs, Tu rogor
Seswira moabis mefem Tavisi pirmSo aRsavlen msxverplad qveynisaTvis sabediswero Jams, roca xsnis araviTari saxsari ar iyo. maSin mohkida xeli Tavis pirmSos,
mis nacvlad rom unda gamefebuliyo, da aRsavlen
msxverplad Seswira galavanze. didad Sezara aman israeli da moscildnen moabs da Tavis qveyanaSi dabrundnen (4mef. 3:27). SesaZloa, moleqi mxolod ufliswulebs iTxovda msxverplad.
moloq-moleqis kultma israelianebSic moikida fexi.
solomonma siberisas, roca misma ucxoelma colebma
misi guli ucxo RmerTebisken midrikes, samsxverplo augo moloqs, yamonianTa sibilwes, (3mef. 11:7) da mas
Semdeg iudas mefeebi emsaxurebodnen mas. ieremia anonimurad ixsenebs mis mSenebels mravlobiT ricxvSi: aaSenes TofeTis sakerpo ben-hinomis xevSi, raTa dawvan
TavianTi vaJebi da asulebi msxverplad cecxlSi...
(ier. 7:31). sxva adgilas dakonkretebulia kerpis saxeli: aSenebdnen baalis gorakebs ben-hinomis xevSi, rom
sakuTari vaJebi da asulebi SeewiraT moleqisTvis
(ier. 32:35). magram matiane inaxavs konkretul cnobebs
mefe axazze (2neSt. 28:3) da menaSeze (4mef. 21:6), romlebmac TavianTi bavSvebi moleqis cecxlSi gaatares.
mogvianebiT reformatorma mefem ioSiam gaanadgura es
samsxverplo (4mef. 23:10,13). Tumca ezekieli VI saukuneSi kidev axsenebda da gmobda am kults (ezek. 16:21;
20:26, 31; 23:37).
xevis saxelwodebidan _ ge-hinnom (xevi hinomisa),
sadac xdeboda es msxverplSewirvebi, arameulis gziT
modis sityva gehenna, romelic jojoxeTis cecxlis
aRsaniSnavad damkvidrda qristianul literaturaSi
(xalxuri jandaba misi arabuli variantia).
israelianebi, moses rjulis Tanaxmad, valdebuli
iyvnen SeewiraT TavianTi pirmSoebi uflisaTvis, magram ara cecxlSi gatarebiT, rogorc misi mezobeli tomebi _ yamonianebi da moabelebi iqceodnen. yoveli pirmSo ufals ekuTvnis, oRond is ar Seiwireba msxverplad,
aramed gamoisyideba (am rjulis Sesaxeb ix. gam. 13:2,15).
moleqisTvis cecxlSi gatareba mZime danaSaulad
Seiracxeboda. danaSaulisaTvis sasikvdilo sasjelis
aRsruleba qveynis ers (an miwis xalxs, ebr. yam haarec) ekisreboda. qveynis eri mkvidr mosaxleobas gulisxmobs, Tavisufal meTemeT, miwis mflobelebs, romlebic samoqalaqo da sakulto pasuxismgeblobiT da
uflebebiT iyvnen aRWurvilni. qveynis xalxTan hqonda saqme abraams, roca qanaanSi cxovrobda, mas eTaTbi-

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reboda, roca sarasTvis samarxs yidulobda. cxadia, abraami ver miekuTvneboda qanaanis qveynis xalxs. verc
misi STamomavloba ver CaiTvleboda qveynis xalxad
egvipteSi cxovrebisas. qanaanSi damkvidrebamde is iyo
an ubralod xalxi (yam) an uflis xalxi, rCeuli
xalxi, magram qveyanasTan an miwasTan is ar iyo dakavSirebuli. mxolod qanaanSi Sesvlis Semdeg xdeba igi
qveynis xalxi, rac mis mkvidrobas gulisxmobda. 20:2
pirveli adgilia, sadac israelianebi qveynis xalxad
aris saxeldebuli. levianTa wigni gulisxmobs im
dros, rodesac israelianebi daimkvidreben qanaans,
rac maT Soris qveynis xalxis fenas warmoSobs (mogvianebiT, qveynis xalxis statusi dakninda da am terminiT eris mdabio mosaxleoba aRiniSna).
moleqisaTvis cecxlSi gatareba imdenad mZime danaSauli iyo, rom Tu qveynis xalxis warmomadgenelni,
visac ekisreboda samarTlis aRsruleba, ar aRasrulebdnen mas, danaSaulis Tanamdebad CaiTvlebodnen.
rac Seexeba Caqolvas, igi gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulTa sasjeli iyo. amgvar danaSaulad miCneulia:
RvTismgmobloba (lev. 24:16), kerpTayvanismcemloba
(rjl. 13:6-10), SabaTis garioSeba (ricx. 15:32-36), jadoqroba (lev. 20:27).
samRvdeloTa siwmide
(21:1-24, 22:1-32)
sisaRe (fizikuri mniSvnelobiT) da siwmide (ritualuri mniSvnelobiT) rogorc msxverplisaTvis aris
upirvelesi piroba, asevea samRvdeloTaTvisac.
ram SeiZleba gaauwmiduros samRvdelo piri da ra
akrZalvebs unda asrulebdes?
1. gvamis Sexeba auwmidurebs samRvdelo pirs. mas ekrZaleba Seexos micvalebuls anu am gziT gauwmidurdes. mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu micvalebuli misi sisxlis naTesavia, mas neba eZleva misi Sexebisa anu Tavis
gauwmidurebisa. sisxlis naTesavTa kategoriaSia CaTvlili axlobeli gauTxovari qali (21:1-4).
2. ar unda ikreWdes Tavs, ar iparsavdes Rawvebze
Tmas, ar ikawravdes tans (21:5).
3. garyvnili qali, da arc qmars gacilebuli, ar unda
iTxovos colad (21:7).
4. mRvdlis qaliSvili Tavisi garyvnilebiT ara mxolod arcxvens, aramed auwmidurebs mamas.
5. samRvdelo pirs ar unda hqondes fizikuri nakli:
ar unda iyos brma an koWli, cxvirCaWyletili, arc kuziani, qeciani da sxva. CamoTvlilia Tormeti saxis nakli. mis mqonebelT warTmeuli aqvT msxverplis Sewirvis ufleba (21:18-21).
mRvdelmTavris akrZalvebi ufro mkacria:
1. ar unda glovobdes micvalebuls, sisxlis naTesavic rom iyos; ekrZaleba Tavis gaSiSvleba da samoslis
Semoxeva glovis niSnad (21:10-11).

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2. ekrZaleba qvrivis an ganaTxovris colad moyvana.


mxolod qalwuli unda iTxovos colad Tavisi xalxidan. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi misi Tesli, saidanac
mRvdlebi gamodian, gauwmidurdeba (21:13-15). qalis
uzneoba da ucxotomoba arioSebs mRvdelmTavris STamomavlobas.
mRvdlis ZiriTadi saqmianoba gamoixateba Sewirvis
aqtiT da Sewirulis WamiT. mRvdeli ZiriTadad Semwirvelia (makdiS) da iseTive wmida unda iyos, rogorc
wmidaa igi, visac swiravs msxverpls. wmidaa Sewiruli
(msxverpli), wmidaa Semwirveli, radgan wmidaa ufali
_ Sewirulis mimRebi. es yvelaferi siwmidea da mosakrZalebel-mosaridebelia. siwmide Zlieri realobaa,
fSav-xevsureTSi mas kvrivs uwodeben, rac ukiduresi
sizustiT, ramdenadac es enas ZaluZs, gamoxatavs mis
arss. siwmide yvela SemTxvevaSi siwmided, gansakuTrebul realobad rCeba, is ver gadava uwmidurebis statusSi maSinac ki, Tu rameTi gauwmidurebuli mRvdeli
miekareba mas. amiT zaraldeba ara siwmide, aramed Tavad Semwirveli, radgan is codviliani xdeba. siwmide
SeiZleba mxolod gaubralovdes, romlis gamosaxatav
terminad axal qarTul TargmanSi ixmareba garioSeba. daicvan Cemi gafrTxilebebi, rom codva ar daidon
da codvianebi ar daixocon, roca gaarioSeben maT
(22:9). gauwmidurebuli Semwirvelis xelSi rioSi gaxdeba (garioSdeba) ara mxolod siwmide, aramed uflis
saxelic, romelic absoluturi siwmidis Semcvelia. mesame mcnebac xom garioSebisgan afrTxilebs adamians:
ar axseno amaod uflis saxeli. es gafrTxileba amgvarad aris gamoTqmuli levianTa rjulSi: mRvdlebi unda ekrZalon israelianTa siwmideebs da ar gaarioSon
Cemi wmida saxeli (22:2).
aRsavlenis (sruladdasawvelis) garda, yvela
msxverpli iWmeva. samSvidobo msxverpls Wamen ubraloni, saeroni, romelTa saxeliT da nebiT ikvlis saklavi,. es saerTo trapezia, Tumca adamianebTan erTad
ufali monawileobs sufraze, _ ufro sworad, ufalia
maTi maspinZeli. magram, rogorc viciT, aris msxverplis saxeoba, romlis nawili mxolod da mxolod Semwirveli mRvdlisa da mis axlobelTa arCivia. msxverplis Semwirveli imavdroulad msxverplis SemWmelic
aris (Sdr. Zvelslavuri Jrec _ Semwirveli da mWameli), magram es SeWma araa Cveulebrivi Wama, romelic SimSilis dasaokeblad xdeba. es Wama ritualuria da, raki, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom samRvdeloni
mxolod SewiruliT ikvebebian (es maTi puria, 22:7),
es aucilebeli fiziologiuri aqti, rogoric aris Wama, maTTvis yovelTvis ritualuri, wmida aqti iqneba.
amitomac aris sapasuxismgeblo mRvdlisaTvis msxverplis Wamis aqti da amitomac eqceva mas esoden didi yuradReba levianTa rjulSi. kaci, romelic yovelive
amas (rac uwmidurebad aris CaTvlili) miekareba, sa-

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Ramomde gauwmidurebulia da wmidas ver SeWams, Tu


tani wyliT ar daibana (22:6).
msxverplis, rogorc saWmlis, siwmides upirispirdeba leSi da namxecavi, romlis Wama auwmidurebs ara
mxolod samRvdelos, aramed rigiT israeliansac
(17:15; 22:8). gansxvaveba SeiZleba is iyos, rom rigiT israelians SeuZlia gasufTaveba, rac sagangebod aris aRniSnuli levianTa rjulSi (11-40; 17:15), samRvdelos
gasufTavebaze ki araferia naTqvami. mas kategoriulad
ekrZaleba daukvlelis Wama. erTia mikareba uwmidurebasTan, romlisganac SesaZlebelia ritualuri gasufTaveba (22:7), magram sxvaa SeWma, romlisganac gauwmidurebuli aRar gasufTavebdeba.
ramisgan gauwmidurebul mRvdels araTu msxverplSewirvis aqtis aRsruleba ekrZaleba, aramed msxverplisgan Tavisi arCivis Wamac. da ramdenadac misi yoveldRiuri sazrdo msxverplia, misi cxovrebac gamudmebuli siwmidiT unda iyos aRbeWdili.
kidev vis SeuZlia, Semwirvelis garda, wmida arCivis
Wama? raki mRvdlis siwmide ramdenadme vrceldeba mis
ojaxze, misi arCividan Wama SeuZliaT misi ojaxis wevrebsac, oRond garkveuli pirobebis dacviT. ojaxis
wevrad iTvleba mRvdlis mier vercxliT nayidi adamiani da mis saxlSi dabadebuli, ara mxolod misi sisxli
da xorci. amaT SeuZliaT eziaron wmida saWmels, SeuZliaT Wamon wmida puri (22:11). ver SeWams mas verc ucxoeli, verc mdgmuri (xizani) da verc mojamagire, qiriskaci (22:10).
mRvdlis qaliSvils SeuZlia Wamos mRvdlis arCivi,
oRond is ucxo kacze ar unda iyos gaTxovili (22:12).
ras niSnavs ucxo kaci _ iS zar? ucxo kaci niSnavs gareSe adamians, romelic ar aris samRvdelo warmoSobisa. mRvdlis qaliSvili, romelic arasamRvdelo warmoSobis kaczea gaTxovili, ar iTvleba ojaxis uSualo
wevrad, is gareSea, radgan igi qmars ekuTvnis. mRvdlis
qaliSvili aRidgens mamis puris Wamis uflebas, Tu
daqvrivda an gaeyara qmars da naSieri ar hyavs (22:13).
Svilebi mas ucxo, gareSe ojaxTan akavSireben, rac abrkolebs mas mamis puris ziarebisgan.
dResaswaulebi
(23:1-44)
siwmided iTvleba ar mxolod Sewiruli msxverpli
an sxva ram Sewiruli sagani, rogoric aRTqmis kidobania, an adgili, rogoric Sesakrebeli karavia, an adamiani, rogoric mRvdelia, aramed droJamis gansazRvruli monakveTi. rogorc msxverpli da adamiania Sewiruli uflisadmi mis samsaxurad, aseve droJamis monakveTia Sewiruli uflisadmi, ris gamoc igi siwmideTa Soris Seiracxeba.
SabaTis siwmide droJameul siwmideTa Soris upirvelesia. misi dasabami Sesaqmis momdevno meSvide dRea,

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levianni

roca RmerTma Sewyvita Sesaqmis aqtebi. sityva SabaT


swored amas niSnavs etimologiurad _ Sewyveta. SabaTis siwmide bevrgan aris naxsenebi (gam. 16:22-30; 20:811; 23:12; 31:12-17; 35:2-3; ricx. 15:32-36). rjulis gamocxadebis am etapze jer kidev ar aris dadgenili sasjeli
SabaTis darRvevisTvis. es sasjeli, romelic sasikvdiloa, pirvelad ricxvTa wignSi gamoCndeba (15:32-36).
levianTa wignSi SabaTis rjuli win uZRvis sauflo
dResaswaulTa rjulis gamocxadebas. sauflo dResaswaulTa Soris upirvelesia fesaxi (23:4-8). misi mniSvneloba da aRsrulebis wesebi gamosvlaTa wignSia
gadmocemuli (gam. 12:1-28). igi iwyeba gazafxulze,
wlis pirveli Tvis (nisanis) me-14 dRis mwuxrze da
grZeldeba erTi Svideulis ganmavlobaSi, rodesac israelianTa saxlebSi aRkveTilia safuari da akrZalulia safuariani puris Wama. nebadarTulia mxolod da
mxolod xmiadi. dResaswaulis pirveli da ukanaskneli
dRe uqme dReebia, rasac wmida wveuleba ewodeba. paseqi _ wlis pirveli dResaswauli erTdroulad aRniSnavs or mniSvnelovan faqts: kosmiurs, rogoric aris
Sesveneba samyaros Seqmnis Semdeg, da istoriuls, rogoric aris israelianTa gamosvla egviptidan anu maTi
istoriis dasabami.
soflis meurneobis aspeqtSi paseqi xorblis mosavlis aRebis (mkis) wina dResaswaulia (23:9-14). mas mosdevs pirvelmoweul nayofTa dResaswauli. iwyeba mka
da pirveli TavTavebi ufals, rogorc miwis patrons,
unda mierTvas. mitanil pirvel Znas mRvdeli Searxevs
uflis winaSe israelianTa dasamwyalobneblad. am
dRes ikvlis welgamovlili cxvari sruladdasawvelad. Sewirvamde israelianebs ekrZalebaT yvelaferi,
rac SeiZleba xorblisgan damzaddes (puri, qumeli,
burRuli).
[pirvelmoweuli nayofi axal aRTqmaSi gansakuTrebul
simbolur mniSvnelobas iZens: axalmoqceulni sulis pirveli nayofebi arian (rom. 8:23), wmidebi, romlebic gamoisyidebian, iwodebian pirvel nayofebad RvTisa da kravisaTvis (gamocx. 14:4).]

pirvelmoweuli TavTavis Sewirvis dRidan Svidgzis Svideulis gasvlis Semdeg, anu ormocdameaTe
dRes kvlav wmida wveulebaa, uqmedRe. am dResaswauls
ewodeba SibyaT SebuyoT Svidi Svideuli anu ormocdacxra, ormocdameaTe dRes dResaswauli iwyeba. es
dResaswauli aRniSnavs mosavlis aRebis dasasruls, is
paseqis dagvirgvinebaa. Sesawiravad miaqvT safuariani
puri da saklavi: Svidi kravi, mozveri da ori verZi _
sruladdasawvelad, Txa _ codvis gamosasyidad da ori
kravi _ samSvidobo msxverplad (23:15-22).
wlis meSvide Tve (TiSri) wmida Tvea. rac SabaTia
dReTa SvideulSi, asevea meSvide Tve weliwadSi. am
TveSi imarTeba sami gansxvavebuli dResaswauli. Tvis
pirveli dRe uqmea. es bukiscemis dRea, romelic gais-

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mis wmida wveulebis aRsaniSnavad. am dRes Seiwireba


sacecxlo msxverpli (23:23-25).
meaTe dRes Sendobis dRea (iom qifur). isarelians evaleba uqmoba da, amasTan erTad, Tavis damdableba da moTrgunva sinanulis niSnad. vinc am dRes Tavs ar daimdablebs, moikveTeba Tavisi xalxidan. vinc am dRes rame saqmes gaakeTebs, gadavaSeneb mas Tavisi xalxidan (23:29:30).
es ufro marxvisa da TavSekavebis dRea, vidre sazeimo,
samxiarulo dRe (mRvdelmTavris movaleobis poziciidan es dResaswauli vrclad aris aRwerili 16:1-34).
mesame dResaswaulia karvoba (suqqoT), romelic
iwyeba meSvide Tvis me-15 dRes da erTi Svideuli
grZeldeba _ Svidi sauflo dRe (23:33-44). merve dRes
wmida wveulebaa, uqmoba. karvobis d
D Resaswauli im
xanis gaxsenebaa, roca udabnoSi moxetiale israeli karvebSi anu droebiT sacxovreblebSi cxovrobda (23:4243). amrigad, is, paseqis msgavsad, istoriuli faqtis samaxsovro dResaswaulia. es dResaswauli mosavlis aRebis dasrulebis da axali samiwaTmoqmedo wlis dawyebis niSania. Svidi dRis manZilze xalxi swiravs sacecxlo msxverpls da uflis winaSe mxiarulobs (23:34-40).
wmida zeTi, lampari da purebi
(24:2-9)
24:2-4 sityvasityviT imeorebs gam. 27:20-21. ubrZane israelianebs, mogitanon zeTisxilis sufTa zeTi, dawuruli, gasanaTeblad, rom mudmivad enTos
lampari. mowmobis kretsabmels gareT dadgas igi aaronma, rom mudmivad enTos uflis winaSe dilidan saRamomde. gamosvlaTa wignSi gadmocemulia sakrebulo karvis siwmideTa saerTo aRwera, aq ki yvelaferi
es mRvdelmTavris movaleobis konteqstSia ganmeorebuli. Cvenc gavimeoroT Tavis adgilze naTqvami: sufTa zeTiT savse Svidtotiani lampari mudmivad anTebuli dgas Sesakrebeli karvis wmidaSi, romelic wmidaTa wmidisgan kretsabmeliT aris gamijnuli. erTaderTi, rac anaTebs wmidas, es lamparia, romlis gareSe masSi sruli sibnele sufevs. aq, iseve rogorc wmidaTa wmidaSi, mzis naTeli garedan ver aRwevs. ritualuri naTeli aq uflis naTlis simboluri gamoxatulebaa. uflis naTeli (RvTiuri naTeli) cxebuli
pirovnebis (aaronis) meSveobiT gadmodis miwier sinamdvileSi.
wmidaSi dgas tabla, romlis dawvrilebiTi aRweriloba gamosvlaTa wignSia gadmocemuli, magram mxolod erTi winadadeba gvauwyebs mis daniSnulebas: masze Tormeti puri unda ewyos uflis winaSe (24:6). levianTa rjuli yuradRebas am purebze amaxvilebs, romlebic gamtkiculi fqvilisgan unda cxvebodes. purebi or
rigad (eqvs-eqvsad) unda daiwyos tablaze. es sawinaSeo
purebia, romlebic israelis Tormet toms warmoadgens
wmidaSi uflis winaSe. gavixsenoT, rom mRvdelmTavris

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levianni

gulispirzec eqvs-eqvsad aris gawyobili Zvirfasi qvebi aseve Tormeti Stos niSnad. mRvdelmTavari TiTqos
mTel israelTan erTad Sedis wmidaSi da mere wmidaTa
wmidaSi. sawinaSeo purebi ki mudmivad awyvia tablaze
sakmevelTan erTad. purebi SabaTobiT icvleba, gamocvlili purebi ki aaronisa da misi Svilebis arCivia, romelic adgilzeve, wmidaSi, unda SeiWamos (24:8-9). sawinaSeo purebs ormagi datvirTva aqvs: isini ganasaxiereben uflis wilxvedril israelis Tormet toms da, amave dros, maT kurTxeulobas uflisagan.
RvTis maginebeli
(24:10-16, 23)
da gamovida israelianTa Soris israeliani dedakacisa da egvipteli kacis Svili da waekidnen banakSi
erTmaneTs israeliani dedakacis Svili da israeliani
kaci. da Seagina israeliani dedakacis Svilma (uflis)
saxeli da daswyevla... (24:10-11).
es RvTis gmobis unikaluri SemTxvevaa mTels Zvel
aRTqmaSi. is, rogorc precedenti, saWirod scnes Setaniliyo levianTa wignSi TaobebisaTvis samagaliTod.
aqve pirvelad iqna gamocxadebuli sasjelis zoma.
dedis saxeli sagangebod aris dasaxelebuli (SelomiT dibris asuli), mxolod dedisa, ara mamis. am kacis
religiur da zneobriv Segnebaze, Cans, dedaa pasuxismgebeli (Tumca is ar isjeba), ara mama, romelic egviptelia, ucxotomeli.
ricxvTa wignSi kidev sami epizodi Segvxvdeba, sadac
moses uflis gareSe ver gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba (9:610; 15:32-36; 27:1-11).
Tu SabaTis maginebeli (damrRvevi) sikvdils imsaxurebs (gam. 31:15), ras unda imsaxurebdes RvTis saxelis
maginebeli? TiTqos TavisTavad cxadi unda iyos sasjelis zoma. magram mose mainc ekiTxeba ufals. SesaZloa,
saWoWmano iyo ara sasjelis zoma, aramed konkretuli
saxe sikvdiliT dasjisa.
moses mesame mcneba krZalavs uflis saxelis amaod
xsenebas. magram sasjels amaod xseneba ar imsaxurebs. egvipteli kacis Svilma, romlis saxeli ratomRac (SesaZloa, imis gamo, rom ar ukvdavyofiliyo saRvTo wignSi)
ar aris aRniSnuli, araTu amaod axsena saxeli (Sem),
aramed dagmo, Seuracxyo, daamcira igi. zmnebi, romlebic gamoyenebulia am sityvieri aqtisaTvis, arafers
stovebs Tavis marTlebisTvis. epizodi, bibliisTvis
damaxasiaTeblad, Zalze lakoniuria. ar aris dasaxelebuli motivi, Tu ram aiZula kaci, Suagul banakSi
saqveynod eginebina wmida saxeli.
epizodi eqvsi moqmedebisgan Sedgeba: 1. israeliani
dedakacisa da egvipteli kacis Svili Suagul banakSi
gamovida. 2. moxda Cxubi israeliani dedakacis Svilsa
da israeliani kacis Svils Soris. 3. israeliani dedakacis Svilma Seagina uflis saxeli. 4. saxelis maginebe-

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

li miuyvanes moses. 5. gamocxadda uflis ganaCeni. 6. maginebeli banakis gareT Caqoles.


gmobis motivi ar aris dasaxelebuli, magram aRniSnulia viTareba: israeliani dedakacis Svilma Cxubis
procesSi agina saxeli, anu es imas niSnavs, rom mas, gamwarebuls an dauokebeli risxviT atanils, SeiZleba
wamoscda augi saxelis mimarT. anu, SeiZleba vifiqroT,
rom man Cxubis kulminaciaSi RvTis saxelis gmobiT gamoxata ukiduresi mtroba israeliani kacis Svilisadmi: ugina mas rjuli. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom saxeli,
romelic wignSi araadekvaturi gaxmovanebis tetragramiT (hvh ikiTxeba rogorc adona) aris gadmocemuli misi uaRresi siwmidis gamo, misTvis ar warmoadgenda siwmides, anu is gmobda misTvis ucxo saxels. an, SeiZleba isic vifiqroT, rom am gamwarebulma adamianma
dagmo ufali iseve, rogorc SeeZlo daegmo gamwarebul
iobs, Tu dahyveboda colis rCevas (iob. 2:9). yvela SemTxveva fsiqologiurad (adamianurad) gasagebia. saukuneebs araferi Seucvlia adamianis bunebaSi.
asea Tu ise, es pirveli da erTaderTi SemTxvevaa mTeli Zveli aRTqmis istoriaSi, roca igmoba uflis saxeli. es ar aris aTeizmi an iseTi skepsisi uzenaesi arsebis mimarT, rogoric fsalmunSia gamoTqmuli: Tqua
ugunurman gulsa Sina Tvissa: ara ars RmerTi (13:1).
saxeli aq evfemisturad ixmareba uflis nacvlad, avtori gaurbis ufal sityvis xsenebas odiozuri zmnebis (gineba, wyevla) garemocvaSi. magram
droTa viTarebaSi Tavad sityva saxeli (Sem) iqca uflis saxelad da isic mosaridebeli Seiqna.
uflis maginebeli isjeba banaks gareT CaqolviT.
vidre Caqolavdnen, yvela, vinc ki moismina uflis gmoba,
Tavze daadebs mas xels da imave xeliT mTeli sazogadoeba qvebiT Caqolavs mas. yoveli israeliani, sazogadoebis wevri, monawileobas iRebs CaqolvaSi. risi niSania
xelis dadeba damnaSavis Tavze? Cven viciT, rom samsxverplo pirutyvis Tavze xelis dadebiT Semwirvelis
codva simbolurad msxverplze gadadis. es damnaSavec _
uflis mgmobelic _ msxverplia, romelsac yoveli israeliani, misi danaSaulis Semswre, gadascems Tavis uneblie codvas, rom misma yurebma moismina gaugonari gmoba.
amave TavSi CarTulia rjuli zogadad mkvlelis Sesaxeb: yoveli, vinc ki sasikvdilod dahkravs adamians,
unda mokvdes (24:17). is uSualod mosdevs im muxls, sadac uflis maginebelis sasjelia aRniSnuli. es mimdevroba TiTqos imaze miuTiTebs, rom rjuls sasjelis
simZimiT uflis gmoba adamianis mkvlelobasTan aqvs
gaigivebuli. unda vifiqroT, rom adamianis mkvlelic
imave saxiT _ CaqolviT isjeba, rogorc RvTismgmobeli. albaT, masac Caqolvamde xels daadeben sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebi. aqedan Cans, rom rjuli gamoricxavs SurisZiebas kerZo piris mxridan: sasjelis aRsruleba sazogadoebrivi saqmea.

226

levianni

aq isic Cans, rom danaSaulTa ierarqiaSi umZimesia


RvTis gmoba, romelsac mosdevs mkvleloba jer adamianisa, mere pirutyvisa. pirutyvis mkvlelma suli
(sicocxle nefeS) sulis (sicocxlis nefeS) wil unda
zRos (24:18), anu mkvlelma patrons unda aunazRauros danakargi. es norma amgvar ganzogadoebul saxes
iRebs momdevno muxlSi: vinc rame zians miayenebs Tavis Tvistoms, masac iseve unda moeqcnen, rogorc Tavad moiqca (24:19). es aris egreT wodebuli talionis
kanoni (lex talionis) anu maqsimalurad zusti nacvalgebis kanoni, romelic Tavisi klasikuri normiT gulisxmobs imave zianis miyenebas adamianisaTvis, rac man
sxvas miayena: motexiloba motexilobos wil, Tvali
Tvalis wil, kbili kbilis wil (24:20) da Cven davumatebT, adamianis sicocxle _ adamianis sicocxlis
wil.
rac Seexeba talionis kanons (kbili kbilis wil),
igi gavrcelebuli iyo Zvel aRmosavleTSi, gansakuTrebiT, semitur samyaroSi, sadac man uZvelesi werilobiTi dadastureba sxvadasxva saxiT xamurabis kanonebSi pova.
kvlav SabaTi.
miwis kanoni
(25:2-55)
kvlav da kvlav rjulmdebeli laparakobs SabaTze,
axsenebs xalxs meSvide dRis siwmides rogorc uZveless
siwmideTa Soris. misi dasabami xom Sesaqmis dReebis
dasasruls ukavSirdeba. amave SabaT dRes mouxdaT
RvTis gangebiT israelianebs egviptidan gamosvla. ase
rom, is ormagad wmidaa: kosmogoniurad da istoriulad. israelis cnobierebaSi es ori momenti yoveldRiur SabaTSi erwymis erTmaneTs.
am monakveTSi SabaTis mniSvneloba farTovdeba. SabaTis, rogorc Svebis, dasvenebis dRis, privilegiiT
sargeblobs miwa. miwas Tavad ar SeuZlia Seinaxos SabaTi, es adamianze, mis patronzea damokidebuli. miwismuSaki icavs SabaTs uSromlobiT da icavs miwis SabaTsac:
is asvenebs miwas. da esec uflis samsaxuria. iuqmos miwam SabaTi uflisaTvis (25:2). magram aq igulisxmeba
ara meSvide dRe, romlis Senaxvazec adre iyo saubari,
aramed meSvide weli. rogorc wmidaa meSvide dRe, aseve
wmidaa meSvide weli, eseni uqmis SabaTia. eqvs weliwads Tesavde Sens yanas, eqvs weliwads sxlavde Sens venaxs da iRebde mosavals. meSvide wels ki uqmis SabaTia
miwisaTvis, uflis SabaTi. yana ar daTeso, venaxi ar gasxla... uqmi weliwadi iyos miwisaTvis (25:3-5). rjulmdebeli aTvlis wlad uwesebs qanaanSi Sesvlis wels:
roca Sexval qveyanaSi, romelsac gaZlev, iuqmos miwam
SabaTi uflisaTvis (25:2). am wlidan moyolebuli yoveli meSvide weli uqmea. uqmea yoveli wliuri SabaTi
im miwisTvisac, romelsac gastexs miwismuSaki. am yanas

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Tavisi sakuTari SabaTi aqvs, romelic ar daemTxveva


sxva yanebis SabaTs.
miwis patroni pasuxismgebelia miwaze. miwis SabaTis dacviT igi wmidad inaxavs miwas da amiT emsaxureba
ufals. miwa, amave dros, saSualebaa, romliTac adamians SesaZlebloba eZleva uflisadmi samsaxurisa. miwis
samsaxuris dasabami adamis miwismuSakobaSia: RmerTma
dasva adami edemis baRSi, raTa emsaxura (yabad) miwisTvis (dab. 2:15).
meSvide wlis garda, miwisaTvis dawesebulia didi
SabaTi anu saiubileo SabaTi, romelic Svidjer Svidi
wlis Semdeg aRiniSneba. ormocdameaTe wlis SabaTi,
garda imisa, rom uqmobis SabaTia (es TavisTavad), igi
tyveTa da monaTa ganTavisuflebis SabaTia. am SabaTs
ara mxolod isvenebs igi, aramed Tavisufldeba Tavis
batonTan iZulebiTi Sromisagan. am saiubileo SabaTs
yvela Tavis saxls ubrundeba. wmidayaviT ormocdameaTe weli da gaaTavisufleT qveyanaSi yvela misi mcxovrebi. zeimi iyos es TqvenTvis. Tqven-Tqvens samkvidrebels daubrundiT. Tqven-Tqvens sanaTesaos daubrundiT yvelani (25:10).
am didi SabaTis dadgomis niSnad Sendobis dRes (meSvide Tvis meaTe dRes) ayvireben verZis rqis _ obelis
buks. aqedan modis sityva iubile zeimis aRsaniSnavad.
am dRes ara mxolod adamiani ubrundeba Tavis saxlkars, Tavis samkvidrebels, aramed gayiduli miwac ubrundeba Tavis patrons. ratom? rjulSi Cawerilia kanoni, romelic Tavad uflis mier aris dawesebuli: miwa samudamod ar unda gaiyidos, radgan Cemia miwa, radgan Tqven mdgmurebi da xiznebi xarT CemTan (25:23). yoveli gayiduli miwa daubrundeba mflobels, roca ar
unda mouswros mas iubilis dRem.
miwa SeiZleba gayidos misma mflobelma, Tu gaRaribda, magram mis axlo naTesavs, Tu xeli miuwvdeba,
aqvs ufleba (evaleba kidec, Tumca ara gardauvalad)
gamoisyidos gayiduli miwa, raTa igi daubrundes sanaTesaos. Tu miwa veravin gamoisyida _ verc naTesavma,
verc mflobelma, dadgeba saiubileo weli da miwa daubrundeba mis mflobels, romelsac RmerTma miabara
miwa rogorc mdgmursa da xizans (25:24-28).
saiubileo wlis kanoni ar vrceldeba sxva sakuTrebaze, magaliTad, saxlze, romelic galavnian qalaqSia
(25:29-30), radgan saxli, miwisgan gansxvavebiT, adamianis piradi sakuTrebaa, misi SromiT aris Seqmnili. aseve qalaqi, romelic, marTalia, miwazea gaSenebuli, mainc mowyvetilia miwas: is kulturis da ara bunebis nayofia. gayiduli saxli gayiduladve rCeba samaradisod. gamonaklisi levianTa qalaqebis saxlebia: levianebs yovelTvis SeuZliaT maTi gamosyidva an isini CamoerTmeva myidvels saiubileo wels (25:32-33). magram
leviani ver gayidis qalaqis garSemo Tavis kuTvnil yanebs, radgan es maTi samaradiso samkvidrebelia

228

levianni

(25:34). levianis yana gansakuTrebuli miwaa, misi gasxviseba ar SeiZleba. es misi profanacia iqneba.
qalaqis sapirispiroa sofeli da yvelaferi, rac masSia: saxlebi soflebisa, romelTac irgvliv galavani
ara aqvT, miwis nakveTad iTvleba (25:31). soflis saxlebze amitomac vrceldeba miwis rjuli, isini eqvemdebarebian saiubileo wlis kanons.
kurTxevani da SeCvenebani
(26:1-46)
gasrulda levianTa rjulis gadmocema da, rogorc
Zvel kodeqsebSi (magaliTad, xamurabis kanonebSi) an
xelSekrulebebSi iyo miRebuli, daskvniT pasaJebSi
mTeli israeli ismens rjulis darRvevisa da Sesrulebis (urCobisa da morCilebis) mosalodnel gardauval Sedegebs.
mcnebebsa da wesebs Soris, romelTa dacva da Senaxva
aucilebelia israelis keTildReobisaTvis, mxolod
ors Seaxsenebs rjuldmdebeli. pirveli: israelma sabolood unda uaryos amao, fuWi RmerTebis Tayvaniscema da
ukuagdos gamosaxulebani. meore: Seinaxos SabaTi. es moicavs dekalogis (aTi mcnebis) pirvel sam mcnebas, rogorc yvelaze mniSvnelovans danarCen mcnebaTa Soris.
nu SeiqmniT cru RmerTebs... anu nu moiqceviT pirveli mcnebis sawinaaRmdegod, romelic RaRadebs egviptidan gamomyvaneli RmerTis erTaderTobas, rom mis
garda sxva RmerTi ar arsebobs, sxva RmerTebi fuWi da
araraobaa. am adgilas gamoyenebulia ucxo sityva, kerZod, Sumeruli RmerTis saxeli mravlobiT formaSi
ellilim (mxol. ellil < enlil), romelic miCneuli
iyo Sumeruli triadis meore wevrad da ganagebda Suasknels, adamianTagan dasaxlebul sknels. bibliis enaSi
es saxeli, romelic gvrgvinavda mTels SumerSi da Semdeg aSurul-babilonur samyaroSi, cru RmerTis sazogado saxelad iqca.
...da qandakebs, nu aRmarTavT svetebs, nu CadgamT
Tqvens qveyanaSi moxatul qvebs maT saTayvaneblad
(26:1), anu nu daarRvevT meore mcnebas, romlis Tanaxmadac ikrZaleba RvTis gamosaxulebis gakeTeba saTayvaneblad, Tundac es RmerTi ufali iyos, romelmac egviptidan gamoiyvana xalxi. es mcneba, rogorc gvaxsovs, ukve daarRvia israelma, roca oqros xbo Camoasxa.
Cemi SabaTebi SeinaxeT da Cemi siwmideebisa geSinodeT (26:2). SabaTis Senaxvis kategoriuli moTxovna dekalogis mesame mcnebaa da is gamWol Temad gasdevs levianTa rjuls. SabaTi uSualod aris dakavSirebuli uflis qmedebebTan _ es aris Sesvenebis dRe
qveynis Seqmnis Semdeg da egviptidan xalxis gamoyvanis dRe. am ori, kosmogoniur-istoriuli motiviT israels evaleba SabaTis sakralizeba (gakvriveba, Tu
xevsurul termins gamoviyenebT), misi gamocalkeveba
dReTa rigidan.

229

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

rac Seexeba siwmideTa SiSs, aq igulisxmeba mTeli


sakraluri sfero profanulis anu saeros (sajaros) sapirispirod, cxadia, SabaTis, rogorc siwmidis umaRlesi gamoxatulebis, CaTvliT.
ras hpirdeba ufali israels mcnebaTa Sesrulebis
SemTxvevaSi?
mcnebaTa Sesruleba-arSesruleba zneobrivi kategoriis qcevaa, magram maszea damokidebuli qveynis nayofiereba, ufro sworad, ara adamianis qcevaze, aramed
uflis ganwyobilebaze adamianis mimarT. ufals SeuZlia saswauli moaxdeninos miwas: lewva Tesvaze adre
dagidgebaT, rTveli _ Tesvaze adre (36:5). pirveli da
mTavari Sedegi mcnebaTa Sesrulebisa aris miwis nayofiereba, radgan miwa uflisaa. meorea mSvidoba uflis
miwaze, rac aseve adamianTa qcevazea damokidebuli.
mSvidobas Camovagdeb qveyanaze (26:6), ambobs ufali.
ra arRvevs qveynis mSvidobas? sastiki mxecebi da mtris
maxvili. xdeba maTi moqceva da miqceva qveyanaSi, da
ufali hpirdeba, rom aRgvis sastik mxecebs qveynidan.
rac Seexeba mtrebs, aqac saswauls Caadeninebs Tavis moTayvaneT da morCilT: ass garekavs xuTi Tqvengani da
asi Tqvengani asiaTass garekavs (26:9).
daubrkolebliv aRsruldeba saukuno aRTqma, romelic abraamidan moyolebuli esmis israelis krebuls _
gamravleba. mogxedavT da nayofiers gagxdiT, gagamravlebT da Sevasruleb TqvenTvis mocemul aRTqmas (26:9).
dabolos, rac mTavaria da gadamwyveti: ufali iqneba maT Soris davanebuli. vivli Tqvens Soris da viqnebi Tqveni RmerTi, Tqven ki Cemi eri iqnebiT (26:12). iseve iqneba maTi RmerTi, rogorc iyo is abraamis, isakisa
da iakobis RmerTi, radgan isini asrulebdnen aRTqmis
im minimums, rasac ufali moiTxovda maTgan. RvTisgan
mocemuli aRTqma, TavisTavad aRTqmis arseboba imis
maCvenebelia, rom RmerTs surs es xalxi misi xalxi iyos,
hyavdes igi Tavis erad, ara ubralo erad, aramed unj
(segulah) erad.
ufali mcnebaTa Sesrulebis sanacvlod maT hpirdeba ara mxolod zemoxsenebul sikeTeebs, romlebiTac,
SesaZloa, qanaanuri baalic uzrunvelyofda Tavis TayvanismcemelT, ara marto nayofierebas da usafrTxo
cxovrebas, aramed amaze gacilebiT mets, raSic adamianis arseba gamoixateba. is maT Tavisuflebas hpirdeba.
rogorc erTxel gamoixsna isini egviptis monobidan,
dauwyvita ra uRlis apeurebi, aseve Tavisuflebi iqnebian isini, vidre is davanebuli iqneba maT Soris da
ivlis maTTan. Cems savanes davideb Tqvens Soris da ar
SegiZulebT Cemi suli (26:11). amrigad, mcnebaTa Sesruleba Tavisuflebis garantiaa.
ra moelis israels, mcnebaTa Seusruleblobisa da
aRTqmaTa darRvevis SemTxvevaSi? ra Tqma unda, pirvel
rigSi, unayofoba, gausaZlisi SimSili, roca adamianebi sakuTar Svilebs dauwyeben Wamas (26:29), da masTan

230

levianni

erTad yvela SesaZlebeli sneuleba, mtris moZaleba,


gareuli mxecebis Semoseva, qalaqebis gaudabureba
mtrebis dasasaxleblad, miwis gaukacrieleba, rom amoigos miwam ugulebelyofili SabaTebi, rom iuqmos
mTeli im xnis manZilze, rac ar uuqmia Tqvens SabaTebSi,
roca iq cxovrobdiT (26:35) da, cxadia, sawmidarTa dacarieleba, radgan moiZulebs maT uflis suli da aRar
moundeba maTgan nakmevi keTilsurnelebis ynosva. ufali hpirdeba maT ucxo xalxebs Soris ganfantvas (26:33)
da, rac ufro Semzaravia, imis perspeqtivas, rom daiRupebian xalxebSi da SeWams maT maTi mtrebis miwa (26:38).
magram ufali sabolood ar SeiZulebs xalxs, dautovebs maT moqcevis Sanss, rom gamotydnen TavianT
codvebSi da mama-papis codvebSi (26:40), rom moeTrgunoT daucveTeli gulebi da gamoisyidon codvebi; gaiazron, ratom daemarTaT yovelive es: rom rogorc isini wavidnen uflis winaaRmdeg, aseve ufali wavida maT
winaaRmdeg (26:40-41). damafiqrebelia paraleli: gaukacrielebeli miwa amoigebs SabaTebs, xolo ucxo qveyanaSi gadasaxlebuli xalxi _ Tavis codvebs (26:43). miwa samagieros uxdis TiTqos xalxs, romelmac Seuracxyo igi SabaTis darRveviT. gavixsenoT, rom miwa daiwyevla adamis dacemis Sedegad, xolo miwam dawyevla kaeni, romelmac wabilwa igi moklulis sisxliT.
roca gaivlis miwis mier SabaTebis, xolo gafantuli xalxis mier codvebis amogeba (anu is aRiarebs Tavis
codvebs), ufalic gaixsenebs abraamTan, isakTan da iakobTan da im winaprebTan dadebul aRTqmas, romlebic
man egviptidan gamoiyvana.
aRTqmulis gamosyidvisa da Senacvlebis wesebi
(27:1-33)
arsebobs aRTqmuli anu arasavaldebulo Sesawiravi uflisadmi. israelians SeuZlia aRuTqvas ufals
Sesawiravad adamiani (Cveulebisamebr, Svili), pirutyvi an uZravi qoneba (miwis nakveTi). msajuli da mxedarTmTavari ifTaxi yamonelTa winaaRmdeg galaSqrebamde hpirdeba ufals, rom gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi Seswiravs mas pirvelsave arsebas, vinc Sindabrunebuls Seegebeba (msaj. 11:30-31). uSvilo xana (samuelis
deda) Svilierebas SesTxovs RmerTs da aRuTqvams mas,
rom pirmSos, Tuki ufali SesZens mas, uflis samsaxurad ganawesebs (1mef. 1:11). aRTqmuli Sesawiravi gakvriT aris naxsenebi levianTa wignis ramdensame adgilas (7:16; 22:18-23; 23:38), aq ki, wignis am ukanasknel
TavSi gadmocemulia aRTqmuli Sesawiravis gamosyidvis wesi, radgan aRmTqmels ufleba aqvs gadaifiqros
(ar aris aRniSnuli motivi), magram aRTqma rCeba aRTqmad da igi uciloblad unda Sesruldes. ifTaxma
inana dadebuli aRTqma, rodesac pirveli Semxvedri
misi erTadereTi asuli aRmoCnda. magram mas SeeZlo
mis nacvlad gamosasyidi gadaexada, ris Taobazec la-

231

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

parakia am ukanasknel TavSi, romelsac zogierTi komentatori damatebad miiCnevs.


adamianis safasurs misi sqesi da asaki gansazRvravs.
asaki sam kategoriad aris klasificirebuli: erTi Tvidan 5 wlamde mamris safasuria xuTi vercxlis Sekeli,
mdedrisa _ sami vercxlis Sekeli; 5 wlidan 20 wlamde
mamris safasuria oci Sekeli, mdedrisa _ 10 Sekeli; 20
wlidan 60 wlamde mamris safasuria 50 Sekeli, mdedrisa _ 30 Sekeli.
rac Seexeba pirutyvs, Tu is wmidaa anu Sesawiravad
vargisi pirutyvia, misi Senacvleba ar SeiZleba arc
masze udaresiT da arc masze ukeTesiT. Tu pirutyvi
sxva pirutyviT iqna Secvlili, isic da Senacvlebulic
wmidaa anu ver gamoiyeneba profanuli saWiroebisTvis.
ar SeiZleba aReTqvas ufals pirutyvis pirvelmogebuli, radgan is, rjulis Tanaxmad, isedac ufals ekuTvnis (gam. 13:2; 22:30).
Tu saqme exeba usurmag pirutyvs, romelic msxverplad ar Seiwirvis, mRvdelma unda Seafasos igi. misi
gamosyidvis msurveli misi safasuris mexuTeds ixdis.
aseve, kaci safasuris mexuTeds umatebs saxls, romlis Sewirvaze man uari Tqva da gamosyidva moindoma.
yanis safasuri misi naTesis kvalobaze ganisazRvreba. yanis gamosyidvac mexuTedis damatebiT xdeba.
ver gamoisyideba is, rac ufals ekuTvnis. aseTia yoveli darisxebuli _ adamiani iqneba is, pirutyvi, saxli
Tu yana. yoveli darisxebuli unda ganadgurdes, misi gamosyidva ar iqneba, radgan is uflis wmidaTa wmidaa.
asevea uflis wmida miwis mosavlis meaTedi, magram
is ar Seiracxeba darisxebulad; daSvebulia misi gamosyidva mis safasurze mexuTedis damatebiT.
ar gamoisyideba cxvar-Zroxis meaTedi, romelic
ufals ekuTvnis. rogoric ar unda iyos es yoveli meaTe
komblis qveS gamavalTa Soris (27:32), kargi Tu cudi,
ar SeiZleba misi Senacvleba, SenacvlebulTan erTad
isic wmida iqneba da adamiani ver gamoiyenebs mas.

232

ricxvni

ebraul tradiciaSi wignis gavrcelebuli saTauria be-midbar (udabnoSi), romelic warmoadgens teqstis pirveli winadadebis meoTxe sityvas. Zveli komentatorebi wigns asaTaureben teqstis pirveli sityvis mixedviTac: adabber (elaparaka). orive es sityva _ udabno (midbar) da laparaki (dibber) _ erTsa da imave Tanxmovnebs (dbr) Seicaven, Tumca isini
erTmaneTTan arc etimologiurad da arc semantikurad dakavSirebuli ar aris. isini am damwyeb pasaJSi TiTqos kontrastulad upirispirdeba erTmaneTs: mdumare udabnoSi gaismis uflis xma, RvTis sityvebi.
am wigns ricxvni ewodeba berZnuli Targmanis (septuagintas)
tradiciiT (ariTmoi ricxvni). mravlobiTi imis mimaniSnebelia, rom orgzis xdeba xalxis aRricxva, amitomac bunebrivi iqneboda wignis saxelwodeba yofiliyo aRricxvani.
wignSi gadmocemuli procesis xangrZlivoba 40 welia, ufro zustad, ocdaTvrametnaxevari weliwadi, rac israelianebma sinais mTidan moabis velebamde misvlas moandomes. es svla
da es wignic, sadac svlaa gadmocemuli, sami nawilisagan Sedgeba sami mTavari banakis mixedviT, romlebic israelianebma
dasces iordanis gadalaxvamde: 19 dRe sinis udabnoSi (1:1-10;
10), 38 weli sinis udabnodan moabis velebamde (10:11 _21:35) da
daaxloebiT 5 Tve moabis velebze (22:1_36:13).
misi struqtura amgvaria:
I.
RvTis eris samzadisi aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesasvlelad.
yvelaferi am samzadiss exeba da misken aris mimarTuli. am xanis
mniSvnelovani movlenebia israelis aRwera (1_2) da paseqis
dResaswaulis aRniSvna (10:1-14).)
II.
mgzavroba sinaidan kadeSamde, arcTu ise umtkivneulo (10:11 _ 12:16).
III. ormocwliani Seyovneba kadeSSi, sadac israeli kvlav
iRebs mosesagan ganCinebebs mRvdlobaze, siwmideze da Sesawiravze (13:1 _ 19:22).
IV. gza kadeSidan moabis velebamde (20:1 _ 22:1).
V. moabis velebze. sxva ambebTan erTad am xanis mniSvnelovani movlenaa xalxis meore aRricxva. am xanaSive xdeba dasaxleba iordanesgaRma mxareSi da xalxs miecema kanoni aRTqmuli qveynis Sesaxeb (22:2 _ 36:13).

234

xalxis aRwera
(1_2)
egviptis tyveobidan Tavdaxsnili xalxi RvTis nebiT erTxel kidev aRiricxeba. xalxis raodenobis aRricxva, rogorc viciT, ucxo ar iyo israelianTa sazogadoebisaTvis. magram mas axlda xifaTic. amis Sesaxeb pirveli aRweridan vigebT. gamosvlaTa wignSi
ufali afrTxilebs moses, rom yovelma aRricxulma
israelianma (mxedvelobaSia mxolod mamakaci oci
wlis asakidan; zemo zRvari miTiTebuli ar aris) gaiRos msxverpli Tavisi sicocxlis (sulis) gamosasyidad, mZime epidemiis Tavidan asacileblad (gam.
30:12). israelianTa religiuri cxovreba raRac saxifaTos xedavs xalxis aRweraSi. magram ar Cans, riT ar
aris saTno RvTisaTvis es aqti. cxadia, aRwera mxolod aucilebel SemTxvevaSi xdeba. gamosvlaTa xanaSi xalxi karvis gamarTvis saWiroebisaTvis aRiwera:
yovel srulwlovan israelians, mdidari iqneboda Tu
Raribi, arc meti, arc naklebi, naxevari Sekeli vercxli unda gaeRo. am dros israelSi 603 550 srulwlovani mamri aRiricxa.
sxva daniSnuleba hqonda aRweras, romelic egviptidan gamosvlis meore wels moxda.
tyveobidan Tavdasxnis meore wels viTareba Seicvala. karavi aRmarTulia, sinais mTidan rjuli miRebulia, samRvdelo ierarqia dadgenilia; uflis erma
icis, ra aris wmida da ra aris arawmida. uflis ers araferi darCenia, garda imisa, rom gaemzados qanaanSi Sesasvlelad, rac arcTu ioli da mSvidobiani mgzavroba
iqneba. am xanaSi aRricxvas laSqris formireba aqvs miznad. es aris aRricxvac, aRwerac da gawvevac. pirveli
aRweris ricxvi zustad emTxveva meorisas _ 603 550, da
igi metismetad STambeWdavia ara mxolod im ricxvTan
SedarebiT, romelsac egvipteSi Casuli israelis (iakobis) ojaxi (mamissaxli) Seadgenda: Cavida samocdaaTi kaci da amovida 603 550 kaciani mxedroba.
am ricxvidan amosvliT SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT israelis sazogadoebis, mTeli eris, raodenoba (dedrovanisa da wvrilSvilis CaTvliT). savaraudo angariSiT, egviptidan gamosuli da sinais mTis Ziras dabanakebuli israelis modgma mTlianad erTnaxevar-or milions Seadgenda.
aRricxvas safuZvlad edo israelis struqtura,
rac aRricxvis formulaSi gamoCnda: aRwere israelianTa sazogadoeba sagvareuloebad da mamissaxlebad,
saxelTa ricxvis mixedviT, yoveli mamrovani saTiTaod. aRricxeT Sen da aaronma yvela israeliani oci
wlidan moyolebuli, laSqarSi gamsvleli... Tan iyo-

235

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

lieT yoveli Stodan TiTo kaci, TiToeuli Tavisi mamissaxlis Tavkaci (1:2-4).
israeli Sedgeba tomebis anu Stoebis (Sebet, mitteh), sagvareuloebisa (miSfaxah) da ojaxebisagan anu
mamissaxlisagan (beT ab). amdenad, israelis mTliani
sxeuli ganiyofeba Tormet tomad, TiToeuli tomi
iyofa sagvareuloebad, sagvareulo _ ojaxebad,
ojaxi _ calkeul pirovnebebad, romelic aris ukanaskneli zRvari _ saxeli anu saxelis matarebeli
adamiani.
tomisaTvis bibliaSi ori identuri semantikis sityvaa gamoyenebuli _ Sebet da mitteh, romelTa amosavali mniSvnelobebia: Sto (toti) da keti. pirveli
gamoxatavs israelis erTiani sxeulis ganStoebis (gantotebis) ideas. rogorc xe an mdinare itoteba, aseve
itoteba israeli Tormet totad, Stod.
keti gadmoscems winamZRolobis ideas. tomis meTaurs xelT upyria keti, romliTac is marTavs Tavis
xalxs, rogorc mwyemsi kombliT _ Tavis faras. es keti,
Tavisi warmoSobiT ubralo joxi, mis xelSi kombalic aris da kverTxic (Zvel berZnul enaSi am or sagans erTi sityva gamoxatavda: skeptron; is samefo niSanic aris da mwyemsis aucilebeli iaraRic), rac Tavad
tomTan aris gaigivebuli, rogorc misi principi. radgan, ramdeni tomic aris israelSi, imdenivea kverTxic,
romelic erT TaobaSi mxolod erTi unda iyos, erT winamZRols unda epyras xelT. erTi tomi _ erTi kverTxi.
aRricxvis wesdebis mixedviT, yoveli tomidan TiTo
kverTxismpyrobelma kacma anu Tormetma Tavkacma Sekriba israelis mTeli sazogadoeba da gaarkvia maTi
warmomavloba sagvarauloTa da mamissaxlTa mixedviT
(1:18). cxadia, tomis beladebi mTels israels ver Sekrebdnen. maT mxolod sagvareuloTa da mamissaxlTa
Tavkacebi Sekribes, romelTac ufro konkretuli amocana daevalaT, gaerkviaT sagvareuloebsa da mamissaxlebSi Semaval israelianTa ricxvi.
ra aris sagvareulo anu, ufro sworad, ras niSnavs
ebrauli miSfaxah, romelsac vTargmniT rogorc sagvareulos. rogorc mTliani israeli tomebad aris danawilebuli, aseve TiToeuli tomi miSfaxaebad aris danawilebuli. Tumca aris SemTxvevebi, roca miSfaxah aRniSnavs Tavad tomsac da mamissaxlsac. es misi zogadi
mniSvneloba iqneba. magram, rogorc konteqstTa umravlesoba mowmobs, miSfaxah satomo gaerTianebis uSualo
qvemo safexuria. miSfaxah grZnobs Tavis individualobas tomis masStabiT, rogorc damoukidebel erTobas,
magram ara ganyenebuls tomisagan. igi iseve organulad
ganStovdeba tomisagan, rogorc Tavad tomi _ israelisagan. ufro zustad: tomi sxva araferia, Tu ara sagvareuloTa erTianoba. sagvareulo tomis organulstruqturuli elementia, ar arsebobs tomi, romelic
sagvareuloebad ar aris ganStoebuli.

236

ricxvni

ra aris mamissaxli? ufro sworad, ras niSnavs beT


ab saxli mamisa? es aris ufro mcire erTeuli (erToba), vidre sagvareulo, sagvareulo mamissaxlebisagan
Sedgeba da am safexuris erTobas mama (ab) udgas saTaveSi. mama aerTianebs adamianebs erT saxlSi, erT WerqveS.
es saxli SeiZleba iyos karavi. arc saxli, arc karavi ar
niSnavs mxolod nagebobas, aramed im adamianTa erTobliobasac, vinc am saxlSi an am karavSia Sefarebuli da
cxovrobs iq. mama ifarebs maT da acxovrebs. amrigad, ebraul saxls farTo mniSvneloba aqvs, rac ar aris ucxo
arc qarTuli, arc romelime sxva enisaTvis. qarTul
terminSi mamasaxlisi saxli erTi modgmiT dasaxlebuli qveyanaa, romelsac patronobs da marTavs mamad
wodebuli xelisufali.
mamissaxlSi gaerTianebuli arian fizikurad erTi mamisagan warmoSobili adamianebi da es erToba sxva
araferia, Tu ara ojaxi. saxlis mamebi iyvnen abraami,
isaaki da iakobi, romlebic Tav-Tavis TaobaSi mamissaxlebs meTaurobdnen. sabolood ki, Tormetma mamissaxlma, romlebic sagvareuloebad ganStovdnen, Tormeti
tomi Seadgina.
rogorc ojaxs anu saxls (mamissaxls) hyavs damfuZnebeli, romlis sazardulidan arian gamosuli misi saxlis Svilebi, aseve sagvareulos da masze maRla toms
(Stos) hyavT Tavisi winapari, xolo umaRles safexurze
uflis krebulia. TiToeuli israelianis cnobiereba da
yofiereba am oTxi safexuriT aris gansazRvruli: igi
ekuTvnis jer uflis krebuls, israels, mere toms, mere
sagvareulos, bolos _ mamissaxls. an piruku: mamissaxlidan is safexurebis gavliT adis krebulis Segnebamde. es aris misi zusti misamarTi, romelic Seicavs mis
saxelebs da mis sicocxleSi arasodes daikargeba.
aRricxva, cxadia, konkretul pirovnebaTa aRricxvaa da ara zogadad tomisa, sagvareulosi Tu ojaxisa. aRricxva amoswevs saxels saxlis Svilisa, romelsac SeuZlia iaraRis tareba, romlis xeliT unda
ganxorcieldes mocemuli aRTqma _ qanaanis dapyroba. aRricxeT Sen da aaronma yvela israeliani oci
wlidan moyolebuli, laSqarSi gamsvleli (1:3), saxelTa ricxvis mixedviT (1:18). TiToeuli israeliani saxeldebiT pasuxismgebelia uflisa da eris winaSe. TiToeul maTgans swvdeba Tavkacis kverTxi, rogorc mwyemsis kombali _ TiToeul cxvars, da aRricxavs maT.
aRricxul meomarTa ricxvi igive aRmoCnda, rac
pirveli aRricxvisas (gam. 28:26) _ 603 550 kaci. pirveli aRricxvisagan gansxvavebiT, dadginda ara mxolod
saerTo raodenoba mTeli israelis mxedrobisa, aramed TiToeul tomSi Semaval mebrZolTa raodenobac.
yvelaze mravalricxovani aRmoCnda iudas tomi (74
600), yvelaze mcirericxovani _ levis tomi (22 000).
Tumca levianebi ar aRricxulan danarCen tomebTan

237

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

erTad, radgan maT, gamorCeuli statusis gamo, ar evalebodaT laSqrad gasvla. ase elaparaka ufali moses: oRond levis Sto ar aRricxo, ar Seracxo israelianTa Soris... (1:48-49).
tomTa wyoba
(3:1-38)
aRwera mxolod raodenobis dadgenas ar isaxavda
miznad. unda dadgeniliyo tomTa ganlageba savanis mimarT rogorc dabanakebisas, ise msvlelobisas.
israelis Tormeti tomi oTx jgufad iyo danawilebuli, TiToeulSi sam-sami tomi iyo gaerTianebuli.
oTxi jgufi Seesabameba qveynis oTx mxares. Sesakrebeli
karavic, raki is oTxkuTxedia, Tavisi kedlebiTa da SesasvleliT qveynis oTxi kuTxisaken aris mimarTuli.
TiToeuli jgufi Tavisi droSis qveS erTiandeba da
Tavis gankuTvnil adgils iWers karvis mimarT. aRmosavleTi mxare, romelic wina mxarea anu Sesasvleli
mxare, uWiravs iudas meTaurobiT isaqars da zebulons,
romelTa saerTo raodenobaa 186 400. maT erTi saerTo
droSa aqvT. pirvelad es tomebi iwyeben svlas. samxreTi mxare reubenis meTaurobiT simeonisa da gadis tomebs uWiravT, maTi raodenobaa 151 450. eseni meore rigSi daiZvrebian. dasavleTis mxare efremis winamZRolobiT uWiravT menaSes da beniamins (rogorc axlo monaTesave, erTi sazardulidan gamosulT). maTi ricxvia
108 000. eseni mesame rigSi daiZvrebian. CrdiloeTiT
danis tomTan erTad aSeri da nafTalia ganlagebuli.
eseni yvelaze bolos daiZvrebian. maTi ricxvia 157 600.
marTalia, levis tomi ar aRricxula sxva tomebTan
erTad, magram mas Suaguli adgili eWira maT Soris,
isinic mRvdlebiTurT karvis garSemo banakdebodnen,
oRond ufro axlos, vidre sxvebi. isini reubenianTa
Semdeg iwyebdnen svlas. maT hqondaT Cabarebuli savane
da mTeli misi mowyobiloba, mTeli wmida WurWeli, raTa mxolod maT etarebinaT gzaSi (1:50-51).
levianTa statusi
(3-4)
ra iyo am gamorCevis mizezi, rom levianebi ar unda
miTvliliyvnen israelis StoTa saerTo ricxvs?
levianTa statusis warmoSoba moses erTma mowodebam gadawyvita: vinc uflisaa, CemTan! (gam. 32:26). TavianTi Tanatomelis am mowodebas gamoexmaurnen levianebi da, rogorc erTi kaci, mis garSemo Seikribnen. maT
mZime misia daakisra am mowodebam, romelsac meore moyva: maxvili SeibiT yvelam da moiareT banaki WiSkridan
WiSkramde da mokaliT Zmam Zma, megobarma megobari, naTesavma naTesavi! (gam. 32:27). levianebma airCies ufali
da TavianTi Tanatomeli mose, magram SeZlebdnen ki isini, ukan ar daexiaT am mowodebis winaSe? maT unda gaenadgurebinaT yvela, vinc ki oqros xbos garSemo rokav-

238

ricxvni

da. codva SemcodebelTan erTad unda amoZirkvuliyo


israelis sazogadoebidan. levianebma daRvares moZmeTa sisxli da am aqtma, am sisastikem, gamoacalkeva isini
israelis danarCeni Stoebisagan. am arCevanma gadawyvita maTi xvedri. am dros, am aqtiT moxda maTi xeldasxma
manamde, sanam xeldasxmis rituali dawesdeboda. es ki
mogvianebiT moxda. principuli gansxvaveba mogvianebiT
dawesebul ritualsa da moZmeTa sisxliT xeldasxmas
anu, rogorc Zveli aRTqmis ena gamoxatavs, xelavsebas
Soris arc unda iyos. xelavsebis mTavari elementi xom
sisxlia _ pirvel SemTxvevaSi, moZmeTa sisxli, romelmac gamoisyida mTeli israelis Secodeba, meore SemTxvevaSi ki _ samsxverplo pirutyvis sisxli, romelic
aseve mTeli israelis codvebs tvirTulobs.
sami aTasi kaci gawyda im dRes levianTa xeliT (gam.
32:28). es iyo israelis codvis gamosasyidi uflis winaSe.
magram rogor gamoxatavs mose am aqtis mniSvnelobas
levianTaTvis, maTi momavali xvedrisaTvis? mose ambobs (sityvasityviT): aRivseT Tqveni xeli dRes uflisaTvis, TiToeulma Tavisi ZiT da Tavisi ZmiT, raTa
mogeceT dRes kurTxeva (gam. 32:29), anu mose eubneba
maT, rom isini amieridan Tavis moyvasTa sisxlis daRvriT xelavsebulni (qarTulad vityodiT: xel-mwifeni) da kurTxeulni arian uflis samsaxurisaTvis.
es iyo pirveli da ukanaskneli aqti, romelic iaraRiT ganaxorciela levis tomma uflisaTvis da israelis religiuri sijansaRisaTvis. amieridan mas sxva,
mSvidobiani, magram mainc ara uxifaTo movaleoba daekisra _ uflis savanis movla-patronoba, misi daSlaawyoba, zidva da dasveneba, ara mxolod savanisa, aramed
yvela WurWlisa, romelic savanes ekuTvnis. amieridan
maT garda veravin miekareba WurWels, verc savanis samsaxurSi Seecileba vinme, verc pativmoyvareobiT, verc
keTili ganzraxviT. gamgzavrebisas savane levianebma
daSalon, dabanakebisas savane levianebma aRmarTon.
vinc ki gareSeTagan miekareba, mokvdes (1:51). levianebi icaven savanes profanaciisagan, radgan misi xelyofa
gareSeTagan _ da maTSi igulisxmeba danarCeni israeli _ uflis momakvdinebel risxvas iwvevs. amitom levis tomi uSualod savanis irgvliv banakdeba.
ebrauli sityva-cneba zar (gareSe an ucxo) Zlieri semantikis Semcvelia. is ufro xSirad araebraelTa
mimarT gamoiyeneba. zar aris ucxoeli, mteri, barbarosi; zar aris ucxo RmerTi, araRmerTi. Cven gvqonda
SemTxveva levianTa wignSi SevxvedrodiT, ucxo
cecxls, romelic miitanes uflis winaSe levinebma nadabma da abihum, ris gamoc uflis cecxlma SeWama isini (lev. 10:1-2). levianobam ver uSvela nadabs da abihuds, aaronis Svilebs. rac ufro axlos arian isini
ufalTan, mis siwmideebTan, miT ufro metia pasuxismgebloba. uflis siwmidis xelyofisaTvis isini sikvdiliT ageben pasuxs.

239

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

uflisadmi ritualuri samsaxurisaTvis gareSeni da


ucxoni arian yvelani, visac xeli ara aqvs avsebuli da
uflis kurTxeva ar aris maTze, Tundac isini israelianTa sazogadoebas ekuTvnodnen.
wmidaa mTeli israeli, radgan is RvTis rCeulia. is
mTlianad samRvdelo eria, ufalma aiyvana isini da Tavis sakuTar, unj erad gaixada, magram ufali mainc xedavs maTSi garCevas. Tormettomian xalxSi, romelic
man airCia dedamiwis sxva xalxTa Soris, is irCevs levianTa ara zogadi, aramed uSualo samsaxurisaTvis. es
samsaxuri ritualuria da ufalTan gansakuTrebul siaxloves moiTxovs. aha, aviyvane levianebi israelianTa Soris... (3:12), ambobs ufali. leviani rCeulTa Soris aris ayvanili. magram ayvanas, garda samsaxurisa,
sxva mizanic aqvs, romelic erwymis msaxurebis mizans:
aha, me aviyvane levianebi israelianTa Soris, nacvlad
yoveli pirmSosi, saSos gamxsnelisa israelianTagan.
Cemebi arian isini (3:12).
amrigad, levianebs, rogorc erT krebiT pirovnebas,
pirmSos statusi aqvT israelSi. israelis yvela tomSi
pirmSoTa gansazRvruli raodenobaa, levis tomi ki erTi pirmSoa da misi pirmSooba simbolurad mTeli israelis pirmSoobasac gamoxatavs. Cven viciT, rom israeli
samRvdelo eria, magram mRvdloba da uflis konkretuli samsaxuri mxolod levis toms akisria. nawili (erTi
tomi) gamoxatavs mTlians (Tormet toms), kidec ekuTvnis mas da arc ekuTvnis, ar iricxeba masSi. is transcendenturia sxva tomebis, mTeli israelis mimarT, rogorc ufalia transcendenturi Tavisi eris mimarT;
TiTqos imanenturic aris, raki erTi saerTo mamidan
aris maTTan erTad gamosuli; imanenturia rogorc israelis ufali, romelic maT Soris myofobs. amis niSnad
levianebs StoTa Soris qveynis (qanaanis) ganawilebisas
ar eZlevaT dasasaxlebeli miwa, isini ar iReben monawilebas qveynis danawilebaSi, maT ara aqvT wilxvedri,
radgan maTi xvedri ufalia da, rac unda paradoqsulad
JRerdes, imavdroulad isini uflis xvedrni arian. maTi
xvedria ufali da Tavadac uflis xvedrebulni arian.
uflis xvedris biologiuri-socialuri gamoxatulebaa pirmSooba, romelic mieniWa mTlianad levianTa toms. rodis? isev da isev maSin, roca maT xeli
aivses Semcode moZmeTa dasjiT Tu dasasjelad. Cven
viciT, rom iakobis anu israelis pirmSo reubeni iyo,
magram ojaxebis xalxad Seqmnis Semdeg viTareba Seicvala. ufalma ganacxada: aha, aviyvane levianebi israelianTa Soris, nacvlad yoveli pirmSosi, saSos gamxsnelisa, israelianTagan. Cemebi arian israelianebi. radgan Cemia yvela pirmSo im dRes, roca davxoce yvela pirmSo egviptelTa qveyanaSi. CemTvis ganvikuTvne yoveli
pirmSo israelSi adamianidan pirutyvamde. Cemebi arian (3:12-13). es pirmSooba sisxlis fasad ganekuTvneba
levianebs: isini ara mxolod israelSi gadarCenili

240

ricxvni

pirmSoebis sanacvloni arian, aramed imaTi sanacvlonic, romlebic egvipteSi daixocnen ubralo mesafqvavis pirmSodan dawyebuli, faraonis pirmSoTi damTavrebuli. da, sabolood, mTeli kacobriobis pirmSoTa
sanacvloni arian, rogorc ufali ambobs, rom misia mTeli qveyana (gam. 19:5).
es arCeva paralels poulobs levianTa xelavsebaSi,
im sisxlian aqtSi, romelmac maTi xelavseba ganapiroba.
es sanacvlo realurad amgvarad gamoixata: levianTa aRricxvam aCvena maTi ricxvi _ 22 000 (3:43). aseve
ganisazRvra danarCen israelianTa pirmSoTa ricxvi _
22 273 (3:43). aRricxvisas gairkva, rom israelianTa
pirmSoebi ricxviT aRematebian levianTa pirmSoebs.
rCeba Seunacvlebeli 273 pirmSo. maT gamosasyidlad
dawesda TiToeulze xuTi Sekeli, ramac Seadgina 1365
Sekeli, rac Cabarda aarons da mis Svilebs, rogorc
zedmetis gamosasyidi (3:46-48).
pirmSoobas aq ecvleba misi biologiuri Sinaarsi da
sakulto-religiur Sinaarss iRebs. rogorc, kosmogoniidan Tu daviwyebT, adamis arCeva yvela qmnilebas Soris,
cxadia, ar iyo biologiuri kategoriis aqti, aseve arc
israeli aurCevia RmerTs Tavisi biologiuri upiratesobis gamo. israelSi pirmSo xdeba levianTa tomi, levianTa tomSi _ aaroni da aaronianebi. Cven viciT, rom
mRvdelmTavroba, rogorc wesi, yovelTvis pirmSoebze
gadadis (aq SenarCunebulia biologiuri principi).
levianebSi, garda aaronianTa, aris erTi fena _
mRvdelTa modgma, anu levianebi iZlevian mRvdlebsac da
mRvdelmTavrebsac. magram roca saubaria levianebze, ar
igulisxmebian arc mRvdlebi da arc mRvdelmTavrebi (aaronianebi). levianebi gansakuTrebuli fenaa, romelsac
mRvdelTa da aaronianTagan gansxvavebuli funqcia aqvs.
isini uflis savanis samsaxurad arian ganwesebuli.
ramdenadac savane mis erTobliobaSi sami nawilisagan Sedgeba, levianTa sami sagvareuloa mis samsaxurad
ganwesebuli. aqedan viciT, rom levianTa Sto sami sagvareulosagan Sedgeba, romelTagan TiToeuls Tavisi
funqcia aqvs dakisrebuli savanis samsaxurSi. es sagvareuloebia maT mamamTavarTa mixedviT: gerSonis Zeni,
kehaTis Zeni da meraris Zeni.
gerSonianebi karvis dasavleTiT iyvnen dabanakebulni, maT sapirispirod, aRmosavleTis mxares ki _
mRvdlebi, romlebic warmoSobiT ekuTvnodnen levianebs, magram maT ricxvSi ar Sediodnen (arsad ar aris
naxsenebi maTi aRricxva, amitom arc viciT maTi ricxvi). gerSonianebs abariaT karvisa da sakuTriv savanis
fardebi _ dakecaven da SefuTaven (3:23-26). es procesi
aaronisa da misi Svilebis brZanebiTa da zedamxedvelobiT unda sruldebodes (4:27). es ar aris msubuqi
tvirTi. Tumca masze msubuqi tvirTi, SesaZloa, ufro
mZime iyos sapasuxismgeblod.

241

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

kehaTianebi savanis samxreTiT banakdebian da maTi


zrunvis sagania rjulis kidobani, tabla, sasanTle, samsxverploebi da wmida WurWeli _ yvelaze mniSvnelovani siwmideebi. kehaTianebs maTi mxolod gzaSi tareba
evalebaT, ara maTi SefuTva, risi prerogativa aaronianebs ekuTvnis. moses droSi, ricxvTa wignis xanaSi, es saqme aaronis Zes eleazars hqonda mindobili (3:29-32). rogorc vxedavT, kehaTianebi atareben iseT siwmideebs, romelTaTvis xelis Sexebis ufleba maT ara aqvT. roca
morCebian aaroni da misi Svilebi sawmidrisa da mTeli
misi WurWlis dafarvas banakis daZvrisas, movlen kehaTianebi mis wasaRebad, oRond ar unda miekaron sawmidars, rom ar daixocon. es aris kehaTianTa satarebeli
tvirTi Sesakrebeli karvis WurWlidan (4:15). araTu xelis Sexeba ekrZalebaT kehaTianebs, aramed am siwmideTa
SefuTvis procesis yurebac ki: ar unda mividnen sawmidaris SefuTvis sayureblad, Torem daixocebian (4:20).
merarianTa sagvareulos savanis CrdiloeTi mxare
eWira. maT ebaraT savanis Zelebi, lartyebi, svetebi, paloebi da bagirebi (3:35-37). am sagnebs atareben meraris
sagvareulos warmomadgenelni mTeli israelis sazogadoebis banakis mgzavrobisas.
iTqva da gavimeorebT, rom mose da aaroni, xorcielad
levianebi, gancalkevebulni arian maTgan, ar ekuTvnian
maT ricxvs. aaronis arCeva uSualod uflisagan moxda
imaze adre, vidre levianebi airCevdnen TavianT xvedrs,
roca moses daZaxebaze Semoikribnen moses irgvliv. aaroni ufalma airCia ara rogorc leviani, aramed rogorc
moses Zma. es moxda sinaize, roca mosem miiRo misia israelianTa gamoyvanisa egviptidan da aaronis saxelic sinaizeve iqna naxsenebi (gam. 3;6-10; 4:14). mosec da aaronic kehaTianTa sagvareulodan iyvnen (gam. 6:18,20), amitomac
daekisraT kehaTianebs ufro sapasuxismgeblo movaleoba, vidre danarCen sagvareuloebs. maTi sazidavi iyo
wmidisa da wmidaTa wmidis nivTebi, maT Soris, yvelaze
ufro mosaridebeli _ aRTqmis kidobani.
yvelaze mniSvnelovani da sapasuxismgeblo adgili
moses da mRvdlebs (aarons da aaronis ZeT) uWiravT _
es aris savanis aRmosavleTi mxare. isini icaven sawmidars xelyofisa da profanaciisagan, aseve mis xelmyofelisagan, romelsac araTu sawmidris xelyofis, aramed cnobismoyvareobisTvisac ki gardauvali sikvdili
elis. erT-erTi aseTi SemTxveva msajulTa epoqis dasasruls moxda, roca beTSemeSelebma cnobismoyvareobiT Caixedes uflis kidobanSi, risTvisac ufalma ormocdaaTi aTasi adamiani gawyvita (1mef. 6:19).
banakis siwmide
(5-6)
fundamenturi problema Zveli aRTqmisa istoriasa
da wignebSi siwmidis problemaa. arc erTi wigni Zveli
aRTqmisa, gansakuTrebiT, xuTwigneuli, rogorc safuZ-

242

ricxvni

veldamdebi wignTa krebuli, uyuradRebod ar tovebs


mas. eris aRweras da misi struqturis Camoyalibebas bunebrivad mosdevs zrunva, rom uflis eris banakSi dacul
iqnes siwmide, uwmidurebam ar SebRalos igi, radgan mis
SuagulSi ufalia davanebuli. roca oqros xbos sayovelTao Tayvaniscemam mTlianad SebRala banaki, mosem
savane banakis gareT gaitana (gam. 33:7). am dros mTeli sazogadoeba iyo gauwmidurebuli. uflis savane dabrunda
banakSi da axla ufali israelianTa Soris hgies da moiTxovs maTgan siwmides, rogorc Tavad aris wmida. am Sesatyvisobis SesanarCuneblad yoveli gauwmidurebuli
banaks gareT unda iyos gayvanili. maT ekrZalebaT banakSi yofna. maTi myofoba bRalavs uflis siwmides, magram,
rac mTavaria, uwmiduris banakSi yofna Tavad maTTvis
aris saxifaTo da ara mxolod calkeul gauwmidurebul
pirTaTvis, aramed mTeli banakisaTvis. isini bRalaven
ara mxolod uflis siwmides, aramed mTeli eris siwmidesac da amitomac ganridebulni unda iyvnen.
uwmidureba, romliTac adamiani SeiZleba gauwmidurdes, sami kategoriisaa:
1. keTrovaneba, romelSic kanis yovelgvari sneuleba
igulisxmeba. misgan ganwmedis rituali (rjuli) sakmaod vrclad aris gadmocemuli levianTa wignSi.
2. widovaneba, rasac levianTa wigni sakmaod dawvrilebiT ganixilavs. igi dakavSirebulia sasqeso organoebTan.
3. mkvdris Sexeba. sikvdili rogorc sicocxlis,
srulyofili janmrTelobis absoluturi gamoricxva,
ukidures uwmidurebad aris miCneuli. amitomac gansakuTrebiT maT, visac uflis samsaxuri aqvT dakisrebuli, ekrZalebaT micvalebulis Sexeba, rac unda axlobeli (mSoblebi, da-Zma) iyos igi. yvelaze mkacr akrZalvas rjuli, cxadia, aaronisgan da aaronianebisgan (anu
mRvdelmTavrebisa da mRvdlebisgan) moiTxovs, radgan
isini TavianTi msaxurebis gamo yvelaze metad axlos
arian siwmidesTan. maTi ganwmedis rituali aseve levianTa wignSia gadmocemuli.
mkvdris uwmidurebis warmodgena ar aris mxolod
Zveli aRTqmis xalxis yofisTvis damaxasiaTebeli. igi
gavrcelebulia Zveli xalxebis kulturebSi. Sors rom
ar wavideT, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTis saymoTa tradiciul yofaSi micvalebuli, romelsac evfemisturad civs uwodebdnen, uwmidurad iTvleboda
da gansakuTrebiT jvar-xatTa msaxurni (xevsurebi, xucesebi, dekanozebi) eridebodnen. fSavis zogierT TemSi (uZilaurTaSi, ukanafSavSi) gasapatiosneblad mezobeli saymodan iwvevdnen, imdenad ekrZalebodaT
micvalebulis Sexeba.
am sami kategoriis uwmidurni ver daubrundebian banaks, vidre maTi ganwmedis rituali ar gansruldeba.
es sami kategoria uwmidurebisa ritualuria. rjuli iTvaliswinebs moralur uwmidurebasac, Tumca misi

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xarisxi ritualurze naklebia. misi Camdeni ar stovebs


banaks. man unda gamoisyidos danaSauli, rac Caidina
moyvasis mimarT (rac saboloo jamSi uflis winaSe danaSaulia). man unda aRiaros Tavisi danaSauli, zRos
materialurad (Tu qurdobaa), meaTedic daumatos da
misces mas, vis winaSec danaSaulic aqvs (5:7). Tu dazaralebuli cocxali ar aris da arc naTesavi hyavs, damnaSave ufals uxdis yovelive amas, _ ufals, anu
mRvdels. am dros ikvlis Sendobis verZi (5:8).
am sami kategoriis Secodebis gverdiT gadmocemulia
RalatSi eWvmitanili qalis mxilebis rjuli. qali damnaSavea an ar aris damnaSave, magram qmari eWvianobs. qali
ver imarTlebs Tavs verc sityvierad, verc mowmobiT, ver
daamtkicebs Tavis simarTles. mas SeuZlia mxolod aRiaros Ralati, Tu is Cadenili aqvs, da itvirTavs sasjels _ Caiqoleba mTeli sazogadoebis mier. qalis simarTle unda gaarkvios ordealma _ mRvdeli, romlis
winaSe qmarma unda miiyvanos igi, Seasmevs mas sagangebod
damzadebul mware wyals an, sxvanairad, damawyevar
wyals. qmars mxolod eWvianobis Sesawiravi (qeris
fqvili da zeTi) miaqvs mRvdelTan, danarCeni mRvdelma
icis. ritualur wyals is amzadebs Tixis WurWelSi
mdgari wmida wylisa da savanis niadagidan aRebuli
miwis aRreviT. wyalic wmidaa da miwac. mRvdeli winaswar afrTxilebs qals, Tu ra elis mas am wylis SesmiT, CamoarTmevs fics da etyvis: Tu aravin dawolila SenTan
da ar Seucdenixar, da ar wabilwulxar qmrisaTvis, aras
gavnebs es mware wyali, damawyevari. xolo Tu uRalate
Sens qmars da wabilwuli xar, vinmea nawoli SenTan,
qmris garda... ufalma migces wyevas da fics Sens xalxSi,
rom sazarduli dagidnes da muceli gagisivos. Sevides
es damawyevari wyali Sens nawlavebSi, rom gagisivdes muceli da dagidnes saSo, razec qali ityvis: WeSmaritad! WeSmaritad! (5:19-22). es sityvebi daiwereba gragnilze da dawerili am mware wyliT gadairecxeba. narecxi unda Sesvas qalma. mis Semsmels, Tu is qmris RalatiT aris wabilwuli, gausivdeba muceli da daudneba
saSo (5:27). Tu marTalia, Tu wabilwuli ar aris, vneba
ar mouva da ganayofierebis unari SerCeba (5:28). amrigad, moRalate colma unda airCios oridan erTi: an aRiaros danaSauli da Caiqoleba, an miiRos ordealSi monawileoba da saSos Zala waerTmeva. wyali dasjis moRalates unayofobiT, rac qalisTvis sikvdilis badalia. Zveli aRTqmis yofaSi siberwe wyevlaa da sircxvilad awevs
qals. gavixsenoT sara, raxili, xana (samuelis deda). isini garkveul xans berwni arian, magram Semdeg aRTqmis
SvilTa dedebi xdebian. aseTi iyo elisabedi, coli zaqaria mRvdlisa, romelmac Sva ioane winamorbedi da amiT
Zveli aRTqmis berwi dedebis wre Sekra.
rogorc vxedavT, ordealis wyali TavisTavad wmidaa, magram wabilwulis organizmSi igi ukumoqmedebas
iwvevs. wabilwulisTvis wyevlaa da sasjeli, umwik-

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ricxvni

vlosTvis _ gamamarTlebeli. ra idea devs am ritualSi? sxeuli WurWelia. rogorc uwmiduri WurWeli bilwavs siwmides da wmida WurWeli wmidadve iRebs siwmides, asevea adamianis sxeulic.
[ZvelindoelTa ritualur praqtikaSi, rogorc es gamovlenilia drahmul teqstebSi (dharmaSastrebi), patra _
WurWeli aRniSnavs umwikvlo adamians, xolo apatra _ mwikulevans, codvils. damnaSave sazogadoebidan gamoZevebisas
gadayavdaT apatras (araWurWlis) mdgomareobaSi: mas xelSi aWerinebdnen WurWels, romelSic binZuri wyali idga.
codvis gamosyidvis Semdeg aZlevdnen wmida wyliT savse
WurWels da kaci patras mdgomareobas ubrundeboda.]

rac Seexeba mware wylis moqmedebas: misi substanciuri siwmide (wmida wyali, wmida niadagis miwa) iseve
sjis RalatiT wabilwuls, rogorc codvils _ wmida
nawili, qristes sisxli da xorci: Rirs myven Cven, ufalo, xorcsa Sensa ziarebad dausjelad da sisxlsa Sensa
patiosansa _ ganwmedad sulTa da xorcTa... saRmrTosa xorcisa da sisxlisa moReba, qriste, gansawmedel meqmenin, nu dasasjel amiT ziareba, da nu Tanamdeb, aramed gansawmedel...
mowmidrobis wesi
(6:1-21)
levianTa gamocalkeveba uflis samsaxurisTvis ar
aris gamowveuli maTi arc individualuri, arc erToblivi (satomo) nebiT. marTalia, maT sakuTari arCevaniT
gadadges nabiji mosesken rCeuli eris qmnadobis im gadamwyvet, SeiZleba iTqvas, sabediswero wuTebSi _ darCeboda xalxi oqros xbos moTayvaned Tu zurgs Seaqcevda mas, magram mTlianad uflis nebaze iyo damokidebuli maTi is statusi, romelmac aseTi saxe miiRo ricxvTa
wignSi, raTa mTeli Zveli aRTqmis istoriis manZilze
emoqmeda. levianTa samsaxuri adamianis individualuri
nebiT da arCevaniT ar aris gansazRvruli. arc erT levians ar SeuZlia uari Tqvas am samsaxurze, vidre is am
toms ekuTvnis, anu ar gankveTila misgan. igi am samsaxurSi Tavisi warmoSobiT da Sobidanvea ganwesebuli.
arsebobda instituti Zvel aRTqmaSi, romelmac
axal aRTqmamde moaRwia. es swored individualur-pirovnul samsaxurs gulisxmobs, ganurCevlad tomisa da
sqesisa, da asakisa. es aris mowmidroba, anu, rogorc ufro cnobilia, nazarevloba. Tavad termini, romelic
ebraulad JRers rogorc nazar imave semantikis Semcvelia, romlis ZaliTac levianTa tomma miiRo gansakuTrebuli statusi _ gancalkevebuli, gankrZaluli.
aseTia mRvdelTa samefos struqtura: israelianebi _ levianebi _ mRvdlebi _ nazarevlebi (mowmidrebi). kvlav gavxazavT: nazarevlobis samsaxuri mTlianad
adamianis arCevanzea damokidebuli _ an Tavad nazarevlis arCevanze an mSoblis arCevanze, romelsac SeuZlia
Sobidanve an Sobamde ganawesos Svili nazarevlad.

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

nazarevloba erT pirovnebaSi gamoxatavs mTeli


eris mowodebas siwmidisken, rac gulisxmobs ara imdenad moralur-zneobriv siwmides yofiTi gagebiT, aramed gamocalkevebas: mTeli eris SemTxvevaSi _ danarCeni kacobriobidan, pirovnebis SemTxvevaSi _ mTeli sazogadoebidan, romelsac is ekuTvnis.
samowmidrod gamzadebuli aRTqmas debs, rom is iqneba uflis mowmidari garkveul xans an mTeli sicocxlis manZilze (es mis Tavisufal arCevanzea damokidebuli) da, vidre mowmidaria, ar Wamos araferi, rac yurZnisgan aris damzadebuli (Rvino, badagi, Zmari, CamiCi), samarTebeli ar unda Seexos mis Tmas.
mowmidari ar unda miekaros mkvdars, ar iglovos
igi, Tundac is misi ded-mama an da-Zma iyos. Tu ucabedad
Seexo micvalebuls, is gadaiparsavs samowmidrod mozrdil Tmas, rogorc wabilwuls, da xelaxla gaizrdis
mas anu xelaxla iwyebs uflis mowmidrobas. ganvlili
dReebi dakargulad anu warwymedilad, wabilwulad
iTvleba. Tma misi mowmidrobis garegani niSania, Tumca
mas siRrmiseuli mniSvnelobac aqvs (es TvalsaCino gaxda samsonis cxovrebaSi, ix. msaj. 3:4-5).
[sagulisxmoa, rom nazir gausxlav vazsac niSnavs: gausxlavi vazi uflisadmia Sewiruli, rogorc mowmidris gaukreWeli Tma. mowmidris maRal statuss mowmobs sityva nezer, romelic aRniSnavs rogorc samRvdelmTavro an samefo
jiRas (diademas), aseve mowmidris Tavs moSvebuli TmiT.]

mowmidris vadis gasvlisas mowmidari swiravs welgamovlil kravs _ aRsavlenad (sruladdasawvelad),


welgamovlil dedal cxvars _ codvis gamosasyidad
(radgan mowmidroba ar iZleva ucodvelobis garantias), verZs samSvidobo msxverplad da mcenareul Sesawiravs ZRvenad (xmiadebi, zeTSi gamomcxvari purebi, zeTwacxebuli lavaSebi da saRvreli). gadaiparsavs igi
Tmas sajarod karvis SesasvlelTan da samSvidobo
msxverplis cecxlSi Cayris mas. Cans, is sruladdasawvel msxverplad swiravs Tavisi mowmidrobis niSans,
romelsac atarebda am xnis manZilze. amieridan Tavisufldeba igi yvela akrZalvisgan, rac mas mowmidrobis statuss sZenda, maT Soris, da es sagangebod aris aRniSnuli teqstSi, Rvinis usmelobisgan (6:13-21).
mowmidrobis statusi uaxlovdeba mRvdelmTavris
statuss, ramdenadac orives ekrZaleba Rvinis sma da
micvalebulis datireba. aseve msgavsia msxverplis saxeoba, romelsac swiraven isini Tavisi inauguraciis
(mRvdelmTavris kurTxevisa da mowmidarTa dadgomis)
dros. magram gansxvaveba arsebiTia: mowmidrobas marTavs adamianis neba, rac mRvdelmTavrobis, gind
mRvdlobis SemTxvevaSi gamoricxulia.
ukanaskneli
mowmidari, aseve ukanaskneli winaswarmetyveli, ebraelTa istoriaSi iyo ioane naTlismcemeli, romelic
uflis angelozma dedis saSoSive ganawesa mowmidrad:
rameTu iyos did winaSe uflisa da Rvino da Taflu-

246

ricxvni

Wi ara svas da suliTa wmidiTa aivsos mierve dedis mucliT misiTgan (luk. 1:15).
maTes saxarebis Tanaxmad, yovel SemTxvevaSi, asea gaazrebuli es damTxveva berZnul teqstSi, iesos samkvidro qalaqis nazareTis saxeli prividenciulia, exmaureba ra winaswarmetyvelebas, nazareveli daerqmevao (maT. 2:23), da roca nazarevlobiT ixsenieben mas
(luk. 18:37), gulisxmoben rogorc mis miwier warmomavlobas, ise ZvelaRTqmiseul mowmidrobas. asec daiwera
jvarcmis ficarze: ieso nazareveli, meufe huriaTa
(ioan. 19:19). dabis saxeli nazareTi da religiuri samsaxuris saxelwodeba saerTo semantikis Semcvelia. ieso nazareTelic aris da nazarevelic. is Tavisi misiiT
sakacobrio mowmidaria, romelic, Tumca ar ekuTvnis am
sofels, rogorc Ze RvTisa, magram swored am ganridebulobiT emsaxureba mas. misi nazarevloba wmida samebis wiaRSia gadawyvetili da amdenad mowmidrobis winasaxea (arqetipi).
mowmidris rjulSi, garda misi movaleobisa, rac aRTqmis dacvaSi mdgomareobs, araferia naTqvami mis funqciaze sazogadoebaSi. ar Cans, rom mas rame samsaxuri
evalebodes sakrebulo karavSi, rame sakulto movaleobas asrulebdes. Tu is, bunebrivia, ar ekuTvnis levianTa toms, aseT valdebulebas mas mowmidroba ar akisrebs. mTeli Zveli aRTqmis istoriis manZilze erTaderTi SemTxvevaa, roca mowmidris cxovrebas vecnobiT. es aris samsoni, romelic ufalma dedis saSoTganve
ganawesa mowmidrad da filistimelTagan israelTa
xsna daavala. samsonis SemTxvevaSi ufalma erTmaneTs
daamTxvia mowmidroba da msajuloba anu xsnis misia.
sxva msajulni da mxsnelni (debora, ifTaxi, gedeoni)
mowmidrebi ar yofilan. CvenTvis ucnobia mowmidrobis sazogadoebriv-religiuri funqcia.
Zveli aRTqmis ukanaskneli mowmidris ioane naTlismcemlis magaliTze (is ikvebeboda mxolod mkaliT da
veluri TafliT da xalxs sinanulisken mouwodebda),
SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom mowmidris misia sakuTari
cxovrebis magaliTiT sazogadoebis moralur gajansaRebas gulisxmobda.
iTqva, rom mowmidroba individualuri xvedri an pirovnuli arCevania, gansxvavebiT levianTa tomisagan,
romelic mTlianad Sewiruli iyo uflisadmi samsaxurad. magram israelis istoriaSi dadasturebulia erTi Temi, saxeldobr, reqabianTa Temi, romelic TiTqos
sazogadoebrivad (koleqtiurad) axorcielebs mowmidrobas. mis Sesaxeb cnoba Semonaxulia ieremias wignSi (35:1-10). danarCen israelianTa sapirispirod isini
Tesls ar Tesavdnen, vazs ar rgavdnen da, bunebrivia, ekrZalebodaT kidec am nayofebisa da maTi produqtis Wama da sma. Cven ar vsvamT Rvinos, radgan ionadab reqabis
Zem, Cvenma mamam, gvianderZa, nu dalevT Rvinos nurc
Tqven da nurc Tqveni Svilebio ukunisamde (ier. 35:6).

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

savanis Sesawiravi
(7:1-88)
mose kvlav ubrundeba karvis saqmes. Txroba gvabrunebs ukan, im xanaSi, roca pirvelad daidga, aRimarTa karavi. es iyo gamosvlidan meore wlis pirvel Tves, meore aRricxvamde erTi TviT adre. pirveli aRmarTvidan
(gam. 40) mis satfurebamde (ricx. 7), romelsac eZRvneba
es monakveTi, israeli dgas sinais mTis Ziras da ismens
RvTis mcnebebs da kanonebs moses piriT. yvelaferi gadmocemulia: mTeli rjuli, karvis aRwerilobac; karavic Seqmnilia mTeli misi aRWurvilobiT da aRmarTulia kidec. magram aRmarTva jer kidev ar niSnavs, rom
mzad aris uflis savane, sadac unda daivanos misma saxelma (Sem), sadac unda iyos misi myofoba (gviandeli
Sexina) misi saxelis saxiT. uflis savane moiTxovs gansakuTrebul rituals, risi ZaliTac adamianis xeliT
aRmarTuli nageboba marTlac uflis dasavanebel karvad gadaiqceva.
roca daasrula mosem savanis aRmarTva, zeTi scxo
mas, akurTxa igi da mTeli misi aRWurviloba, samsxverplo da mTeli misi aRWurviloba. da zeTi scxo maT da
akurTxa isini (7:1). zeTis cxeba TavisTavad metyvelebs ritualze, rogorc erT martiv aqtze, magram,
garda msxverplSewirvisa, sxva ra ritualur elementebs gulisxmobs Tavis SinaarsSi kurTxeva anu, rogorc dedanSia, ganwmeda (konsekracia), teqstidan ar
Cans. zemoT moyvanil teqstSi, rogorc preambulaSi,
dadasturebulia karvis nivTierebis bunebrivi realobis siwmidis realobad gardaqmnis faqti.
rogorc karvis gamarTvaSi, mis aSenebaSi mTeli israeli iRebda monawileobas, aseve mis damasrulebel
etapze mTeli israelia CarTuli. kurTxeva konsekracias ar ekuTvnis, magram karvis samsaxurisTvis aucilebelia transporti _ karavi xom iseTive moZravia,
rogorc Tavad israeli. karavma unda imoZraos udabnos mTeli periodis manZilze im banakTan erTad, romlis centrsac is warmoadgens. rogorc viciT, karvis
daSla-awyoba da misi nawilebis zidva levianTa sam
Stos evaleba. is urmebi da gamwevi Zala _ xarebi, romelTac Tormeti tomi gaiRebs, saxeldebulia rogorc Sesawiravi (korban) uflis winaSe (7:3). es Sewiruloba Seadgens eqvs Cardaxian urems da Tormet
xars, romlebic eZlevaT levianebs maTi samuSaosda
mixedviT. gerSonianTa Stos, romelTac ebaraT karvis
fardebi da kretsabmelebi, miecaT ori uremi da oTxi
xari: merarianebs boZebis, svetebis, lartyebis, paloebis, sablebisa da sxvaTa gadasazidad miecaT meti
gamwevi Zala _ oTxi uremi da rva xari. kehaTianebs,
romelTac sakuTriv siwmideebi ebaraT _ kidobani,
sasanTle, tabla da sxva _ ar miecaT transporti,
radgan wmida nivTebi maT sakuTari mxrebiT unda etarebinaT (7:9).

248

ricxvni

Tu aRTqmis kidobani mTeli banakis _ RvTis rCeuli


eris uxilavi (asea gareSeTaTvis, misi xilva mxolod
wmidaTa wmidaSi SeeZlo mRvdelmTavars) centria, mis
sarqvelze Rrublis saxiT Tavad ufalia davanebuli,
samsxverplo xilulia, _ yvelas Tvalwin sruldeba
masze yoveldRiuri aucilebeli msaxureba. is mRvdelTa ezos SuagulSi dgas, rogorc muSa siwmide; is ganuwyvetel moqmedebaSia. Tu uflis kidobans RvTis
myofobis niSnad mudmivi Rrubeli faravs, samsxverploze aseve mudmivi kvamlia (Rrubeli zeciuria, kvamli _ miwieri). samsxverplo ar isvenebs, _ is, rogorc
RmerTTan kontaqtis saSualeba, mudmiv qmedebaSia. am
monakveTSi aRwerilia Tavis nivTier konstruqciaSi
dasrulebuli samsxverplos sakraluri gansruleba,
anu satfureba (xanuqah). es aris pirveli msxverplSewirvis aRsruleba axladagebul samsxverploze, raSic
aseve mTeli israeli iRebs monawileobas nivTieri
msxverpliT, romelic STambeWdavia da savsebiT gamoxatavs samsxverplos sakralur simZimes _ pativs (qabod
orive mniSvnelobiT).
samsxverplos Sesawiravi yoveldRe garkveuli TanamimdevrobiT moaqvT israelis tomTa Tavkacebs im
rigiT, romliTac arian isini dabanakebulni karvis
garSemo da amave rigs icaven isini moZraobisas, roca
aiyrebian. iudas, isaqars, da zebulons karvis wina, aRmosavleTi, mxare uWiravT da svlaSic mowinaveni arian
(maT Soris imyofebian mose da aaroni), amitomac maT
pirvelebs moaqvT Sesawiravi. maTi momdevnoni arian:
reubeni, simeoni da gadi, romelTac karvis marjvena,
anu samxreTi mxare uWiravT; maT Semdeg: efremi, menaSe
da beniamini (iosebis naSierni da misi umcrosi Zma erTad arian dabanakebuli), romlebic karvis ukana mxares (zurgSi), anu dasavleTiT dganan. bolos: dani,
aSeri da nafTali _ marcxenani. Tormeti dRis ganmavlobaSi moaqvs mTels israels Sesawiravi, Tormeti
dRe grZeldeba samsxverplos satfureba. mxolod levis tomi ar monawileobs, rogorc Semomwirveli, radgan is Tavad aris Sewiruli.
Semowirulebam Seadgina: 12 vercxlis langari, 12
vercxlis fiala (Tu sasxurebeli), _ orive zeTSi azelili ganmtkiculi fqviliT savse, _ saZRvenod; 12 oqros CamCa sakmevliT savse; 12 mozveri, 12 verZi, 12 kravi
_ aRsavlen msxverplad; 12 Txa _ codvis gamosasyidad;
24 zroxa (xvastagi), 60 verZi, 60 boti, 60 welgamovlili kravi _ samSvidobo msxverplad. rogorc vxedavT,
pirutyvi gamiznulia msxverplis ZiriTadi saxeobisaTvis, anu satfureba moicavs Zvel aRTqmaSi dadasturebul msxverplSewirvaTa ZiriTad tipebs, rac imas
niSnavs, rom satfureba, rogorc rituali, kompleqsuria da sakulto qmedebaTa sisavsiT xasiaTdeba.

249

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levianTa Sewirva
(8:5-26)
ras gulisxmobs levianTa Sewirva? gulisxmobs imas,
rom, garkveuli azriT, levianebi ar iricxebian israelis tomTa Soris. isini xom ar aRiricxnen maTTan erTad
sayovelTao aRweris dros, ar CaiTvalnen saerTo satomo saTvalavSi. ufali eubneba moses: gamohyavi levianebi israelianTagan da Cemebi iqneban levianebi (8:14).
rogorc viciT, pirvelad levianebi maSin gamoeyvnen danarCen israelianebs, roca oqros xbos incidentis
dros moses daZaxilze, vin arian CemTan, isini moses
garSemo Seikribnen. maT maSin gaakeTes arCevani, roca gamoeyvnen danarCen israels, umravlesobas. maT SeiZines
gansakuTrebuli azri rCeuli eris istoriis sabediswero momentSi: levianebi RmerTma Seiwira im ebrael pirmSoTa nacvlad, romelnic gadarCnen egvipteSi ukanaskneli sasjelis dros, roca ufalma egvipteli pirmSoni
gawyvita. ras niSnavs Cemebi iqnebian? levianebi iseve
arian uflisani, rogorc saSos pirvelgamRebni pirutyvTagan da adamianTagan. Tu pirvelmogebuli pirutyvi
msxverplad Seiwireba (ikvleba), pirvelSobili adamianis Sewirva uflisadmi samsaxurad mis ganwesebas niSnavs. nacvlad imisa, rom sxvadasxva tomidan ganwesebuliyo kultis msaxuri, arCeuli iqna erTi tomi, romelic
mTeli israelis pirmSoTa magivrobas gaswevda. mTeli
tomi, es moses mSobliuri tomia, dgeba uflis samsaxurSi. pirmSooba aniWebs mas am privilegiebs da, amave dros,
akisrebs tvirTs, romelsac zidavs is rogorc fizikurad (merarianTa, gerSonianTa da kehaTianTa movaleoba), ise sulierad (ufalTan siaxlove).
sami donea uflis xalxSi, romelic zogadad da principulad samRvdelo erad iwodeba: I. israeli, II. levianebi, III. aaroni da aaronianebi. mTeli israeli ver
gaswevs uflis samsaxurs _ maSin mTeli yofiTi cxovreba ritualad gadaiqceoda, rac SeuZlebeli iqneboda.
mTels ers ver miecemoda ufleba, miaxloeboda uflis
karavs. levianebi unda Cadgnen uflis karavsa da danarCen israelianebs Soris, raTa es ukanasknelni ar daziandnen sauflo siwmideTa SexebiT.
levianTa uflisadmi Sewirvis procesi iwyeba maTi
fizikuri da ritualuri ganwmediT, gasufTavebiT
(tiher) da mTavrdeba aRsavleni (sruladdasawveli)
da codvis misatevebeli msxverplSewirvebiT. am ritualSi levianebi warmoadgenen msxverpls, romelsac gaiReben israelianebi uflisadmi. amis niSnad israelianebi xelebs daasxamen levianebs, _ ise, rogorc samsxverplo pirutyvis Sewirvisas iqceva Semwirveli. levianebi ikvlebian rogorc rigiTni, raTa maRali statusi miiRon. Sewiruli am dros codvis gamomsyidveli
xdeba. da raki isini realurad, rogorc msxverplni, ar
ikvlebian, rituali ar dasruldeba. ceremoniis Semdgom etapze, Sewirvis imitaciis garda (rac aaronis mi-

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ricxvni

er Serxevis wesis aRsrulebaSi mdgomareobs), levianebi, Tavis mxriv, daasxamen xels mozvrebs, romlebzec
unda gadavides maTi codva, raTa maT mietevoT. es yvelaferi xdeba imisaTvis, rom gamosyidulma pirmSoebma
Seasrulon samsaxuri uflis winaSe sakrebulo karavSi.
levianebi ara mxolod mTeli israelis pirmSoTa sanacvlod arian, aramed maT nacvlad kisruloben uflis
samsaxurs, rac israels, rogorc samRvdelo ers, unda
Seesrulebina. levianebi maTi warmomadgenelni arian
karavSi aaron mRvdelmTavrisa da mis ZeTa winaSe. miveci levianebi israelianTagan aarons da mis ZeT, raTa
Seasrulon israelianTa samsaxuri sakrebulo karavSi,
rom ar moxdes israelianebSi ziani, roca sawmidars miekarebian israelianebi (8:19).
levianebis samsaxuris maqsimaluri vada ocdaxuTi
weliwadia. iwyeba ocdaxuTi wlis asakidan da wydeba
ormocdaaTi wlis asakSi, magram ara savsebiT. samsaxuri orgvaria: sakuTriv samsaxuri _ yabod, romelic,
garda zogadad Tayvaniscemisa, fizikur Sromasac gulisxmobs, da miSmereT _ dacva, yurisgdeba karavsa da
mis siwmideebze. fizikuri tvirTi aRar evaleba ormocdaaT wels gadacilebul levians, magram amieridan
mis movaleobad rCeba dacva (ganusazRvreli vadiT).
gavixsenoT, rom adamis movaleobac samoTxeSi miwis mimarT ori saxisa iyo, romelic amave terminebiT gamoixata: mis samsaxurad da mis dasacavad (dab. 2:15).
paseqi
(9:1-14)
am dResaswaulis rjuli vrclad gamosvlaTa wignSia gadmocemuli (12:1-14). aq saubaria meore paseqze,
romelic egviptidan gamosul ebraelebs unda ezeimaT
udabnoSi. es moxda gamosvlis meore wels. pirveli
Tvis meToTxmete dRes mimwuxrisas unda dawyebuliyo
misTvis mzadeba. paseqis aRniSvna savaldebuloa. israeliani, romelic umizezod gaacdens paseqs, ar Seasrulebs mas, moikveTeba sazogadoebidan. maSasadame, paseqi
ar aris ubralo dResaswauli, is erovnuli erTianobis, kuTvnilebis gamomxatvelia. is, vinc dResaswaulobs paseqs, amiT adasturebs erTianobas im xalxTan,
romelic ufalma egviptidan gamoiyvana. amitomac paseqis ugulebelyofa uflis erSi erTianobis ugulebelyofis tolfasia. paseqis SeusruleblobiT israeliani
Tavad ayenebs Tavis Tavs rCeuli eris gareSe. is, upaseqod darCenili, mokveTilia.
ram SeiZleba gaamarTlos paseqis Seusrulebloba?
orma mizezma: mkvdrisgan gauwmidurebam da Sor gzaze
yofnam. sxvas verafers moimizezebs paseqis damrRvevi.
ritualurad gauwmidurebuls erTmeva wmida dResaswaulSi monawilebis ufleba. mgzavroba, saxls gareT yofna, SeuZlebels xdis paseqs, romelic mxolod saxlSi unda sruldebodes. gauwmidurebuls Tu mgzavrobaSi

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myofs erTi TviT gadauvaddeba dResaswauloba: meore


Tvis meTormete dRes daRamebisas daamzadon igi (9:11).
rjuli paseqis dResaswaulSi erTmaneTTan aTanabrebs mdgmursa (ger) da mkvidrs (ezrax), Tumca ar Cans,
mdgmuris uflebaa paseqis aRniSvna Tu aucilebeli
valdebuleba, rogorc israelianis SemTxvevaSi. unda
aRiniSnos, rom am monakveTSi gamoyenebuli termini
mkvidri qveynisa _ ezrax ha-arec (9:14) _ asaxavs israelianTa im mdgomareobas, romelsac isini mxolod qanaanSi moipoveben da ara udabnos viTarebas, sadac maT
ver eqnebodaT sakuTari qveyana samkvidrod. rjuli,
rogorc Cans, momavals iTvaliswinebs.
Rrubeli da sayviri
(9:15-23-10:1-10)
Rrubels ormagi saxe aqvs Zveli aRTqmis simbolikaSi. is faravs RvTis saidumlos, magram, amave dros, amxels RvTis myofobas. Rrubeli Cans, magram am CeniT is
faravs imas, rac Tavisi bunebiT gamouCenelia. saidumlos arsi swored is aris, rom ar Candes, magram Rrubeli TiTqos aCens am gamouCen saidumlos. Rrubeli, rogorc niSani, metyvelebs saidumloze. RrubelTan aris
dakavSirebuli didebis (qabod) koncepti. qabodi aris
is, rac SeiZleba adamianisTvis xiluli iyos RvTis bunebidan. aha, gamoCnda RrubelSi uflis dideba (gam.
16:10). ra xats aRZravs CvenSi am oTxi sityvisgan Semdgari winadadeba? ra SeiZleba gamoCndes ara simbolur, aramed cocxal RrubelSi? cis RrubelSi mxolod
mze SeiZleba gamoCndes, mze, romelsac is faravs. ufro
sworad, dideba aris mzis efeqti RrubelSi. Rrublis
ukan mdgari mze uxilavia, magram Tavis Tavs is aCens
Rrublis meSveobiT, romelic dRis drois mixedviT xan
oqrosfrad, xan vercxlisfrad ifereba. Cven ver vxedavT mzes, magram vxedavT mzis efeqts, rogorc gamdnar
oqros an vercxls. es aris didebis xati.
Rrubeli uflis saidumlos saxea, sadac Sevida mose,
magram is xalxis winamZRolicaa Rrublis svetis saxiT,
romelsac RamiT cecxlis sveti enacvleba da gzas uCvenebs egviptidan amomaval xalxs. is Tavidanve Cadga egviptelTa da israelis banakebs Soris. da iyo Rrublad
da wyvdiadad egviptelTaTvis, israels ki Rames unaTebda (gam. 14:20). aqedan Cans, rom Rrublis sveti da
cecxlis sveti erTi da imave metafizikuri (miRmuri)
arsis sxvadasxva gamovlenaa realobaSi _ dRisiT Tu
RamiT. RamiT uxilavi Rrubelis sveti dRisiT xilulia, dRisiT uxilavi cecxlis sveti RamiT xilulia.
am monakveTSi, sadac aRwerilia pirveli daZvra israelisa rjulis miRebis Semdeg, Rrubeli axladagebul karavs da savanes daukavSirda. uflis myofobis
niSnad savane ivseba RrubliT da mose, rogorc sinais
mTaze, Sedis karavSi. savanis aRmarTvis dRes Rrubelma dafara mowmobis karvis savane da saRamodan dilamde

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ricxvni

TiTqos cecxli Canda savaneze (9:15). es niSnavs, rom


RmerTma, ufro sworad, misma myofobam Rrubel-cecxlis saxiT daivana savaneze.
magram Rrubels SeuZlia gamoxatos ara mxolod uflis myofoba (Sexina) da dideba (qabod), aramed nebac
(racon). israelis banakis moZraoba _ ayra-dabanakeba
uflis nebaze iyo damokidebuli, am nebis maCvenebeli
ki Rrubeli iyo. Rrublis moZraoba amxelda uflis nebas da israelis banakic misi moZraobis mixedviT iqceoda. Tu odesme ganxorcielebula Teokratia, roca xalxi usityvod emorCileba RvTis absolutur nebas, es am
gzaze ganxorcielda. yovelTvis lakoniuri bibliuri
Txroba mravalsityviani, tavtologiuric ki xdeba im
adgilas, sadac gadmocemulia RvTis winamZRoloba uflis Rrublis CeniT. Svidi muxlis farglebSi (9:17-23)
sxvadasxva variaciiT moZraobs ZiriTadi Tema: rogorc ki ascildeboda Rrubeli karavs, daiZrebodnen
israelianebi. da sadac dadgeboda Rrubeli, iq daibanakebdnen israelianebi (9:17), romlis paraleluri
fraza uflis brZanebaze daiZrebodnen da uflis
brZanebaze daibanakebdnen israelianebi (9:18) cxadyofs, rom es yvelaferi uflis nebiT xdeba.
bunebrivi movleniT, rogoric aris Rrubeli, ufali
acxadebs Tavis zebunebriv nebas. sxva vizualuri niSani
ayra-dadgomisTvis israelianTa banaks ara aqvs. magram am
RvTaebrivi vizualuri niSnis gverdiT israeli iyenebs
xmier niSans _ es aris ori vercxlis sayviri. xeliTqmnili sayvirebi axmianeben uflis nebas, romelic bunebrivi
xiluli niSniT aris gacxadebuli. gaikeTe ori vercxlis sayviri... sazogadoebis Sesayrelad da banakebis
asayrelad gqondes (10:2), eubneba ufali moses. sayvirTa
dayvireba mRvdelTa prerogativaa (10:8). dayvirebis
ori saxe arsebobs: sagangaSo (Teruyah) da Cveulebrivi.
sagangaSos banakis ayrisa da brZolaSi gasvlis niSnad ayvireben, Cveulebrivi dayvirebiT ki sazogadoebas mouwodeben karavTan Sesakrebad da did dResaswaulebze aRsavlenisa da samSvidobo msxverplis Sewirvisas.
da ai, egviptidan gamosvlis meore wlis meore Tves,
Tvis meoce dRes, roca ukve gadaxdili hqondaT meore
paseqi, yvelas Tvalwin ascilda Rrubeli mowmobis savanes (10:11), rac imis niSani iyo, rom israeli samgzavrod unda ayriliyo. es iyo pirveli mgzavroba mas Semdeg, rac rjuli miiRes sinais mTis Ziras. karvis irgvliv, mis oTxsave mxares sam-sam Stod dabanakebuli
israeli ucdis Tavis rigs, rodis gaismeba sagangaSo
sayviris xma, rom daiZran. pirvel dayvirebaze daiZvrian aRmosavleT mxares dabanakebulni, meoreze _ samxreTelni, mesameze _ Crdiloelni, meoTxeze _ dasavlelni. daZvris rigi iseTivea, rogoric iyo Sesawiravis motanis rigi karvis satfurebisas (7:12-83).
aseTi iyo maTi daZvrisa da gzaSi msvlelobis rigi
mewinave iudadan laSqris Camket danamde. TiToeul

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

toms Tavisi vinaobis niSnad sakuTari droSa hqonda


aRmarTuli, romelic win uZRoda mas. erTi droSa aerTianebda da miuZRoda agreTve sam-sam toms, romlebsac
erTmaneTis mezoblad eWiraT adgili dabanakebisas da
msvlelobisas. amgvarad, mTel laSqarSi Canda sul
Tormeti satomo droSa da oTxic tomTaSorisi droSa.
amjerad gaiares sami dRis savali da dadgnen faranis udabnoSi, radgan iq daadgra savanes uflis Rrubeli (10:12). es iyo yvelaze vrceli da unayofo udabno,
romelic ki gaiares israelianebma qanaanSi Sesvlamde.
zogi fiqrobs, rom faranis udabno faravda mTel im
udabur teritorias, romlis nawili iyo sinis, Suris
da cinis udabnoebi, romlebic israelis laSqarma gadalaxa. es is udabnoa, mose rom ixsenebs Tavis ukanasknel sityvaSi did da saSinel udabnod, romliTac
ufalma gamoatara israelianebi (rjl. 8:15)
am saSinel gzaze udabnos umecar israelianebs Tumca hqondaT RvTiuri winamZRoloba saswaulebrivi
Rrublis saxiT, hqondaT gamamxnevebeli droSebi, sayvirebi, dabolos, kidobani, romelic uZRveboda maT
Suagulidan da raSic daunjebuli iyo mTeli siwmide
da Zliereba, mainc maT esaWiroebodaT udabnos mcnobi
adamianis Tvali. da aseTi Tvali imyofeboda maT banakSi, es iyo Tvali xobabisa, midianeli reRuelis, moses
simamris Zisa (10:29). anu reRuel midianeli, mRvdeli
midianelTa, iyo moses simamri, xolo xobabi _ misi colis Zma. Cven SevxvdiT moses simamrs gamosvlaTa wignis
dasawyisSi, roca man Seifara egviptidan devnili mose
(gam. 2:18), da mogvianebiT, ukve egviptidan sabolood
gamosvlisas, roca man saWiro rCevebi misca Tavis siZes
(gam. 18). maSin igi iTros saxeliT ixsenieboda, SesaZloa, reRueli misi meore saxeli yofiliyo. asea Tu ise,
axla am saxifaTo mgzavrobis win, damSvidobebisas, mose winadadebas aZlevs xobabs, Tavis colisZmas (reRuel-iTro aRar iqneboda cocxali), imgzavros maTTan
erTad udabnoSi da gaiziaros is sikeTe, rac ufalma
aRuTqva maT qanaanis damkvidrebis Semdeg. Zunwi, uaRresad lakoniuri iyo xobabis pasuxi: ver wamoval,
radgan Cems qveyanaSi, Cems samSobloSi mivdivar
(10:30). SeiZleba gvefiqra, rom xobabi realur samSoblos, Tundac mwir udabnos arCevs aRTqmul qveyanas, saiTkenac moses mihyavs es xalxi. mose eubneba pasuxad: Sen
ici Cveni yofa udabnoSi... xobabs namdvilad ecodineboda am xalxis sulmokleoba da sijiute, risTvisac
araerTgzis dastexia Tavs RvTis risxva. iqneboda darwmunebuli midianeli xobabi, rom es urCi xalxi aRTqmul miwas miaRwevda? moses sityvebs: nu dagvtoveb,
radgan Sen ici Cveni cxovreba udabnoSi da Tvali iqnebi CvenTvis. Tu wamogvyvebi, Tqvenc gaiziarebT im sikeTes, rasac mogvmadlebs RmerTi (10:31-32), ar mosdevs
xobabis pasuxi. magram msajulTa wignSi vkiTxulobT:
moses simamris ioTor kenielis STamomavlebic Tan

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ricxvni

amohyvnen iudianebs finikTa qalaqidan iudas udabnoSi... movidnen da adgilobriv xalxSi Casaxldnen (msaj.
1:16). Cans, xobabi dasTanxmebia moses da ase gadauwyvetia Tavis STamomavalTa bedi.
magram xobabi sul male kvlav gaxdeboda am xalxis
sulmokleobisa da pativmoyvareobis mowme.
drtvinva udabnos gzaze.
sulis mofena uxucesebze.
mamxilebeli mwyerebi.
(11:1-34)
faranis udabno, sadac daibanakes israelianebma sinais mTisZiris datovebis Semdeg, SesaZloa, didad ar gansxvavdeboda sinis udabnosgan Tavisi klimatiT da adamianis gamosakvebi resursebiT. udabno udabnoa, SesaZloa, odnav an, Tundac metad pirquSi. mainc am udabnom
Zlieri, damTrgunveli STabeWdileba dastova israelis xsovnaSi. `is didi da saSiSi udabno (rjl. 1:19),
ase ixsenebs mas mose. araviTari orientiri am udabnoSi
ar arsebobda, iq ki iyo mTa sinai, Tumca RvTis myofobis
gamo yvela udabnoze saSiSi, magram mainc imedis momcemi. isini aq grZnobdnen Crdils, romelsac es mTa mTaze
afenda. udabnoSi, rogorc zRvaSi gasulT, kvlav moenatraT egvipte. vin gvaWmevs xorcs? iyo maTi drtvinvis devizi. maT mobezrdaT, aRar akmayofilebT manana _
zecieri puri, romelic Ramis cvarTan erTad, rogorc
Rrublis namcecebi, efineboda miwas dilaobiT. xalxma
uaryo saswaulebrivi dapureba da moiTxoves miwieri
sakvebi, riTac egvipteSi, monobis saxlSi, ikvebebodnen.
drtvinva sakvebis gamo wamoiwyo Wrelma brbom, romelic amohyva maT egviptidan. Wrel brbos ayvnen israelianebi da moTqvamdnen Tav-TavianT sagvareulobebSi,
Tav-TavianT karvebSi msxdomni. RvTis risxvam maTi am
sulmokleobis gamo cecxlis saxiT iCina Tavi: cecxlma
STanTqa banakis ganapiri (11:1). moses gamosarClebam ixsna banaki, magram aq Tavad moses daeufla urwmunoeba
Tavisi misiis mimarT. drtvinavda xalxi, magram sxva rigis iyo moses drtvinva:
risTvis uborote Sens msaxurs? riT ver vpove madli Sens TvalSi, mTeli am xalxis tvirTi rom amkide? me
xom ar mitarebia mucliT mTeli es xalxi? me xom ar gamiCenia, rom meubnebi, ZiZasaviT Seni ubiT waiyvaneo im
qveyanaSi, mis mama-papas rom aRuTqvi ficiT? sad maqvs
xorci mTeli am xalxisaTvis misacemad, radgan Semomtirian da amboben: mogveci xorci, rom vWamoT. me erTi
ver waviyvan mTels am xalxs, radgan memZimeba. raki ase
meqcevi, momkali barem, Tu madli mipovnia Sens TvalSi,
rom ar vuyurebde Cems gasaWirs (11:11-15).
am tiradaSi orgzis esmis ufals mosesgan mTeli es
xalxi (qol ha-yam haze es xalxi), TiTqos mose ar
ekuTvnodes am xalxs, ar iyos misi sisxli da xorci. mose TiTqos ixsnis winamZRolobis pasuxismgeblobas,

255

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uars ambobs Tavis misiaze, romelic maSin sinais mTaze


didi xalisiT ar miuRia. is icnobs am xalxs, mis umadurobas, raSic is darwmunda am ormoci wlis winaT, roca
Tvistomebma daabezRes igi, gaamxiles ra egviptelis
mkvlelis vinaoba. maSin mose sruliad ganerida Tavis
xalxs, am xalxs da Seexizna midians, raTa arasodes
dabrunebuliyo egvipteSi. am devnilebam is sinais mTaze aiyvana da almodebuli mayvlis buCqi axilvina. man
xalxis ganTavisuflebis misia miiRo da mas Semdeg, rac
isini egviptedan gamoiyvana, mudam esarCleboda maT, miuxedavad maTi sijiutisa da qedficxelobisa. roca ki
ufali maT gawyvetas ganizraxavda, igi mzad iyo, sakuTari Tavi gaewira maTi sicocxlisa da uflis didebisaTvis. axla ki mose, nacvlad imisa, rom am xalxs gamosarCleboda, riTac is namdvilad ipovida madls uflis
TvalSi, sakuTar Tavs ase ucnaurad esarCleba. raki ase
meqcevi, momkali barem, rom ar vuyurebde Cems gasaWirs
(11:15). mose laparakobs ara am xalxis gasaWirze, aramed Tavis gasaWirze. vin aris mose, Tu ara Suamdgomeli
xalxsa (rogoric ar unda iyos igi) da ufals Soris? ra
iqneboda igi _ namdvilad erTi ubralo mwyemsi midianeli mRvdlisa, rom aqeT es xalxi ar yofiliyo, iqiT
ufali? am abdikaciiT is xom acamtverebda Tavs, rogorc pirovnebas da rogorc mwyemssac, rac xalxis winamZRolobis winapiroba iyo? mose esarCleboda Tavisi saxiT sust adamians, romlisTvisac namdvilad mZime iyo
es tvirTi. mas namdvilad ar SeeZlo amdeni xalxis gamokveba xorciT da maTi ubiT tareba aRTqmul qveynamde.
ufali masze mets xedavda da gaugo mas.
ufali tvirTs umsubuqebda moses. rogor? erTxel,
rogorc gamosvlaTa wignidan viciT, moses misma simamrma iTrom Seumsubuqa tvirTi, roca dainaxa igi dilidan saRamomde mjdomare, martodmarto, xalxis gansasjelad. xalxs yvela saqme, didi da mcire, mohqonda masTan da mosec gansjida yovel saqmes, didi iqneboda Tu
mcire. iTrom urCia, gamoenaxa erSi RvTismoSiSni, angarebis moZule adamianebi da daeniSna isini aTasisTavebad, asisTavebad, ormocdaaTisTavebad da aTisTavebad, raTa ganesajaT wvrilmani saqmeebi, mniSvnelovani
ki misTvis moexsenebinaT da Tavad gadaewyvita (gam.
19:13-22). es iyo pirveli administraciuli dayofa uflebamosilebaTa ganawilebis mizniT. amjerad ki saqme
exeboda sulier winamZRolobas. moses unda Semsubuqeboda ara msajulobis, aramed sulieri winamZRolobis
tvirTi, rac esoden daumZimda mas. is suli, romelic
moses hqonda uflisgan momadlebuli, unda ganawileboda israelis uxucesebs, samocdaaT kacs. isini unda
Sekrebiliyvnen Sesakrebeli karvis irgvliv, Camovidoda ufali RrubliT, aiRebda mosesgan sulis nawils da
am samocdaaT kacs gaunawilebda. roca es moxda, isini
mcire xniT winaswarmetyvelurma eqstazma moicva imis
niSnad, rom suli gadmosuli iyo maTze. magram uflis

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ricxvni

suli ara mxolod karvis irgvliv Sekrebilebze gadmovida, aramed or adamianzec, romlebic banakSi iyvnen
darCenilni. maTi saxelebic Semoinaxa matianem _ eldadi da medadi (11:26), maTi tomobrivi kuTvnileba ki
ar Semonaxula. maTma uadgilo winaswarmetyvelebam
Suri gamoiwvia xalxSi, TviT iesos naves ZeSic ki: mose,
Cemo batono, Seawyvetine! (11:28), aRmoxda mas gulubryvilobiT. moses msaxurma da misma Semcvlelma misi
sikvdilis Semdeg, erT-erTma am orTagan aqtualuri
Taobidan, visac ufleba mieca aTqmul miwaze fexis
dadgmisa, moismina moses sityvebi, odnav naRvlianad da
sayveduriT Tqmuli: xom ar eWvianob CemTvis? netav
mTeli uflis eri awinaswarmetyveldebodes! (11:29),
_ naRvliani imis gamo, rom rCeuli eris metafizikur
arsebas bevri aklda TiToeul israelianSi gamosavlineblad; da sayveduriani imis gamo, rom RmerTma uSurvelad gadmoavlina suli banakSi darCenil eldadze
da medadze, adamianebs ki SeSurdaT.
ufalma uyuradRebod ar datova meore mizezi moses
wuxilisa _ xalxi sTxovda mas xorcs, magram ar iyo
xorci. iyo cxvari da xvastagi, saqoneli, magram aravis
azradac ar mouvidoda maTi daxocva dasanayreblad.
xvastagi maT Soris iyo egviptidan amosvlidanve, magram isini ikvebebodnen ciuri mananiT _ cxvar-Zroxa ki
aravis dauklavs. iqneb mTeli cxvari da xvastagi dauklaT, rom eyoT? (11:22) _ ritorikulad kiTxulobs
mose rogorc SeuZlebels, warmoudgenels. TiTqos paradoqsia, magram eTnografiulad da istoriulad dadasturebulia, rom mwyemsi xalxebi TavianT samwysos
ar iyeneben yoveldRiur sakvebad, klaven mxolod dResaswaulebze da gansakuTrebul dReebSi.
atyda uflis qari da moreka imdeni mwyeri, rom or
wyrTaze daifara miwa. xalxma sixarbe gamoiCina da imaze zedmeti moagrova, ramdenic dasanayreblad sWirdeboda. mwyerebis saswauli uflis gamocda iyo, xalxma
ver gauZlo gansacdels: jerac kbilebSi hqondaT xorci, SeWma ver moaswres, rom aRinTo uflis risxva xalxze
da musri gaavlo ufalma xalxs (11:33). raodeni kontrasti iyo zeciur pursa da qaris gamoyril mwyerebs
Soris! im adgils ki, sadac xorcs daxarbebuli xalxi
damarxes, sixarbis samarxebi (kibroT haTaava) ewoda,
riTac am usaxelo adgilma adamianuri sazrisi SeiZina.
ase, israelianebi yvelgan, sadac ki Cerdebodnen,
stovebdnen kvals toponimis saxiT. miwis zedapirze paraleluri istoria iwereboda.
aaronisa da miriamis pretenzia
(12:1-15)
kicxavdnen moses miriami da aaroni quSeli colis
gamo, romelic naTxovi hyavda, radgan quSeli qali iTxova colad. ambobdnen: nuTu mxolod moses elaparakeboda ufali? gana Cvenc ar gvelaparakeboda? (12:1-2).

257

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ra awuxebT miriams da aarons, moses da-Zmas _ misi


quSeli (araisraeliani) coli Tu is, rom (maTi azriT)
man RmerTTan laparakis ufleba daisakuTra? ra kavSiria am or sayvedurs Soris?
jer erTi, arsad, am adgilis garda, ar aris laparaki
moses sxva colis Sesaxeb midianeli seforas (ciforah)
gverdiT Tu Semdeg. moses rom eTxova meore coli, es
usaTuod aRniSnuli iqneboda, rogorc abraamis SemTxvevaSi. saras sikvdilis Semdeg abramma moiyvana colad ketura (dab. 25:1), romlisaganac mas eyola Svilebi, maT Soris midiani. am midianis STamomavali iyo
swored moses simamri iTro Tu reRueli, mama seforasi,
Rirseuli kaci, misi mrCeveli, romlis vaJma, rogorc
zemoT davinaxeT, Tavisi xalxis bedi israels daukavSira, uari Tqva ra samSobloSi dabrunebaze. sefora midianeli, rogorc midianis STamomavali, abraamianic
iyo da amitomac miriams da aarons araviTari ufleba
ar hqondaT, augad moexseniebinaT igi. quSi xalxTa bibliuri geneologiis mixedviT, xamis naSieria, im xamisa,
romelic Tavisi uRirsi saqcielis gamoisobiT mamisadmi upativcemlobis magaliTi Seiqmna. SesaZloa, miriami da aaroni, raRac mosazrebiT, dacinviT an istoriuli sabuTiT, midianel ciforas quSelTan aigivebdnen. yovel SemTxvevaSi, mogviano teqsti quSsa da midians erTad ixseniebs (abak. 3:7).
meore, ratom iwyeben miriami da aaroni TavianT seriozul sayvedurs iseTi sakiTxiT, rogoric aris moses
piraduli saqme? ra aqvT maT gasayofi da sadavo moses
colTan? ukmayofileba ucxo mxridan moyvanili rZlisadmi dadasturebulia patriarqTa xanaSi: rebeka da
isaki Sewuxebuli arian Tavisi xeTeli rZlebiT. am qalebma suli Seuwuxes isaks da rebekas (dab. 26:35). Tu
esavis colebi marTlac kerZo saojaxo saqmea, ase ar unda yofiliyo moses SemTxevaSi: mose ar aris kerZo piri,
rom misi saojaxo saqme mxolod da mxolod misi piradi
saqme yofiliyo (yovel SemTxvevaSi, ase fiqrobdnen miriami da aaroni). asea Tu ise, mis da-Zmas sxva dros ar gaukicxavT igi araisraeliani colis gamo (Tuki hyavda).
aq saintereso is aris, rom maT es gacilebiT mniSvnelovani pretenziis preambulad gamoiyenes. maT eWvi Seitanes im adamianis, Tundac RviZli Zmis, sulier avtoritetSi, romelsac araisraeliani qali hyavs colad.
Tu davukvirdebiT, da-Zmis sayveduri ara imdenad
moses mimarT aris, aramed uflis mimarT, radgan maT unda scodnodaT, sakuTari gamocdilebiT mainc, rom
ufalTan saubari misi nebis gareSe warmoudgenelia. gabedavdnen miriami da aaroni sinais mTaze asvlas sakuTari iniciativiT? mose, erTaderTi, avida mTaze uflis mowodebiT, danarCeni eri ki Zirs darCa. mosem uSualod moismina is, ris mosmenasac veravin SeZlebda,
verc isurvebda. maT icodnen, ratom brwyinavda moses
saxis kani mTidan Camosvlis Semdeg, ramac Sezara mTe-

258

ricxvni

li eri. isurvebdnen isini, rom maT saxesac ase Semzaravad ebrwyina?


axla ki, mas Semdeg, rac uflis nebiT moses sulis nawili uxucesebze gadmovida, miriamma da aaronma Tavi
damcirebulad igrZnes, Tumca erTi winaswarmetyveli
iyo, meore _ mRvdelmTavari. axla maT meti moindomes
gamxdariyvnen iseTive Suamavalni ersa da ufals Soris, rogoric mose iyo. magram maT xom icodnen, rom rogorc erTia Suamdgomeli mTels rCeul erSi, aseve erTia mRvdelmTavari (samRvdelo erSi) da erTia winaswarmetyveli (miriamis garda im xanad winaswarmetyveli ar yofila, uxucesebi, rogorc viciT, mxolod
mcire xniT awinaswarmtyveldnen). maT, rogorc Cans,
bolomde ar hqondaT Segnebuli moses misia, rom mose
ara mxolod Suamdgomeli iyo, aramed winaswarmetyvelebisa da mRvdelmTavrobis wyaroc.
rogor miiRo mosem es sayvedurebi? biblia ar gvicxadebs, Tu ra Tqva mosem, rogor upasuxa maT. samagierod is gvaZlevs am kacis lakoniur, magram tevad da arsobriv daxasiaTebas. aq gamoyenebulia erTi sityva, romelic, unda vifiqroT, gamoxatavs saukeTeso Tvisebas,
riTac kacobs WeSmariti adamiani. moses pasuxis nacvlad, aq naTqvamia: da kaci mose yvela adamianze mSvidi iyo, vinc ki yofila dedamiwis zurgze (12:3).
rogor unda gadmovceT ebrauli sityva-koncepti yanav, romelic bibliuri sruli adamianis erT-erT fundamentur mxares gamoxatavs? misi semantikuri diapazoni Seicavs, erTi SexedviT, erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego mniSvnelobebs, rogoricaa, erTi mxriv, daTrgunuli, SeWirvebuli, da, meores mxriv, mSvidi, wynari, Tvinieri. Tu pirveli mniSvneloba adamianis
obieqtur mdgomareobas gamoxatavs, meore misi sulieri mdgomareobis mamxilebelia. sulieri azriT, yanav
is aris, visac SeuZlia moTrgunos, SeaWirvos, daimdablos Tavi (iyos Tavmdabali), rac zneobriv mankierebebs Soris yvelaze gasakicxars _ ampartavnebas polarulad upirispirdeba. fizikuri SeWirvebidan (sityva
Rarib-Rataksac niSnavs) adamiani umaRles zneobriv
safexurs aRwevs. Tu bibliuri istoriis adreul xanaSi
idealuri adamianis ZiriTadi niSania sruli (Tam,
Tamim), rogornic arian noe, iakobi; mogvianebiT, postmamamTavrul epoqaSi, Semodis morCilis, daTrgunulis, magram momTmenis (Sdr. vefxistyaosnis Tmena)
zneobrivi Rirseba, Tumca mTels Zvel aRTqmaSi pirovnulad erTaderTi mose gaxda am epiTetiT Semkobis
Rirsi. fsalmunebi saukuTeso xvedrs aRuTqvamen maT.
uZRves mSvidTa sasjelsa Sina, aswavlnes mSvidTa gzani misni (fsalm. 24:9), ixilon glaxakTa (mSvidTa),
ixarebdnen, gamoiZion RmerTi da cxondnen sulni maTni (fsalm. 68:33), Seiwynarnis mSvidni ufalman, xolo
daamdablnis codvilni miwamde (fsalm. 146:6), aRamaRlnes mSvidni cxovrebiTa (cxonebiT, xsniT)

259

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

(fsalm. 149:4). yanav igulisxmeba mTis qadagebaSi, sadac


cxra netars Soris igi erT-erTia: netar iyvnen mSvidni, rameTu maT daamkvidron qveyana (maT. 5:5).
ra zneobrivi simaRlisac ar unda iyos mose, misi gansasjeli ar aris, Tu vis daiaxlovebs ufali, vis airCevs
TavisTan molaparaked. amitom dums mose, amitom daudumda maT pretenzias, romelic ufro RvTisadmi iyo
mimarTuli, vidre mosesadmi. mose kadnierad CaTvlida
uflis gamosarClebasac. misi simSvide, Tviniereba,
Tavmodreka da Tavmdabloba srulad gamoCnda am epizodSi. misi dumili amis mWevrmetyveluri mowmea. is
elis pasuxs uflisagan, romelmac sinaTle unda mohfinos am ambavs Tavad mosesTvisac, gafantos eWvebi.
ufali uxmobs miriams da aarons mosesTan erTad Sesakrebel karavTan, raTa gamoacxados simarTle da risxva imaT mimarT, vinc am simarTleSi daeWvda. Tqva: ismineT Cemi sityvebi. Tu vinme gyavT uflis winaswarmetyveli, xilvaSi vecxadebi, sizmarSi vlaparakob masTan.
aseTi ar aris Cemi msaxuri mose. mTels Cems saxlSi is
aris sarwmuno. pirispir velaparakebi mas, cxadliv da
ara igavurad, uflis xatebas Wvrets igi. ratom ar geSiniaT, Cems msaxurs moses rom hkicxavT? (12:6-8).
miriamisa da aaronis SekiTxvam cxadyo, rom isini ver
xedavdnen arsebiT gansxvavebas mosesa da maT Soris
ufalTan urTierTobaSi. is gaugebroba SekiTxvis zedapirze gamoCnda. siRrmiseulad maTi survili iyo, gaegoT, Tu ratom aqvs moses upiratesoba. ufali pirdapir pasuxobs orsave SekiTxvaze. moses upiratesoba mis
sarwmunoebaSia. aq moses kidev erT Tvisebas vecnobiT.
arc es sityva neeman iTargmneba erTmniSvnelovnad sxva
enaze. is niSnavs aseve mtkices da WeSmarits (am Ziris variaciebia amin, emeT). mTels xalxSi, israelSi,
mosea yvelaze mtkice, sarwmuno, WeSmariti, erTguli,
rogorc aris is yvelaze mSvidi, momTmeni, Tavmdabali.
am TvisebaTa gamo, romlebic naklebad axasiaTebT mis
moSurneT (gavixsenoT, rogor dahyva aaroni uflis winaaRmdeg xalxis nebas, roca maT moiTxoves), amoirCia
is ufalma da daiaxlova. Tumca mas hqonda Cavardnebi,
sasowarkveTilebis wamebi, magram ufali bolomde endo mas eris winamZRolobaSi da, sabolood, manac gaamarTla ndoba. gaamarTla ise, rogorc abraamma, rwmenis mamam.
ufali ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisgan uflis msaxurebis
or tips: erTia winaswarmetyveleba, uflis nebis igavuri uwyeba, sizmarsa Tu xilvaSi STagonebuli. uflis
sityvebi Tu vinme gyavT uflis winaswarmetyveli
(12:6) SeiZleba gavigoT momavlis azriTac, ase: Tu vinme geyolebaT uflis winaswarmetyveli... anu ufali
yvela droisaTvis gansazRvravs winaswarmetyveluri
msaxurebis saxes. marTlac, roca vkiTxulobT klasikuri xanis winaswarmetyvelebis wignSi ixila uflis
sityva, rogor SeiZleba warmovidginoT sityvis xil-

260

ricxvni

va, Tu masSi igavuri xilva ar igulisxmeba. winaswarmetyveli xilvasa Tu sizmarSi xedavs imas, rasac sityviT gamoTqvams. mosec, zogadi azriT, winaswarmetyvelia da asec iwodeba, magram is winaswarmetyvelze upiratesia, jer erTi, rogorc wyaro winaswarmetyvelebisa, da mere, rogorc uflis winaSe pirispirmdgomi da
misi nebis cxadliv mxilveli da uSualod Semcnobi. Tu
sxva winaswarmetyvelTa naTqvams, ramdenadac is igavuria, esaWiroeba ganmarteba, moses nalaparakevi, rac
xuTwigneulis mniSvnelovan nawils Seadgens, ganmartebas ar saWiroebs.
aq naTqvami uflis xatebas (saxebas, saxes) Wvrets
igi (12:8) mainc pirobiTia. moses ar uxilavs uflis saxe, man mxolod misi zurgi (ukana mxare) ixila, rac
garkveviT aris aRniSnuli gamosvlaTa wignSi. roca mosem isurva RvTis didebis xilva, ufalma moses win Cavlisas xeli aafara mas Tvalebze, rom ver exila RvTis
saxe (es aqti RvTis principuli uxilavobis gamoxatulebaa). ufalma Caiara da mosem mxolod mis ukana mxares Seaswro Tvali (gam. 33:18-23). unda vifiqroT, rom
RvTismxilvelobis miwera mosesadmi misi gansakuTrebulobis igavuri gamoxatvaa.
am ganmartebiT ar amowurula es incidenti. ganmartebas RvTis risxva mohyva da miriami keTrma dafara,
magram es is keTri ar iyo, romelic mRvdels SeeZlo ganekurna (ix. lev. 13). amas mixvda aaroni da Seevedra moses, Camdgariyo Suamdgomlad miriamsa da ufals Soris.
asec moiqca mose da amiT daadastura Tavisi upiratesoba, romelic maT cota xnis win eWvqveS daayenes.
miriami uflis brZanebiT da sircxviliT Svid dRes
ar gamoCenila xalxSi. es misi marcxi iyo. Svid dRes
imaleboda miriami banakis gareT da ar daZrula xalxi,
vidre miriami ar dabrunda. mere daiZra xalxi xaceroTidan da faranis udabnoSi dabanakda (12;15).
qveynis dazverva. rwmenis krizisi
(13-14)
is adgili faranis udabnoSi, _ es iyo kadeSi, _ sadac daibanakes, rogorc Cans, ukanaskneli sadguri iyo,
saidanac maT aRTqmuli qveynisken unda gaelaSqrnaT.
galaSqrebamde ki maT unda daezveraT qveyana. aseTi
iyo uflis brZaneba da amas moiTxovda ucxo qveyanaSi
SeWris wesi. maT winaswar unda scodnodaT qveynis reliefi, iq mosaxle xalxis SemZleoba, dasaxlebis tipi
(gamagrebuli qalaqebia, banakebi Tu daba-soflebi),
niadagis raoba (mwiri Tu nayofieri), Tan miwis nayofebic unda wamoeRoT. qveynis dazvervaSi mTeli israelis sazogadoeba iRebs monawileobas: igzavneba warmomadgenloba Tormetive tomidan, Tormeti Tavkaci,
romlebic saxeldebiT arian CamoTvlilni reubenis
Stodan gadis Stomde. ormoci dRis ganmavlobaSi maT
moiares qveyana samxreTidan (negebidan) CrdiloeTam-

261

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

de, mTeli is teritoria, romelic ormoci wlis Semdeg


daikaves maT. mstovrebma TavianT samomavlo samkvidroze pirveli toponimi gaaCines es iyo eSkolis xevi
(mtevnisxevi), romelic ewoda adgils imis gamo, rom
aqedan waiRes nivTmtkicebis niSnad vazis uzarmazari
jagani. ketebiT mohqonda ors, rogorc dazverili
qveynis niSani da rogorc samomavlo gamarjvebis winaswari nadavli. vazi _ qanaanis simbolod da sxva xili _
broweuli da leRvi, romelTac aranaklebi Rirebuleba hqondaT qveynis meurneobaSi, sinjad aiRes qveynis
miwidan da banakSi dabrundnen.
Tu qveynis nayofebi keTilad acnobda banakSi momlodineT im ucnob qveyanas da mis obieqtur saxes uCvenebda, rom iq, uflis aRTqmisamebr, marTlac rZe da
Tafli dis, cnobebma mkvidri xalxis Sesaxeb, romlebic mzveravebma gaavrceles, Sezara sazogadoeba. mzveravebs bumberazebad da kacis mWamelebad moeCvenaT
isini. maT winaSe kaliebad warmoidgines Tavi, Tumca
maT unda scodnodaT, rom am adgilebSi maTi winaprebi
cxovrobdnen da maT winaSe gaSlili iyo qveyana, da iq
daimarxnen. saidan gaCndnen am oTxasi wlis ganmavlobaSi bumberazi kacis mWamlebi? maTi sulmokleoba da
simxdale _ ver SevZlebT im xalxis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebas, radgan Cvenze Zlieria (13:31) _ gadaedo xalxs
da tiroda xalxi im Rames (14:1). mxolod ori mzveravi, osia (Semdgom ieso) naves Ze beniaminis Stodan da qaleb iefunes Ze iudas Stodan, Seecada daewynarebina
xalxi, gaemxnevebina isini: gavilaSqrebT da davisakuTrebT qveyanas, radgan SegviZlia maTi Zleva (13:30).
maTma mcdelobam Sedegi ver gamoiRo da xalxi erTxel kidev audrtvinda moses da aarons masTan erTad. es
iyo meore didi janyi oqros xbos Semdeg. kvlav egviptis
gaxseneba: netav egviptis qveyanaSi davxociliyaviT da
udabnoSi gavmwydariyaviT! risTvis mogviyvana ufalma
am qveyanaSi, sadac maxvili mogviRebs bolos? da Cveni
deda-wuli tyved Cavardeba? gana ukeTesi ar iqneba, Tu
egvipteSi davbrundebiT? uTxres erTmaneTs: daviyenoT
meTaurebi da gavbrundeT egvipteSi (14:2-4). ase Sors maTi drtvinva arasodes wasula. adre Tu egvipte mxolod
enatrebodaT, axla imdenad moicva isini maxvilis SiSma,
rom Seecadnen, daemxoT moses winamZRoloba da axali
aerCiaT; CaeqolaT es ori Tavkaci, romlebic urCevdnen
maT, daeZliaT ucxo xalxis winaSe SiSi da uflis saxeliT amxnevebdnen. magram erTma SiSma gadafara meore SiSi _ uflis SiSi _ da aujanydnen ufals. is iyo, unda CaeqolaT Tavkaci, rom gamoCnda uflis dideba Sesakrebel
karavTan mTeli israelis Tvalwin. es imas niSnavda, rom
ufali Caeria saqmeSi. TiTqos aivso uflis moTminebis
fiala: rodemdis unda mgmobdes es xalxi, rodemdis ar
unda swamdes Cemi da im saswaulebisa, maT Soris rom movaxdine? Sevyri mas Wirs da gadavaSeneb, da Sen gagxdi
did da masze Zlier xalxad (14:11-12).

262

ricxvni

rogor unda gavigoT es ukanaskneli sityvebi, romelTac Tavad RmerTi ambobs, ara adamiani? RvTaebrivi risxviT aris isini warmoTqmuli, ara adamianuri sasowarkveTilebiT. ufali TiTqos apirebs istoriis Semobrunebas, TiTqos surs, xazi gadausvas yvelafers, rac am
xalxisaTvis moimoqmeda abraamidan mokidebuli mosemde. mospos Tavisi qmnileba da Tavidan Seudges rCeuli
eris Camoyalibebas? warixoceba, TiTqos arc arsebula,
abraamis modgma am dRemde moRweuli, roca maT miecaT
SesaZlebloba aRTqmul qveyanaSi pirdapiri gziT Sesvlisa da ar Sevidnen. maTi sxeulebi dadneba udabnoSi,
mosesgan ki, rogorc axali abraamisgan, ufro didi da
Zlieri modgma warmoiSoba. am udabnoSi, ara egvipteSi,
daibadeba axali rCeuli eri. man es Tqva moses gasagonad. jeri mosezea. ufali elis misgan pasuxs.
TiTqos ufali cdis moses. ufalma Tavisi Tqva. Tu
mose miiRebs naTqvams, naTqvamisamebr moxdeba. es aris
istoria _ RvTisa da adamianis dialogi, RvTis gamowveva da adamianis pasuxi. mose uflisgan iTxovs xalxis
patiebas da ar aris Tanaxma, rom misgan gamovides axali
eri. igi pasuxobs imgvaradve, rogorc oqros xbos incindentis dros upasuxa, roca moses pirvelad moesma uflisagan es gamaognebeli sityvebi: ainTos Cemi risxva
maTze da Sen gagxdi did xalxad (gam. 32:10). mose esarCleba ara imdenad am jiut da qedficxel xalxs, aramed
isev da isev ufals misi didebuli saqmeebi gamo, rom ar
daeces misi saxeli xalxebis TvalSi, da rom gamarTldes uflis sulgrZeloba da mravalmimtevebloba.
Tu erTianad amoxocav am xalxs, ityvian xalxebi, romelTac smeniaT Seni dideba, ver SeZlo ufalma am xalxis Seyvana aRTqmul qveynad da udabnoSi daxocao... Seunde danaSauli am xalxs Seni didi madlisamebr, rogorc patiobdi codvas am xalxs egviptidan moyolebuli aqamde (14:15-16).
ufali patiobs maT. urwmuno, mojanye xalxi ar ganadgurdeba, magram am urwmunoebisaTvis maTi Tvali
ver ixilavs aRTqmul qveyanas. urwmuno ar aris aRTqmuli qveynis Rirsi, radgan Tavad aRTqma rwmenis faqtia.
isini, garda im ori marTali mzveravisa, udabnoSi daixocebian. gadava urwmuno Taoba da mxolod maTi Svilebi Sevlen aRTqmis qveyanaSi. udabnoSi xetialis ormoci weli im ormoci dRis samagieroa, romlis ganmavlobaSi Tormeti mstovari zveravda qveyanas. es gamoucxada mosem xalxs da Zlier daRonda xalxi (14:39).
karaxis janyi
(16-17)
rodis moxda es ambavi, amis Sesaxeb araviTari miTiTeba ar aris. is SeiZleba momxdariyo qveynis dazvervis epizodis Semdeg uSualod an nebismier dros ormoci wlis ganmavlobaSi, sanam israeli udabnoSi daxetialebda.

263

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miriamisa da aaronis Semdeg kidev gaCnda israelianTa erT jgufSi analogiuri pretenziebi moses mimarT.
eseni iyvnen: levianTa tomis kehaTis Stodan _ koraxi,
icharis Ze, da reubenianebi _ eliabis Zeni: daTani da
abirami da feleTis Ze oni. eseni saxeldebiT. gasagebia
maTi erTad dgoma am janySi: maTi karvebi mezobloben
erTmaneTs Sesakrebeli karvis marjvena mxares. maT
mxarSi amoudga israelianTagan, igulisxmeba sxvadasxva tomidan, oras ormocdaaTi kaci _ sazogadoebis
Tavkacebi, sakrebuloSi xmobilni, saxelis mqone pirovnebani. Cans, janyi ar iyo stiqiuri, impulsuri, raki
maTSi Tavkacni monawileobdnen da argumentebic maTi
pretenziebisa, erTi SexedviT, arcTu usafuZvlo Canda.
maT moaxsenes moses: zedmets iCemebT, radgan mTeli sazogadoeba mTlianad wmidaa da ufali aris maT Soris.
ratom aRzevdiT uflis krebulze? (16:3).
rogorc Cans, sakmao dro iyo gasuli, TiTqmis erTi
Taobac ki, miriamisa da aaronis pretenziis gabaTilebis Semdeg, rom kvlav wamoiWra es problema. isini iseve
eWvdebian ierarqiulobis samarTlianobaSi, rogorc
miriami da aaroni daeWvdnen, im motiviT, rom rom mTeli sazogadoeba, rogorc uflis krebuli, wmidaa, rogorc naTqvami aqvs ufals. isini adanaSauleben moses da
aarons siwmidis uzurpaciaSi, rom maT ukanonod, TviTneburad moipoves, anu miiTvises ufalTan siaxlovis
ufleba. sakmaod mZime braldebaa. sulieri xelisuflebis ukanonod miTvisebaSi edebaT brali! sagulisxmo is
aris, rom maTi beladi koraxi, leviani, ekuTvnis kehaTis Stos, romelsac sapatio funqcia akisria _ sawmidris samsaxuri. Cans, koraxi ar kmayofildeba am samsaxuriT, is met siaxloves moiTxovs ufalTan, rogorc uflis eris warmomadgeneli. is moiTxovs ufro mets: siwmideSi yvela israeliani unda gaTanabrdes, TiToeul
israelianze pirovnulad unda ganawildes saerTo siwmide. masSi yvelas unda edos wili. marTalia, mTeli israeli, rogorc rCeuli eri, wmidaa, magram es saerTo,
koleqtiuri siwmide TavisTavad gulisxmobs, rom yvela israeliani saTiTaod da pirovnulad wmidaa, yvelani wmidebi arian? es kiTxva, romelsac pasuxi gaeca
Tavis droze miriamis magaliTze, roca moTxovnis ukanonoba keTrma daadastura, daviwyebuli iqna da axla
kvlav aRiZra axali ZaliT da masStabiT, axla pretenzias moses da-Zma ki ar acxadebs, aramed, SeiZleba iTqvas, mTeli sazogadoeba.
mTelis siwmide unda gulisxmobdes nawilis siwmides. da es asec iyo. magram Tanabrad nawildeba Tu ara
siwmide uflis sazogadoebis yvela wevrze? es kiTxva,
rogorc Cans, aRelvebda sazogadoebas da drodadro
mZafrad iCenda Tavs.
SesaZloa, mosesac awvalebda es eWvi, roca pirqve daemxo koraxis sityvebis gagonebisas. an imitom daemxo
pirqve, rom icoda saqmis WeSmariti viTareba da Sezara

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ricxvni

maTma mkrexelobam da kadnierebam. da gaigona mosem da


pirqve daemxo. ase elaparaka koraxs da mTel mis dass:
xval gamoacxadebs ufali, vin aris misi da vin aris wmida, da daiaxlovebs TavisTan da, visac airCevs, mas daiaxlovebs (16:4-5).
mose, cxadia, uflis STagonebiT, acxadebs erT martiv WeSmaritebas: marTalia, mTeli eri uflis rCeulia, magram ufali am rCeulisgan irCevs urCeuless Tavisi samsaxurisaTvis. uflis msaxuri rCeulTa rCeulia. marTalia, mTeli eri uflis wmidaa, magram ufali
am wmidaTagan irCevs uwmidess _ wmidaTa wmidas, mas
iaxlovebs, raTa samsaxuri gaswion. uflis msaxuri wmidaTa wmidaa, rogorc wmidaTa wmidaa is adgili, sadac
mxolod aaroni, mRvdelmTavris xarisxSi myofi, Sedis
weliwadSi erTxel. mas aqvs Sexeba msxverplTan da mis
nawilTan, romelic aseve wmidaTa wmidad iwodeba. mose imasac gulisxmobs, rom RvTis rCeuloba da siwmide,
rac qmnis RmerTTan siaxlovis pirobas, privilegia ki
ar aris, aramed mZime tvirTia.
mose koraxisave sityvebiT amxels mis dass: zedmets
iCemebT, levianebo! (16:7). mose imasac gauxsenebs levianebs, rac maT kargad ician, saxeldobr, rom ufalma gamoacalkeva isini israelis sxva StoTagan da gansakuTrebuli statusi mianiWa; daiaxlova im azriT, rom yvelaze wmida da amis gamo sapasuxismgeblo tvirTis (wmida samsaxurebeli WurWlis) tareba daakisra. ...axla
mRvdlobasac eswrafiT? amisTvis SeiTqviT Sen da mTeli Seni dasi uflis winaaRmdeg? vin aris aaroni, rom
uCiviT? (16:10-11). marTlac, vin iyo TavisTavad, TaviT TvisiT aaroni? is xom uflis nebiT iyo ganwesebuli mRvdelmTavrad da ara moses mier mikerZoebiT, rogorc RviZli Zmisadmi? siwmide xom ara mis pirovnebas,
aramed mis msaxurebas miemadla.
daTans da abirams ki, reubenianebs, tradiciuli pretenziebi hqondaT: nuTu ar kmara, rZiTa da TafliT
mdinari qveynidan amogviyvane udabnoSi dasaxocad? axla ginda gagvibatonde? ho, gagvibatondi kidec? arc
rZiTa da TafliT mdinar qveyanaSi migiyvanivarT, arc
yanebi da venaxebi mogicia CvenTvis. Tvalebi ginda daubrmavo am xalxs? (16:13-14). garda imisa, rom es xalxi araTu daeWvebulia moses winamZRolobis erTaderTobaSi,
aramed arc iwynarebs mas. maTi urwmunoeba kulminacias
aRwevs: aRTqmul qveynad egvipte gaxades, ramdenadac is
miiCnies rZiTa da TafliT mdinar qveynad. maT ar unda
hqonodaT, levianTa kvalze, mRvdlobis pretenzia. es
ukve metismeti iqneboda saero tomis, rogorc reubenianebi iyvnen, warmomadgenelTagan. yovel SemTxvevaSi, aseTi pretenzia aSkarad maT ar gamouTqvamT.
vin iyo is oras ormocdaaTi kaci, romlebic mosem
koraxTan erTad moiwvia gamosacdelad? albaT, levianebi, vinc mRvdlobis statuss moiTxovdnen. TiToeul maTgans xelSi unda aeRo sacecxluri, Caedo masSi

265

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

cecxli, Caeyara sakmeveli da ekmia uflis winaSe karvis SesasvlelTan, anu mRvdloba gaewia. aaroni maT
Soris iyo.
gakvirvebas iwvevs koraxisa da misi dasis gabeduleba
da Tavdajereba. riT iyo is gamowveuli? gulmaviwyobiT? nuTu maT daaviwydaT aaronis ZeTa _ nadabisa da
abihus xvedri, roca maT sacecxlurebiT ucxo anu ukanono cecxli miitanes uflis winaSe da daiRupnen? cecxlma
SeWama isini, ver ipatia aaronis Svilobam (lev. 10:1-2).
arc amjerad dautovebia dausjelad ucxo cecxlis
damnTebni sacecxlurebSi. gaipo miwa maT fexqveS da
STanTqa miwam koraxi misi saxliTa da sabadebliTurT
(16:32). aseve daemarTaT daTans da abirams, romlebic
Tav-TavianT karvebTan idgnen _ dedawulianad STainTqnen isinic. cocxliv Cacvivdnen yvelani qvesknelSi
(SeolSi) da gadaefara maT miwa. da ase gadaSendnen krebulidan (16:33). xolo is oras ormocdaaTi kaci uflisgan gamosulma cecxlma SeWama, rogorc aaronis Zeni.
amiT erTxel kidev dadasturda, rom mxolod RvTis nebazea samRvdelo samsaxuri da ara adamianis survilze.
marTalia, arakanonierad mkmevelni, rogorc codvilni da siwmidis xelmyofelni, daiRupnen, anu aRmoifxvrnen sazogadoebidan, magram sacecxlurebi, romlebic maT xelT epyraT, wmidad gamocxadda, radgan
isini uflis winaSe iyo mitanili (17:2-30). paradoqsulia, magram es siwmide imiT gamoixata, rom maT CamoerTvaT sacecxluris funqcia da sakurTxevlis mosaWed
masalad Seiwirnen.
aaronis ganedlebuli kverTxi
(17:6-28)
amieridan sazogadoeba unda darwmunebuliyo, rom
sakmevlis kmeva mxolod aaronianTa prerogativa iyo.
maT garda yvela ucxoa, Tundac israeliani iyos. yvelas,
vinc ki xelyofs am funqcias, koraxisa da misi dasis bedi
eweva. magram, rogorc Cans, sazogadoebis nawilma (koraxis daRupvam maT ver daanaxva uflis xeli) maT gawyvetaSi isev da isev mose da aaroni daadanaSaula. aujanyda
meore dRes israelianTa mTeli sazogadoeba moses da
aarons da Tqves: Tqven gawyviteT uflis eri (17:6).
es mZime braldeba iyo, risTvisac maT Caqolva emuqrebodaT. magram amjeradac mose da aaroni ixsna uflis
didebam, romelic karavTan gamoCnda. mojanye sazogadoebas sasjelad Savi Wiri moevlina da daiwyo maTi
musrva. gawydeboda yvela, rom aarons sacecxlurSi ar
Caedo samsxverplodan aRebuli cecxli da xalxSi ar
gasuliyo kmeviT. Cadga igi daxocilTa da cocxalTa
Soris da Sewyda musrva (17:13). am aqtiT erTxel kidev
dadasturda aaronis, rogorc RvTismsaxuris, kanoniereba. magram, Cans, es ar iyo sakmarisi.
aaronis avtoritetis saboloo ganmtkicebisaTvis
uflis brZanebiT TiTo Stos Tavkacs mosesTvis unda Ca-

266

ricxvni

ebarebina Tavisi kverTxi _ avtoritetis simbolo. mosesTan Tavi unda moeyara Tormet kverTxs, aaronis kverTxi mecamete iqneboda maT Soris. yovel kverTxs Tavisi
patronis saxeli daewereboda. mose daawyobda maT Sesakrebel karavSi aRTqmis kidobnis gverdiT, uflis gamocxadebis adgilas. visac me gamovarCev, _ uTxra ufalma
moses, _ misi kverTxi ayvavdeba da CavaxSob israelianTa
janys, rom ajanyebulan Tqvens winaaRmdeg (17:20).
asec moiqca mose da, roca meore dRes karavSi Sevida,
aaronis kverTxi ayvavebuli daxvda. ayvavda, gaifurCqna yvavili da damwifda nuSi (17:23). Cans, kverTxi,
yovel SemTxvevaSi, aaronis mainc, nuSis xisgan yofila
gamoTlili. aq unda SeiniSnos, rom ebraul enaSi erTi
da igive sityva gamoxatavs Stos (tomis mniSvnelobiT) da kverTxs. israelis yoveli tomi erTi xis
Stos anu tots warmoadgens, kverTxi ki materialurad
sxva araferia, Tu ara xis toti. es aris igive kombali,
romliTac mwyemsi mwyemsavs Tavis faras. amrigad, aris
Tormeti fara, israeli Tormeti Sto Tu tomi, da Tormeti toti-kombali. aaronis kverTxi ki, rogorc religiuri winamZRolobis niSani, mTels israels mwyemsavs.
mwyemsi xalxisTvis amgvari simbolika bunebrivia (elinur samyaroSic erTi da igive sityva aRniSnavs kombalsac da kverTxsac _ skeptron anu skiptra; skiptra-kombali upyria xelT mikenis mefe agamemnonsac da
iTakel meRore evmeossac).
aaronis ayvavebulma kverTxma sabolood daarwmuna
mojanye sazogadoeba, rom mxolod aaroni da misi STamomavlobaa uflebamosili miuaxlovdes ufals, iyos
Suamdgomeli xalxsa da ufals Soris, rogorc mexamridi, raTa ar gawydes xalxi. darwmunda xalxi da SehRaRada moses: aha, vixocebiT, viRupebiT, yvelani viRupebiT. vinc ki uflis karavTan midis axlos, kvdeba. nuTu
yvelani dasaRupad varT ganwiruli? (17:28).
Cans, xalxi darwmunda Suamdgomlobis aucileblobaSi. aaronis ganedlebuli kverTxi, rogorc misi samRvdelmTavro uflebamosilebis dasturi da simbolo,
da rogorc saswauli urCTaTvis da xelmyofelTaTvis,
aRTqmis kidobanSi iqna Senaxuli (17:25).
levianTa tomi _
nuSis rto sxva rtoTa Soris
(18)
da iyo sityva uflisa Cems momarT: ras xedav, ieremia?
mivuge: nuSis kverTxs-meTqi. da miTxra ufalma: kargad
xedav, radgan vfxizlob me Cems sityvaze, raTa aRsruldes (ier. 1:11-12). azris siRrmiseulad gasagebad unda
vicodeT, rom nuSi _ Saked da mRviZare _ Soked erTi Ziridan amodian. SegviZlia vigulisxmoT, rom aaroniseuli nuSis kverTxi, romelic aseve levianTa Tavkacis kverTxic aris, fxizlobs mTels israelze. is fxizlobs israelis nacvlad RvTis winaSe. am sityvebSi, ri-

267

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Tac aarons ganemarta misi movaleobani, Cans didi da saxifaTo tvirTi: Sen da Senma Svilebma da Senma mamissaxlma SenTan erTad unda itvirToT Secodeba Tqvens
mRvdlobaSi (18:1). gamoCnda isic, Tu raoden absurduli da windauxedavi iyo koraxisa da misi dasis pretenziebi. ras moiTxovdnen isini? pasuxismgeblobas? Zneli
safiqrebelia, maT gaazrebuli hqonodaT aaronis da aaronianTa movaleobis mTeli simZime. isini pativmoyvarulad eswrafodnen uflebebs, magram, saeWvoa, scodnodaT, Tu razomi pasuximgebloba mosdevda am uflebebs,
romlebic mxolod da mxolod ufalTan siaxloviT ganisazRvreboda. mcireodeni Secodebac ki, am siaxlovis
dros Cadenili, sastiki sasjelis Tanamdebi iyo.
koraxi Tavis janyTan da ambiciebTan erTad miwam
STanTqa, magram levianTa umravlesobisaTvis es katastrofa samagaliTo unda yofiliyo TaobebSi. es kidev
ufro gamokveTs maT ufleba-movaleobebs. isini ver itvirTaven imaze mets, rac maT ufalma moses piriT dauwesa. aris samsaxuri, romlis mimarT levianebi, Tumca nuSis kverTxis qveS myofni, ucxoni arian. aris ucxo cecxli (eS zarah), aris ucxo samsaxuri (yabodah zarah),
aris ucxo kaci (iS zar).
Seni moZmeebi, levianTa Sto, mamaSenis tomi, Sen waiyvane, TqvenTan iyvnen ganuyrelad da gemsaxuron. Sen
da Seni Svilebi ki SenTan erTad aRTqmis karvis win unda iyoT (18:2), _ eubneba ufali amjerad uSualod, ara
moses piriT, aarons. levianebs evalebaT karvis samsaxuri, aaronisa da aaronianTa momsaxureba, magram ver miekarebian sawmidars, verc mis WurWels, verc samsxverplos, romelTa mimarTac isini ucxoni arian.
amrigad, mTels rCeul erSi, romelic potenciurad
samRvdelo erad aris Seracxili, karvis samsaxurisTvis gamocalkevebulni arian levianebi. maTgan mcire
jgufi _ aaroni da misi Zeni uSualod siwmides (wmidaTa wmidas, samsxverplos) emsaxurebian. samRvdelo ierarqiis TavSi dgas aaroni, mis qvemoT ki _ aaronianebi, Semdgom safexurze dganan rigiTi levianebi, romlebic sam qveStod (sagvareulod) ganiyofebian. TiToeuli Tavis mkacrad gansazRvrul funqcias asrulebs.
raki aarons da aaronianebs, rogorc levis tomis
Svilebs, ar ekuTvniT wili aRTqmul qveyanaSi, maTi
wilxvedri ufalia, es wilxvedriloba ki mTeli israelis mier Semowirul msxverplSi gamoixateba: israelis mTels Semowirulobas gaZlev Sen da Sens Svilebs
saukuno wesiT (18:8). aarons da aaronianebs ar eyolebaT saqoneli, ar eqnebaT saxnav-saTesi, isini gamoikvebebian yoveli msxverpliT da yoveli ZRveniT, romelsac israelianebi Seswiraven ufals. wmidaTa wmidaa es
SenTvis da Seni SvilebisaTvis (18:9). wmidaTa wmida
imas niSnavs, rom msxverplis am nawilebis Wamis ufleba
mxolod aaronis (anu mRvdelmTavris) ojaxis wevrTagan mxolod mamakacebs aqvT.

268

ricxvni

maT ulufas (kerZs, arCivs) Seadgens agreTve Semowiruloba (Rala, Ralis ZRveni) da aRTqmuli, romelic
ufalTan miaqvT: saukeTeso zeTi, saukeTeso Rvino da
puri... miwis yoveli pirvelmoweuli nayofi... yoveli darisxebuli israelSi... yoveli xorcielis pirvelnaSobi, adamiani iqneba Tu pirutyvi (18:11-15). levianebs miecaT, teritoriuli samkvidros sanacvlod, israelis
mTeli Semosavlis meaTedi sakrebulo karavTan maTi samsaxuris wil, rom aRar miuaxlovdnen israelianebi sakrebulo karavs, rom momakvdinebeli codva ar daidon;
levianebi iReben tvirTad maT Secodebas (18:21-23). es
meaTedi israelianTagan Ralaa uflisaTvis, ufali ki am
Ralas levianebs ganukuTvnebs. levianebi, Tavis mxriv, am
meaTedidan meaTeds kvlav ufals ubruneben, ufali ki am
meaTedis meaTeds aarons (anu mRvdelmTavars) ganukuTvnebs. es urCeulesi nawili iqneba.
aaronisTvis micemuli is saukeTeso meaTedia, romlis gaRebiT levianebi airideben codvas. winaaRmdeg
SemTxvevaSi, israelianTagan maTdami Semowiruli Rala waibilweba da isini daixocebian (18:32).
gamawmidavebeli wyali
(19)
gamoarCeven veJan (wiTels, adummah) furs, saRsa da
unaklos, gauxednels (anu uReldaudgmels), rogorc
samsxverplo pirutyvs Sehferis. Tumca amjerad es furi
ar aris Cveulebrivi msxverpli, romlis feri mxedvelobaSi ar miiReba xolme. mas klaven banakis gareT,
eliazar mRvdeli, aaronis Ze (Semdgom TaobaSi romelime aaroniani, romelic ar aris pirmSo), da Tavisi
TiTebiT Svidgzis asxurebs mis sisxls sakrebulo karvis wina mxares. furi mTlianad unda daiwvas mis tyavTan, saxlTan da funasTan erTad. dauwveli araferi
rCeba misgan. im cecxlSi, sadac furi iwvis, mRvdeli
Cayris kedaris xis naWers, usups da Wiafer narTs. esenic
danacrdebian furTan erTad.
paradoqsia, rom mRvdelic, romelic warmarTavs am
rituals da is piric, romlis xeliT xdeba furis dakvla, saRamomde uwmidurebi arian. maT unda gairecxon
Sesamoseli da ganibanon tani. maT Semdeg rituals agrZelebs vinme ritualurad sufTa piri: igi akrefs furis nacars da banakis gareT, sadme sufTa adgilze dayris. es sufTa kacic gairecxavs tansacmels da uwminduri rCeba saRamomde. nacars ki Cayrian WurWelSi da daasxamen cocxal (gamdinare) wyals, da es iqneba gamawmidavebeli wyali, romliTac sxvadasxva gziT gauwmidurebuli Camoirecxavs codvas. nivTierebas, romlis damzadebis procesis monawileni uwmidurdebian, Tavad
eniWeba gamawmidavebeli Zala. es aris Zveli aRTqmis
qmedebaTa erTi Tavisebureba.
rodis iyeneben am wyals? micvalebulTan Sexebisas:
mesame da meSvide dRes amgvarad gauwmidurebul pirs

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esxureba es wyali da gawmidavdeba. rjuli adgens: yvela, vinc ki miekareba mkvdars da ar Camoirecxavs codvas, uflis sadgomis wambilwvelia da igi unda moikveTos israelidan, radgan ar sxurebia gamawmidavebeli
wyali (19:13). yoveli karavi, sadac micvalebulia, am
wylis sxurebiT unda ganiwmidos, adamianidan dawyebuli nivTiT Tu WurWliT damTavrebuli. aiRos vinme
sufTa kacma usupi da daasvelos wyalSi, asxuros karavs, yovel WurWels, yovel kacs, vinc iq aris, yvelas,
vinc Zvals an mokluls, an samarxs mihkarebia (19:18).
msgavsad im pirTa, romelnic monawileobdnen gamawmidavebeli wylis damzadebaSi, es msxurebeli piric uwmidurdeba. gamawmidavebel wyals mikarebulic uwmiduria saRamomde (19:21). TiTqos iqmneba mankieri wre:
gamawmidavebeli wyali Camorecxs codvas, magram is, visi xeliTac isxureba es wyali, uwmidurdeba. ra ganwmeds mas? imave wylis sxureba? magram axali msxurebelic xom uwmidurdeba da masac dasWirda sxurebiT ganwmeda da ase Semdeg da ase Semdeg. rogorc Cans, gamawmidavebel wyals mikarebulis uwmidureba naklebi xarisxisaa: mis gasawmidaveblad mxolod tansacmlis garecxvaa sakmarisi (19:21). gauwmidureba ar aris pirovnebis,
calke aRebuli israelianis, problema. misi uwmidureba auwmidurebs mTel banaks, romlis SuagulSi sawmidaria. rjuli ar dauSvebs, rom israelianma SebRalos
israeli, radgan mTlianad wmidaa is.
miriamis sikvdili. uwyloba kadeSSi.
molaparakeba edomTan.
aaronis sikvdili
(20)
rodis moxda wina TavSi aRwerili movlena _ veJani
furis pirveli dakvla, anu gamawmidavebeli wylis ritualis dafuZneba, Zneli dasadgenia. is, SeiZleba, israelianTa udabnoSi xetialis yovel dros momxdariyo. magram is ambebi, romelTa Sesaxeb es Tavi mogviTxrobs, ueWvelad israelis xetialis bolo wels ekuTvnis. anu gadis is ormoci weli, romliTac ufalma dasaja isini maTi sulmokleobisa da urwmunoebisaTvis. kadeSidan, am bolo sadgomidan, isini apireben aRTqmul
qveyanaSi Sesvlas. TandaTan gadadis Taoba, romelsac
waerTva qanaanSi Sesvlis ufleba. iq (kadeSSi) mokvda
miriami da iqve damarxes (20:1). ase Zunwad aris gadmocemuli mosesa da aaronis dis, israelisaTvis moses gadamrCenis, pirveli qali winaswarmetyvelis aRsasruli. am Tavis dasasruls ki kvdeba aaroni da icvleba
pirveli samRvdelmTavro epoqa, saRvTo uflebamosileba gadadis mis pirmSoze, eliazarze.
kadeSidan iwyeba israelis mesame da ukanaskneli
mgzavroba-laSqroba, romelic egviptidan daiwyo.
pirveli laSqrobisas maT gaiares gza mewamuli zRvidan sinais mTamde (gam. 13-19); meore laSqrobisas mi-

270

ricxvni

vidnen kadeSs, mesame laSqroba iqneba kadeSidan iordanis aRmosavleT napiramde, saidanac isini umoseod da
uaaronod gadalaxaven mdinares qanaanis dasapyrobad.
axla ki mose miiRebs uflisagan sayvedurs, ukanasknels, da mas sabolood gamoecxadeba, rom igi ver dadgams fexs aRTqmul miwaze. meordeba drtvinva uwylobis
gamo, romelic pirvelad sasowarkveTil xalxs aRmoxda
sinis udabnoSi, refidimSi (gam. 17:1-7). maSin mose Caqolvis safrTxis winaSe iyo, magram ufalma Caagona mas
xalxis Tvalwin daekra kverTxi kldisaTvis, raTa amoeCqefa sasmel wyals. xolo kadeSSi, roca israelianebi
kvlav adrtvindnen da kicxavdnen egviptidan am udabnoSi amoyvanisTvis, ufalma amjeradac ixsna mose, uTxra:
aiRe kverTxi da SehyareT sazogadoeba Sen da Senma Zmam
aaronma da daelaparakeT maT Tvalwin kldes da mogcemT
igi wyals. amouCqefebs maT wyals kldidan da daarwyuleb mTels sazogadoebas maTi saqonliTurT (20:8). magram, mosem, nacvlad imisa, rom miemarTa kldisaTvis, romelic iq uflis simbolod idga (RmerTi _ klde ix. 2
mef. 22:3; fsal. 17:2 da sxva), xalxis drtvinviT aRgznebulma da rixsvaatanilma orgzis dahkra kldes kverTxi,
gamoiCina ra jer urCoba uflis winaSe da mere urwmunoba mis ZalaSi. daelaparakeT kldes _ gulisxmobda
locva-vedrebas kldis, rogorc uflis, winaSe, mose ki
kverTxis Zalas daendo, romelmac Tumca ar umtyuna mas,
rogorc maSin refidimSi, magram es uflis nebisgan gadaxveva iyo, risTvisac igi daisaja. uTxra ufalma moses
da aarons: imis gamo, rom ar merwmuneT da wmidad ar gamomaCineT israelianTa TvalSi, ver SeiyvanT am krebuls
im qveyanaSi, romelic miveci maT (20:12).
am adgils, sadac es ambavi moxda, ewoda me-meribah,
anu cilobis wylebi, igive saxeli, romliTac xorebis
mTis maxlobeli adgili moinaTla, sadac aseve kverTxis cemiT kldidan iCqefa wyalma (gam. 17:7).
gza aRTqmuli qveynisken edomze gadioda. edomi,
romlis winapari iyo esavi, israels Zmad moxvdeboda:
esavi da iakobi (israeli), rogorc viciT, tyupuscalebi iyvnen. gvaxsovs Zmebis mSvidobiani Sexvedra, roca
iakobi col-SviliT da xaranSi SeZenili dovlaTiT
ukan brundeboda. iakobi SiSobda, samagiero ar gadaexada misTvis esavs mamis kurTxevis gamotyuebis gamo,
magram esavma didsulovnad Seundo Zmas, erTi sityviTac ar gauxsenebia misTvis Zveli SuRli. am or xalxs _
edoms da israels, Tumca isini sxvadasxva mxareSi Seiqmnen xalxebad, esmodaT erTmaneTis ena da unda xsomebodaT isakic da abraamic, saerTo winaprebi. magram ufrosis naSierze ar iyo kurTxeva da ar hqondaT micemuli is aRTqma, romelic ekuTvnoda ufross, magram mieca
umcross _ iakobs. albaT, es iyo gadamwyveti faqtori,
ramac kvlav CaSala maT Soris Zmoba, romelic maTma winaprebma aRadgines. israeli moiqca Zmurad, roca mociqulebi gaugzavna edomis mefes am sityvebiT:

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ase ambobs Seni Zma israeli: Sen ici yvela ubedureba, rac SememTxva. Cavida Cveni mama-papa egviptes da
vcxovrobdiT egvipteSi mravali xani. cudad gveqceodnen egviptelebi Cven da Cvens mama-papas. SevRaRadeT
ufals da man ismina Cveni xma, mogvivlina angelozi da
gamogviyvanes egviptidan da, aha, kadeSSi varT, Sens mosazRvre qalaqSi. gagvatare Sens qveyanaze: ar gadavuvliT Sens yanebs da venaxebs, ar davlevT Seni Wis wyals,
samefo gziT vivliT, arc marjvniv gadavuxvevT, arc
marcxniv, vidre Ses sazRvars ar gavcdebiT (20:14-17).
lakoniuri iyo edomis pasuxi, arc moyvaruli, arc
ganzrax mtruli: ar gaiaro Cemze, Torem maxviliT
dagxvdebi (20:18). israelma sasyidelic SesTavaza gaucxoebul Zmas wylisTvis, Tuki maT wyals Sesvamdnen
da saqonelsac daarwyulebdnen. pasuxi kidev ufro lakoniuri iyo da am lakoniurobiT kategoriuli: ver
gaivli (20:20). warmovidginoT ornaxevarmilioniani
urdo edomis erT cida miwa-wyalze! darCeboda rame
edomidan, ufals rom xelSi Caegdo maTTvis edomi? da
edomma gza gadauketa israels: gamovida mis dasaxvedrad edomi didZali xalxiT da magari xeliT (20:20).
namdvilad ufali faravda edoms, rogorc israels
mTeli misi mgzavrobis manZilze. namdvilad es igive
magari xeli (ad xazakah) iyo, romelmac gamoiyvana is
egviptidan da axla aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sehyavda.
da gaerida mas israeli (20:21), anu man Secvala
svla-gezi. daiZra kadeSidan da gaCerda horis mTasTan,
romlis adgilmdebareobis dadgena, rogorc sxva bevri
punqtisa israelis xetialis gzaze, uZneldebaT Tanamedrove mkvlevarT. Tumca ioseb flaviusidan (iudevelTa siZveleni IV, 4-7) momdinare tradicia aigivebs
mas im mTasTan, romelsac dResdReobiT arabebi jebel
nabi haruns uwodeben, rac niSnavs: harun (anu aaron) winaswarmetyvelis mTa. saqme is aris, rom aaronma am mTaze daasrula sicocxle. rogorc Cans, islamuri tradiciac amas gulisxmobs (oRond, yuranis kvalze, aaron
mRvdelmTavars winaswarmetyvelad moixseniebs). ufalma uTxra moses da aarons: SeerTos aroni Tavis xalxs,
radgan ver unda Sevides igi am qveyanaSi, romelic israelianebs miveci, imis gamo, rom cilobis wyalTan mecilebodiT (20:24). SeerTos aaroni Tavis xalxs _ aq
xalxi sruliad konkretul adamianebs gulisxmobs. sxva
vin xalxi unda yofiliyo aaronis winaprebi, Tu ara abraami, isaki da iakobi, romlebic aRTqmul miwaze daimarxnen? aaroni ki ver eRirseba maT gverdiT damarxvas.
is ucxo mxareSi imarxeba _ SeuerTdeba is patriarqebs,
eris mamamTavarT? gavixsenoT, rom iakobma ar isurva egvipteSi damarxva. Svilebma waasvenes is qanaanSi, damarxes Tavis mama-papasTan da ukan dabrundnen. iosebma anderZad dautova Zmebs, waeRoT misi Zvlebi egviptidan,
roca RmerTi moxedavda maT (dab. 50:25). unda vivaraudoT, rom israelianebs moaqvT TavianT gzaze iosebis

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ricxvni

Zvlebi, raTa SeuerTon isini mis xalxs. arc aaroni da


arc mose, romlebic ucxo mxareSi daimarxnen, ar SerTvian Tavis xalxs mkacri sakulto azriT. es gamoTqma
maT mimarT SeiZleba mxolod simboluri iyos.
asea Tu ise, horis mTa israelis istorias ekuTvnis.
is aris erT-erTi mijna mis istoriul gzaze, ara mxolod rogorc sivrculi, aramed upiratesad droJamuli gagebiT: aq Sewyda erTi xana da daiwyo meore
mRvdelmTavruli xana, romelic aRTqmul qveyanaSi
gagrZeldeba. sagulisxmoa, rom aarons, jer kidev cocxals, SemoeZarcveba samRvdelmTavro Sesamoseli, romliTac misi pirmSo eliazari Seimoseba dadgenili wesisamebr (20:28). am investituras warmarTavs mose Tavisi xeliT, mose, romelmac Tavis droze xeli daasxa mas.
es moxda mTeli sazogadoebis Tvalwin horis mTaze. am
aqtis Semdeg mokvda aaroni da israelis saxli mas ocdaaTi dRis ganmavlobaSi iglovda (20:29).
pirveli gamarjveba _
pirveli darixsebuli qalaqebi
(21:1-3)
rogorc Cans, israelisTvis ar iyo aucilebeli aradis mefis winaaRmdeg galaSqreba da misi qalaqebis
xelSi Cagdeba. teqstSi naTqvamia, rom israeli midioda aTarimis gziT, es gaigo aradis qanaanelma mefem da
mostaca tyveebi. aTarimis adgilmdebareoba daudgenelia: gadioda es gza mis qveyanaze, romelic negebSi mdebareobda? israels ar gaumarTavs masTan molaparakeba
mis teritoriaze gavlis Taobaze. ubralod, aradis mefis moTareSeni Causafrdnen israels aTarimis gzaze
da tyveebi Caigdes xelT. es gaxda sababi imisa, rom israelianebma musri gaavles mis qalaqebs. musrvas aq
specifikuri mniSvneloba aqvs. es aris israelianTa
omis warmoebis erT-erTi sastiki wesi. israels SeeZlo
daebrunebina gatacebuli xalxi an brZoliT, an molaparakebiT. man mTlianad gaanadgura aradis mefis qalaqebi. aRTqma misca israelma ufals da Tqva: Tu xelSi
Camagdebineb im xalxs, davarisxeb maT qalaqebs. usmina
ufalma israelis xmas da xelSi Caugdo qanaanelni. da
maTac daarisxes isini da maTi qalaqebi, da uwodes im
adgils saxelad xorma (darisxebuli) (21:2-3). darisxebis (an SeCvenebis, rogorc ZvelqarTul TargmanSi,
an dawyevlilis) pirdapiri mniSvnelobaa gadacema
(berZn. anaTema). rame nivTi, sagani, WurWeli, saqoneli,
mTeli qalaqi misi mosaxleobiTurT, didian-patarianad, gadaecema ufals anu Seewireba mas mTlianad, unaSTod. amgvarad gadacemuli, _ gadaicema is uflis moTxovniT Tu xalxis aRTqmiT, rogorc am SemTxvevaSi _
rogorc Serisxuli, dawyevlili, SeCvenebuli (ebr. xerem), mTlianad nadgurdeba, aravis aqvs ufleba misgan
aiRos rame, erTi namcecic ki. darisxebulis, anu anaTemas gadacemulis, xelmyofeli sikvdiliT isjeba. es

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aris erTgvari msxverpli, sruladdasawvelis analogiuri, romelic mTlianad ufals ekuTvnis. xeremi, erTi
mxriv, Tu wmidaa da miukarebeli, rogorc uflis sakuTreba, meore mxriv, am miukareblobis gamo arawmidaa,
rogorc dawyevlili da SeCvenebuli. vinc mas miekareba, isic xeremis kategoriaSi gadadis, isic SeCvenebulia da dawyevlili. amitomac xerems gadacemul nivTTan erTad unda ganadgurdes.
[xerem-xrm saerTosemituri Ziria da TiTqmis yvela semitur enaSia dadasturebuli. ugaritulsa da Zvel samxreT
arabulSi am Ziridan iwarmoeba taZris, sawmidris aRmniSvneli sityvebi. ase rom, am enebis xrm ebrauli kdS-is semantikuri oreulia. aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli arami (ukanono, akrZaluli), rogorc arabuli nasesxoba, xrm Zirs Seicavs: arabuli xaram akrZaluli.]

aq mocemulia xeremis pirveli SemTxveva. es wesi xSirad iyo gamoyenebuli qanaanis dapyrobis procesSi da,
rogorc akrZalvis dros xdeba, darisxebulis xelmyofelic gamoCndeboda. im adgilebs, sadac israelianebma
darisxebuli qalaqebi gaanadgures, Sesatyvisi saxeli
xormah ewoda. toponimebi amxelen maT moqmedebaTa
kvals miwaze, sadac gauvliaT. maTi samarcxvino qcevebic ase aRibeWda adgilTa saxelebSi: Tabyerah (cecxlis gzneba, 11:3), kibroT-haTavaah (sixarbis samarxni, 11:34), meribah (ciloba, 20:13).
spilenZis gveli
(21:4-9)
es RirsSesaniSnavi SemTxveva, romelmac simbolurprovidenciuli mniSvneloba SeiZina, sul eqvsiode muxlSia gadmocemuli. gamarjvebis Semdeg kvlav sulmokleobam moicva xalxi. Cans, gamarjvebam sulieri mxneoba da simtkice ver Semata maT.
elaparaka xalxi ufals da moses: ratom amogviyvane
egviptidan mosaklavad udabnoSi? radgan ar aris puri
da arc wyali. SezizRda Cvens suls mwiri saWmeli
(21:5). es mwiri saWmeli is zeciuri puria (man _ manana), romliTac ufali ormoci wlis manZilze kvebavda
xalxs. am xetialis bolos umadur xalxs isev da isev egvipturi nayrovaneba axsovs, romelmac mTlianad amoSala maTi mexsierebidan monobis xana. maT araTu eWvi SeaqvT zeciur winamZRolobaSi, aramed uaryofen mas. amas
niSnavs zeciuri puris SezizReba. ufali aRar midis
daTmobaze maTi kuWebis winaSe, aRar ugzavnis arc mwyerebs, arc sxva ram yuaTian sakvebs; ugzavnis Sxamian gvelebs sasjelad. gvelebma dakbines xalxi da bevri daixoca israelSi (21:6).
xalxis gadasarCenad mosem uflis STagonebiT, raki
xalxma aRiara Tavisi codva, gaakeTa spilenZis gveli
(nexaS nexoSeT) da droSaze daamagra. aRmarTa igi da
yoveli dakbenili, romelic Sexedavda mas, ikurneboda
(21:7-80).

274

ricxvni

ra warmoSobisaa, ra tradicias ekuTvnis es spilenZis gveli? amboben, is midianuri warmoSobis unda iyos,
ramdenadac msgavsi sakulto sagani aRmoCenilia midianur taZarSi (XII s. Zv. w.). fiqroben, mosem israelianTa
banakSi myofi Tavisi midianeli moyvrebisgan gadaiRo
igi (viciT, rom mose rCevas iRebda maTgan: jer simamrisagan, mere colisZmisgan). Tumca imis varaudic SeiZleba, piruku momxdariyo: midianel mRvdlebs gadaeRoT
mosesgan. asea Tu ise, es spilenZis gveli, saxeliT nexuSTan (Serwyma ori sityvisa naxaS gveli da nexoSeTY
spilenZi) didxans inaxeboda ierusalimis taZarSi,
vidre reformatorma mefem, xizkiam, ar gaanadgura igi,
rogorc kerpi, romelsac iudevelebi RvTisdar pativs
miagebdnen (4mef. 18:4).
es is gvelia, romelmac saxarebaSi qristes macxovnebeli jvarcis winasaxed aris moxseniebuli Tavad iesos
piriT: da viTarca-igi mose aRamaRla gveli udabnosa, egrec jer-ars amaRleba Zisa kacisa, raTa, romelsa
hrwmenes igi, aqundes cxoreba saukuno (ioan. 3:14-15).
unda vifiqroT, rom udabnoSic, moses dros, rwmena unda yofiliyo gankurnebisa da gadarCenis piroba.
israeli brZoliT ikafavs gzas
(21:10-35)
israelianTa laSqars gezi aRmosavleTisken aqvs
aRebuli. spilenZis gvelis Semdeg pirveli punqti,
sadac dabanakdnen, oboTi iyo. misi zusti adgilmdebareoba gaurkvevelia. cnobilia mxolod, rom isini
mkvdari zRvis samxreTiT miemarTebian, Torem sxvagvarad ver moxvdebodnen im adgilebSi, romlebic saxeldebiT aris naxsenebi maT marSrutSi. es aris yie-yabarimi moabis gaswvriv. aq moxda meore dabanakeba. mesamed
isini zaredis xevSi dabanakdnen, meoTxed _ mdinare arnonTan, romelic sazRvravs amorevelTa da moabis teritoriebs. isini ukve iordanes gaRma arian, mis aRmosavleT napirze; mere gavidnen moabis velze da iq dabanakdnen fisgas mTasTan, udabnosken rom iyureba
(21:20). aqedan, ucxo miwa-wyalze, maTi svlis Cveulebisamebr, mociqulebi gaugzavnes sixons, amoreevelTa mefes, da mis teritoriaze gavla sTxoves. pasuxad sixoni
jariT gamovida mis winaaRmdeg, magram damarcxda.
mosra igi israelma da maxviliT daepatrona mis qveyanas arnonidan iabokamde, yamonelTa qveyanamde (21:24).
es is mdinare iabokia, romlis napiras xaranidan dabrunebuli iakobi erkineboda uflis angelozs, ris Sedegadac mas saxelad israeli daerqva (dab. 32:22-28). am
teritorias ramdenime saukunis Semdeg, msajulTa xanaSi, yamonelebi sruliad usamarTlod edavebodnen israels, razec aseTi pasuxi miiRes: Cven es miwa-wyali
Cvenma RmerTma Cagvigdo xelSi, dagvapatronebina amorevelTa qveyana. Cven ar gadagvilaxavs arc Seni da arc
moabis sazRvari. ufalma RmerTma gangvidevna amore-

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velni da axla maT memkvidreobas medavebi? dakmayofildi imiT, rac Senma RmerTma qamoSma mogca. Cven Cvenma RmerTma mogvca samkvidro (msaj. 11:12-24). Tavis
droze sixons, amorevelTa mefesac, moabisgan hqonda
mitacebuli es teritoria, romelsac axla israeli daepatrona. aiRo israelma yvela es qalaqi da daiwyo israelma cxovreba amorevelTa yvela am qalaqSi, xeSbonSi, da yvela mis daba-sofelSi (21:25).
israeli TandaTan miiwevs ukan, amjerad CrdiloeTis mimarTulebiT baSanisken, romelic unayofieresi
mxare iyo iordanis mTels gaRma mxareSi. baSanis mefe
yogi mTeli Tavisi jariT gadaudga mas gzaze, magram damarcxda da israelma misi miwa-wyali daikava. da musri
gaavles mas, mis vaJebs da mTels mis qalaqs, ise rom aravin gadarCenila. da daimkvidres misi qveyana (21:35).
ase daiwyo aRTqmuli qveynis damkvidreba. magram
mTavari maT win, iordanes gaRma elodaT.
balaamis pirveli misnoba
(22_23:1-12)
es providenciuli epizodebi, sadac israelianTa
laSqari da banaki gareSe TvaliT aris danaxuli, rac
arcTu xSiria rCeuli xalxis istoriaSi, moabis tramalebze xdeba. dabanakebis adgilis misamarTi sakmaod
zustia: iordanes gaRma, ierixonis gaswvriv an sityvasityviT, rogorc dedanSia, ierixonis iordanes
gaRma (22:1), anu im adgilas, sadac iordane ierixons
uaxlovdeba. rogorc Cans, ase erqva iordanis am nawils
_ ierixonis iordane. swored aq gadalaxa ramdenime
xnis Semdeg qanaanSi Semavalma israelma mdinare. amitomac RirsSesaniSnavi gaxda igi, rogorc ukanaskneli
dasabanakebeli adgili israelianTa gamosvlaSi.
am urdos xilvas, romelsac ganadgurebuli hyavda
amorevelebi, ar SeiZleba ar SeeZrwunebina mcire qveyana
moabi, Tumca igi israelis (iakobis) arcTu Soreuli naTesavi iyo. moabis winapari loti abraams Zmiswulad
moxvdeboda. magram es erTi modgmis xalxi, romelTac saerTo ena hqondaT, gaucxoebodnen erTmaneTs am oTxasi
wlis manZilze. SiSma qveynis darbevisa (Tumca israelianebs es arc ufiqriaT) moabis mefes, balak ciforis Zes,
midianelebTan Seakvrevina kavSiri, magram brZolaSi gamarjvebis imedi rom ar hqonda, misani da grZneuli daibara SuamdinareTidan israelianTa laSqris dasawyevlad. es iyo saqveynod ganTqmuli balaam beyoris Ze, romelic feTorSi cxovrobda, evfratis piras. es feTor,
rogorc fiTru, dadasturebulia aSurul saistorio
wyaroebSi. erT arameul teqstSi (700 w. Zv.w.) ixsenieba
profesionali misani balaamis saxeliT, romelic RmerTebisa da qalRmerTebis nebas amcnobs urC sazogadoebas. magram am balaamis dro sakmaod mogviano droa imisaTvis, rom igi ricxvTa wignis balaam beyoris ZesTan gavaigivoT (israelianTa qanaanSi Sesvlis TariRad Zv.w.

276

ricxvni

XII saukunea miCneuli). asea Tu ise, am TiTqosda legendaruli misnis misamarTi savsebiT realuria. SeiZleba
vifiqroT, rom balaamis saxeli misnis profesiul saxelad iqca im Zveli saxelganTqmuli misnis gamo.
ra aris moabis mefis mizani? igi ibarebs balaams am
sityvebiT: aha, erTi xalxi gamovida egviptidan. aha,
dafara man miwis piri da Cems axlos dasaxlda. axla modi da damiwyevle es xalxi, radgan Cemze Zlieria is. iqneb maSin SevZlo misi damarcxeba da qveynidan gandevna.
radgan vici, visac Sen locav, dalocvilia da visac
swyevli, dawyevlilia (22:5-6).
moabis mefes imedi aqvs, rom dawyevlis Semdeg israelis laSqars Zala daakldeba, gauTanabrdeba mainc moabis Zalas da moabi midianelebTan erTad SeZlebs mis
mogeriebas sakuTar teritoriaze, moabis tramalebze. amrigad, moabis mefisaTvis balaami iseTive mokavSirea, rogoric midiani. oRond balaamis iaraRi sityvaa, magram es sityva, wyevla-krulvis sityva, yvela iaraRze Zlieria. Tumca, rogorc Semdeg davinaxavT, balaams, wyevlis garda, sxva unaric aRmoaCndeba Tu gaeRviZeba, riTac is miuxlovdeba uflis winaswarmetyvelebs, romlebic mogvianod gamoCndnen israelSi.
aq vawydebiT erT sagulisxmo faqts. Suamdinareli
misani ar ekuTvnis israels, arc maT ufalTan aris aRTqmaSi gaerTianebuli, magram uflis neba misTvis kanonia. balakisgan gagzavnil mociqulebs, romlebic masTan samisno ZRveniT mividnen, pasuxs ar aZlevs, vidre
ufali ar gamoucxadebs Tavis nebas. aq gaaTieT Rame da
getyviT pasuxs, rasac ufali gamomicxadebs (22:8).
ufalma ar daawyevlina misans israeli, romelic ukve
uflisgan kurTxeuli iyo, da balaammac uariT gaistumra moabis mefis mociqulni.
moabis mefe axla ufro pativsacem xalxs miugzavnis mas kidev ufro meti pativis dapirebiT. balaami
kvlav uarzea, is mousyidvelia. ai, misi sityvebi:
Tundac oqro-vercxliT avsebuli mTeli saxli momces balakma, mainc ver gadaval uflis, Cemi RmerTis,
brZanebas (22:18). aq balaami laparakobs, rogorc
WeSmariti israeliani ilaparakebda. gulwrfelia
misi sityvebi? marTlac ar xiblavs mas oqro-vercxliT avsebuli saxli? Zveli aRTqmis istoriaSi balaamma xarbi misnis saxeli daigdo da, roca misi daRupvis ambavs axseneben, am sixarbes da uflis nebis winaaRmdeg wasvlas asaxeleben mizezad. TiTqos balaams aqvs imedi, rom ufali daawyevlinebs israels. moiTmineT kidev, eubneba mociqulebs, gaaTieT Rame. amaRam gavigeb, ras metyvis ufali. magram ufalma xom gamoucxada, rom israeli kurTxeulia da misi dawyevla
ar iqneba. es sakmarisi ar aRmoCnda balaamisTvis. iqneb marTlac imedi aqvs mas, rom ufali, sabolood,
dawyevlis nebas darTavs da moabis mefisgan miiRebs
oqro-vercxliT savse saxls?

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ufalma ganWvrita balaamis zraxvebi da gamocda mouwyo mas. uTxra, wahyevi mag kacebs, oRond rogorc getyvi, ise moiqeci. da gahyva maT balaami, saxedarze amxedrebuli, ori Tanmxlebi biWiT. teqstSi am dros naTqvamia, rom ainTo RvTis risxva misi wasvlis gamo da dadga uflis angelozi mis dasabrkoleblad (22:22). angelozs gaSiSvlebuli maxvili eWira xelSi, balaami ki
mas ver xedavda. ratom ganrisxda ufali misi wasvlis
gamo da ratom gadaudga win, Tuki wasvlis neba misca?
adamiani ver swvdeba uflis moqmedebis sazriss, is misTvis iracionaluria. magram rasac adamiani ver wvdeba
gonebiT, utyvi da ugunuri cxoveli xedavs anu xvdeba
gumaniT. es balaamis erTguli saxedaria, romelic mas
emsaxureboda mravali weli da patronic dRemde, am orRobemde, kmayofili iyo misi samsaxuriT.
dainaxa saxedarma gzaze mdgari uflis angelozi
gaSiSvlebuli maxviliT xelSi, gadauxvia gzidan da
wavida yanebze, mindvrebze. dauwyo cema balaamma saxedars, rom moebrunebina gzisken (22:23). rasac saxedari
xedavs Tu grZnobs, balaami ver xedavs; rac balaams ugzooba hgonia, saxedrisTvis gzaa. saxedaric ki, es jiuti pirutyvi, grZnobs nabijis gadadgmis SeuZleblobas, xedavs Cixsa da kedels, saiTkenac miiwevs balaami.
da dadga uflis angelozi bilikze venaxebs Soris.
erT mxaresac Robe iyo, meore mxaresac Robe. dainaxa Tu
ara saxedarma uflis angelozi, aekra kedels da balaamis fexic miaWylita zed. da isev dauwyo cema balaamma
(22:24-25). uflis angelozi qmnis gamouval mdgomareobas, roca win svla SeuZlebelia. isev daiZra uflis angelozi da Cadga viwroSi, saidanac arc marjvniv iyo
gasaxvevi gza da arc marcxniv (22:26). da, roca Caikeca
sasowarkveTili saxedari am gamouval viwroSi, balaamma kvlav dascxo mas joxi. jiuti adamianis Tvalis
asaxelad ar kmaroda misi erTguli saxedris ase moulodnelad gamoCenili sijiute da daumorCilebloba.
aucilebeli gaxda uflis Careva saswaulis saxiT: saxedari alaparakda. Tumca balaamis mosaqcevad imdenad
saxedris alaparakeba ar yofila gadamwyveti, ramdenadac misi adamianurad gasagebi sityvebi: odesme mogqcevivar ase? (22:30) da am sityvebma auxila Tvali balaams da daanaxa gzaze mdgari uflis angelozi.
aq angelozis piriT igebs balaami, rom es gza, romelsac is adgas, ukuRmarTia uflis TvalSi (22:32).
Tumca, Cven viciT, rom ufalma ubrZana am gzaze wasvla.
aq gza ar aris xiluli gza-savali, romelsac daadga misani. es gza misi zraxvebis gzaa, maTi mimarTuleba. aravin icis, garda uflisa da misi angelozisa, ras fiqrobda am gzaze balaami. ra ifiqra, roca ufalma neba darTo. iqneb fiqrobda, rom ufalma mas israelianTa dawyevlis neba misca? Tu am ganzraxviT da imediT midioda
am gzaze, es gza ukeTuri iqneboda, misi ukuRmarTi ganzraxvis xiluli gamoxatuleba. am mxilebis Semdeg ba-

278

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laami mzad aris, ukan dabrundes, magram ufali kvlav


gzis gangrZobas ubrZanebs, oRond is ilaparake, rasac
me getyvi (22:35), kvlav meordeba gafrTxileba.
balaami yvela formalobas asrulebs, rac misnobis
winapirobas Seadgens: adian gorakze, saidanac israelis urdos mxolod nawili gamoCndeba; aRimarTeba
Svidi samsxverplo Svidi mozvrisa da Svidi verZis Sesawiravad. magram mTavari uflis sityvaa, ras gamoucxadebs ufali. da, rasac balaami ilaparakebs, uflis mier
iqneba Cadebuli mis bageebSi. moabis mefe msxverplTan
dgas moabis TavkacebTan erTad, _ wyevlis sityvebis
gagonebis molodinSi. balaams ki aRmoxdeba es igavi,
da warmoTqva Tavisi igavi:
aramidan momiyvana balakma, moabis mefem,
aRmosavleTis mTebidan.
modi, damiwyevle iakobi,
modi, SemiCvene israeli.
rogor dagiwyevlo? RmerTs ar dauwyevlia.
rogor SevaCveno? ufals ar SeuCvenebia.
radgan kldis Tavidan vxedav mas
da gorakebidan vuyureb mas.
aha, cxovrobs eri ganmartoebiT
da xalxebSi ar iricxeba.
vin aRricxavs iakobis qviSas
da israelis meoTxedis saTvalavs?
movkvde marTalTa sikvdiliT
da iyos Cemi aRsasruli, rogorc maTi! (23:7-12).
am misnobas teqstSi igavi ewodeba. es terminia _
maSal msgavseba _ gamoyenebuli solomonis igavTa
saxelwodebad. igavi andazuri Segonebaa, romelic
msgavsebis saSualebiT mianiSnebs WeSmaritebas. formis mixedviT maSal poetur Janrs ganekuTvneba da agebulia wevrTa paralelizmis (parallelismus membrorum)
principze, rac SemdegSi mdgomareobs: maSalis or
striqonSi gadmocemulia erTi da igive azri (Tema)
ori sxvadasxva leqsikuri erTeulebiT Tu SinaarsiT.
balaamis igavi amis saukeTeso ilustraciaa, sadac paralelizmis principi mis Svidsave striqonSia ganxorcielebuli: 1) arami _ aRmosavleTis mTebi; 2) damiwyevle iakobi _ SemiCvene israeli: 3) kvlav: wyevla _
SeCveneba, RmerTi _ ufali; 4) klde _ gorakebi, 5) vxedav _ vuyureb; 6) marto cxovreba _ xalxebSi gaurevneloba; 7) iakobis qviSa israelis saTvalavi; 8) sikvdili _ aRsasruli. paralelizmi met eqspresias da damajereblobas aniWebs saTqmels (amave principzea agebuli iosebisa da faraonis sizmrebi, sadac gansxvavebuli
masaliT erTi da igive informaciaa mowodebuli: iosebis SemTxvevaSi _ TerTmeti puris ZniTa da TerTmeti
varskvlaviT, faraonis SemTxvevaSi _ Svidi TavTaviTa
da Svidi ZroxiT). balaamis igavi ebrauli poeziis uZ-

279

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

veles nimuSad aris miCneuli, rasac mowmobs misi arqaizmebi, sityvaTa daweriloba (orTografia) da metri.
moabis mefe gaognebulia balaamis misnobiT: wyevlis nacvlad balaami Tu pirdapir ar akurTxebs, winapirobas amzadebs misi kurTxevisTvis. magram unda iTqvas, rom balaami neitraluria: igi aRniSnavs obieqtur viTarebas _ imas, rac Cans, rogorc gamoiyureba
gareSe TvalisTvis israelis laSqroba anu mis simravles, da imasac, rac ar Cans anu mis kurTxeulobas. balaamis sityvaSi lakoniurad aris daxatuli israelis Sinagani da garegani portreti: is rCeulia, is
martoa, ar iricxeba sxva erebSi. is mravalricxovania,
sadac Cans misi winaprisadmi micemuli aRTqmis gasruleba: abraams erT-erTi gamocxadebisas RmerTi misgan
gamomavali xalxis simravles swored qviSis metaforiT mianiSnebs.
balaamis meore misnoba
(23:13-26)
balaks ar akmayofilebs balaamis pasuxi an arad agdebs mas: gana rac ufalma Camido bageebSi, zustad is
ar unda vilaparako? (23:12). mefes axla sxva adgilas
mihyavs misani im imediT, rom axali adgilidan mainc
inebebs ufali israelis SeCvenebas. magram uflis sityva gardauvalia, is adgils mixedviT ar icvleba _ es
ar icis balakma an ar surs gaigos.
amjerad isini fisgas wverze avidnen da aq gamarTes
samisno samsxverploebi. es fisga imave mTagrexilzea,
romlis erT-erTi wveridan, nebos mTidan, mosem sikvdilis win gadaavlo Tvali qanaanis qveyanas, sadac
Sesvlis ufleba ar mieca mas. fisgas wveridan mTeli
iordanis xeoba gamoCndeboda, magram balaami israelianTa urdos nawils dainaxavda, mTels ki _ vera, rogorc uTxra mas balakma (23:13). balaami kvlav midis
ufalTan Sesaxvedrad da kvlav miiRebs misgan Segonebas (STagonebas) igavis anu maSalis saxiT.
ai, balaamis meore misnoba:
adeqi, balak, da gaigone!
yuri migde, ciforis Zev!
RmerTi kaci ar aris, rom cruobdes,
da arc adamiania, rom gadaTqvamdes.
Tqvas da ar gaakeTos?
ilaparakos da ar Seasrulos?
aha, dalocva mebrZana,
man daloca da me ver gadavTqvam.
ar aris sicrue iakobSi
da ar Cans mzakvroba israelSi.
ufali, maTi RmerTia masTan
da sameufo bukis xmaa masSi.
RmerTia misi gamomyvanebeli egviptidan,
martorqis Zalaa igi misTvis.

280

ricxvni

ar gadis misnoba iakobTan


da arc jadoqroba israelTan.
Tavis Jams gamoecxadeba iakobs da israels,
ra moimoqmeda RmerTma.
aha, xalxi Zu lomiviT imarTeba
da xvadi lomiviT torebze dgeba,
ar dawveba, vidre nanadirevs ar SeWams
da moklulTa sisxls ar Sesvams (23:18-24).
es maSalic, rogorc wesi, poeturia da, mcireodeni
gamonaklisiT, aseve wevrTa paralelizmis principzea
agebuli. vin ityoda am sityvebis gamgone, rom Suamdinareli warmarTi misani israelianis winaswarmetyvelis msgavsad ar alaparakda? ra mniSvneloba aqvs _ vin
iqneba uflis sityvebis molaparake? rasac balaami acxadebs moabis mefis winaSe misi gulis gasaxeTqad, ramdenime saukunis Semdeg israelis winaswarmetyvelTa
qadagebebSi gaiSala. aq mTavari Tema uflis sityvis
gardauvalobaa: Tu ufalma akurTxa xalxi da Tavis rCeul erad gaxada, veraviTari Zala amqveynad ver Secvlis
am gangebas. sxva RmerTebi icvlebian istoriul procesSi da cvlian TavianT ganzraxvebs; isini daqvemdebarebulni arian dro-Jamis dinebas da bunebis feriscvalebas, israelis RmerTi ki erTgulia Tavisi gangebisa _
is Tavad aris bunebisa da istoriis ganmgebeli da warmmarTveli. ratom ver Wris misnoba da jadoqroba israelis winaaRmdeg? ver Wris, radgan maTi RmerTi maT SuagulSia, rogorc sameufo bukis xma (Cven viciT wina
monakveTidan, rom bukis xma RvTis myofobis niSania banakSi, rogorc Rrubeli, sakrebulo karvis Tavanze rom
aris dafenili). am myofobis gamoa agreTve, rom sicrue
da mzakvroba ar aris israelSi [es striqoni SeiZleba
amgvaradac iTargmnos: ver moatyueb iakobs da ver umzakvreb israels].
bolos, balaami momavalsac swvdeba: lomi sabolood Tavisas izams _ is daamarcxebs mowinaaRmdeges. balaami lomis _ israelis triumfis winaswarmetyvelebiT amTavrebs Tavis meore igavs.
balaamis mesame misnoba
(24:1-10)
raRa eTqmoda balaks: igive ganmeorda: wyevlis nacvlad balaamis bageTagan kurTxevis sityvebi esmis. da
esRa aRmoxda mas: nurc SeaCveneb mas da nurc dalocav
(23:25). da mainc ar eSveba mefe misans, axla sxva adgilas
mihyavs igi, vinZlo am adgilidan daawyevlinos ufalma. es aris fegoris wveri, romelic mTels udabnos gadahyurebs _ aqedan mTlianad unda gamoCeniliyo israelis laSqroba, ara mxolod misi nawili, rogorc adre.
amjerad ki sabolood mixvda balaami, rom ufals ar
surda israelis dawyevla: arc misula samsxverploebTan samisnod, aramed udabnosken ibruna piri da, ro-

281

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

gorc ki Tvali mohkra israelianTa banaks, uflis suli


gadmovida masze da man warmoTqva, ufro sworad, aRmoxda mas mesame igavi, sadac, sxva sityvebs Soris, moabis mefem mosmina Semdegi:
ra mSvenieria Seni karvebi, iakob!
Seni sadgomebi, israel!
rogorc gaSlili Walebi,
rogorc baRebi mdinaris piras,
rogorc uflis darguli alvebi,
rogorc wylispira kedrebi.
idinebs wyali misi sarwyulebidan
da misi Tesli did wylebSi iqnebaO(24:5-7).
amas ver ityoda fizikuri TvaliT mxedveli, romelic xedavs mxolod imas, rac axla da aq, udabnoSi, Cans.
balaami am igavSi Tavs moixsenebs Tvalganxmul kacad,
romelic xedavs xilvebs yovladZlierisgan _ es xilvebi ki momavlis sinamdvilea. am xilvaSi namdvilad esqatologiuri suraTia daxatuli, iseTi realoba, rogorsac israelis winaswarmetyvelni Wvretdnen. mdinaris piras darguli xe marTalTa da uflis gziT mavalTa cocxali simboloa. pirvelive fsalmuni daviTisa am
xes axsenebs: ...viTarca xe, danerguli Tanawarsadinelsa wyalTasa (fsalm. 1:3).
balaami amTavrebs Tavis mesame misnobas imave sityvebiT, romlebiTac oTxasi wlis winaT isakma daloca iakobi, dautova ra TiTqos anderZad mis modgmas gadarCenis saxsari am wuTisofelSi: dawyevlilia Seni mawyevari, kurTxeulia Seni makurTxebeli (24:3-9; Sdr.
dab. 27-29). am gangebulebam gaaZlebina mas egvipteSi,
aZlebinebs udabnos gzaze da unda gaaZlebinos qanaanSi, roca damkvidrdeba.
amis Semdeg risxviT atanili moabis mefe aRar Txovs
balaams israelis dawyevlas. igi ugunurad CaTvlis
mas imis gamo, rom uari Tqva uzomo oqro-vercxlze.
axla gaiqeci Sens adgilas. vifiqre, pativs gcem-meTqi
da, aha, dagikava ufalma pativi (24:11). anu balaki axlaRa mixvda, rom misans ar gaaCnia sakuTari neba; rom
misans arafris Tqma ar SeuZlia, garda imisa, rasac
ufali ubrZanebs. erTaderTi ganmgebeli ufalia: man
Seqmna misani da is sityvac, rac misnis piriT unda iTqvas, misia. misani mxolod WurWelia uflis sityvis misaRebad da iaraRi _ mis gamosacxadeblad. ai, balaamis
saboloo pasuxi, sadac ase martivad aris gamoTqmuli
winaswarmetyvelis mrwamsi: xom vuTxari Sens gamogzavnil mociqulebs: oqro-vercxliT avsebuli Tavisi
saxlic rom momces balakma, mainc ver gadaval uflis,
Cemi RmerTis, brZanebas. verc kargs gavakeTeb, verc
cuds-meTqi Cemi nebiT. rasac ufali ityvis, mec imas
vityvi-meTqi? (24:12:13).

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ricxvni

balaamis meoTxe misnoba


(24:14-24)
ukan gabrunebamde balaami ukanasknel misnobas acxadebs moabis momavalze da yvela im xalxis (edomis, yamalekis, kenielebis) momavalze, visTanac israels eqneba
urTierToba qanaanSi damkvidrebis Semdeg. savalalo iqneba maTi bedi. magram yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rasac balaam gaacxadebs ukanasknelad, kvlav israelis momavlis
xilvaa, xedva imisa, rac jer ar Cans, magram gamoCndeba:
vxedav mas, magram ara axla;
vuyureb mas, magram ara axlodan.
amodis varskvlavi iakobidan
da aRimarTeba kverTxi israelidan (24:17).
balaami Wvrets israelSi momaval didebas, magram
ufro konkretulad _ monarqias: varskvlavi mefobis
metaforaa (es. 14:12), kverTxi _ samefo niSani (dab.
49:10). saboloo azriT, misi es sityvebi mesianisturia:
uaxloesi axdoma maTi daviT mefea, uSoresi _ macxovris Soba, romelic aRmosavleTidan wamosulma varskvlavma mianiSna.
baal-feRoris codva
(25:1-18)
aseTi iyo balaamis winaswarmetyveleba. didebas
uqadda igi israels samomavlod. vxedav mas, magram ara
axla (24:17), Tqva balaamma. ra SeiZleba mas daenaxa axla? rogoria axla israeli? is, rac axla xdeba israelSi, sruliad sawinaaRmdegoa imisa, rac elis mas momavalSi. mTxrobeli piruTvnelia: rasac is axla xedavs,
SemaZrwunebelia, magram is unda Caiweros wignSi samaradJamod gasaxseneblad.
es ambavi SitimSi moxda. Sitimi anu vrclad Sitimis xeoba (naxal Sittim) is adgilia, sadac israelianebi ukanasknelad dabanakdnen iordanis gadalaxvamde.
da daiwyo garyvna xalxma moabis asulebTan (25:1).
ebrauli zanoT, romelsac qarTul teqstSi Seesatyviseba garyvna, ormagi mniSvnelobis Semcvelia: seqsualuri garyvnileba da sarwmunoebrivi gandgoma. pirveli meoris metaforaa, Tumca SitimSi orive moxda. israeli SeeuRla moabis asulebs da am SeuRlebam isini
maTi RmerTebis Tayvaniscemamde miiyvana. anu israelianebma monawileoba miiRes qanaanSi damkvidrebul orgiastul, nayofierebisadmi miZRvnil dResaswaulSi,
kerZod, baal-feRoris dResaswaulSi, SeeuRlnen moabel qalebs, egreT wodebuli sakraluri qorwinebis
wesisamebr, da Wames RmerTebisadmi Sewiruli msxverpli anu nakerpavi. amiT maT daarRvies aTi mcnebis ori
pirveli mcneba _ akrZalva sxva RmerTebis yolisa da
akrZalva maTTvis Tayvaniscema-msaxurebisa. amave dros,
dairRva mcneba, romelic maT afrTxilebda qanaanel

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

asulebTan urTierTobisagan. mose am gafrTxilebiT


maT amzadebda aRTqmul qveyanaSi sacxovreblad, magram isini iq damkvidrebamde iviwyeben mas. ucxotomel
qalebTan SeuRleba, nakerpavis Wama, ucxo RmerTebis
Tayvaniscema _ erTi rigis codvaa, rac dauyonebliv
iwvevs uflis, maTi eWviani RmerTis risxvas. israelianebma uRalates TavianT RmerTs ucxo RmerTebTan, risTvisac unda daisajon. isini ganudgnen ufals da ufalic ganudgeba maT risxviT. rogor gamoixata es risxva,
romliTac ainTo ufali gandgomilTa mimarT?
teqstSi ramdenime versiaa gadmocemuli. pirveli
versiiT, mose pasuxismgeblobas akisrebs israelianTa
Tavkacebs: aiRe da Camokide uflis winaSe mzisiT xalxis yvela Tavkaci da gadava uflis risxva israelisgan
(25:4). raki israeli erTi sxeulia, fizikur-sulieri erTobaa, yvela damnaSavea, Tundac mxolod erTma maTganma
Caidinos danaSauli. isjebian Tavkacebi, rogorc pasuxismgebelni Tav-Tavisi tomisa Tu sagvareulos saqcielze. isini mTeli xalxis gamosasyid msxverplad iwirebian. maTi sikvdiliT xalxi ganiwmideba codvisgan.
SesaZlebelia sxvagvari gagebac am muxlisa (25:4):
codva Caidines Tavkacebma, isini SeeuRlnen moabel qalebs, maT Wames nakerpavi, maT sces Tayvani feRoris baals, risTvisac imsaxureben sasjels, danarCeni xalxi
ki ubraloa. marTlac, teqsti gadmogvcems ambavs, Tu
rogor dasaja finxasma, eliazar mRvdlis Zem, zimri,
simeonianTa Tavkaci. ugmira Subi orTaves _ israelians da qals _ mucelSi (25:8). sagulisxmoa, rom qali
midianelTa Tavkacis asuli iyo. unda vifiqroT, rom
sakralur qorwinebaSi sazogadoebis elita iRebda monawileobas. es bunebrivia, ramdenadac sakralur qorwinebaSi monawileoba, rogorc Suamdinaruli Sesabamisi teqstebidan viciT, mefeTa da mTavarTa ufleba da
movaleobaa, radgan swored isini arian qveynis nayofierebis garantni da pasuxismgebelni.
da Sewyda Savi Wiri israelianebze (25:8), gvauwyebs mTxrobeli. es imas niSnavs, rom zimris sikvdilma
gamoisyida mTeli codva, raSic gareuli iyo israeli.
Tumca ocdaoTxi aTasi kaci mainc gawyvita Savma Wirma.
kidev sxva versiiT, israelis msajulebs unda daexocaT Tav-Tavisi xalxidan yvela, vinc ki baal-feRors SeeuRla (25:5). anu TiToeuls Tavisi codva Tavisi sicocxliT unda gamoesyida. ismis kiTxva: rogor ganadgurda
24 000 adamiani, romelic israelis Tundac yvelaze mcirericxovan StoTa (reubenisa da levis) srulfasovani
mamrovanis ricxvs Seadgens, msajulTa xeliT Tu Savi
WiriT? Znelia pasuxis gacema. davubrundeT isev finxasis qcevas, romelic am Tavis centraluri Temaa.
finxasi, romelmac erTmaneTs daakla SeuRlebis aqtSi israeliani Tavkaci da midianelTa Tavkacis asuli
(man orives mucelSi gautara Subi), imeorebs levianTa
qmedebas, roca maT moses SeZaxilze Semusres oqros

284

ricxvni

xbos garSemo mrokavni, rac msxverplSewirvad CaeTvalaT, ris Sedegadac maT RvTismsaxuri tomis statusi
miiRes. levianebma maSin uflis Suri iZies ganmdgar israelianebze. aseve, finxasi, romelic rogorc mRvdeli,
erTi mxriv, xalxis warmomadgenelia uflis winaSe, da
meore mxriv, uflis warmomadgeneli xalxSi, uflis SuriT aris anTebuli. mis saqciels ufalma dasturi dasca, moiwona: ase elaparaka ufali moses: finxasma... aarida Cemi risxva israelianebs, radgan maT Soris Suri
aRZra Cems gamo, da me ar gavwyvite israelianebi Cemi
SuriT. amitom uTxari: aha, me vaZlev mas mSvidobis aRTqmas. hqondes mas da mis STamomavlobas saukuno
mRvdloba imis sanacvlod, rom SuriT aRivso Tavisi
RmerTis gamo da gamoisyida israelianebi (25:10-13).
mRvdlis movaleobac es aris: is mTeli xalxis codvis gamomsyidvelia. Tumca Subi mis xelSi ar aris Cveuli iaraRi, magram gansakuTrebul viTarebaSi igi
kverTxs enacvleba.
25-e Tavi iwyeba moabis asulTa mier israelianTa
cdunebiT da mTavrdeba midianeli asuliT, romlis saxeli ar dakarga mTxrobelma. qozbi erqva mas, romelzec gadatyda rCeuli eris cdunebis mTeli simZime. midianeli qali macduneblis zogad saxed Camoyalibda,
raSic misi saxelis semantikac Tavis rols TamaSobs:
igi ukavSirdeba aqadur sityvas quzbu (seqsualuri Zala), romelic xSirad ixmareba rogorc termini sakraluri qorwinebis saritualo teqstebSi. ebraulSi ki
es Ziri (qzb) sicruis mniSvnelobas iRebs, rac savsebiT bunebrivia orgiastuli kultis uarmyofeli religiuri cnobierebisTvis.
rac Seexeba moabel-midianelTa urTierTmonacvleobas am TavSi. es ori tomi monaTesave modgmis xalxebia:
moabi abraamis Zmiswulis lotis STamomavalia, xolo
midiani abraamis uSualo STamomavali (midiani misi Zea
keturasgan). rogorc qanaanel tomebs, maT erTi kulti
da erTi sarwmunoeba aqvT. marTalia, dasawyisSi moabeli asulebia naxsenebi, magram, rogorc Cans, midianeli
qalebi ufro metad aqtiurobdnen israelianTa gadabirebaSi. Cven viciT, rom moses simamri midianis mRvdeli
iyo. rogor moxda, rom maT ase umtres israelianebs?
saqme is aris, rom midianelebi gafantulad cxovrobdnen: zogni udabnoSi, sinais maxloblad, rogorc moses
simamris iTros xalxi, zogni _ moabis mezoblad.
emtereT midianelebs da musri gaavleT (25:17), aseTi iyo uflis brZaneba, rac israelma Seasrula. maTi
ganadgurebis ambavi 31-e TavSia moTxrobili.
xalxis meore aRricxva
(26:1-65)
udabnoSi ormoci wlis xetiali israelma sasjelad
miiRo im sulmokleobisTvis, romelic man gamoiCina,
roca mstovrebisgan dayril xmebs dahyva da uari Tqva

285

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

qanaanSi Sesvlaze. ormoci weli qanaanis miRma molodinis wlebi iyo. unda gadasuliyo mTlianad is sulmokle
da mfrTxali Taoba, romelsac axsovda egvipte da sulmudam, yoveli gansacdelisas misken gaurboda Tvali.
ras gulisxmobs Taoba da vin aris TaobaSi pasuxismgebeli, vis gamoc Taobas eketeba gza qanaanisken? pasuxismgebeli aris yoveli mamri oci wlidan moyolebuli, visac ki iaraRis tareba SeuZlia. ar arian pasuxismgebeli
arc qalebi, rogorc dedrovanni, da arc bavSvebi, rogorc arasrulwlovanni. isini ar aRiricxebian israelSi. aRricxva samxedro mizans emsaxureba da is ricxvi, romelic aRricxvis Sedegad aris miRebuli, mxolod omSi
gamsvlelTa raodenobas aCvenebs, _ radgan Sesvla qanaanSi ar iqneba mSvidobiani Sesvla, aramed sastiki brZolebiT. israelma brZoliT unda moipovos miwa, Tumca is
uflisgan aris aRTqmuli. saxarebaSi vkiTxulobT sasufevelze, rom igi iiZulebis Sesvlad (maT. 11:12) da qanaani, aRTqmuli qveyana, sasufevlis winasaxea.
pirvelma aRricxvam sinis udabnoSi (ricx. 1) aCvena
israelianTa is ricxvi, romelsac igi egviptidan gamosvlisas iTvlida _ 603 550. ormoci wlis ganmavlobaSi ricxvma odnav daiklo: srulwlovani mamris ricxvma 601 730 Seadgina. am xanSi tomTagan umetesobam moimata ricxobrivad, rac, rogorc Cans, xuTi Semcirebuli tomis xarjze moxda. esenia reubeni, gadi, efremi,
nafTali da simeoni, romlis (am ukanasknelis) dakleba
katastrofuli iyo: 59 300-dan 22 200-mde. qanaanSi dasaxlebis Semdeg mokle xanSi simeonis tomis saxsenebeli saerTod gaqra, is iudas tomma Seirwya.
amjerad aRricxvis mizani isic aris, rom gairkves ara
mxolod mebrZolTa ricxvi, aramed raodenoba im xalxisa, romelTa Soris proporciulad, ricxovnobis kvalobaze, unda ganawildes qanaanis miwa. amitomac CamoTvlilia saxeldebiT StoTa qveStoebi _ sagvareuloebi
saxeldebiT, rac pirveli aRwerisas ar momxdara.
calke aRiricxnen levianebi _ isini, rogorc sakulto tomi, arc brZolaSi da arc miwis ganawilebaSi monawileobas ar iRebdnen. aRiricxnen, cxadia, aqac mamakacebi, magram ara oci wlidan, aramed erTi Tvidan moyolebuli. levis tomma am aRweriT 23 000 Seadgina
(26:57-62), erTi aTasiT imata ormoci wlis manZilze.
es ormoci weli da sinais mTidan moabis velebamde
manZili aSorebs erTmaneTisgan or Taobas: erTs, egviptidan gamosuls, meores moabis velebze ukanasknelad
dabanakebuls da gamzadebuls qanaanSi Sesasvlelad.
pirveli Taobidan yvelam (igulisxmebian iaraRis xelSi damWerni) dayara Tavisi Zvlebi udabnoSi, mxolod
orad-ori kaci gadmovida axal TaobaSi: ieso naves Ze da
qaleb iefunes Ze _ im siqvelisTvis, rac maT gamoiCines
mstovrobis dros, roca gamamxnevebeli sityva uTxres
SeSinebul israelianebs.

286

ricxvni

celafxadis asulni
(27:1-11)
aRricxva iyo mzadeba qanaanSi Sesasvlelad. 27-e
TavSi grZeldeba es Tema.
kanonebi, romelic mieca israels, udabnos pirobebSi arafrad gamoadgebodaT. kanonebi miecaT maT qanaanSi mkvidri cxovrebisaTvis, roca yvela toms, yvela sagvareulos, yvela mamissaxls Tav-Tavisi samkvidro miwa
eqneboda qveyanaSi. rogorc Cans, yvelaferi, mkvidrad
cxovrebis yvela kazusi ar yofila gaTvaliswinebuli.
mividnen mosesTan, rogorc sjulmdebelTan, menaSes
tomis erT-erTi Tavkacis, uvaJiSvilod gadagebuli
celafxadis xuTi asuli (maxla, noa, xogda, milqa da
Tirca) amgvari TxovniT, _ rom ar gamqraliyo maTi mamis saxeli sagvareulodan, miecaT maTTvis, celafxadis asulebisTvis, samkvidroebi, rogorc es wesisamebr
memkvidre vaJebs ekuTvniT.
celafxadis asulni iTxoven imas, rac maT moses rjulis Tanaxmad ar ekuTvniT, iTxoven im motiviT, rom ar
waiSalos celafxadis saxeli sagvareuloSi, radgan
xsovna samkvidroSia ganivTebuli. celafxadis asulni
mzad arian itvirTon memkvidre vaJebis misia, gaugrZelon xsovna da saxeli mamas. aseTi SemTxveva, roca sagvareulos mamas mxolod asulebi hyavs (sxva Ze ar esva mefesa, marT oden marto asuli), moses rjuls ar gauTvaliswinebia.
da raki yoveli rjulis wyaro ufalia, mose ekiTxeba ufals da iRebs pasuxs: marTals amboben celafxadis asulni. unda misce maT sakuTari samkvidro maTi
mamis Zmebs Soris, maTze unda gadaitano maTi mamis
samkvidro. israelianebs ase uTxari: Tu vinme mokvda
da vaJi ar darCa, misi samkvidro mis asulze gadaitaneT (27:7).
precedentma Seqmna axali kanoni. uZeo adamianis samkvidro, adrindeli rjulis mixedviT, mis Zmebze gadadioda, qaliSvilebi memkvidreobaSi ar monawileobdnen. celafxadis asulebma dasves kiTxva, Tu vin unda
inaxavdes mamis saxelsa da xsovnas _ misi sazardulidan gamosuli, misi RviZli asulebi Tu Zmebi? upiratesoba asulebs mieniWaT: asulebi iuridiulad ufro uflebamosilebad CaTvales, vidre Zmebi.
[analogiisaTvis: egviptur miTosSi osirisis Zma seTi
pretenzias acxadebda osirisis memkvidreobaze, RmerTebis
samsjavroze davobda osirisis RviZli Svili horic. magram amaod: RmerTebma veraferi gadawyvites _ ori simarTle Seejaxa erTmaneTs. seTis argumenti iyo: umcross ratom unda ekuTvnodes mefoba, roca aris ufrosi Zma? horisa ki: nuTu mefoba miecema Zmas dedis mxridan, roca RviZli
Svili cocxalia? maSin imarjva isisma da igaviT daarwmuna seTi, rom swored Svili da ara Zma unda gamxdariyo gardacvlilis memkvidre,]

287

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

mose xels daasxams ieso naves Zes


(27:12-23)
Taoba gadavida, Seicvala, unda Seicvalos winamZRoloba. moses ara aqvs ufleba, gadaalaxvinos xalxs iordane da SeuZRves qanaanSi, daapyrobinos qveyana. moses
srulyofil msaxurebaSi ufali xedavs xarvezs. raRac
moxda iseTi cinis udabnoSi xalxis drtvinvis dros uwylobis gamo, rom mosesac Seepara urwmunoeba: ganrisxebulma kldes orgzis dakra kverTxi wylis aRmosaCqefad,
roca erTi dartymac sakmarisi unda yofiliyo (20:9-11).
am dros gamoucxada ufalma moses da aarons, rom ar daadgmevinebda maT fexs aRTqmul miwaze. imis gamo, rom
isini bolomde ar erwmunen ufals da wmidad ar gamoaCines igi israelianTa TvalSi, igi CamoarTmevs maT winamZRolobas, bolomde ar awinamZRrebs israelze (20:12).
axla, aRricxvis Semdeg, ramac aCvena Taobis Secvla,
ufali uxsenebs moses cinis udabnos incidents: radgan
eurCeT Cems brZanebas cinis udabnoSi... (27:14). moses
sikvdilis win ufleba mieca yabarimis mTidan gadaexeda im qveynisTvis, saiTkenac mohyavda mas xalxi ormoci
wlis ganmavlobaSi. is iyo maTi mwyemsi am xnis manZilze
da mTels gzaze mewamuli zRvidan iordanemde. amieridan vin iqneba maTi winamZRoli, rom ar daemsgavsos
uflis sazogadoeba umwyemsod darCenil faras?
(27:17). mose mwyemsi iyo Tavisi Tavdapirveli saqmianobiT. mas, rogorc cxvris mwyemss, mieca mowodeba yofiliyo uTavkacod darCenili israelianebis mwyemsi.
mwyemsoba xdeba xalxis winamZRolobis metafora. yoveli mefe uflis dadgenili mwyemsia, romelic zrunavs
mis xalxze (gansakuTrebiT gaSlilia es metafora ezekielis wignSi _ ezek. 34). bibliuri warmodgena exmianeba ZvelaRmosavlur warmodgenas mefobaze. aqadur
enaze is igavis saxiT Camoyalibda: ra aris xalxi Tvinier mefisa? oden cxvris fara, umwyemsod STenili.
Tumca mosem icis, vin iqneba misi Semcvleli, magram is
mainc ekiTxeba ufals. waiyvane ieso naves Ze, romelSic
aris suli, da daade mas xeli (27:18), upasuxebs ufali.
xeldasxmis rituali sruldeba sajarod, mTeli sazogadoebis winaSe. mose xels adebs ieso naves Zes imis
niSnad, rom masze gadadis misi didebis (qabod) nawili,
da damoZRvravs mas, anu gadascems mas Tavis avtoritets
(xarizmas) da sibrZnes, raTa emorCilebodnen israelianebi. didebis gadacemis ritualSi monawileobas iRebs
mRvdelmTavari eliazari, da Semdgomac winamZRolobis aRsrulebisas ieso warudgeba mRvdelmTavars, raTa
gamoikiTxos misgan urimisa da Tumimis samarTali. es
imas niSnavs, rom iesos uSualod uflisgan ar ecxadeba
neba. mose RmerTTan idga pirispir, ieso mRvdelmTavris
winaSe idgeba. amiT gansxvavdeba misi mwyemsoba moses
mwyemsobisgan. profetul mowodebas cvlis samRvdelo
mowodeba. ase icvlis saxes winamZRoloba momdevno TaobaSi, Tumca is mainc Teokratiuli rCeba.

288

ricxvni

msxverplSewirvebi
(28)
msxverplSewirva Zveli aRTqmis religiis umTavresi
qmedebaa, rwmenis gulisgulia. igi imdenad aucilebelia, da amitomac bunebrivi israelianTa yoveldRiur
cxovrebaSi da ara mxolod dResaswaulebis dros, rom
xuTwigneulis avtorebs arc mofiqrebiaT misi ganmarteba. vxvdebiT msxvelSewirvis mniSvnelobas zogadad,
magram ver vwvdebiT mis sazriss, CvenTvis gamoucnobi
rCeba im adamianis Sinagani samyaro im Jams, roca mas SeiZleba ewodos homo sacrificans _ kaci Semwirveli anu
adamiani, romelic mTeli Tavisi fsiqikiT _ imedebiTa
da molodinebiT CarTulia am procesSi.
28-e TavSi CamoTvlilia msxverplSewirvebi, razec
sxva wignebSic (gamosvlaTa, levianTa) aris saubari,
axali TiTqos araferi emateba. axali mainc aq is aris,
rom msxverplSewirvebi warmodgenilia ara maTi daniSnulebis, aramed droSi maTi aRsrulebis mixedviT.
ufali ase acxadebs moses piriT: nu daiviwyebT, Tavis
droze SemomwiroT Cemi Sesawiravi... (28:2). anu
msxverplSewirvas aqvs Tavisi dro. arsebobs sagangebo
SemTxvevisTvis aRsasrulebeli msxverplSewirva
(codvis, danaSaulis, madlobis, aRTqmis, nebayoflobiTi...), magram arsebobs msxverplSewirva, romelic
mudmivia da xorcieldeba drois gansazRvrul periodSi. arsebobs yoveldRiuri Sesawiravi, arsebobs yoveli SabaTis Sesawiravi, arsebobs yovelTviuri Sesawiravi, arsebobs yovelwliuri Sesawiravi da arsebobs
sadResaswaulo Sesawiravebi, romlebic unda sruldebodes Tavis droze, maTi gacdena dauSvebelia. es iqneboda Cavardna ara mxolod sociumis, aramed kosmiuri masStabiT.
es Sesawiravebi erTi tipisaa maTi Sedgenilobis anu
samsxverplo masalis (pirutyvis) mixedviT, gansxvaveba
mxolod raodenobrivia.
yoveldRiuri Sesawiravi orjeradia _ dilisa da
saRamosi. Seiwireba srulad dasawvelad ori saRi welgamovlili kravi, erTi diliT, meore saRamoTi; maTTan
erTad Seiwireba ZRveni: zeTSi azelili fqvili da
saRvreli (Rvino) TiTo kravisaTvis. es aris mudmivi
aRsavleni msxverpli (28:3-8).
yoveli SabaTis Sesawiravi gaormagebulia (anu oTxi
kravi): yoveldRiuri TavisTavad rCeba, rogorc mudmivi, magram emateba SabaTis Sesawiravi, rogorc aseve
mudmivi, imave Sedgenilobisa da raodenobisa.
yoveli Tvis dasawyisis anu axalmTvarobis Sesawiravi, rogorc ufro mniSvnelovani, msxvilfexa saqonels moiTxovs, emateba verZi, kravTa raodenobac gazrdilia egreT wodebul sakralur ricxvamde: ori mozveri, erTi verZi da Svidi kravi, ra Tqma unda, Tav-Tavisi ZRveniTa (zeTSi azelili fqvili) da saRvreliTurT. axalmTvarobisas agreTve iwireba erTi vaci

289

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

codvis gamosasyid msxverplad. rCeba mudmivi yoveldRiuri Sesawiravi imave raodenobiT (28:11-15).
pirveli Tvis (nisanis) meToTxmete dRes paseqis
dResaswauli iwyeba da grZeldeba Svid dRes, romlis
ganmavlobaSi safuariani puri ar iWmeva, mxolodRa
xmiadi. pirvel dRes da bolo, meSvide dRes wmida uqmea.
Sesawiravis Semadgenloba da raodenoba igivea, rac
axalmTvarobisas _ es yvelaferi Seiwirvis dRis mudmiv SesawiravTan erTad (28:16-25).
igive msxverpli Seiwirvis pirvelnayofobis dRes
(om habiqqurim), es aris paseqidan ormocdameaTe dRe
(berZnulad pentekoste, qristianuli martvilia),
aRiniSneba imave msxverpliT, oRond emateba erTi mozveri; aqac rCeba sayoveldReo mudmivaRsavleni msxverpli (28:26-31).
meSvide Tvis pirveli dRe axali wlis dRea, bukiscemis dRe, uqme dRe. Sesawiravi: erTi mozveri, erTi verZi, Svidi kravi, erTi vaci codvis msxverplad. radgan es
dRe (Tvis pirveli ricxvi) axalmTvarobis dRea, rCeba
Sesawiravad axalmTvarobisTvis gankuTvnili msxverpli. meSvide dRec uqmea, meordeba igive Sesawiravi da
Tan rCeba yoveldRiuric (29:1-11).
sadResaswaulo dRea meSvide Tvis TxuTmeti ricxvic, romelic uqme dRea. dResaswauli Svid dRes
grZeldeba. pirvel dRes iwireba cameti mozveri, ori
verZi, ToTxmeti kravi, erTi vaci codvis msxverplad,
garda sayoveldReo mudmivi Sesawiravisa. momdevno
dReebSi mozverTa ricxvi iklebs _ bolo meSvide dRes
Svidi mozveri Seiwirvis. dResaswaulis damamTavrebel merve dRes Seiwirvis erTi mozveri, erTi verZi,
Svidi kravi da erTi vaci, garda sayoveldReo Sesawiravisa, romelic rCeba. am dResaswaulebSi ar uqmdeba agreTve aRTqmuli da samowyalo Sesawiravebi, romelTac
TiToeuli israeliani nebayoflobiT gaiRebs uflisaTvis (29:12-39).
saerTo jamSi saweliwdeod gamodis 113 mozveri, 32
verZi, 1086 kravi, erT tonaze meti fqvili, aTasamde
boTli zeTi da Rvino. sakmaod STambeWdavia. es yvelferi varaudobs mkvidr mosaxleobas, sameurneo yofis
sakmaod maRal dones, siuxves da keTildReobas im qveyanaSi, sadac israelianebi Sesasvlelad emzadebian.
uflisgan dadgenili normebi msxverplSewirvisa rwmenas unergavs maT, rom maT SeeZlebaT am msxverplis gaReba anu maT uzrunvelyofili aqvT simdidre da keTildReoba aRTqmul qveyanaSi. ase rom, qanaanis, rogorc
TafliTa da rZiT mdinari qveynis, metaforuli saxelwodeba gamarTlebuli iqneba. ismis kiTxva: visTvis
da risTvis aris dawesebuli es msxverpli? RmerTs
sWirdeba? nuTu israelianebi, nuTu, miT umetes, mose,
fiqrobdnen, rom RmerTi Tavis sakvebad moiTxovda am
Sesawiravs? aramc da aramc. saeWvoa, rom araTu rCeuli
eris sazogadoebaSi, aramed TviT kerpTayvanismcemel

290

ricxvni

warmarTebSi efiqraT, rom RmerTi Wams maT Senawiravs. is, rac warmarTul RmerTebs Seewireba, aris nakerpavi, romelsac Semwirveli Wams. Zveli aRTqmis ufali Tavad acxadebs winaswarmetyvelis piriT: Sens
msxverplTa gamo ar gkicxav Sen: Seni aRsavlenni mudam
Cems winaSea. ar miviReb mozvrebs Seni saxlidan, arc vacebs Seni ezoebidan. radgan Cemia yvela nadiri tyeSi
da naxiri aTasobiT mTebSi. vici yvela frinveli mTebSi da pirutyvi velebze Cems winaSea. romc momSieboda,
mainc ar getyodi, radgan Cemia sofeli da yvelaferi,
rac avsebs mas. vWam me mozvrebis xorcs da vsvam vacebis
sisxls? Seswire msxverplad RmerTs qeba-dideba da
aRuTqvi uzenaess Seni aRTqmebi. mixme me gasaWiris dRes
da me gixsni Sen, da Sen ganmadideb me (fsalm. 49:8-15).
ras moiTxovs RmerTi, garda gulwrfelobisa, sikeTisa, simarTlisa, gulmowyalebisa? ai, ras acxadebs
RmerTi sxva winaswarmetyvelis piriT: ras vaqnev
Tqvens uzomo saklavebs, ambobs ufali, gamaZRari var
Tqveni aRsavleni verZebiT da kuratebis qoniT; aRar
msurs mozvrebis, kravebisa da vacebis sisxli!... nuRar
momitanT mag fuW Sesawiravs. saZagelia CemTvis sakmeveli, axalmTvarobebi da SabaTebi, sadResaswaulo wveulebani veRar amitania! ukeTureba da dResawauli?
Tqveni axalmTvarobebi da zeimebi SeiZula Cemma sulma... ganibaneT, ganiwmideT, avi saqmeebi TvalTagan ganmarideT, SewyviteT borotis qmna, sikeTis qmna iswavleT, eZieT samarTali, SeewieT Cagruls, ganikiTxeT
oboli, qvrivs gamoesarCleT... (es. 1:11-17).
ras niSnavs es? xom ar unda vifiqroT, rom xuTwigneuli da fsalmun-winaswarmetyvelni ewinaaRmdegebian
erTmaneTs. erTi awesebs am grandiozul msxverplSewirvebs _ mudmivs da sagangebos, winaswarmetyvelni ki
uaryofen. SeiZleba ifiqron XIX saukunis bibliis kritikosTa kvalze, rom sxvaa moses RmerTi da sxvaa daviT
mefisa da esaias RmerTi. aramc da aramc. erTi RmerTia
msxverplis damwesebeli da msxverplis uarmyofeli.
oRond moses wignebSi ar aris saubari msxverplSewirvis moralur mxareze, aramed mis garegan mxareze, xolo
winaswarmetyveli win wamoswevs msxverplSewirvis Sinagan mxares da uaryofs mas, roca igi siwrfeliT, simarTliT da sikeTiT ar aris Sewiruli. kvlav ar iqneba
Sewynarebul-mowonebuli kaenis msxverpli, magram misi uaryofiT ar uqmdeba msxverpli, rogorc msxverpli;
RmerTi moelis abelis msxverpls, magram ver xedavs mas,
da es aris misi risxvis mizezi.
mainc risTvis iwireba msxverpli? adamianis ZiriTadi sakvebi (xorci, puri, zeTi, Rvino) Seiwireba msxverplad RvTisadmi imis niSnad, rom es yvelaferi, rac
RvTisgan modis, isev RmerTs ubrundeba. msxverplSewirvis erTi sazrisi is aris, rom msxverplSewirva adamians
mudam axsenebs am WeSmaritebas, da igi madlierebiT Wams
da madlierebiT aRavlens msxverplad am saWmels.

291

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

msxverpli erTgvarad dakavSirebulia WamasTan. is,


rac ar iWmeva, rac usurmagia, msxverpladac ar Seiwireba. es imas ar niSnavs, rom yoveli cocxali arseba, romelic wmidaa da iWmeva, msxverplad Seiwirebodes. ZiriTadi samsxverplo cxovelebia Sinauri pirutyvi _ xari, cxvari, Txa, frinvelTagan mtredi Tu gvriti. mcenareulidan _ puri, Rvino da zeTi _ bevr kulturaSi
ZiriTadi sakvebia da, amave dros, arsebiTi Sesawiravebia, romlebic simbolurad gamoxataven RvTisgan boZebuli miwis dovlaTs. gansakuTrebiT am wyvils _ pursa da Rvinos bevri xalxis kulturaSi SevxvdebiT: Zvel
eladaSi isini ganasaxiereben demetresa da dionises
ZRvenebs kacTa modgmisadmi; ugaritSi isini miwis nayofierebis simboloebia; maT vxedavT Salemis mefisa da
uzenaesis mRvdlis _ melqicedekis xelSi universaluri ZRvenis niSnad.
rac Seexeba Sewiruli cxovelis xorcs, mis Sesaxeb unda iTqvas Semdegi: xorci ar aris israelianTa, iseve rogorc sxva mwyemsi xalxebis, yoveldRiuri sakvebi. isini,
ZiriTadad, mcenareuli sakvebiT ikvebebian, imiT, rasac
miwa iZleva. es aris isev da isev _ puri, zeTi da Rvino.
ricxvTa wignis am TavSi aRwerili sayoveldReo, SabaTis, yovelTviuri, yovelwliuri da sadResaswaulo
msxverplSewirvebisas, raki isini sruladdasawvel anu
aRsavlen msxverpls gulisxmobs, msxverplad Sewiruli
pirutyvi mTlianad iwvis, _ is aravis, arc Semwirvels
ar rCeba SesaWmelad. amgvarad, yoveldRiuri msxverplSewirvidan aravin moelis Tavisi Sewiruli msxverplis xorcs. is mTlianad RvTisken midis. is absoluturi siwmidis Semcvelia. mas veravin miekareba.
aris msxverplis sxva kategoriebi, rogoricaa codvis gamosasyidi, danaSaulis dasafaravi, samSvidobo
Sesawiravi da sxva. am tipis Sesawiravis xorci nawilobriv uflis kerZia, nawilobriv _ SemwirvelTa
(mRvdelTa) da rigiT adamianTa. RmerTi da adamiani
erTad trapezoben. RmerTi, raki mas ekuTvnis yoveli
pirutyvi, maspinZlobs adamianebs, romlebic misi stumrebi arian.
aRTqmisa da aRkveTis rjuli
(30)
es mcire Tavi mTlianad qalis uflebas Seexeba. is iwyeba zogadi debulebiT: Tu vinme aRTqmas aRuTqvams
ufals an ficiT daificebs, rom rasme aRukveTs Tavis
Tavs, man ar unda daarRvios Tavisi sityva, yvelaferi
unda Seasrulos, rac misi bagidan gamovida (30:3). es
aris aRTqmis saerTo wesi, misi darRveva ar iqneba. aRTqma Tumca nebayoflobiTia, magram igi wmidaa, ramdenadac uflis winaSea aRTqmuli. ar unda daarRvios
anu rogorc dedanSia: lo axel, rac niSnavs: ar gaarioSo, ar gaasadago. aq igive wesi moqmedebs, rac Sewiruli sagnebis mimarT: Sewiruli, romelic Sewirvis

292

ricxvni

aqtiT, wmidis kategoriaSi gadavida, ukan veRar moiTxoveba _ adamiani veRar xelyofs mas. wmida wmidadve
unda darCes. aravis aqvs wmida sagnis rioSad gamoyenebis ufleba. es profanaciaa. magram aris gamonaklisi.
ramdenadac dadebuli aRTqma pasuximgeblobas akisrebs aRmTqmels, es ukanaskneli srulwlovani an sruluflebiani pirovneba unda iyos. arc arasrulwlovani (bavSvi) da arc arasruluflebiani ar aris Tavisufali aRTqmis dadebaSi. bavSvebis uflebaze rjuli
arafers ambobs, mas mxedvelobaSi qalebi hyavs, rogorc
SezRuduli uflebis mqone arsebani.
qals ar ekrZaleba aRTqmis dadeba uflis mimarT an
rames aRkveTa Tavisi TavisaTvis uflis winaSe, magram
mis aRTqmaze kontrols awesebs is, visi uflebis qveSac
imyofeba qali aRTqmis dadebisas. Tu qali mamis saxlSi
cxovrobs anu is gauTxovaria, siymawvilis asakSia, mamis uflebaa, dasturi misces mis aRTqmas an dauSalos.
Tu mama gaigebs da arafers ityvis, aRTqma darCeba qaliSvilze; Tu dauSala, qaliSvili aRar Seasrulebs
aRTqmas da mas epatieba _ ufali apatiebs, raki mamam
dauSala. igulisxmeba, rom mamam ukeT icis, SeZlebs Tu
ara misi qaliSvili aRTqmis Sesrulebas. ar unda vifiqroT, rom mamas TviTneburad, qaliSvilis moraluri
mdgomareobis gauTvaliswineblad, gamoaqvs gadawyvetileba aRTqmis gasauqmeblad. igi usaTuod iTvaliswinebs (Tumca amis Sesaxeb rjuli arafers ambobs) qalis moralur mowifulobas da mzadyofnas aRTqmis Sesasruleblad. mama xelmZRvanelobs principiT, romelic formulis saxiT mogvianebiT eklesiastes wignSi
gamoiTqva: sjobs ar aRuTqva, vidre aRuTqva da ar Seasrulo (ekl. 5:4). akrZalviT mama, SeiZleba iTqvas,
aTavisuflebs pasuxismgeblobisgan qaliSvils, sust
arsebas, romelmac daufiqreblad, Tavis SesaZleblobaTa gauTvaliswineblad, aRuTqva ufals rames aRkveTa. daufiqreblobiT aRTqmis dadebis SemTxvevas icnobs biblia, magram es Seexeba ara qals, aramed sruluflebian mamakacs: ifTaxs, rogorc Tavisufals da
sruluflebians, cxadia, ar hyavda patroni, romelic
gaauqmebda mis aRTqmas, ramac misi udanaSaulo qaliSvili Seiwira (msaj. 11:31-40).
rjuli gulisxmobs, rom qali mamis uneburad, mis daukiTxavad ver dadebs aRTqmas im dauwereli wesis safuZvelze, rom qaliSvilis uflebebi mamiseul saxlSi
SezRudulia, qali aq savsebiT ar ekuTvnis Tavis Tavs.
aris sferoebi, sadac Tavisuflad moqmedebis, gadawyvetilebis gamotanis ufleba mas ara aqvs. erT-erTi aseTi
sferoa ufalTan anu wmidasTan urTierToba. am urTierTobas mamamisi, romelic misi patronia, ganagebs.
cxadia, icvleba gaTxovili qalis statusi: mamis patronobidan igi qmris patronobaSi gadadis (qmari, ebraulad bayal, sxvas arafers niSnavs etimologiurad, Tu
ara patrons. Tumca teqstSi qmris aRmniSvneli sxva sit-

293

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

yvaa gamoyenebuli: iS _ saxeldobr, kaci). qmars SeuZlia gauuqmos qals, amieridan Tavis cols, mamis saxlidan gamoyolili aRTqma. SeuZlia qals, daumalos qmars
mamis saxlSi aRTqmis dadebis faqti? aramc da aramc. es
qalis danaSauli iqneba. qmarma unda icodes misi pasuxismgeblobis viTareba, rogorc man icis misi mziTevis
ambavi. amieridan qali mas ekuTvnis mis mTlianobaSi _
fizikur, moralur da qonebriv avla-didebasTan erTad. mamis patronoba qmris patronobiT icvleba.
rjuli iTvaliswinebs imasac, rom qmarma droulad,
gagebisTanave, unda gadawyvitos, utovebs Tu ara cols
aRTqmis Sesrulebis uflebas. Tu gaigebs da dumiliT
upasuxebs (dumili ki Tanxmobis niSania), Tanxmobis Semdeg mas ara aqvs ufleba gauuqmos cols aRTqma. yovel
aRTqmas da aRkveTis yovel fics Tavis dasaTrgunad misi qmari amtkicebs da misi qmari auqmebs (30:14). aqedan
dauwereli wesi: vinc aris qalis patroni, is aris _ mama
iqneba Tu qmari _ pasuxismgebeli mis aRTqmaze.
rjuli arafers ambobs monaqalze, SeuZlia Tu ara
mas aRTqmis dadeba. magram rjuli uwesebs kanons qvriv
da qmargaSvebul qalebs. maT veravin gauuqmebs aRTqmas,
radgan maT aRar hyavT patroni: qvrivs TavisTavad; rac
Seexeba qmargaSvebuls, romelic gamosulia qmris patronobidan da, Cveulebriv, mamis saxlSi brundeba, magram brundeba sxva statusiT, mamas aRar aqvs masze is ufleba, romelic mis siymawvileSi hqonda. qmargaSvebuli
qali Tavad aris pasuxismgebeli Tavis aRTqmaze.
midianis Semusvra
(31)
midianelTa dalaSqrvas ar hqonda strategiuli mizani: midiani ar idga mis gzaze, ar daabrkolebda mas
iordanis gadalaxvisas aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesasvlelad. erTaderTi mizani Surisgeba iyo. ufali israelianTa xeliT Surs iZiebs midianelTagan, romelTac
Seacdines israeli da Ralati Caadenines uflis mimarT. baal-feRoris Secodeba gaazrebulia, rogorc
colqmruli Ralati: ufali qmaria, israeli misi sZali (es simbolika gadadis qristianobaSi eklesiisa da
qristes urTierTobis gamosaxatavad). mruSoba religiuri gandgomis metaforaa, Tumca is rCeba realur danaSaulad, romlis mimarT rjuli sastikia: vinme,
vinc imruSebs vinmes colTan, vinc imruSebs axloblis
colTan, sikvdiliT unda mokvdes _ memruSe kacic da
memruSe qalic (lev. 20:10). SitimSi, roca israelma
Sescoda moabel-midianelTa qalebTan da imavdroulad uRalata ufals ucxo RmerTebis TayvaniscemiT,
gvaxsovs, 24 000 israeliani Seewira am gandgomas, xolo erTi Tavkaci zimri macdunebel midianel qalTan
erTad samagaliTod daisaja mRvdelmTavris xeliT.
axla ufali iTxovs meore damnaSave mxaris dasjasac,
raTa aRsruldes rjuli.

294

ricxvni

amitomac es brZola saRvTo omia, uflis Surisgebis


(nikmaT ahve) mizniT gamarTuli. amave dros, es aris
moses ukanaskneli (amis Semdeg is unda SeerTos Tavis
xalxs) da israelianTa axali Taobis pirveli brZola,
romelic maT gadaxdaT aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesvlamde.
ramdenadac es saRvTo omia, masSi monawileobas iRebs
finxasi, samRvdelo piri, Ze mRvdelmTavar eleazarisa,
wmida WurWlebiTa da sayvirebiT. gawveul iqna aTasaTasi kaci TiTo Stodan, sul Tormeti aTasi (levianebi, rogorc kultis msaxurni, ar Cabmulan omSi).
da gailaSqres midianze, rogorc ubrZana ufalma
moses, da amoxoces yvela mamri (31:7). es aris da es, rac
naTqvamia am brZolis mimdinareobaze. mxolod CamoTvlilia daxocili mefeebi, maT Soris curi, mama midianeli qalisa (qozbisa), romelic adreve finxasis xeliT
daisaja israelianTa banakSi. daxocilTa Soris moxsenebulia balaam winaswarmetyvelic, romelsac bralad
daedo midianeli qalebis waqezeba israelianTa Sesacdenad (31:16). mTxrobeli gadamwvari daba-qalaqebis
saxelebsac ar axsenebs: israels isini ar anaRvlebs, ar
apirebs iq dasaxlebas. samagierod, mTxrobelis mTeli
yuradReba gadatanilia naalafarze _ es aris am Tavis
mTavari sagani.
omi damTavrda, israelma uflis Suri iZia midianisgan, gamarjvebulebma mTeli nadavli miitanes banakSi.
magram uflis omi mosesTvis ar damTavrebula, Suri
srulad ar yofila migebuli. unda gawyvetiliyo
mTlianad mamrovani (asakis miuxedavad) da dedrovani,
visac mamakaci Secnobili hyavda, rogorc damnaSaveni
baal-feRoris cdunebaSi. gana maTi mizeziT ar ganudgnen israelianebi ufals, rogorc urCia balaamma...? axla gawyviteT bavSvebSi yoveli mamrovani da yoveli qali, romelsac Secnobili hyavs mamakaci mamris sawolze, mokaliT (31:16-17). cocxali datoves qalwulni,
romelTac brals ver dasdebdnen israelian mamakacTa
cdunebaSi.
marTalia, es saRvTo omi iyo, magram yvela, visac kacis kvlaSi wili edva an mkvdris sxeuls iyo Sexebuli,
Svid dRes banakis gareT unda darCeniliyo, rogorc uwmiduri. unda ganwmediliyvnen ara mxolod mebrZolebi, aramed _ ganmwmedeli wylis sxurebiT _ maTi tyveebic tanisamosiTurT, tyavis nivTebi, xis WurWeli;
gansawmedlad cecxlSi unda gatarebuliyo oqro-vercxli, spilenZi, TuTia, rkina. rac cecxls ver uZlebs,
wyalSi unda gavlebuliyo. amis mere unda Sesuliyvnen
banakSi naalafariTurT.
saRvTo omis Sedegad xelSi Cagdebuli nadavli Sedgeboda adamianebisgan (mamrovan-dedrovani, bavSvebi),
cxvar-Zroxisgan da Zvirfaseulobisgan. es yvelaferi
mebrZolebsa da banakSi darCenilTa Soris ganawilda.
am ganawilebas mTxrobeli gansakuTrebul yuradRebas
uTmobs. nadavli jer aRiricxeba, mere Suaze gaiyofa;

295

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

erTi nawili molaSqreebs gadaecema, meore nawili _


mTel sazogadoebas. brZolaSi monawileT da banakSi
darCenilT TiTqos Tanabrad unawildebaT nadavli.
magram es, cxadia, ase ar aris. jer erTi, meti wili Sexvdeba TiToeuls Tormeti aTasidan (amdeni iyo mebrZoli), raki naxevari mcire raodenobaze nawildeba, da gacilebiT naklebi _ danarCenT, romlebic ricxobrivad Seudareblad metni arian. meore, molaSqreni TavianTi wilidan uflis xarkad xuTas sulze (adamiani iqneba Tu saqoneli) TiTo suls ixdian, danarCenebi ki
TiTo suls _ ormocdaaT sulze. cxadia, meomrebs, sruliad samarTlianad, gacilebiT meti SexvdebodaT maTi xeliT mopovebuli nadavlidan. magram mTavari aq is
aris, rom nadavlSi wili udevT ara mxolod mebrZolT,
aramed banakSi darCenilTac. SeiZleba gvefiqra, rom
ganawilebis es principi sayovelTao wesad midianis
brZolis Semdeg daido, magram mefeTa wigni am wesis
damkvidrebas daviTs miawers. miuxedavad oTxasi gamarjvebuli meomris guliswyromisa, daviTi banakSi darCenil orassac uwiladebs nadavls im motiviT, rom es
yvelaferi uflis mocemulia: ra wilic nabrZoleb
kacs udevs, igive wili unda xvdes banakSi darCenils.
yvelas unda xvdes wili (1mef. 30:24). xolo mTxrobeli
askvnis: ase iyo am dRidan da merec. es aris misgan dadgenil wesad da rjulad dResamomde (1mef. 30:25).
meomarTa wili Tvisobrivad gansxvavebulia danarCenTa (isini am konteqstSi israelianebad ixseniebian)
wilisgan. meomrebi TavianTi wilidan eliazar mRvdelmTavars gadascemen sauflo ZRvenad, israelianebi ki
levianTa sasargeblod gaiReben. anu aqedan is daskvna gamodis, rom meomarTa wili ufro mniSvnelovania levianTa wilze, radgan erTi mRvdelmTavris, RmerTTan xalxis Suamdgomlis, xarisxi gacilebiT metia, vidre levianTa mTeli gundisa, romelic karavs emsaxureba, anu,
sxvanairad, erT mxares aris ufali da saidumlo samsaxuri, meore mxares _ karavi da sajaro samsaxuri.
garda cxvrisa, xvastagisa da saxedrebisa, amasTanave, adamianebisa (eseni iyvnen mxolod dedrovanni: Teqvsmeti aTasi qalwuli, romelTa colad Txova ar ikrZaleboda da romelTagan mxolod ocdaTormeti xvda
wilad eleazars uflis samsaxurisTvis, _ ramdenadac
isini mTlianad mowyvetilni iyvnen TavianT xalxsa da
kerpebs da religiurad saSiSroebas ver Seuqmnidnen
rCeul ers), aTasisTavebma da asisTavebma moses miarTves sauflo Sesawiravad oqros samkaulebi: salteebi,
samajurebi, yelsabamebi, beWdebi Tu sayureebi, da Tan
sasixarulo ambavi amcnes, rom brZolaSi erTi meomaric ar dacemula (31:48-50). mTeli oqro, romelic maT
miitanes, 16 750 Sekels Seadgenda. im meomrebis saxeliT, romelTac is brZolaSi moipoves, Tavad ki gadarCnen, es Sesawiravi israelianTa sulebis Sesandobrad
CaiTvala. miiRes mosem da eliazar mRvdelma oqrou-

296

ricxvni

loba aTasisTavebisagan da asisTavebisagan da Seitanes sakrebulo karavSi israelianTa samaxsovrod uflis winaSe (31:54).
sastiki iyo midianelTa Semusvra. aseT sisastikes
ver egueba dRevandeli mkiTxveli. magram aseTi iyo Zveli aRTqmis xana _ rCeuli eris Camoyalibebis procesi.
rwmenis siwmidis dasacavad, rwmenis gadasarCenad iyo
Cadenili es sisastike, romlis msgavss araerTgzis SevxvdebiT babliur istoriaSi. saRvTo omi ulmobelia,
israelianTa xeliT ufali ar indobs misi religiis
mtrebs, magram is aseve ar indobs Tavad israelianebs,
Tavis xalxs, romelic man Tavis unj erad airCia. is namdvilad ar iCens mikerZoebas. vidre midians Semusravdnen israelianebi, Tavad maT Soris 24 000 suli gawyvita uflisgan movlenilma Savma Wirma. Tu ufali Surismgebelia, is Tanabrad iZiebs Surs yvelasgan, radgan misia mTeli qveyana. magram, pirvel rigSi, mis winaSe israelia pasuxismgebeli da pirvelad is isjeba, radgan
pirvelad mas ganucxada Tavi da kacTa modgmis magaliTad dasaxa. am niSniT aris warmarTuli Zveli aRTqmis
istoriuli procesi, romlis sazrissac pavle mociquli erT frazaSi moaqcevs: Wiri da mwuxareba yovel
suls adamianisas, borotis moqmeds, jer iudevels da
mereRa berZens (rom. 2:9).
midianis sastiki da Zlevamosili, udanakargo brZola esqatologiur sazriss iZens israelis istoriaSi.
igia arqetipi yoveli gadamwyveti da ukanaskneli
brZolisa, saboloo gamarjvebis Taursaxea. fsalmunSi
aris aseTi mowodeba-vedreba: miage maT igive, rac midians (fsalm. 82:10). xolo esaia ase gvisuraTebs uflis ukanasknel gamarjvebas Tavisi rCeuli xalxis
mtrebze: radgan uReli, romelic amZimebda mas, keti
mis beWebze, kverTxi misi mCagvrelisa Sen dalewe, rogorc midianis dRes (es. 9:3).
reubenian-gadianTa saTxovari
(32)
roca mose aRTqmul qveyanaze elaparakeboda israelianebs, igi yovelTvis gulisxmobda qveyanas, romelic
iordanis dasavleTiT mdebareobs _ iordanesa da
zRvas Soris. yabarimis mTaze Semdgars, sikvdilis win,
mas swored dasavleTisken unda gaexeda, iordanes gaRma. iq dainaxavda igi mTel im teritorias, romelic israelianTa Stoebs Soris unda danawilebuliyo. aRTqmuli qveynis dasapatroneblad gadamwyveti brZolebi am teritoriaze eloda maT. da Tu isini iordanes
gamoRma (mis aRmosavleT mxares) ebrZodnen adgilobriv xalxebs, maTi mizani ar iyo am xalxebis ayra da maT
adgilebze damkvidreba. es iZulebiTi an raRac gansakuTrebuli mizeziT gamowveuli brZolebi iyo.
axla modian mosesTan da eliazarTan reubenianTa
da gadianTa warmomadgenlebi winadadebiT, rom maT

297

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ar surT iordanes gaRma gadasvla, radgan arCeuli


aqvT miwebi galaadSi, sadac nayofieri saZovrebia,
maT ki didZali saqoneli hyavT. galaadi, baSani _
unayofieresi mxarea mTels transiordaniaSi, wvimiani, Releebiani,
vrcelsaZovrebiani, kvebavs uricxv
saqonels _ cxvar-Zroxas da xvastags. es is qveyanaa,
sixon amorevelis mxare, romelzec ar gaatares israelis urdoebi, risTvisac ganadgurebul iqna misi daba-qalaqebi (ricx. 21:21-34). israelma daamyara masze
kontroli, magram ar ucdia iq dasaxleba. nayofieria
es qveyana, magram is ar aris aRTqmuli miwa. nu gadagviyvan iordanes gaRma (32:5), am sityvebSi mosem saSiSi miswrafeba dainaxa. mas is janyi gaaxsenda, romelic qanaanis mzveravTa mier motanilma ambavma gamoiwvia. maSin ar indomes israelianebma qanaanSi Sesvla. mose uxsenebs maT am epizods da mere uflis risxvas, romlis Sedegad ormoci weli ixetiales udabnoSi israelianebma. codvilTa naSierno, ase mimarTavs maT. codvilni _ wina Taoba udabnoSi ganadgurdnen, axla maTi naSierni uaryofen uflis mowodebas, uars amboben aRTqmul qveyanaze. ara mxolod Tavad, aramed sxvebsac abrkoleben, uSlian im qveyanaSi
Sesvlas, romelic micemuli aqvs maTTvis ufals. ase
fiqrobs mose. mzveravTa epizodis da uflis risxvis
SexsenebiT kvlavac udabnoSi xetialisa da saboloo
daRupvis perspeqtivas aRuTqvams maT. ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, gamoRma darCenilni mowydebian eris fesvs
da gasaxmobad ganwirul Stoebs wili aRar eqnebaT
uflis gangebulebaSi.
reubenian-gadianebs namdvilad ar surT mowydnen
israels, saerTo istoriis gareSe darCnen. isini uars
ar amboben qanaanis erTiani ZaliT dapyrobaze. isini
mzad arian gadalaxon iordane aT tomTan erTad, raTa
monawileoba miiRon am saerTo Rirssaxsovar laSqrobaSi. ar davbrundebiT saxlebSi [galaadSi], vidre
ar daimkvidrebs TiToeuli israeliani Tavis samkvidros (32:18), aRuTqvamen isini moses. gadawyda: isini
galaadSi aRadgenen gadamwvar daba-qalaqebs dedawulis dasabinaveblad, aaSenebens farexebs saqonlisTvis, Tavad ki, yvelani, iaraRis xelSi amRebni, daamkvidrebineben TavianT Zmebs maT wilxvedril miwebs,
mereRa dabrundebian maT mier arCeul adgilebSi.
Cven gavalT darazmulni uflis winaSe qanaanis qveyanaSi, samkvidro ki iordanes gaRma gveqneba (32:32), es
iyo maTi saboloo sityva da kidec Seasrules. ase miiRo am orma tomma, romelTac mogvianebiT menaSes tomis erTi nawili (naxevari) SeuerTda, iordanes gaRma
sacxovrebeli teritoria. da cxovrobda israelis
orStonaxevari qanaanis gareT, iordanes gaRmiT.

298

ricxvni

israelianTa mgzavrobani
(33:1-49)
aRTqmuli qveynis sazRvrebi
(34:1-12)
israelianTa mgzavroba dasasruls uaxlovdeba.
aRar aris aaroni, male aRar iqneba mosec, rogorc uTxra mas ufalma. male isini gadavlen iordanis meore
napirze moses gareSe ieso naves Zis winamZRolobiT.
ukan aris motovebuli mTeli gza egviptidan moabis
tramalebamde, sadac axla dganan isini. es aris ormocwliani periodi, romelSic erTmaneTs enacvleboda mgzavrobani da dabanakebani. dabanakebulan bevr
adgilze da kidev ufro bevri adgili gauvliaT. am
adgilTa saxelebi, zogi RirsSesaniSnavi, zogi umniSvnelo, maTi istoriis nawilia da maTi daviwyeba
ar iqneba. da, aha, mosec uflis brZanebiT gauxsenebs
maT mTel am gzas da Cawers, rac pirveli SemTxvevaa
mTeli misi winamZRolobis ganmavlobaSi. Cven vicnobdiT aqamde molaparake moses da, rasac is laparakobda, RvTisgan iyo nakarnaxevi. Tavisi sakuTari salaparako mas ar hqonia. axla Cvens winaSea mose, romelic wers da rasac wers, uflis brZanebiT wers, magram
mxolod imas, rac TvaliT unaxavs da rac gonebiT daumaxsovrebia.
es aris ganvlili gzis retrospeqcia, sadac mgzavrobebi da dabanakebani enacvleba erTmaneTs. am ritms gamoxatavs formula: gaemgzavrnen israelianebi ramzesidan da dabanakdnen suqoTSi; gaemgzavrnen suqoTidan da
dabanakdnen eTamSi... (33:5-6). ramzesi, qalaqi goSenis
mxarisa egvipteSi, sadac israelianebi cxovrobdnen, maTi daZvris pirveli punqti iyo. rodis daiZrnen? pirveli Tvis meTxuTmete dRes anu pirveldawesebuli paseqis
meore dRes. ra xdeboda am dros egvipteSi? egviptelebi
marxavdnen TavianT daRupul pirmSoebs, ufliswulidan
dawyebuli monis pirmSomde, _ pirmSoTa Semusvra ukanaskneli sasjeli iyo, romelmac gadawyvita israelianTa saboloo gamosvla egviptidan. mSrali formula:
gaemgzavrnen X-dan da dabanakdnen Y-Si, gaemgzavrnen
Y-dan da dabanakdnen Z-Si alag-alag cocxldeba landSaftis dakonkretebiT: dabanakdnen eTamSi, romelic
udabnos kideze mdebareobs (33:6); an ufro cocxlad:
Tormeti wyaro da samocdaaTi finikis xe iyo elamSi
(33:9); iq ar iyo sasmeli wyali xalxisTvis (33:14); an
aRniSnulia Rirssaxsovari ambavi, rac iq moxda da ramac
gansakuTrebuli sazrisi mianiWa adgils: gaemgzavrnen
kadeSidan da horis mTaze dabanakdnen, edomis qveynis
sazRvarze. da avida aaron mRvdeli horis mTaze uflis
brZanebisamebr da mokvda iq israelianTa egviptidan gamosvlis meormoce wels, mexuTe Tvis pirvelSi... (33:3738), Tumca iseT mniSvnelovan movlenas, rogoric sinaize
rjulis miRebaa, retrospeqcia ar axsenebs. ar aris aRniSnuli arc mgzavrobis manZili da arc dabanakebis xan-

299

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

grZlivoba. mxolod is viciT, rom ormoci wlis ganmavlobaSi israelianebma ormocdaori dasaxelebis adgilze daibanakes. raze mianiSnebs ricxvi 42, Tuki masSi rame
sazrisi marxia? masTan dakavSirebiT ixseneben qristes
genealogias, romelic sami periodisgan Sedgeba da TiToeulSi 14 Taobaa anu sul 42 Taoba (maT. 1:17).
bevri toponimi arafrismetyvelia, ramdenadac isini israelianTa msvlelobis vrcel aRwerilobaSi ar
ixsenieba, arc maTi lokalizacia xerxdeba. zogierTi
adgili, romelic maT realurad gaiares, retrospeqciaSi ar moxvedrila. ratom? Znelia pasuxis gacema. Znelia aseve rame kanonzomierebis aRmoCena am mgzavrobadabanakebaTa monacvleobaSi, am ritmSi. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rac viciT israelianTa gansacdelebiT savse
Tavgadasavlidan, egviptiT dawyebuli moabis tramalebamde, am retrospeqciaSi SegviZlia oTxi gadamwyveti, fuZemdebluri periodi gamovarCioT:
goSenidan mewamul zRvamde. gamosvlis dRe aRiniSna
pirmSoTa SemusvriT, ramac gamoaCina uflis dideba; am
dRes dasabami mieca israelianTa udides dResaswauls
sami didi dResaswaulidan. mewamuli zRvis saswaulebrivma gadalaxvam, romelmac aseve aCvena uflis dideba,
erT-erTi gadamwyveti zRurbli aRniSna israelis
cxovrebaSi.
mewamuli zRvidan sinais mTamde, sadac gamosvlis
meore Tves israelma miiRo rjuli da daibada, rogorc
rCeuli eri, uflis unji xalxi da samRvdelo modgma.
aqve aCvena man pirveli gandgomileba uflisagan, roca
xeliTqmnili oqros xbos garSemo zeimi gamarTa.
sinais mTidan kadeSamde, ufro zustad, kadeS-barneamde, sadac israelma sabediswero sulmokleoba gamoiCina aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesvlaze uarisTqmiT, rac sxva
araferi iyo, Tu ara urwmunoeba uflis ZalaSi, da es mas
Semdeg, rac sinaize igi uflis didebisa da yovlisSemZleobis mowme Seiqna. aqedan daiwyo, rogorc sasjeli,
udabnoSi xetialis ormoci weliwadi.
kadeSidan moabis tramalebamde, sadac ormoci wlis
Semdeg mividnen; sadac kidev erTxel da ukanasknelad
(yovel SemTxvevaSi, iordanis gadalaxvamde) scodes
baal-feRoris codviT da kidec iwvnies didi sasjeli,
Tumca codvisgan ganwmedilebma uflis Suri iZies Semacdenel midianze, riTac saukuneebSi gaaxmianes midianis dRe rogorc saboloo gamarjvebis simbolo.
moabis tramalebze mose erTxel kidev (da merec mouxdeba amis ganmeoreba) moZRvravs ers, Tu rogor unda
moiqcnen qanaanSi Sesvlisas da damkvidrebisas: rom ayaron qveynis mkvidrni, da gaanadguron maTi kerpebi, moSalon samsxverplo gorakebi; rom dainawilon qveyana
wilisyriT (radgan RvTiskaci mose aRar iqneba maT Soris, rom uSualod gamoucxados uflis neba, rasac amieridan kenWisyra gaacxadebs), mravalricxovan Stos meti wili miscen, mcirericxovans _ naklebi.

300

ricxvni

warsulis moxilvidan mose momavlis konturebs saxavs. es konturebi dasamkvidrebeli qveynis sazRvrebia.
warsulis rocas, momavlis roca enacvleba: roca
Sexval qanaanis qveyanaSi, es iqneba qveyana, romelic SegxvdebaT samkvidrod, qanaanis qveyana misi sazRvrebiT
(34:2). sazRvrebi, romelsac adgens mose, qanaanis bunebrivi sazRvrebia, romelTa SigniT es qveyana geografiul mTlianobas warmoadgens. misi sazRvrebi zogadad
aseTia: samxreTiT mas sazRvravs cinis udabno; CrdiloeTiT _ xamaTi, saidanac libanis mTebi iwyeba; aRmosavleTiT _ iordane; dasavleTiT _ didi zRva anu xmelTaSua zRva. es teritoria imaze vrcelia, romelic ki
odesme sWeria israels. RmerTma Tavis rCeul xalxs teritoriis maqsimumi aRuTqva, rogorc idealuri samosaxlo, magram man ver SeZlo mTlianad misi damkvidreba.
saamisod mas ar eyo arc fizikuri da, Tu bibliuri Teologiis kuTxiT SevxedavT, arc moraluri Zala.
levianTa samkvidro qalaqebi
(35:1-34)
levianebs aqvT wili aRTqmul miwaze, magram gansakuTrebuli. ramdenadac levianTa samkvidro ufalia,
maT qanaanSi ar eZlevaT samkvidro calke teritoriis
saxiT, rogorc saero Stoebs miecaT. isini, rogorc uflis, sawmidrisa da miwis siwmidis damcvelni, yvelgan
unda cxovrobdnen da ara mxolod erT gansazRvrul teritoriaze, isini gafantulni unda iyvnen (es ganfantva
maT ewinaswarmetyvelaT iakobis kurTxevaSi) mTels miwa-wyalze. isini yvelgan saWironi arian. ufalma moses
piriT maT gamouyo qalaqebi yoveli tomis samkvidroSi
tomis ricxovnobis kvalobaze: mravalricxovan tomSi
meti qalaqebi, mcirericxovanSi _ naklebi. sul ormocdarva qalaqi, arc meti, arc naklebi. qalaqebi sacxovreblad eZlevaT, sadac isini mdgmurebad arian StoSi;
eZlevaT saZovrebi saqonlisTvis qalaqis garSemo: qalaqis kedlidan gadaizomeba aTasi wyrTa (daaxl. 450
m) oTxive mimarTulebiT, qalaqi moqceuli iqneba kvadratSi, romlis gverdebi 2000 wyrTas Seadgens anu kvadratis farTobi oriaTasi kvadratuli wyrTa iqneba. es
aris maTi qalaqi sanaxebiTurT.
am qalaqebidan, romlebic levianebs, rogorc israelis siwmidis gamoxatulebas, miecaT, gamoiyofa eqvsi
qalaqi TavSesafrad _ sami iordanis aRmosavleT mxares, sadac ornaxevari Sto miiRebs samkvidros (esenia:
beceri, galaadis ramoTi da golani) da sami Tavad qanaanSi, sadac cxranaxevari Sto miiRebs samkvidros (esenia: xebroni, siqemi da kadeSi).
es eqvsi qalaqi uneburi mkvlelis TavSesafrad aris
gamiznuli: TavSesafar qalaqebad gqondeT isini, sadac SeeZleba Tavis Sefareba mkvlels, romelsac uneburad Semoakvdeba kaci. gqondeT es qalaqebi TavSesafrad
SurismaZieblisagan, raTa ar moiklas mkvleli, vidre

301

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sazogadoebis winaSe wardgebodes samsjavrod (35:1112). rjuli ganarCevs unebur mkvlelobas ganzrax
mkvlelobisgan. winaswarganzraxuli mkvlelobisTvis
sasikvdilo sasjelia, mesisxles Tavad SeuZlia moklas mkvleli, Sexvdeba da TviTonve moklavs (35:19), anu
rjuli dasturs scems sisxlis aRebis bunebiT wess, Tumca pirvel mkvlelobaze, romelic kaenis xeliT moxda,
RvTis samarTalma SurisZieba gamoricxa (dab. 4:15).
nebismier mkvlels, ganzrax mkvleli iqneba Tu uneburi (mtrobis gareSe mkvleli), SeuZlia _ es misi kanonieri uflebaa _ Seafaros Tavi uaxloes TavSesafar qalaqs, raTa ganukiTxavi mkvlelobis msxverpli ar gaxdes. uxucesebi qalaqis sazogadoebis monawileobiT qalaqis gareT gaarkveven mis braleulobas da, Tu dadgindeba, rom mkvleloba uneblieT moxda, mkvlels qalaqSi
daabruneben da is icxovrebs iq wmida zeTiT cxebuli
mRvdelmTavris sikvdilamde (35:24-25). gascdeba Tu ara
qalaqs, mesisxle Tavisufalia masze Suris saZieblad,
pasuxs ar agebs daRvrili sisxlisTvis. mRvdelmTavris
sikvdili mkvlels aTavisuflebs am qalaqSi iZulebiTi
tyveobisgan, SeuZlia daubrundes Tavis saxls _ sasjeli moxdili aqvs. magram sisxlis daRvrisgan mas ganwmeds ara imdenad TavSesafar qalaqSi patimroba (gadasaxleba), ramdenadac da upiratesad mRvdelmTavris
sikvdili. leviani mRvdelmTavari TiTqos Tavisi sikvdiliT gamoisyidis mis danaSauls. sxva SemTxvevaSi,
roca mkvleloba winaswarganzraxulia, mkvleli sikvdiliT isjeba (principiT: sisxli sisxlis wil) an SurisZiebis kanonieri msxverpli xdeba.
arc ganzrax mkvlelis danaSauli, romelic sasikvdiloa, arc uneblie mkvlelis danaSauli, romelic
TavSesafar qalaqSi patimrobas imsaxurebs, veraviTari gamosasyidiT ver gamoisyideba (35:31-32). ganzrax
mkvlelobis SemTxvevaSi daRvrili sisxli mxolod
damRvrelis sisxliT gamoisyideba, uneblie mkvlelis
daRvril sisxls mRvdelmTavris sikvdili gamoisyidis (anu mRvdelmTavris sikvdili is zRurblia, romlis Semdeg mkvlels sisxli aRar moekiTxeba).
rjulSi ar aris naTqvami, magram sisxlis samarTlis
es kanonmdebloba efuZneba, calkerZ, adamianis sicocxlis siwmides, romelic sisxlSia, rogorc siwmidis
nivTier gamoxatulebaSi (amitomac mas ganmwmedeli Zala aqvs), calkerZ, miwis siwmides, romelsac bRalavs,
auwmidurebs daRvrili sisxli. mkvleloba auwmidurebs miwas abelis mkvlelobidan moyolebuli, sisxli,
romelic miwidan RmerTs SehRaRadebs (dab. 4:10). xolo
miwa wmidaa, gansakuTrebiT is miwa _ aRTqmuli qveyana,
sadac ufali Tavisi siwmidiT myofobs Tavis xalxTan
erTad, Tavis xalxSi, romelic aseve wmida unda iyos.
nu wabilwavT miwas, sadac imyofebiT... nu gaauwmidurebT miwas, sadac Tqven cxovrobT, sadac me var davanebuli Tqvens Soris... (35:34).

302

ricxvni

kvlav celafxadis asulTa samarTali


(36:1-13)
celafxadis qaliSvilTa, rogorc mamis memkvidreTa, sakiTxi ar iyo bolomde gadawyvetili. am saqmeSi
yvelaferi bolomde cxadi da garkveuli unda yofiliyo, radgan es ar iyo mxolod maTi kerZo saqme. mas, rogorc precedents, daefuZneboda samomavlod yvela analogiuri kazusi. marTalia, celafxadis asulTa memkvidred gamocxadebiT rjulma daicva mamis Rirseba da
saxeli, ixsna igi gaqrobisgan israelSi, magram ra bedi
eweoda mamiseul samkvidros qaliSvilTa xelSi maTi
gaTxovebis Semdeg, Tu maT ar ekrZalebaT sxva StoSi
gaTxoveba? aseTi akrZalva ar arsebobs: israelis qorwinebis samarTali egzogamiuria. wamoiWra Sidatomobrivi samkvidros ganuyoflobis problema. Tu mamis
memkvidre asulebi sxva StoSi gaTxovdebian, maTi samkvidroc gadava sxva StoSi, es ki daarRvevs miwis danawilebis princips da moSlis StoTaTvis dawesebul
sazRvrebs (33:53-54). rogor unda iqnas daculi, calkerZ, StoTa da sagvareuloTaTvis erTxel miCenili
samkvidros mTlianoba da, calkerZ, memkvidre asulTa
Tavisufali arCevani, romlis ufleba maT aqvT miniWebuli? ai, ra brZana ufalma celafxadis asulTa saqmeze: vinc moewonebaT, imas misTxovdnen, oRond mamiseuli Stos sagvareuloSi gaTxovdnen. ar unda gadadiodes israelianTa samkvidro Stodan StoSi, radgan mamapapiseul Stos samkvidros unda iyos miwebebuli TiToeuli israeliani (36:6-7).
ase, celafxadis asulTa kerZo saqme, rogorc precedenti, meored Seiqna axali rjulis safuZveli. rogorc
isini moiqceodnen, ise dawesdeboda TaobebSi. celafxadis samkvidro ar gadasula sxva StoSi, radgan misi asulebi TavianT biZaSvilebs misTxovdnen. ase iqna daculi
rogorc asulTa interesebi, ise Stos mTlianoba.

303

meore rjuli

es saxelwodeba momdinareobs Tavad am wignis erTi adgilidan, sadac laparakia rjulis wignis gadaweraze: da roca dajdeba Tavis samefo taxtze, gadaiweros asli am rjulisa wignad
leviani mRvdlebis winaSe~ (17:18). miSne haTorah, romelic niSnavs rjulis asls, samocdaaTi mTargmnelis mier gaazrebuli
iqna rogorc meore rjuli da, Sesabamisad, iTargmna berZnulad rogorc deuteronomion (deuteros axali, nomos rjuli, kanoni) da aseve darCa am wignis saxelwodebad, vulgatadan (Liber deutoronomii) moyolebuli axal evropul enebze Sesrulebel TargmanebSi. Zveli qarTuli Targmanis meore rjuli amave tradicias ekuTvnis.
magram Tavad wignSi gadmocemulia ara axali, gansxvavebuli
rjuli, aramed ganmeorebulia is Zveli rjuli, romelic ukve
gadmoica moses xeliT, da ukanasknelad aris gaSlili xuTwigneulis bolo wignSi.
ebraul tradiciaSi wigni ramdenime saxelwodebiT aris cnobili: zemoTxsenebuli miSne haTorah (asli rjulisa), sefer
ToqaxoT (wigni SegonebaTa) da debarim (sityvebi), wignis dasawyisis mixedviT _ ele hadebarim esenia sityvebi..
rac Seexeba Tavad termins Torah rjuli, is moicavs iuridiul da religiur kanonTa erTobliobas, romelic ayalibebs da
gansazRvravs rCeuli eris Sinagan saxes, mis zneobas da morals,
misi qcevis wesebs, urTierTobas rogorc sazogadoebis SigniT,
TanatomelebTan, aseve mis gareT, ucxotomelebTan, damokidebulebas da pasuxismgeblobas RvTis winaSe da sakuTari Tavis, rogorc RvTis rCeuli xalxis, winaSe. wignSi gadmocemulia RvTis
neba, romelsac unda emorCilebodes israelianTa sazogadoeba,
Tu mas surs kurTxeuli da imediani cxovreba aRTqmul miwaze.
mTeli rjuli, sabolood, misi arsi, gamoxatavs alternativas _
morCilebas an urCobas, kurTxevas an SeCvenebas, sicocxles an
sikvdils, romelTagan erT-erTi unda airCios israelma. mTeli
xuTwigneuli imis mowmobaa, rom israeli xSirad sikvdils irCevs.
rogorc xuTwigneulis sxva wignebs, meore rjulsac aqvs Tavisi sakvanZo sityva, es aris: gaxsovdes, rac savsebiT gamoxatavs wignis suls. ra unda axsovdes israels, romelic axla moabis tramalebze dgas banakad da mzad aris aRTqmul qveyanaSi
Sesasvlelad?
unda axsovdes monobis xana; unda axsovdes didi xsnis dRe;
unda axsovdes aRTqma; unda axsovdes rjuli da vin misca es rjuli; unda axsovdes RvTiuri winamZRoloba; unda axsovdes warsuli codvebi da RvTiuri sasjelebi.
wignis struqtura moses mimarTvebiT ganisazRvreba. mose
oTxgzis mimarTavs xalxs da yoveli mimarTvis Sinaarss ZiriTadad ganvlili gzis, aRTqmis da rjulis, qanaanSi cxovrebis wesebis gaxseneba Seadgens; aq aris gafrTxilebebi samomavlod da winaswarmetyveleba, Tu ra mouvaT urCobisTvis, da rogor aexsnebaT sasjeli monaniebis Semdeg. meoTxe mimarTva moses ukanaskneli, gamosamSvidobebeli sityvebia, rasac aboloebs misive piriT warmoTqmuli galoba, moses sagalobeli (32:1-43), da israelis TiToeuli tomis kurTxeva (33:1-29). dasasrul, moses asvla
nebos mTaze da sikvdili (34:1-12).

306

gza xorebidan moabis tramalebamde


(1-3)
meore rjuli erTaderTi wignia mTels Zvel aRTqmaSi, sadac ar xdeba araviTari moqmedeba, garda ukanaskneli 34-e Tavisa. israelianTa banaki dgas aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesvlis molodinSi da usmens moses. mTeli wigni
moses sityvaa. rogorc zemoT iTqva, mose oTxgzis mimarTavs xalxs. Sesavali formula am mimarTvisa sruliad
gansxvavebulia. winamaval wignebSi, roca mose pirvelad
ismens rjulis sityvebs uflisgan, raTa mere gadasces
xalxs, formula, Cveulebriv, aseTia: elaparaka ufali
moses: elaparake israelianebs da uTxari. am wignSi viTareba icvleba: mose xalxs gadascems ukve adre, ormoci
wlis winaT, gamocxadebul da mosmenil sityvebs da, Sesabamisad, formulac icvleba: es sityvebia, romlebic
gamoucxada mosem mTels israels... (1:1); uxmo mosem
mTels israels da uTxra (5:1), wavida mose da elaparaka es sityvebi mTels israels (31:1). magram mTelma israelma icis, rom es sityvebi uflis sityvebia da isini
ormoci wlis winaT winamaval TaobaSi gamoecxada moses.
vis aRniSnavs aq mTeli israeli? Zneli warmosadgenia, rom mose uSualod elaparakebodes ormilionnaxevrian xalxs an, Tundac, eqvsasiaTasian (rogorc aRricxvam aCvena) laSqars. igi, unda vifiqroT, StoTa Tavkacebs da sagvareuloTa uxucesebs, an mamissaxlTa ufrosebs (ojaxis mamebs) gadascemda rjuls, raTa maT, Tavis
mxriv, maTdami rwmunebuli xalxisaTvis gadaecaT igi.
marTalia, mose mimarTavs am Taobas, romelic mis winaSea, magram mTels israelSi igulisxmeba mTeli rCeuli eri, uflis xalxi, ganurCevlad drouli periodisa.
masSi igulisxmeba da mose mimarTavs ara mxolod mis winaSe cocxlad mdgar Taobas, aramed gadasul anu mamapapaTa Taobas da momaval Taobasac, romelic aRTqmul
miwaze daibadeba. radgan aRTqma, romelic mieca xalxs,
saukunoa da, amdenad, masSi monawileobs yvela, israelis mTeli sxeuli, romelsac Seadgenen warsulni (egvipteSi Sobilni), awmyoni (udabnoSi anu gzaSi Sobilni) da momavalni (aRTqmul miwaze Sobadni).
axla israelis banaki dgas iordanis aRmosavleT napirze (gaRma), moabis qveyanaSi, rasac ricxvTa wignSi
moabis tramalebi ewodeba. dasaxelebulia mTeli wyeba adgilTa saxelebisa (yaraba, sufi, farani, Tofeli,
labani, xaceroTi, di-zahabi, xorebi, seyiri, kadeS-barnea), rogorc maTi dabanakebis orientirebi, magram bevri
maTgani ucnobia da es aZnelebs banakis zust lokalizacias. aq naxsenebia xorebis mTa (igive sinai), sadac egviptidan gamosulma Taobam miiRo rjuli da saidanac maT
ebrZanaT uflisgan laSqruli wesiT qanaanSi Sesvla, mag-

307

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ram viciT, rom isini gajiutdnen da sasjelad udabnos


ormoci weliwadi daimsaxures. aq dazustebulia maTi banakis adgili: xorebis mTidan TerTmeti dRis savalze
seyiris mTis gziT kadeS-barneamde (1:2). ase gaicvala
TerTmeti dRe ormoc weliwadze. maSin laSqars mokle
gziT samxreTidan unda Seetia qanaanisTvis, axla ki mas
uxdeba iordanis gadalaxviT aRmosavleTidan Sesvla.
brZolas ver ascdebodnen verc maSin, verc axla. ubrZolvelad aravin dauTmobda dasaxlebul miwebs.
rodis daiwyo mosem rjulis ganmarteba, rogorc naTqvamia teqstSi? droc miniSnebulia da sakmaod zustadac. es aris egviptidan gamosvlis meormoce weli, meTerTmete Tvis pirveli dRe. am droisaTvis israels ukve gadaxdili aqvs pirveli brZolebi Tavis gzaze, qanaanis gareT. isini CamoTvlilia am mniSvnelovani dRis (roca mosem laparki daiwyo) dro-Jamis mdinarebaSi mosaqcevad.
mas Semdeg, rac Semusra sixoni, mefe amorevelTa, romelic xeSbonSi ijda, da yogi, mefe baSanisa, romelic edreiSi ijda, daiwyo mosem am rjulis ganmarteba (1:4).
is qveyana, romelic israelis win aris gaSlili, aq
pirvelad moxsenebulia rogorc amorevelTa mTa. es
is mTagoriani mxarea, sadac Semdgom israelis samefo
damkvidrda. mas SerCa amorevelTa saxeli, Tumca am
droisaTvis aq mravali sxvadasxva tomi cxovrobda. sixonis samefo wiaR iordanes ukanaskneli naSTi iyo
amorevelTa im Zlieri talRisa, romelmac me-3 aTaswleulSi mTels wina azias gadauara. moedeT amorevelTa mTas (1:7), ase ebrZana maT jer kidev xorebSi
yofnisas. anu maT win edoT gza xorebis mTidan amorevelTa mTamde. xorebi aTvlis wertilia, rogorc sivrculi, ise sulieri gzisa _ aq miiRes maT rjuli da
aqedanve daiZrnen.
mose gaaxsenebs maT gzas xorebidan im adgilamde, sadac axla dganan, magram ara yvela adgils am gzaze (isini ricxvTa wignSia CamoTvlili), arc yvela ambavs, rac
gadaxdaT, aramed mxolod imaT, romlebic, misi SefasebiT, andrezad unda CarCeniliyo maT xsovnaSi.
pirveli, rac Seaxsena maT (rac isedac unda scodnodaT gadmocemiT, rac maT sazogadoebriv yofaSi iyo
danergili), es iyo avtoritetis ganawileba TiToeuli Stos yvela doneze, roca amorCeul iqnen brZeni,
gagebuli da gamocdili kacebi (1:13) da dainiSnen
aTisTavebad, ormocdaaTisTavebad, asisTavebad da
aTasisTavebad. mose maT gadaabarebs pasuximgeblobas:
me martom rogor vataro Tqveni sazrunavi, Tqveni
tvirTi da Tqveni uTanxmoebani? (1:12). adre, gvaxsovs,
rogorc levianTa wignSia moTxrobili, mosem Tavisi
simamris, iTros, rCeviT gaanawila Tavisi pasuxismgebloba mTeli israelis winaSe StoTagan amorCeul rjuliskacTa Soris, ramac mose wvrilmani saqmeebisgan gaaTavisufla(lev. 18:13-27). magram is, rac Sexsenebulia
moabis tramalebze, sxva SemTxvevas exeba: erT-erTi mo-

308

meore rjuli

rigi drtvinvis dros, roca xalxs mobezrda ciuri manana da egvipturi xorci moenatra, moses aRmoxda sayveduri uflis mimarT: riT ver vpove madli Sens TvalSi,
mTeli am xalxis tvirTi rom amkide? me xom ar mitarebia muclad mTeli es xalxi? (ricx. 11:11-12). maSin
RmerTma urCia moses, Seekriba samocdaaTi kaci, romlebzec ganawildeboda moseze gadmosuli suli.
aq ki Tavad mose mouwodebs xalxs, airCion Tavkacebi,
romelTac mose Tavad ganawesebs Tavkacebad, anu xalxi
irCevs, mose amtkicebs. amgvarad gadmoscems mose am
mniSvnelovan moments xalxis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi: winamZRolobis ganawilebis Teokratiuli procesi
demokratiul yaidazea gadmocemuli.
meore mniSvnelovani ambavi, romelic SeemTxva israels am periodSi, kadeS-barneaSi moxda. Tavad gza xorebidan kadeS-barneamde, rac maT gaiares, xuTwigneulis ramdenime adgilas daxasiaTebulia, rogorc didi da saSiSi
udabno (1:19). am udabnos gzaze ufali uZRveboda maT da
usafrTxod gamoatara. es unda yofiliyo maTTvis imis garantia, rom aseve usafrTxod SeuZRveboda maT aRTqmul
qveyanaSi. magram ase ar fiqrobda xalxi. mose uRviZebs maT
xsovnaSi im sircxvils, raSic am Taobas wili ar edva, magram mainc, garkveuli azriT, rogorc mTeli israelis
warmomadgeneli, pasuxismgebeli iyo. mTelma israelma maSin ar daujera or wrfel mzveravs _ ieso naves Zes da qaleb iefunes Zes da daujeres danarCen aT mstovars, romelTac avad daaxasiaTes qanaanis qveyana, daafrTxes xalxi. moses monaTxrobSi qveynis dazvervis idea xalxidan
modis, rasac mose iwonebs (1:22-23), ricxvTa wignSi ki _
uflisgan (13:2). magram Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi qveynis
dazvervis moTxovna xalxis urwmunoebis an uflisadmi
naklebi rwmenis gamoxatuleba iyo, meore variantSi uflisgan dazvervis SemoTavazebas miznad xalxis gamocda
unda hqonoda, rasac xalxma ver gauZlo. ar gaWra moses
sityvebma, romliTac axsenebda maT uflis saswaulebriv
winamZRolobas. me giTxariT: nu ZrwixarT, nu geSiniaT
maTi. ufali, Tqveni RmerTi, wagiZRvebaT win, igi ibrZolebs TqvenTvis, rogorc egvipteSi moiqca Tqven Tvalwin
an udabnoSi, sadac, rogorc xedavdi, gatarebda ufali,
Seni RmerTi, rogorc Tavis Svils atarebs kaci... arc amaSi erwmuneT ufals (1:29-32). am urwmunoebisTvis, rogorc bevrjer iTqva, ormoci wliT anu erTi TaobiT gadaido aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesvla. garda im ori wrfeli
mzveravisa, veravin ixilavs im madlian qveyanas, romelic
ufalma maT mama-papas aRuTqva. verc mose. mec ganmirisxda
ufali Tqven gamo: verc Sen Sexvalo iq (1:37).
aq mose axsenebs maT, rogor moindomes codvis gamosasyidad amorevelebTan SebrZoleba, magram am brZolaze ar iyo uflis neba da dasturi _ da damarcxdnen.
ara yoveli omia saRvTo, romelsac israeli warmarTavs. ufali ar imyofeboda maT Soris am brZolaSi da
arc maSin TanaugrZno, roca damarcxebulni vaiviSiT

309

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

ukan brundebodnen. ufalma ki ar ismina Tqveni xma da


yuri ar dagigdoT (1:45).
Seaxsenebs mose: da cxovrobdiT kadeSSi mravali xani, ramden xansac icxovreT (1:46). ar Cans, rom es mravali
xani swored is ormoci weli iyo, romelic miesaja mas.
mravali xnis Semdeg _ amasobaSi araferi RirsSesaniSnavi ar momxdara _ israeli kvlav daadgeba aRTqmuli qveynisken mimaval gzas, oRond sxva mxridan. am gzazea edomi, moabi, yamonelTa da amorevelTa qveyana. is
miiwevs nela, ocdaTvrameti weli undeba kadeSidan
iordanes gaRma, zaredis xevamde misvlas, sadac, rogorc maT amcnobs mose, gawyda banakSi mebrZolTa mTeli Taoba (2:14). es iyo mijna, aq gamoicvala Taoba, gadaxalisda eri. ukve moiwifnen is Cvili bavSvebi, romelTa gamo SiSobdnen, Tu qanaanSi SevalT, datacebulni iqnebiano (1:39).
maT frTxilad Semouares edoms, moabs da yamons, ar
Sevidnen maT sanaxebSi, ar gaiares maT qveyanaze, ufalma
erTi gojic ar misca maTi miwidan, Tqveni naTesavebi
ariano (edomi iakobis RviZli Zma iyo, moabi da yamoni _
lotis Svilebi). samagierod, ufalma misca maT dasarbevad da asayrelad, da mere dasamkvidreblad (viciT, rom
am mxareSi wili samkvidroebi ornaxevarma Stom moiTxova) amorevelTa qveyana da baSani. amorevelTa mefes
sixons, romelic xeSbonSi ijda, ufalma guli gausastika, rogorc faraons, da man ar gaatara israeli Tavis
miwaze. es uari sakmarisi iyo imisaTvis, rom israelis
laSqroba SeWriliyo qveyanaSi, aeoxrebina qalaqebi da
xalxi gaewyvita. simarTle unda iTqvas, rom mSvidobianad maT miwa-wyalze gavlis SemTxvevaSic, rasac iTxovdnen, naklebi dRe ar daadgebodaT. ufals mainc ganwiruli hyavda es modgma. aseve daemarTa baSansac, sadac
yogi mefobda. maSin aviReT yvela misi qalaqi. ar Segvxvedria qalaqi, rom ar wagverTmia maTTvis _ samoci
qalaqi, argobis mTeli mxare, yogis samefo baSanSi
(3:4), Seaxsenebs mose xalxs. es Zlevamosili omebi transiordaniaSi imeds iZleoda, rom iordanes gaRmac aranaklebi triumfiT gagrZeldeboda qveynis dapatroneba. ufali amasve damarTebs yvela samefos, sadac ki gaivliT. nu geSiniaT maTi, radgan ufali, Tqveni RmerTi
ibrZvis TqvenTvis (3:21-22), amxnevebs mose.
momavali gamarjvebebis rwmeniT aRvsili da imedmocemuli, rom wina Taobis codvebi RmerTma axal Taobas
ar mohkiTxa, mose Sehbedavs RmerTs, vinZlo apatios da
aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesvlis neba misces. mose gamoutydeba xalxs am sulmokleobaSi, rom ase mimarTa ufals:
`ufalo, Cemo patrono! Sen dauwye Sens msaxurs Seni
sidiadisa da magari xelis Cveneba. romeli RmerTia,
cad da miwad, rom sCadiodes iseT Zlevamosil saqmeebs,
rogorsac Sen sCadixar? gadavidodi da vixilavdi am
madlian qveyanas, iordanes gaRma rom aris, am mTas da
libans!~ (3:24-25).

310

meore rjuli

`axla ismine, israelo, wesni da samarTalni~


(4)
aRTqmuli qveynis damkvidreba upirobo ar aris. mTeli samarTali, wesebi da mcnebani, da rjuldebani, mTeli rjuli, romelsac mose imeorebs axali Taobis gasagonad da gadascems, rogorc sibrZnes (es aris Tqveni
sibrZne da goniereba, 4:6), aris mandati, romelic mas
iq cxovrebis uflebas aZlevs. isini jer kidev udabnoSi
yofnisas, xetialisas aRiWurvebian am rjuliT, romlis
cxovrebaSi ganxorcieleba, umeteswilad, mxolod aRTqmul qveyanaSia SesaZlebeli. garda uzogades mcnebaTa, rogoric aTi mcnebaa, romlebic moicavs religiur
da socialur sferos, yvela danarCeni mkvidr cxovrebas
aris misadagebuli. qanaanSi maT sruliad gansxvavebuli
pirobebi daxvdebaT, risTvisac isini mzad unda iyvnen.
yvela wvrilmani gaTvaliswinebulia _ cxovrebis wesebi mkvidr miwaze, miwaze damkvidrebis wesebi, miwis da
pirutyvis samarTali, yofiTi urTierTobani TvistomebTan, adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan da maT rjulTan,
kultmsaxureba _ araferi yuradRebis gareSe ar rCeba.
da rac mTavaria: moses nalaparakevis yvela monakveTSi
kvlav da kvlav, daJinebiT aris Sexsenebuli, rom es rjuli uflis rjulia, RvTiuri warmoSobisaa (4:1, 2, 5, 10)
da ara _ adamianuri. amitomac gaxsenebulia misi gamocxadebis adgili _ RvTiuri cecxliT agizgizebuli sinais mTa (4:10-12, 5:4-5) da Semdeg sasjelebi, romlebic
mis darRvevas mohyva (4:3). es rjuli ar aris ubralo
normatuli wesebis erToblioba, romelsac adamiani Seasrulebs an ar Seasrulebs, rjuli dakavSirebulia sicocxlis wyarosTan, misi Seusrulebloba sikvdilia,
rogorc bunebrivi sasjeli. axla ismine, israelo, wesni
da samarTalni, romelTac gaswavliT, raTa icocxloT
(4:1). erTi sityviT, rjuli sicocxlis pirobaa.
es rjulia, romliTac israeli gamoirCeva danarCeni
xalxebisagan. es rjuli gamoxatavs uflis uaxloes,
`sisxlxorceul~ kavSirs Tavis xalxTan, romelic man
airCia Tavis unj (segullah) erad. rogorc israelia
rCeuli da unji, aseve misTvis gadacemuli rjulia rCeuli da unji, namdvili saganZuri, romliTac SeuZlia
mas iamayos. `romeli didi xalxia, romelTanac ase axlos iyvnen RmerTebi... romeli didi xalxia, romelsac
hqondes aseTi wesebi da marTali samarTali, rogoric
mTeli es rjulia?~ (4:7) _ ritorikulad ekiTxeba mose
xalxs. ufali sxva xalxebzec zrunavs: edoms da moabs,
da yamonelebs misca miwebi dasamkvidreblad, magram
maTTvis rjuli ar miucia. rjuli israelianTa rCeulobis niSania, romliTac isini gansxvavdebian sxva
xalxebisgan, Tundac es sxvani misi naTesavebi iyvnen,
rogorc edomi da moabi.
rjuli uxilavi RvTis xiluli niSania. sxva ra aqvs
Sedegad RvTis gamocxadebas xorebze (anu sinaize), Tu
ara es rjuli. erT-erTi centraluri Tezisi moses

311

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

RvTismetyvelebaSi RvTis uxilavobaa. gansxvavebiT


sxva xalxTa RmerTebisgan, romelTac yvelas aqvs xiluli niSani rame gamosaxulebis saxiT, israelis RmerTi
am qveynad veraviTar saxes ver povebs, Tumca yvelaferi
misi Seqmnilia. am rjulSi, romelic gamoecxada moses,
Sedis RvTis uxilavobac. am ideiT ganmsWvalvazea damokidebuli erTaderTi swori da WeSmariti RvTismetyveleba. `gelaparakebodaT ufali cecxlidan, laparakis xma ki gesmodaT, magram saxes ver xedavdiT, mxolod
xma gesmodaT. gamogicxadaT Tavisi aRTqma, romlis Sesruleba gibrZanaT _ aTi mcneba _ da dagiweraT or qvis
ficarze~ (4:12-13). aRTqma aq gaigivebulia aT mcnebasTan, Tumca is ufro farToa, vidre aTi mcneba. mainc unda iTqvas, rom yovlismomcveloba dekalogis arsebiTi
Tvisebaa da, sruliad garkveuli azriT, aRTqma misi
ganvrcobaa, misi komentarebia yoveli konkretuli SemTxvevisTvis.
da kidev: `Zalze gafrTxildiT, radgan ar ginaxavT
araviTari saxe, roca ufali gelaparakebodaT xorebSi
cecxlis Suagulidan, rom ar gairyvnaT da ar gaikeToT
qandaki, rame kerpis xati...~ (4:15). `saxes ver xedavdiT~ an
`ar ginaxavT araviTari saxe~ _ eubneba mose xalxis am Taobas, romelic ar mdgara xorebis mTis Ziras, magram Cven
viciT, rom moses sityvebi, romelTa wyaro ufalia, maradiuli sityvebia da israelianTa yvela Taobas miemarTeba. es dRec, roca igi mimarTavs, ar aris mxolod dRevandeli dRe, aramed maradiuli dRe, roca erTbaSad myofoben israelis Taobebi _ gardasulni da mosvladni. yvela
TaobaSi myofobs RmerTi da misi myofobis niSani es aRTqma da rjulia, iseve ucvalebeli, rogorc RmerTi. yoveli warmodgena uxilavi RvTisa rame arsebis saxiT, rac
ki miwazea, caSi Tu miwis qvemoT, RvTis WeSmarit Tayvaniscemas kerpebze gadaitanda da maT SegnebaSi daCrdilavda uxilavi da usaxo RmerTis Sinagan saxes, mis arsebas, rac mis nalaparakevSi _ aRTqmasa da rjulSi cxaddeba. aq TvalsaCinoa aTi mcnebis, rogorc WeSmariti moZRvrebis, da kerpis, rogorc siyalbis, dapirispireba. kerpebis keTeba da Tayvaniscema aRTqmis Ralati da rjulidan gadaxvevaa. rogorc Ralati arRvevs saqorwino xelSekrulebas da angrevs ojaxs, aseve aRTqmis Ralati
RvTisgan ganSorebiT angrevs israelis erTianobas. `Tu
gairyveni da gaikeTe kerpi... male gadaSendebiT im qveynidan, romlis dasamkvidrebladac midixarT... gagfantavT
ufali erebSi... dauwyebT iq Tayvaniscemas adamianis xeliT nakeTeb RmerTebs...~ (4:25-28). ase rom, irRveva aRTqma da rjuli, irRveva kavSiri ara mxolod RmerTTan,
aramed miwasTanac, radgan es ar aris ubralo miwa, aramed
aRTqmuli miwaa. aRTqmis darRvevisTvis ara mxolod nawinaswarmetyvelevia momavali ganfantva im qveynidan,
romelic jer ar daumkvidrebiaT, aramed RmerTTan da miwaze dabrunebis, moqcevisa da RmerTis povnis imedi, `Tuki mTeli Seni guliTa da mTeli Seni suliT eZieb~ (4:29).

312

meore rjuli

am TavSi gansakuTrebulad aris gamokveTili ori


mTavari gardamtexi mijna israelis cxovrebaSi: egviptidan gamosvla da xorebSi rjulis miReba. orive es aqti Sefasebulia rogorc saswaulebrivi qmedebani, romelTa msgavsi RmerTs arc erTi xalxis istoriaSi ar
Caudenia. Tqven agiyvanaT ufalma da gamogaridaT rkinis Rumels _ egviptes, raTa yofiliyaviT misi samkvidro eri (4:20), da kidev: raki Seiyvara Tqveni mama-papa,
kidec gamoarCia misi STamomavloba da Tavad gamogiyvana diadi ZaliT egviptidan, raTa aeyara Sens winaSe
Senze didi da Zlieri xalxebi, mieyvane da moeca SenTvis maTi qveyana samkvidrod (4:37-38); israeli unda
aRivsos am aqtis unikalobis, sxva xalxebis istoriaSi
ganumeoreblobis SegnebiT: Tu gabedavda romelime
RmerTi, wasuliyo da gamoeyvana xalxi sxva xalxis wiaRidan gansacdelebiT, niSebiT, saswaulebiT, brZoliT, magari xeliT da gaSlili mklaviT, didi zaristexiT, rogorc moimoqmeda ufalma egvipteSi Tqven
Tvalwin? (4:34). Tavisi gardauvali mniSvnelobis gamo, rogorc istoriis aTvlis wertili, es aqti samudamod aris Cawerili aTi mcnebis TavSi pirvel mcnebad _
amave dros es aqti uflis, rogorc istoriis Semoqmedis, upirvelesi maxasiaTebelia: me var ufali, Seni
RmerTi, romelmac gamogiyvane egviptis qveynidan, monobis saxlidan (5:6).
egviptidan ganTavisufleba ar aris TviTmizani an,
Tundac, saboloo mizani. is pirobaa monobidan daxsnili xalxis axal safexurze asayvanad. Tu mogviano
Tqmas gamoviyenebT, araxalxidan xalxad, RvTis erad
Sesaqmnelad. araxalxi xalxad xorebSi unda gardaiqmnas. adamianTa stiqiuri simravlidan uflis rCeuli
da unji eri unda warmoiqmnas. es moxda xorebSi gamosvlidan ori Tvis Tavze da mas waruvali Rirebuleba
aqvs israelis istoriaSi. amitomac israelianTa yoveli Taoba valdebulia axsovdes es dRe (Tu dReebi) da
gadasces momdevno Taobas. acodine Sens Svilebs da
SvilTaSvilebs is dRe, rodesac uflis, Seni RmerTis
winaSe ideqi xorebSi... (4:9-10), gelaparakebodaT
ufali cecxlidan (4:12); `cidan gasmina Tavisi xma, raTa ganeswavle, da miwaze gaxilvina Tavisi diadi cecxli da Senc moismine misi sityvebi cecxlis Suagulidan (4:36). israelianTa yvela Taobas unda axsovdes,
rom is, rogorc erTiani istoriuli arseba, Semswre
iyo am ganumeorebeli aqtisa, rom es misTvis moimoqmeda RmerTma: aba, SeekiTxe gardasul dReebs, Senamde
rom iyo, im dRidan, rac Seqmna RmerTma kaci qveyanaze...
Tu momxdara aseTi diadi saqme... Tu usmenia romelime
xalxs cecxlis Suagulidan molaparake RmerTis xma,
rogorc Sen ismine da cocxali darCa (4:32-33).

313

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

aTi mcneba
(5:6-18)
kvlav da kvlav periodulad, mouwyineblad, Seaxsenebs mose aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesasvlelad gamzadebul
xalxs misi warsulis or fuZemdeblur movlenas _
imas, rac moxda egvipteSi, da imas, rac moxda xorebze,
vidre Sewyvetdes laparaks da, rogorc ufalma dausazRvra, nebos mTaze asuli ar SeerTvodes Tavis ers.
yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rac xorebze moxda, aTi mcnebis gamocxadebaa. dedanSi mas ewodeba aTi sityva (dabar), romlebic, rogorc gamosvlaTa wignidan (gam. 20)
viciT, or qvis dafaze daiwera pirvelad uSualod uflis TiTebiT, meored ki _ Tavad moses mier uflis
brZanebiT, mas Semdeg rac man daamsxvria isini oqros
xbos incidentis dros. misi es saqcieli ar SeiZleba
sulmokleobad ar CaTvloda mas. igi marTali iyo, oqros xbos garSemo mrokveli xalxi risxvis Rirsi iyo,
rac daiTies kidec uflisgan, magram swored maT, gzaabneulebs, kerpTayvanismcemlebs, esaWiroebodaT WeSmariti da erTaderTi RvTis Tayvaniscemis rjuli, Tundac oTxi sityva, romelic afrTxilebda: ar gaikeTo
SenTvis kerpi (gam. 20:4) da meore isev oTxi _ ar sce
Tayvani maT (20:5). mosem ki kldes Sealewa uflis TiTebiT dawerili sityvebi. am aqtma dasabami misca Cavardnebs moses winamZRolobaSi, risTvisac ufalma aRukveTa mas aRTqmul qveyanaSi Sesvla.
`ufalma, Cvenma RmerTma, dado CvenTan aRTqma xorebSi. Cvens mama-papasTan ar daudevs ufals es aRTqma,
aramed CvenTan. Cven ki, aha, yvelani cocxlebi varT dRes
aq. pirispir gelaparakaT Tqven ufali mTaze cecxlis
Suagulidan. me ki ufalsa da Tqvens Soris videqi mas
Jams...~ (5:2-5). aq gamoTqmulia is, razec zemoT gvqonda
saubari: israeli, erTiani droSi, ar sdevs JamTasvlas; maSindeli Taoba, romelic aqtualurad, Tavisi
sxeuliT, idga xorebis mTis Ziras, moicavs momdevno da
sxva momaval Taobebsac. warsuli Taoba cocxldeba momaval TaobaSi, roca is ixsenebs aRTqmas da rjuls. es
aerTebs maT da aqcevs erT sul da erT xorc. amitom
eubneba maT mose: Cven yvelani cocxlebi varT, vinc aq
vdgavarT; Cven gvelaparaka ufali; es me viyavi, romelic Tqvensa da ufals Soris videqi...
aq SabaTis interpretacia gansxvavebulia: Tu dekalogis pirvel gamocxadebaSi SabaTis siwmidis motivi Sesaqmis gansruleba da uflis gansvenebaa meSvide
dRes, rac israelsac, uflis ers, avalebs mis Senaxvas
(gam. 20:11), meore gamocxadebaSi, ukve moses piriT, SabaTis gamorCeuloba sxva dReTagan egviptidan gamosvlas ukavSirdeba. gaxsovdes, rom mona iyavi egviptis qveyanaSi da gamogiyvana iqidan ufalma, Senma
RmerTma, magari xeliTa da SemarTuli mklaviT. amitom gibrZana ufalma, Senma RmerTma, SabaTis dRis Senaxva (5:15:16).

314

meore rjuli

mose ara mxolod gamocxadebis sityvebs _ aT mcnebas


umeorebs am axal Taobas, aramed mTels gamocxadebas
mouTxrobs maT, _ imas, Tu ra pirobebSi moxda dekalogis sityvieri gadmocema. ra dainaxa xorebis Zirs Tavmoyrilma xalxma, mTelma krebulma, garda imisa, rac
moismina, da man Tavisi yurebiT moismina aTi mcneba? ra
dainaxa da ra ganicada israelma uflis laparakisas?
Tumca es wina Taobam ixila, mainc mTeli israelis
(qol-israel) gamocdileba gaxda da samudamod damkvidrda maT cnobierebaSi.
zemoT iTqva, rom xorebi israelis aqtualur xsovnaSi cecxlis da cecxlis Suagulidan amomavali xmis niSniT aris CarCenili. Tumca, rogori iyo Teofania, misi
zusti vizualuri xati arc arsebobs. aris elementebi _
cecxli, kvamli, Rrubeli, nisli, sibnele, maRali xma
rogorc grvrgvinva. saidan moesmaT maRali xma? mose am
Taobas Seaxsenebs: `cecxlis, Rrublis da nislis Suagulidan~ (5:19), ara mxolod cecxlidan, rogorc sinaize
moses esma mayvlovanidan. `ismineT misi xma bnelidan,
mTas ki am dros cecxli ekida~ (5:20), ganagrZobs mose.
cecxli da Rrubeli Teofaniis cnobili, TiTqmis universaluri elementebia, magram bneli? RmerTs naTelTan da msubuq, haerovan RrubelTan akavSirebs Zveli da
axali RvTismetyveleba _ maTiT cdilobs religiuri
Segneba xilulad gamoxatos RvTis uxilavi buneba, rac,
cxadia, naklebad adekvaturia. bnelis stiqia moxmobilia RvTis miuwvdomlobis, misi sruli idumalebis,
miRmierobis gamosaxatavad. RmerTi iseve uxilavi da ganuWvretelia, rogorc bnelia uxilavi da ganuWvreteli. bnelis metafora ambobs, rom RmerTi ar hgavs arc
erT Tavis qmnilebaTagans, wuTisoflis TvalisTvis is
araferia. aqedan iwyeba apofatikuri RvTismetyveleba.
bneli gamoucnoblobis, Seudareblobis, qmnilebisgan
absoluturi sxvaobis niSania. bneli xom is stiqiaa,
romelic Sesaqmis dReebamde gamoCnda, rogorc Tohu-vabohu. moSorebiT idga xalxi, xolo mose miadga nisls,
sadac RmerTi iyo (gam. 20:21). aqedan Cans, RvTisSemecnebis Tu ra gansxvavebul safexurze imyofebodnen mose da
xalxi, Tundac tomis uxucesebi. xalxma Tu mainc ixila
da ganicada RvTis axlos myofoba, es mxolod miniSneba
iyo, rasac Zvel aRTqmaSi dideba (qabod) ewodeba. magram es miniSnebac ki Tavzardamcemi iyo Tundac uxucesebisTvis. aha, gvaxilvina ufalma, Cvenma RmerTma, Tavisi
sidiade da dideba, misi xma gvesma cecxlis Suagulidan.
am dRes davinaxeT, rom RmerTi elaparaka adamians da
cocxali darCa adamiani. axla risTvis davixocoT... xom
davixocebiT, Tu kidev mogvesma uflis, Cveni RmerTis,
xma? (5:21-22), eubnebian moses StoTa Tavkacebi da uxucesebi. am sityvebs mose uxsenebs am uxucesebs: Tqven moxvediT maSin da ase miTxariT. TiTqos mose srulad aigivebs maT im gardasuli Taobis uxucesebTan, romelTac
maSin Tqves: Sen gvelaparake da mogismenT. oRond Rmer-

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

Ti nu dagvelaparakeba, Torem davixocebiT (gam. 20:19).


didebis xilvac sakmarisi iyo imisaTvis, rom maT SegnebaSi dekalogi Tavisi gardauvali mniSvnelobiT STabeWdiliyo. am saxiT xilulma da mosmenilma uflis SiSi dabada maTSi da es sakmarisi iyo: nu geSiniaT, Tqvens
gamosacdelad movida RmerTi, raTa misi SiSi gqondeT
da ar SescodoT (gam. 20:20).
da uxucesebi gadaabareben moses ufalTan laparaks,
radgan darwmundebian, rom mowodebulni ar arian uSualod mis mosasmenad, amisTvis maTi sasmenelni mzad
araa, da gascildebian mTis Zirs da Tav-TavianT karvebSi dabrundebian. amieridan ara mTeli israeli, aramed
erTaderTi mose, rogorc maTi Suamavali, moismens yvelafers, rasac ufali gamoacxadebs aTi mcnebis Semdeg
anu mTel rjuls _ wesebs da samarTals (5:27-28).
wesni da samarTalni _
gamocxadebuli rjuli
(6-8)
umetesoba am wesTa da samarTalTa aRTqmul qveyanaSi moelis amuSavebas. isini udabnos pirobebisTvis ar
dawesebula, aramed im qveynisTvis, sadac Rvarad dis
rZe da Tafli (6:3). magram es qveyana aseTi, rogoradac
aRuTqva ufalma maT winaprebs, mxolod im SemTxvevaSi
iqneba, Tu israelianebi daicaven wesebs da samarTals.
udabnos periodi gardamavali da, SeiZleba iTqvas, mosamzadebeli xanaa israelis cxovrebaSi. xalxi am mcnebebiT da aRTqmebiT aRWurvili unda Sevides aRTqmul
miwaze, rom is qveyana marTlac rZiTa da TafliT mdinare iyos. ra mcnebebi, wesni da samarTalnia eseni, romlebic ara udabnoSi, gardamaval sivrceze, aramed im
qveyanaSia Sesasrulebeli, romlis dasamkvidrebladac TiTqmis ormoci weli emzadebian? meore rjulis
mTeli wigni amas eZRvneba. es aris, ZiriTadad, is rjuli, oRond sxvagvarad, TiTqosda usistemod ganlagebuli, romelic levianTa da ricxvTa wignebSia Camoyalibebuli.
am TavebSi sasicocxlo mcnebebzea saubari. pirveli
da ZiriTadi sasicocxlo mcneba uflis SiSia da Senaxva
da dacva yvelaferi imisa, rac ufalma gamoucxada moses
piriT. aRTqmis Senaxva upirvelesi mcnebaa. masSia sicocxle da xsna, gamravleba da keTildReoba.
ra aris aRTqmis Tavi da Tavi? aRTqmis Tavi da Tavi
aris jer imis Segneba, rom erTia ufali da sxva aravinaa
mis garda; da mere, rom ufalma airCia israeli siyvaruliT (SeiZleba es tavtologia iyos: siyvaruli da arCeva Zveli aRTqmis enaSi identuri sityva-cnebebia) da israelma siyvaruliT unda upasuxos mis siyvaruls, romelic gamoCnda mTels gzaze egviptidan moyolebuli moabis tramalebamde. gamoCnda SiSic. ori permanentuli
mowodebaa, romelic gaismis mTels wignSi (ara mxolod
meore rjulSi): giyvardes ufali, Seni RmerTi (6:5) da

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meore rjuli

uflis, Seni RmerTis, geSinodes (6:13). siyvaruli da


SiSi _ es ori ram Zveli aRTqmis RvTisSemecnebis safuZvelia. siyvaruli unda msWvalavdes maT gulsa da suls,
mTel maT arsebas, niSnad Candes maT sxeulebze _ xelebze da Sublze, maT sacxovreblebze, maTi saxlebis wirTxlebze da karebze (6:4-9). mowodeba giyvardes ufali, Seni RmerTi, mTeli Seni guliTa da mTeli Seni suliT (6:5) sxvadasxva gamoTqmebiT (eZiebde, emsaxure, Seismine, Seasrule, miubrundi) gaismis mTel
meore rjulSi (4:29; 10:12; 11:13; 13:3; 26:16; 30:2, 6, 10).
`ar dagaviwydes ufali~ (6:12), afrTxilebs xalxs
Tavad ufali moses piriT, radgan mosalodnelia _ da
araerTgzis momxdara da moxdeba aRTqmul qveyanaSic _
uflis daviwyeba adamianis umadurebis mizeziT, roca
daepatronebian yvelafer imas, rac maTi xeliT ar Seqmnila, _ ufalma ki xelSi Caugdo, _ SeWamen da gaZRebian, da gadaixrebian ucxo RmerTebisken (6:11-24). da maSin moyvaruli RmerTi Surismgebel RmerTad moevlinebaT da misi risxva warxocavs maT miwis pirisgan.
is mcnebebi, wesebi da samarTalni, romelTa mixedviTac israelianebi icxovreben aRTqmul miwaze, gamoarCevs maT yvela maTi mezobeli xalxisgan. es mcnebebi maTi rCeulobis niSania da im xanis xsovnas aRudgens maT,
roca ufalma didi saswaulebiT da niSebiT ixsna isini
egviptis monobidan.
axsovdeT udabnos gza, _ rom is mxolod gza ki ar
iyo, aramed gansacdeli mosaTviniereblad da amjerad
israeli Seicnobs RmerTs rogorc gamomcdels (8:2).
cidan movlenili manana, zeciuri puri niSnad imisa,
rom ara mxolod puriT cocxlobs kaci, uflis piridan
gamomavali yoveli sityviT cocxlobs kaci (8:3).
moyvaruli da Surismgebeli RmerTi kidev erTi aspeqtiT warmodgeba maT Tvalwin _ `Seigne, rogorc kaci wrTvnis Tavis Svils, ise ufali, Seni RmerTia Seni
gamwvrTneli~ (8:5)
ara Seni simarTlis gamo gaZlev am qveyanas (9:4-6),
ambobs ufali. xalxma ar unda daiviwyos RvTiuri niSebi da saswaulebi da arc sakuTari ukeTurebani, riTac
ajavrebda ufals: `xorebSi ganarisxeT ufali da gamwyralma Tqveni mospoba daapira~ (9:8) _ yvelaze tragikuli epizodi: oqros xbos Tayvaniscema, moses Suamdgomloba. mose ixsenebs, rogor SesTavaza ufalma mas
misgan sxva xalxis, masze Zlieris, gamoyvana (9:14). mose
xalxisa da aaronis, mTavari damnaSavis, xalxis SecdomaSi Semyvanis, gamo evedreba ufals (9:18, 20).
da kidev axsenebs kadeS-barneas epizods (9:23-29),
ramac ormoci wliT ukan daxia isini da aqac bewvze
ekida maTi bedi, rogorc rCeuli xalxisa. mose axsenebs maT sulmokleobas, janys, sijiutes, simxdales,
urwmunobas uflis Zalasa da gangebaSi, da imasac, Tu
rogor gamoesarCla maT uflis winaSe. vuTxari: ufalo RmerTo, nu daRupav Sens ers da Sens samkvidros...

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xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

gaixsene Seni msaxurni _ abraami, isaki da iakobi. nu


uyureb am xalxis sijiutes (9:26-27).
qveyana, sadac ufals Sehyavs Tavisi xalxi dasamkvidreblad, ar aris carieli da ganumzadebeli, rogoric
miwa iyo Sesaqmis pirvel aqtamde. es qveyana, aRTqmuli
miwis saxelwodebiT, ar iyo Tohu-va-bohu, yamiri, romelsac dasWirdeboda xelaxali Seqmna adamianis xeliT.
is sxvadasxva xalxebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, romelTac is
aTvisebuli hqondaT; yamiri didi xnis gatexili iyo,
baR-venaxebiTa da yanebiT, qalaqebiT da daba-soflebiT
damSvenebuli. vin iyvnen es xalxebi da sad iyvnen isini
patriarqebis xanaSi? dabadebis wigni bevrs arafers gveubneba girgaSelTa, amorevelTa, ferizelTa, xivielTa,
iebusevelTa Sesaxeb. erTaderTi xalxi, visTanac abraams
uxdeboda urTierToba, xeTelebi iyvnen. abraamma maTgan
iyida miwa saras saflavisTvis. iakobis TaobaSi gamoCndnen xivielni, romelTac usamarTlod moeqcnen misi
Svilebi _ mTlianad amowyvites maTi erTi qalaqis mamrovani, roca am xalxma iakobis ojaxTan damoyvreba moindoma (dab. 34:1-31). maSin am xalxebs Soris erTi ojaxi
_ momavali rCeuli xalxis winapari cxovrobda, axla ki
mravalricxovani tomi, uflis rCeuli, Semodis da maTTan urTierToba, cxadia, unda Secvliliyo. dinas, iakobis asulis, tragikuli ambavi (dab. 34) arasodes yofila
maT STamomavlobaSi gaxsenebuli, magram aRTqmul qveyanaSi moqcevis mTavari muxlis _ adgilobriv xalxTan saqorwino urTierTobis akrZalvis _ istoriul safuZvlad (andrezad) SeiZleba gamomdgariyo.
mose aq CamoTvlis Svid xalxs, romlebTanac israelianebs sastikad ekrZalebaT saqorwino kavSir-urTierTobebi. ar daumoyvrde, ar gaaTxovo Seni qaliSvili mis vaJze da ar mouyvano Sens vaJs misi qaliSvili
colad (7:3).
es akrZalva araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar gulisxmobs sisxlis wmidad, Seurevnelad Senaxvas RvTis sazogadoebaSi. Sereuli qorwinebebi arcTu iSviaTi iyo Zveli aRTqmis periodSi, magram Tu isini ikrZaleboda, rogorc
moyvanil muxlSia Camoyalibebuli, erTaderTi im mizniT, rom SenarCunebuli yofiliyo pirvel mamamTavarTa (abraamis, isakisa da iakobis) RvTis rwmena, RvTisa,
romelic bolos moses gamoecxada sinaize mayvlis buCqSi xalxis istoriis yvelaze ufro krizisul periodSi, da romelmac isini egviptidan amoiyvana. ar daumoyvrde.... radgan Cemi gzidan aacdenen Sens vaJs, daiwyeben
ucxo RmerTebis Tayvaniscemas... (7:4). ucxo qalebi mouyvaniaT israelianebs, rogorc ruTis wignidan vigebT,
magram bednierad warmarTula qorwineba, rjuli ar
SebRalula. moabeli ruTi, piriqiT, eziara israelis
rwmenas, miatova ra moabis RmerTi Tu RmerTebi. misi da
boyazis SeuRlebis Sedegad daibada daviT mefis winapari. Tumca amiT moabis statusi israelis RvTismetyvelebaSi ar Secvlila: es qveyana da xalxi yovelTvis rCe-

318

meore rjuli

boda sacdurad israelianTa religiuri cnobierebisTvis. romeli mefe, garda daviTisa, Seedreba solomon
mefis didebas, magram igi am fundamenturi akrZalvis
msxverpli gaxda. mravalricxovanma ucxotomelma colebma midrikes igi ucxo RmerTebis Tayvaniscemad, rac
sabolood erTiani samefos gaxleCis mizezi Seiqna.
akrZalva xSirad ganwirulia dasarRvevad, magram
misi sazrisi ar uqmdeba. meore rjuli miwyiv Seaxsenebs
aRTqmul miwaze SemsvlelT: daungrieT samsxverploebi, dauleweT svetebi, gauCexeT xemxvivanebi da cecxlSi dawviT maTi kerpebi (7:5). da erTaderTi sazrisi, rogorc gamarTleba, am qmedebisa, romlis aRsrulebas ufali avalebs yoveli Taobis israelianebs, maT
siwmidesa da rCeulobaSia: radgan wmida erad yavxar
ufals, Sens RmerTs. Sen agirCia ufalma, Senma RmerTma,
rom hyolodi unj erad yvela ers Soris, romelic ki arsebobs miwis pirze (7:6).
ufalma ara mxolod xalxi (abraamis modgma) airCia
Tavis unjad, aramed miwac. xalxTan erTad is irCevs miwasac. Zveli aRTqmis RvTiuri ekologia xalxisa da miwis urRvev erTianobas gulisxmobs. erTianoba uflis
gangebulebaSia, magram is unda ganxorcieldes xalxisa
da uflis sinergiiT (TanaqmedebiT). uflis gangebulebaSia qanaanSi mcxovrebi xalxebis gandevna am rCeuli
miwidan, radgan isini TavianTi orgiastuli religiiT
bilwaven miwas. miwis Sebilwva didi xnis winaT, imTaviTve, daiwyo adamis modgmam. jer kaenma Zmis daRvrili
sisxliT wabilwa igi, mere misi STamomavlebi Taobidan TaobaSi bRalavdnen mas. warRvnis mizezi miwis
siwmidis SebRalva iyo, mizani _ misi ganaxleba. aq adamiani uZluri iyo, igi ar gamodgeboda RvTis sinergiul TanaSemwed, radgan misi neba RvTiur nebas acda. roca adamianma ver daicva miwis siwmide, RvTiurma nebam
bunebis, jer kidev arsebuli Tohu-va-bohus stiqiebi
aamoqmeda. sodomis Tavze gogirdis wvima ar iwvimebda,
rom masSi mcxovreb adamianebs SeZlebodaT ukuRmarTi
cxovrebis wesis Secvla. aTi marTali kacic ar aRmoCnda sodom-gomoraSi, amitomac is ganwiruli aRmoCnda.
aseve ganwirulia is Svidi xalxi, romelic xSirad
aris CamoTvlili meore rjulis wignSi. isini unda ganidevnon miwidan, romelic SebRales. aq erTaderTxel
RmerTi avalebs adamianebs Tavisi gangebulebis sisruleSi moyvanas. magram isini bevrni arian da, RmerTma winaswar icis, rom maT SeeSindebaT maTi. rogor gandevnian? RmerTma magari xeliT da SemarTuli mklaviT gamoiyvana es xalxi egviptidan, saidanac is Tavisi ZaliT
ver amovidoda. axlac mxolod sakuTari ZaliT ver gandevnian isini xalxebs, rom gaaTavisuflon (ganwmidon)
uflis miwa. Tu ityvi gulSi: Cemze bevrni arian es xalxebi, rogor SevZleb maT gandevnas? nu SegeSindeba maTi, gaixsene, ra gaukeTa ufalma, Senma RmerTma, faraons
da mTels egviptes, _ didi gansacdelni, romlebic ixi-

319

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

les Senma Tvalebma, niSebi da saswaulebi, magari xeli


da SemarTuli mklavi... nu ufrTxi maT, radgan ufali,
Seni RmerTia Sen Soris (7:17-19). am xalxs unda amxnevebdes unikaluri istoriuli gamocdileba, rac arc
erTi xalxis istorias ar axsovs. maT Soris RvTis myofoba istoriuli warsulis cocxali myofobaa. ufali
SeaZlebinebs maT monawileni gaxdnen RvTis gangebulebis ganxorcielebisa, rac maTTvis, rogorc istoriaSi
Semosuli xalxisTvis, aRTqmul sikeTeTa ganaRdebis
garantiaa. RvTis gangeba da RvTis aRTqma, winaprebTan
dadebuli, harmoniul erTianobaSia. ufali xSirad Seaxsenebs Tavis xalxs, rom imitom ki ar aZlevs maT am qveyanas, radgan yvelaze kargebi da mravalricxovanni
arian, aramed im xalxebs arTmevs qveyanas, romlebic misi uRirsni Seiqnen. Seni simarTlisa da Seni gulwrfelobis gulisTvis ki ar midixar maT dasamkvidreblad,
aramed maTi siborotis gamo ayris ufali am xalxebs
(9:5). ufali maTTan asworebs angariSs Tavisi rCeuli
xalxis xeliT, romelic avsebulia RvTis sibrZniT, rac
adamianur samyaroSi mcnebaTa, wesTa, samarTalTa _
mTeli rjulis ukan dgas. romel xalxs aqvs miwis pirze
aseTi rjuli? kiTxulobs ufali. da moses argumentic,
Tu ratom unda daendo es urCi da TviTrjuli xalxi
ufals ganadgurebisgan, swored es iyo.
xalxis dasamkvidrebeli qveynis xati, rogorc rZiTa
da TafliT mdinari qveynisa, mudam maTi cnobierebis
Tvalsawierzea. rZe da Tafli _ bunebis nayofebi Tavis
TavSi Seicaven kulturis niSnebsac, Tumca es kultura
israelisTvis, rogorc mwyemsebisTvis, ar iyo niSandoblivi. am qveyanaSi sxva ramesac naxaven, rac aseve ar
aris maTi bunebis Sesatyvisi: es aris didi da caTamde
gamagrebuli qalaqebi (9:2). qveyana, romelic daxatulia meore rjulis wignSi, urbanistuli qveyanaa. qalaqi am wignis mniSvnelovani Temaa: karibWe (Sayar) _
qalaqis sinonimi ocdaxuTjer gvxvdeba meore rjulSi,
roca Zveli aRTqmis sxva wignebSi _ mxolod orgzis.
israelianebs arasodes uSenebiaT qalaqebi _ isini
mwyemsebi iyvnen dasabamiTve da amayobdnen kidec amiT
(gavixsenoT, rogori siamayiT acnobda faraons Tavs iakobi, rogorc mwyemsi). iqneb qalaqi da qalaqis mSenebeli maTTvis iseTive saZulveli iyo, rogorc egviptelTaTvis _ cxvris yoveli mwyemsi (dab. 46:34)? israelianTa damcirebuli mdgomareoba egvipteSi imiTac
gamoixata, rom maT, memkvidreobiT mwyemsebs, qalaqebis
saSeneblad agurebisTvis namjas agrovebinebdnen. autaneli swored es iyo. mose Seaxsenebs maT kadeS-barneas tragikul sircxvils, roca aTma mzveravma didi qalaqebiT da maTi moqalaqeebiT SeaSines xalxi da man
ver gabeda qveyanaSi Sesvla, umal egvipteSi gabruneba
arCia. axla meore da saboloo jerze isini midian qveynis dasamkvidreblad, sadac igive didnaSeni, galavniani qalaqebi daxvdebaT, rogorc im Tormet mzveravs, da

320

meore rjuli

ufali eubneba maT, rom Tqven midixarT qalaqTa dasakaveblad, romlebic Tqven ar agiSenebiaT, rogorc venaxebisa da yanebisa, romlebic Tqven ar gagiSenebiaT. es
ras niSnavs? isini mzamzareulze midian? swored asea.
nawils qalaqebisa, Tu nebiT ar dauTmoben, gaanadgureben, rogorc darisxebulT, mosaxleobiTurT; rasac dauTmoben, daepatronebian, axlebsac gaaSeneben da Seiyvareben? yovel SemTxvevaSi, sxvaTagan isini eqvss gamoarCeven da TavSesafar qalaqebad ganaweseben, swored
gamagrebul, SemozRudul qalaqebs da ara karvebian
soflebs, Tu kidev darCebian karvebSi mcxovreblebad (dab. 25:27). iordanis aRmosavleT-dasavleTiT gamoyofil TavSesafar qalaqebze laparakia ricxvTa
wignSi da meore rjulSic or adgilas maTi mniSvnelovnobis gamo. organve mose iZleva mis sanimuSo definiciebs: rom SeeZlos iq gaqceva mkvlels, romelsac Semoakvdeba Tavisi axlobeli, visi siZulvilic ar hqonia
arc guSin da arc guSinwin, gaiqces erT-erTSi am qalaqTagan da gadarCes (4:42), ai, wesi mkvlelisTvis, romelmac Tavi unda Seafaros iq, rom gadarCes; visac uneburad Semoakvdeba Tavisi moyvasi ise, rom ar hqonia misi mtroba arc guSin, arc guSinwin (19:4).
qanaani da egvipte, Tumca orive urbanistuli civilizaciis qveynebia da amiT isini hgvanan erTmaneTs, maT
Soris mainc erTi arsebiTi gansxvavebaa. es aris klimati, romelsac RvTismetyvelebiTi sazrisi aqvs SeZenili. egvipte, rogorc berZnebSi iTqva, nilosis ZRvenia.
misi miwa mdinarem moitana da mdinareve rwyavs. qanaani
uwylo, mSrali da matyuara xevebiT daserili qveyanaa,
sadac miwa cidan nawvimebi wyliT irwyveba (11:11).
gansxvavebis siRrmiseuli azri is aris, rom Tu egviptis miwis nayofiereba da miwismuSakis Sroma nilosis
stabilur wyaluxvobazea damokidebuli, qanaani _
mxolod da mxolod cis imedzea da sulmudam cidan
wvimisa da cvris molodinSi unda iyos. qanaanSi wvima
da cvari RvTis wyalobaa da nayofierebac maszea damokidebuli. es aris qveyana (amcnobs xalxs mose), romelzec gamudmebiT zrunavs ufali, Seni RmerTi. uflis,
Seni RmerTis, Tvali trialebs masSi wlis dasawyisidan wlis bolomde. da Tu Seigoneb Cems mcnebebs, romelTac dRes gicxadebT, rom giyvardeT ufali, Tqveni
RmerTi, da emsaxuroT mas mTeli Tqveni guliT da mTeli Tqveni suliT, droulad mivcem wvimas Tqvens qveyanas, gazafxulis da Semodgomis wvimas... (11:12-14).
da kvlav israelianebi dganan alternativis winaSe:
an uflisadmi siyvaruliT, TayvaniscemiT da samsaxuriT, mcnebaTa aRsrulebiT moipovon sicocxle, an urCobiT, janyiT uflis winaSe, ucxo RmerTebis samsaxuriT miiRon sasjelad sikvdili. frTxilad iyaviT, ar
Secdes Tqveni guli, ar gadauxvioT, ucxo RmerTebs ar
dauwyoT samsaxuri da Tayvaniscema, Torem uflis risxva dagatydebaT Tavs: daxSavs cas da aRar iqneba wvima,

321

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

miwa mosavals ar mogcemT da male gadaSendebiT im madliani qveynidan, romelsac gaZlevT Tqven ufali.
(11:16-17). wyaloba an risxva, sicocxle an sikvdili _
airCie, israelo! ai, meore rjulis laitmotivi, moses
yvela mowodebis devizi. sxva sityvebiT, es aris kurTxeva an SeCveneba. rasac unda akeTebdes, rasac unda fiqrobdes, is an kurTxevas imsaxurebs, an SeCvenebas. uyureT, asarCevad gaZlevT dRes kurTxevas da SeCvenebas:
kurTxevas, Tu SeigonebT uflis, Tqveni RmerTis mcnebebs... SeCvenebas, Tu ar SeigonebT uflis, Tqveni RmerTis mcnebebs... (11:26-28).
kurTxeva da SeCveneba _ adamianis cxovreba am ori
niSnis qveS gadis, mesame ar arsebobs. rogorc ar arsebobs qveynis centrSi erTmaneTis pirispir aRmarTul
or mTas Soris, gerizimsa da Rebals Soris, mesame mTa.
qanaanSi Sesvlamde mosem gerizimi kurTxevis mTad ganawesa, Rebali _ SeCvenebis mTad. Tu ra sityvebi unda
Tqmuliyo erTze da ra _ meoreze, amis Sesaxeb igi 27-e
TavSi mogviTxrobs.
`rogorc qurciki da rogorc iremi...~
(12)
fraza, romliTac iwyeba es Tavi _ `es aris wesebi da
samarTali, romelTac unda asrulebdeT mTeli sicocxle im qveyanaSi, ufalma, Tqveni mama-papis RmerTma rom
mogcaT~ (12:1) _ saTauris vrceli monakveTia, romelic mTavrdeba 28-e TaviT.
aq kvlav meordeba xuTwigneulis erT-erTi gamWoli
Tema _ rogor unda moiqces israeli qanaanSi, rogor
unda moeqces adgilobriv mkvidr xalxs. ar aris sakmarisi maTi ayra: adgilobrivi xalxebi maTi kerpebianad
unda aiyarnen. ar unda darCes maT miwaze rame nasaxi maTi myofobisa. miwa TiTqos Tavis pirvelqmnil mdgomareobas unda daubrundes, igi mTlianad unda ganiwmidos. `gaanadgureT yoveli adgili, sadac ki Tqvens mier
ayril xalxebs Tayvani uciaT (yabdu umsaxuriaT) TavianTi RmerTebisTvis maRal mTebze da gorakebze, yoveli xemxvivanis Ziras. daangrieT maTi samsxverploebi
da daleweT maTi svetebi, gadawviT maTi aSerebi, daamsxvrieT maTi RmerTebis gamosaxulebani da mospeT maTi
saxeli im adgilidan~ (12:2-3).
mniSvnelovania ena, riTac gamoxatulia es kategoriuli mowodeba. kategoriulia da uTuo-uTumcao moTxovna da es Cans semituri enebisTvis damaxasiaTebel
zmnur saqcevSi (ramac didi asparezi hpova ebraulSi),
paronomaziis saxeliT rom aris cnobili. abbed Teabbedun ganadgurebiT gaanadgureT. amgvarad gamoTqmuli
brZaneba adgils ar tovebs gamonaklisisTvis. aseTi
brZaneba xeremze gadacemis (totaluri ganadgurebis,
mTliani aRspolvis) tolfasia. ra nadgurdeba? aq CamoTvlilia sakulto obieqtebi _ samsxverploebi, svetebi (zeaRmarTuli qvebi baalis miwaze myofobis sim-

322

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bolod), aSerebi (Walebi Tu, ubralod, xis nakeToba


_ dedaqalRmerT aSeras simbolo), xemxvivanebi _ da
landSaftis fragmentebi, sadac es obieqtebia ganlagebuli: maRali mTebi da gorakebi. aseve nadgurdeba _ da
es ukanaskneli etapia _ am xalxebis Tu maTi kerpebis saxeli (Sem), raTa mis adgilas uflis saxeli damkvidrdes. uflis saxelis dadeba romelime adgilze qveynis saboloo dapatronebis niSania. is adgili eZebeT
da iq midiT, romelsac yvela Tqvens Stos Soris amoirCevs ufali, Tqveni RmerTi, Tavisi saxelis dasadebad,
Tavis savaned (12:5, 21). am arCevis aqti im arCevaTa wyebis erT-erTi, SesaZloa, saboloo etapia, romelTac
meSveobiT ufali moqmedebs adamianur samyaroSi. abraamidan dawyebuli Cven winaSe Caivlis arCevaTa wyeba. arCeulia xalxi, arCeulia qveyana (aRTqmuli miwa) dasamkvidreblad, xolo damkvidrebis Semdeg airCeva Sto da
adgili am Stos miwaze, sadac uflis saxeli unda damkvidrdes. mravali kerpis adgilze, romlebiTac mofenili da wabilwuli iyo miwa, erTi uflis erTi sawmidari unda daarsdes. arCeuli Sto, sadac uflis saxeli daideba, ar aris privilegirebuli, es ufro pasuxismgeblobaa, rogorc araerTgzis davrwmundiT (Tu ra saSiSia uflis kidobnis siaxlove). es rCeuli, rogorc viciT, ierusalimi iqneba, iebusevelTa qalaqi, romelsac
daviT mefe aiRebs Tavis sataxtod, raTa aqcios igi politikur da religiur centrad. magram manamde uflis
kidobani, romelSic daunjebuli iyo mTeli siwmide,
Stodan StoSi unda gadanacvlebuliyo. sul cota, sami
adgili iyo, sadac droebiT ivanebda uflis saxeli: Seqemi, beTeli da siloami (Silo). aq unda Sewiruliyo
yoveli saxeobis msxverpli da ara sxvagan, nebismier adgilas, visac sad moesurveboda. aq unda mosuliyo idealur SemTxvevaSi mTeli sagvareulo _ saxli dedawulianad, maT Soris levianic, rogorc adgilobrivi
kultis msaxuri (romelic Tqvens qalaqebSi cxovrobs
_ 12:18). daSvebuli iyo gamonaklisi maTTvis, vinc centraluri sawmidridan Sors cxovrobda _ isini Tav-TavianT sacxovreblebSi daklavdnen saklavs, aqve gascemdnen levianTaTvis meaTeds da Wamdnen, rogorc moses
rjuli uwesebda. Tumca principulad, mkacri azriT,
mxolod msxverplad Sewiruli pirutyvis xorci iWmeva
(zogierT Zvel enaSi msxverpli da saWmeli erTi da
imave sityviT aRiniSneba), israelians eZleoda ufleba,
roca moesurveboda, maSin daekla saklavi xorcis Wamis
mizniT. oRond yovelTvis, roca moisurveb, SegeZleba
saklavis dakvla da uflis, Seni RmerTis kurTxeviT
xorcis Wama, romelic mogca man, yovel Sens karibWeSi...
(12:15); ufro garkveviT: ...ityvi: modi, xorcs SevWam,
radgan (roca) guli migiva xorcis saWmelad, Wame xorci
Seni gulis surviliT (12:20). magram raki xorcis Wamis
yoveli mosurvebisas mas ar SeeZleba sawmidarSi Casvla
msxverplis Sesawiravad, eZleva SeRavaTi _ daklas sak-

323

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

lavi Tavis karibWeSi (qalaqSi), sadac mkvidrobs. Tu


msxverplis Wamas, ramdenadac is wmidaa, Tavisi wesebi
aqvs, ubralo saklavi Tavisufalia rame SezRudvisgan
_ misi Wama ara mxolod ritualurad sufTasi (tahor),
aramed usufTaosic (tame) SeuZlia, rac wmida msxverplis SemTxvevaSi dauSvebelia.
amrigad, rjuli awesebs arsebiT sxvaobas samsxverploze Sewirulsa da Sin dakluls Soris: erTi wmidaa, uflisTvis daikvlis, rogorc msxverpli, romlis
mxolod nawils igemebs misi patroni; meore _ sadagi,
mxolod SimSilis dasakmayofileblad aris gamiznuli. amgvarad dakluli nanadirevTan aris gaTanabrebuli: rogorc qurciki da rogorc iremi iWmeva, ise
Wame igi (12:22).
[rac Seexeba nanadirevs: es mesame SemTxvevaa mTels Zvel
aRTqmaSi, roca nadirobas sruliad garkveuli, ara epizoduri yuradReba eqceva. cnobilia, rom nadiroba uflisaTvis arcTu mosawoni saqmianobaa. pirveli misi xseneba agresiuli nebroTis saxels ukavSirdeba (dab. 10:8-9); meored
monadires esavis pirovnebis saxiT vecnobiT _ Sefaseba aSkarad negatiuria: ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom marjve monadire esavi _ velebis kaci dawunebulia uflis mier, xolo
sruli iakobi, karvebSi mcxovrebi (dab. 25:27) _ mowonebulia da arCeulia uflis eris mamamTavrad.]

am TavSi erTmaneTs pirvelad ukavSirdeba gansasveneblis idea samkvidreblis ideas, ramac mogvianebiT
esqatologiuri da mesianuri azri SeiZina. jer kidev
ar misulxarT gansasvenebelSi da samkvidrebelSi,
romelsac ufali Seni RmerTi gaZlevs (12:9), eubneba
mose xalxs. ramdenime dReSi es xalxi gadalaxavs iordanes, raTa sabolood ukan moitovos udabno _ aravisi miwa da daimkvidros Tavisi samkvidrebeli; da ormoci wlis xetialis Semdeg gansasvenebeli (menuxah)
moipovos. meored gansasvenebels axsenebs mefe solomoni, roca taZris satfurebisas locvas aRavlens uflisadmi: kurTxeulia ufali, romelmac gansasvenebeli mianiWa Tavis ers, israels, rogorc dapirebuli
iyo (3mef. 8:56). magram menuxah jer kidev wuTisoflis
farglebSia moqceuli, rogorc droebiTi sikeTe. misi
saamqveyno ganxorcielebis mwvervali solomonis mefoba iyo. magram erTiani samefos gaxleCis Semdgomi
xanidan menuxah winaswarmetyvelTa imedebSi metaistoriul ganzomilebas iZens _ is saboloo gansasvenebelia, amjerad xalxebisTvis anu mTeli kacobriobisTvis. im dRes xalxTa droSad idgeba ieses fesvi da
misken daiwyeben denas tomebi; dideba iqneba misi gansasvenebeli (es. 11:10), vkiTxulobT esaias wignSi. winaswarmetyveli aq mesianur xanaze laparakobs. menuxas, rogorc RvTis sasufevlis, esqatologiur-mesianisturi Sinaarsi mkafiod axal aRTqmaSi gamoCnda:
`vinaidan gansasvenebelSi SevdivarT Cven, morwmuneni...~ (ebr. 4:3).

324

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cduneba da gamocda
(13)
vin SeiZleba acdunos israeliani da midrikos misi
neba ucxo RmerTebis Tayvaniscemad da samsaxurad, egviptidan amomyvani RmerTisadmi zurgis Sesaqcevad da
mis dasagmobad da, sabolood, WeSmariti gzidan asacdenad? es SeiZleba iyos cruwinaswarmetyveli an sizmarTmxilveli (xolem xalom). garegnulad cru SeiZleba arc gansxvavdebodes WeSmaritisgan, radgan crusac SeuZlia gamoacxados niSebi da saswaulebi da axdes
isini. roca mose da aaroni, uflis winaswarmetyvelni,
egvipteSi saswaulebs axdendnen, imave saswaulebs faraonis grZneulnic imeorebdnen. arsebobs providenciuli sizmrebi, rogoric iosebs qanaanSi, faraonis kariskacebs sapyrobileSi da faraons egvipteSi daesizmraT. iosebma ganmarta maTi sizmrebi, radgan isini momavlis Tesls Seicavdnen. magram arsebobs cru sizmari,
romlis ukan araferi ibadeba, radgan yoveli sizmari
ar aris uflis gamocxadeba. magram, aha, aRdgeba kaci da
iwyebs sizmrebis, niSebisa da saswaulebis axsnas _ rogor mixvdes rigiTi israeliani, aris Tu ara igi WeSmariti winaswarmetyveli, aris Tu ara is RvTis kaci, acxadebs Tu ara igi uflis sityvebs? sworad kiTxulobs
igi sizmrebs an, saerTod, Tu aris rame azri im sizmrebSi, romelTac kiTxulobs? mose awvdis ubralo xalxs
sruliad martiv kriteriums: rac unda saswaulebs Cadiodes winaswarmetyveli, israeliani ar unda Seacdinos aman: mTavaria motivi _ risTvis winaswarmetyvelebs. Tu is amasTan erTad qadagebs uflis sawinaaRmdegos anu mouwodebs xalxs ucxo RmerTebis Tayvaniscemisken, aseT winaswarmetyvels yuri ar unda aTxovon. is
cru RmerTebis winaswarmetyvelia da ara israelis uflisa. araTu yuri ar unda daugdon maT, aramed unda gauswordnen sasikvdilod _ es maTi uflebaa da valic
aris. es winaswarmetyveli iqceva Tavisi nebiT, TviTneburad, acxadebs Tavis nebas, ara uflis nebas. da mainc
mis gamoCenaSi aris uflis neba: am sicruisa da demagogiis daSvebiT ufali cdis Tavis xalxs, uyvars Tu ara
mas ufali mTeli guliTa da suliT anu ramdenad mtkicea maTi siyvaruli da sasoeba uflisadmi, romelmac
isini egviptis monobisgan ixsna (13:3).
kidev visgan aris mosalodneli israelianis cduneba? es SeiZleba iyos misi axlobeli _ ojaxis wevri:
RviZli Zma dedis mxridan (dedaSenis Svili), vaJi,
asuli, sayvareli coli (coli Seni ubisa), guliTadi
megobari (rogorc Seni suli). ai, am adamianebs SeuZliaT TavianTi siaxlovis gamo acdunon israeliani.
oRond, winaswarmetyvelTagan gansxvavebiT, isini sajarod ar arwmuneben maT, mxolod idumal, dafarulad
(ba-seTer), intimur viTarebaSi, rogoric axlobel adamianebs Soris SeiZleba Seiqmnas. aq Zlieria da qmediTi
siyvarulisa da ndobis faqtori: mosalodnelia, ax-

325

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

loblisadmi siyvarulma sZlios uflisadmi siyvaruls.


am mcdelobisaTvis wamqezebeli waqezebulis xeliTve
isjeba: waqezebuls rjuli uflebas aZlevs _ avaldebulebs kidec _ Tavad iZios Suri uflisaTvis: nu dagenaneba igi, nu Seibraleb, xels nu daafareb, aramed mokali igi. pirvelad Seni xeli unda aRimarTos mis mosaklavad, mere ki _ mTeli erisa. Caqole igi, raTa mokvdes,
radgan cdilobda, moewyvite ufals... (13:8-10).
mose asaxelebs xalxis ucxo RmerTebisken gadabirebis kidev erT SesaZleblobas: israelianTa qalaqSi SeiZleba gamoCndes ugvani xalxi, belialis Zeni, romlebic Seecdebian acdunon ara calkeuli adamianebi, aramed mTeli qalaqi (anu moawyon religiuri janyi), da
kidec miaRwion mizans. aseT SemTxvevaSi qalaqis mTeli
mosaxleoba sasikvdilo codvis Tanamdebi xdeba. Cans,
mcdelobac ki rjulis Secvlisa qalaqs umal mtrul,
Seurigebel qalaqad aqcevs, iseT qalaqad, romelic
mTlianad, rogorc xerems (darisxebas) gadacemuli,
unda ganadgurdes. maxviliT daxoce im qalaqis mcxovrebni, daarisxe qalaqi da yvelaferi, rac masSia, misi
pirutyvic maxviliT daxoce. mTeli nadavli Suagul
moedanze daaxvave da mTlianad dauwvi ufals, Sens
RmerTs. qalaqi da mTeli nadavli saukuno nangrevebad
darCes, raTa arasodes aRar aSendes (13:15-16), radgan
qalaqSi sisaZaglea Cadenili. sisaZagle _ Toyebah
mTlianad bilwavs qalaqs, israelianTa sacxovreblad
uvargisad xdis.
sisaZagle
(14:1-21)
sisaZagle _ Toyebah is mdgomareobaa realobisa, romelic diametralurad upirispirdeba siwmides (kodeS).
sadac Toyebah isadgurebs, iq wmidis adgili aRar rCeba.
israelianebs, rogorc RvTis Svilebs da uflis wmida
ers, gamorCeuls yvela xalxs Soris dedamiwis zurgze,
marTebT siwmidis dacva, raTa ar dauSvan sisaZagle TavianT wreSi. gansakuTrebiT mosaridebelia maTTvis qanaanuri saZageli wes-Cveulebani, romelTagan am TavSi
nimuSad micvalebulze glovis ritualia dasaxelebuli. nu daikawrebiT da Tmas nu moiparsavT mkvdarze
glovis niSnad (14:1). es akrZalva udabnoSic moismines
israelianebma, Sesakrebel karavTan: nakawrebs nu gaikeTebT tanze Tqveni mkvdrisTvis... (lev. 19:28).
rjuli krZalavs, erTi mxriv, eqscesebs micvalebulze datirebisas, rogorc qanaanur sisaZagles, meore
mxriv, sxeulis damaxinjebas, radgan adamians ufleba ara
aqvs Tavisi fizikuri sxeulis, rogorc RvTis qmnilebis,
damaxinjebisa. saxiCari da xeibari, rame fizikuri naklis mqone, ar aris saTno uflisaTvis. TviT aaronianTa
Sorisac Tu daibadeba aseTi, mas ekrZaleba RvTismsaxureba, rasac dabadebis uflebiT unda asrulebdes, rogorc leviani da rogorc aaroniani (lev. 21:17-21).

326

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rjuli krZalavda, magram israelianebi mainc misdevdnen am qanaanur Cveulebas, romelic naklebad iyo
mwuxarebis bunebrivi gamoxatuleba. es iyo ritualuri niSani, romliTac sazogadoeba iuwyeboda mwuxarebas, _ yvelasTvis (ara mxolod qanaanSi) gasagebi ena.
israelic, rogorc met-naklebad integrirebuli Tavisi mezoblis kulturasTan, iyenebda am enas. movida
xalxi Seqemidan, siloamidan da samariidan _ oTxmoci
kaci, wvergaparsuli, tanisamosSemoglejilni da saxe
dakawrulni... _ gvamcnobs ieremia raimenairi kicxvisa
Tu sayveduris gareSe (ier. 41:5).
meore sfero, sadac sisaZaglem SeiZleba gaikvlios
gza, sakvebis sferoa, sadac mkveTrad imijneba erTmaneTisgan sufTa (tahor) da usurmagi (Toyebah saZageli
an tame uwmiduri) cxovelebi. maTze da im niSnebze,
romlebiTac ganirCevian isini, ukve levianTa wignSi
iyo saubari (lev. 11). meore rjulis wigni arsebiTs
arafers umatebs. sul ori niSania: yvela pirutyvi,
romelsac Cliqi gapobili aqvs da icoxnis, geWmevaT
(lev. 11:3). erTi niSani ar aris sakmarisi: orive es niSani unda hqondes sakvebad nebadarTul cxovels. aqlemi,
magaliTisTvis mcoxnelia, magram Cliqi ara aqvs gapobili, amitomac usurmagia _ ar iWmeva (14:7). Rori
Tumca Cliqgapobilia, magram ar icoxneba, usurmagia is
TqvenTvis. nu SeWamT maT xorcs da maT leSsac nu miekarebiT (14:8). wylis arsebaTa siwmidis niSani farflebi da qerclia (qereWi). rac Seexeba frinvelebs, maTi
gamosarCevi niSnebi ar aris dasaxelebuli, ubralod,
isini CamoTvlilia saxeldebiT onavrebidan da mZoris
mWamelTagan dawyebuli (arwivi, svavi, Zera, yorani...)
uwyinarebiT (siraqlema, Tolia, gedi, kodala, ofofi...) damTavrebuli (14:12-18). rac am CamonaTvalSi ar
Sedis, nebadarTulad iTvleba: yoveli wmida (tahor)
frinveli WameT (14:11, 20). magram romlebia es frinvelebi? albaT, mwyeri, romelic udabnoSi gadmouyara
uflisgan modenilma qarma, mtredi da gvriti, romlebsac msxverplad swiraven da, amdenad, iWmeva kidec.
uwmiduria leSi; israelians ekrZaleba bunebrivad
momkvdari (ara dakluli) pirutyvis xorcis Wama
(14:21). aq ori motivi unda iyos: higienuri da religiuri _ leSSi, gaciebul gvamSi, sisxli rCeba, sisxlis Wama ki akrZalulia, radgan sisxlSi sicocxlea, xolo sicocxle RmerTs ekuTvnis da mxolod mas unda daeRvaros. ar SeWamo igi, wyaliviT daRvare miwaze (12:24).
cikans Tavis dedis rZeSi nu moxarSav (14:21) _ es,
rogorc Cans, qanaanuri Cveuleba, romelic ugaritul
eposSi dasturdeba (moxarSe cikani rZeSi, batkani naRebSi), ekrZaleba israels, rogorc sisaZagle. Tumca
am akrZalvis sazrisi gaugebaria. mxolod imis Tqma SeiZleba, rom es akrZalva Saatnezis (ix. lev. 19:19) kategorias uaxlovdeba: rogorc Cans, xorci da rZe iseve SeuTavsebelia, rogorc seli da matyli.

327

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

meaTedi. patieba. xelgaSlili iyavi


(14:22-29; 15:1-11; 26:13-14)
yovelwliuri mosavlis meaTedi (measer _ asar
aTi) eZRvneba ufals, rogorc miwis patrons da mis
cxovelmyofels. es ZRveni ori saxisaa: mcenareuli da
cxoveluri. xorbali, zeTi, Rvino _ am ZiriTadi klasikuri produqtebis (aivseba beRlebi xorbliT da galiclicdeba kodebi RviniT da zeTiT, iov. 2:24) _ meaTedi da pirutyvis (Zroxisa da cxvris) pirvelmogebuli uflisaa. yovel israelians weliwadSi erTxel
ufalTan miaqvs raRac wili am meaTedidan im adgilas,
romelsac Tavisi saxelis dasadebad airCevs ufali, da
iq Wams uflis winaSe, romelTanac iziarebs sufras
Tavis saxlTan (ojaxTan) erTad.
Tu misi sacxovrebeli adgilidan Sors aris uflis
adgili, igi vercxlze gadacvlis yovelive amas da am
vercxliT iyidis yvelafers, rac moesurveba _ xvastags, cxvars Tu sasmels, raTa gaixaros Tavis saxlTan
erTad, ar moakldes uflis trapezs. yovel mesame wels
meaTedi inaxeba qalaqSi levianisa, romelsac ara aqvs
miwidan sakuTari Semosavali, da am qalaqis qvrivobolTa dasapureblad isev da isev RvTis gulisTvis,
raTa akurTxos RmerTma yovel saqmeSi maspinZeli
(14:28-29). am gadadebul Wirnaxuls Tavisi misamarTi
da daniSnuleba aqvs, adevs mkacri tabu: raki is uflisaa, israeliani ver gamoiyenebs mas mkvdris saWiroebisTvis anu glovisa da dakrZalvis ritualSi, arc rame
sxva saqmeSi, rac uwmidurebasTan aris dakavSirebuli,
magaliTad, ritualuri ganwmedisas (26:13-14).
valis patiebis zogadi wesi _ yoveli meSvide wlis
Tavze gamoacxade patieba (15:1) _ gaSlilia Semdgom
muxlebSi. meSvide weli SabaTis welia SviddReulis
SabaTis analogiiT. yovel meSvide wels miwa isvenebs _
es aris miwis patieba (Semittah sityvasityviT: migdeba): eqvs weliwads Tese miwa da aiRe misi mosavali.
meSvide wels ar daamuSavo, miagde igi, rom sazrdo
hqondes Seni eris Rarib-Ratakebs... (gam. 23:10-11). igive rjuli meordeba levianTa wignSi: iuqmos miwam SabaTi uflisaTvis... eqvs weliwads Tesavde Sens yanas...
meSvide wels ki sauqmo SabaTia miwisaTvis, uflis SabaTi; yana ar daTeso... (lev. 25:2-4). valis patieba (Semittah) yovel meSvide wels miwis patiebiT aris ganpirobebuli: vali epatieba movales, radgan miwa isvenebs
am wels da mas ar eqneba SesaZlebloba valis gastumrebisa wina wlis Semosavlidan, romliTac igi SabaTis
weliwads unda gamoikvebos. patiebis kanoni moqmedebs
mxolod israelis sazogadoebis farglebSi, romlebic
moicavs Tavad israelianebs da mdgmurebs (ger), romlebic, rogorc winadacveTilni, maTTan SeTvisebulni
arian. ucxoelze (noqri), romelic SeiZleba maT Soris
cxovrobdes, kanoni ar vrceldeba. ucxoels mosTxove,
magram apatie Sens Zmas, Tu Seni vali eqna (15:3).

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valTan da sesxTan uSualod aris dakavSirebuli siRaribis problema. valis aReba siRaribiT aris ganpirobebuli. magram Tavad siRaribe uflis mcnebaTa SeusmenlobiT, urCobiTaa gamowveuli. Tu iqneba Sesmena, iqneba uflis kurTxevac da, sadac uflis kurTxevaa, iq
aRar aris siRaribe, aramed siuxve da dovlaTi. es azri
unda gamovitanoT 15:4-5-dan: `Tumca ar iqneba TqvenSi
Raribi, radgan kurTxeviT gakurTxebs ufali... oRond
Tu Seismen uflis, Seni RmerTis sityvas... amasTanave,
uflis kurTxeva ara mxolod sazogadoebis SigniT gaauqmebs uerTierTganpirobebul valisa da siRaribis arsebobas, aramed sazogadoebis (qveynis) gareTac Seuqmnis israels damoukideblobas. bevr xalxs asesxeb Sen,
Tavad ki ar isesxeb (15:6), Sedegad ki bevr xalxze ibatoneb, Senze ki aravin ibatonebs (iqve). magram vidre
arsebobs siRaribe israelis sazogadoebaSi permanentuli arSesmenisa da urCobis gamo, es cneba ZalaSi iqneba. metic: radgan ar daileva Raribi qveyanaSi, amitomac gibrZaneb, rom xelgaSlili iyo Seni Zmis mimarT, Seni Ratakisa da Raribis mimarT Sens qveyanaSi~ (15:11).
ebraeli mona
(15:12-18)
ar aris xSiri abraam-iakobis STamomavalTa ebraelobiT (yibri) moxsenieba. magram, sadac ixseneba, am eTnonims arcTu sasurveli konotacia aqvs: ebraeli israelianis, rogorc ucxoelis an monis statusze mianiSnebs. ase iyo egvipteSi, sadac monobis donemde daeSvnen
isini (gam. 2:6, 11, 13; 3:18), ase iyo msajulTa xanaSi, roca, Tumc droebiT, filistimelTa morCilebaSi moeqcnen (1mef. 4:6,9). SesaZloa, eTnonimi ebraeli (yibri)
israelianis droebiT daqveiTebul statuss aRniSnavdes. yovel SemTxvevaSi, winadadebaSi Tu mogeyida Seni ebraeli Zma _ kaci an qali, da eqvs wels gemsaxura, meeqvse wels gaaTavisufle Sengan (15:12); asea lev. 21:2Sic: Tu iyidi ebrael monas, eqvsi weli gemsaxuros,
meSvide wels usasyidlod ganTavisufldes. miyidulad Tu nayidad (anu monad) moxseniebulia ara israeliani, aramed, saxeldobr, ebraeli, Tumca is erTi ZmaTagania. aqedan is azri gamodis, rom israeliani, sanam
is israeliania anu Ze israelisa, sabolood ki aRTqmis
Svili, ar SeiZleba iwodebodes monad. Tu is mona gaxda,
mas ebraelad moixsenieben.
rogorc vxedavT, SabaTis (meSvide wlis) kanoni monis bed-iRbalsac moicavs. oRond araferia naTqvami
araebrael, ucxoel monaze, exeba Tu ara mas SabaTis kanoni. meSvide wels, eqvswliani samsaxuris (monobis)
Semdeg ebraeli mona usasyidlod Tavisufldeba. magram
igi xelcarieli ar tovebs patronis saxls. kanoni avaldebulebs: xelcarieli ar gauSva. mieci saCuqrad rame
Seni faridan an sawnaxelidan, riTac ukurTxebixar
ufals, Sens RmerTs, mieci (15:13-14). kanoni imasac iT-

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valiswinebs, rom patrons SeiZleba gauZneldes monis


gaTavisufleba, daenanos muSaxelis gasvla meurneobidan. kanoni ebraeli monis eqvswlian Sromas patronis
saxlSi ormag Sromad Tvlis, risTvisac ormag gasamrjelos imsaxurebs (15:18): erTs patronis sasargeblod, meores _ Tavis sasargeblod anu gamosasyidad.
mona imsaxurebs gasvlisas saCuqars im dovlaTidan, romelic uflis wyalobiT (kurTxeviT) aqvs mopovebuli.
unda vifiqroT, rom misi saCuqari pirdapirproporciulia patronis qonebisa, romelSic masac miuZRvis wvlili. kanoni avalebs israelians saCuqris micemas, raTa
yofilma monam mis safuZvelze Seqmnas sakuTari meurneoba, magram kanoni aseve mouwodebs, rom man gasces es daunaneblad, keTili nebiTa da guliT, xelgaSlilad:
mieci da nu inaRvlebs Seni guli micemisas... (15:10).
garda nivTieri damsaxurebisa, monas, rogorc israelians, ekuTvnis Tavisufleba, radgan isic mTels israelTan erTad gamosyiduli iqna egviptis monobidan.
monis uflebaa, moipovos Tavisufleba meSvide wels,
SabaTs (am dRes gamovida israeli egviptidan), xolo
patroni valdebulia, gauSvas igi. kanoni Seaxsenebs mas:
gaixsene, rom mona iyavi egviptis qveyanaSi da gamogisyida ufalma, Senma RmerTma (15:15). monis patronma,
rogorc monis ufalma, unda wabaZos Tavis uzenaes
ufals. ar moaklos gamosyidvis sixarulis, SeiZleba
iTqvas, istoriuli gancda monas. ase aRsruldeba religiuri vali da istoriuli simarTlec. kanoni iTvaliswinebs monis nebasac. mas aqvs arCevanis ufleba _
TavisuflebaSi gasvla an monobaSi darCena. Tu moxdeba ise, rom giTxras: ar waval Sengan, radgan miyvarxarT
Sen da Seni saxli, radgan kargad var SenTan... (15:16).
gamosvlaTa wignSi ufro aSkarad gamoaTqmevinebs kanoni monas Tavis nebas: miyvars Cemi patroni da Cemi colSvili, ar minda Tavisufleba (21:5). kanonis am versiaSi kaci rCeba monobaSi, uars ambobs ra Tavisuflebaze
im mizeziTac, rom mas ar surs col-Svilis mitoveba.
radgan adaTis mixedviT, col-Svili, romelsac mona batonis saxlSi monobisas gaiCens, mas ar ekuTvnis _ isini
patronis saxlis sakuTrebaa.
magram saqme formaluri aRiarebiT (Tavisuflebaze
uarisTqmiT) ar mTavrdeba. kanoni awesebs rituals, romelic sabolood gadawyvets kacis beds, Seuqcevad saxes
miscems mis arCevans. aiRe sadgisi, karze miadebine yuri
da gauxvrite, da Seni mona iqneba samudamod. ase moeqeci
mxevalsac (15:17). gamosvlaTa wignSi es kanoni amgvarad aris gadmocemuli: miiyvanos misma patronma RmerTTan, miayenos igi karTan an wirTxlTan da sadgisiT gauxvritos yuri... (21:6). amrigad, misi damonebis mowme
RmerTia, rac gardauval xasiaTs aniWebs kacis nebas.
yuris gaxvreta simboluri, magram bunebrivi aqtia:
yuri, rogorc smenis da Sesmenis organo, morCilebis
simboloa. yuris gaxvreta, gasagebia, SeiZleba niSnav-

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des patronis mier monis sasmenelis dasakuTrebas. yuri


monobis konteqstSi xamurabis kanonebSic figurirebs,
Tumca situacia sapirispiroa: ukeTu mona Tavis patrons etyvis, Cemi patroni ara xaro, patronma unda daamtkicos, rom igi misi monaa, da yurs moaWris (282). qmedebis sazrisi sxva ra unda iyos, Tu ara is, rom yuris
moWriT patroni mTlianad isakuTrebs monis smenamorCilebas.
`yoveli pirmSo, rac daibadeba Sens xvastagSi da
cxvarSi, mamri, Seswire ufals~ (15:19). gamosvlaTa
wignSi am kanonis aRsruleba qanaanSi damkvidrebisas
evaleba israelians (gam. 13:11-12), iqvea ganmartebuli,
Tu ra sazrisi aqvs am wess: igi axsenebs israelianebs
ukanasknel sasjel-saswauls, romelic daatexa ufalma
egviptes, roca yoveli pirmSo, ufliswulidan dawyebuli da ubralo mexelsafqvavis ZiT damTavrebuli,
moakvdina ufalma, amitomac vwiravT-Tqo ufals
msxverplad yovel pirvelmogebul mamrs (gam. 13:15).
sxvagan: Cemia saSos yoveli gamRebi, yoveli mamali pirutyvi... (gam. 34:19). kanoni krZalavs pirvelmogebulis gamoyenebas sakuTari sameurneo miznebisTvis: pirvelnaSob xars uRelSi ver Seabams, cxvars ver gaparsavs;
dauklavs ufals msxverplad da saRvTo trapezze SeWams mis xorcs Tavis ojaxTan erTad im adgilas, sadac
uflis saxeli iqneba dadebuli (15:19-20). oRond uflisaTvis msxverplad gamzadebul pirmSos ar unda
hqondes rame nakli (ar iyos koWli, brma da sxva) _ aseTi pirutyvis msxverplad Sewirva uflis Seuracxyofaa. igi daikvlis rogorc sadagi pirutyvi da iWmeva
rogorc qurciki da rogorc iremi. mis saWmelad adamians ar moeTxoveba ritualuri siwmide (15:22).
paseqi
(16:1-8)
samgzis evaleba israelians uflis winaSe gamocxadeba, ara carieli xeliT, aramed ZRveniT, saklaviT. es
sami gamocxadeba aris sami ZiriTadi dResaswauli, romlebic erTi centraluri salocavis Temas ukavSirdeba. es is adgilia, romelsac amoirCevs ufali aRTqmul
miwaze. es erTaderTi adgilia, sadac unda Seikribos
Tormeti tomi, sadac israelianTa konsolidacia ritualur gamoxatulebas miiRebs. aq da am Jams, weliwadSi samgzis, isini estumrebian RmerTs da, amave dros,
xvdebian erTmaneTs adamianebi, mamissaxlebi, sagvareuloebi da Stoebi. sadResaswaulo weliwadi paseqiT iwyeba, paseqivea wlis dasawyisi. paseqSi erwymis erTmaneTs ori gansxvavebuli warmoSobis faqti. erTia bunebis faqti, ganmeorebadi, bunebrivi wrebrunvis erTi
monakveTi, TiTqos maradiuli; meorea istoriuli movlena, romelic erTxel moxda da arasodes ganmeordeba.
pirveli gazafxulis dResaswaulia, romelic bunebis
xiluli niSnebiT aris aRniSnul-gamoxatuli _ TviT

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saxelic, roca igi idResaswauleba, gvamcnobs gazafxulis am mTavar niSans: es aris abib, gazafxulis pirveli
Tvis Zveli qanaanuri saxelwodeba, rac nedl TavTavs,
jejils niSnavs. meorea gardamtexi mijna israelis
cxovrebaSi _ egviptidan gamosvla. da es movlenac,
Tumca is erTxel moxda da erTjeradi faqtia, meordeba
ritualurad yovel Jams, roca sapaseqo batkani daikvlis. dResaswaulis TiToeuli elementi am istoriuli movlenis ritualuri gaxsenebaa. yoveli israeliani ritualis meoxebiT unda aRmoCndes im JamSi, roca misi winapari egviptidan gamodioda. awmyoSi ritualurad warsuli cocxldeba.
amrigad, abibis Tve erTsa da imave dros bunebis gamoRviZebis Jamic aris da egviptidan xalxis gamosyidvis Jamic. rogorc ufali aRmoacenebs jejils, amave
TveSi amohyavs xalxi egviptidan, xolo egvipte, Cven viciT, qvesknelis, saflavis, sinonimia. yoveli paseqis winasaxe is Ramea, roca pirvelad daikla sapaseqo kravi. es
pirvelqmedeba dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili gamosvlaTa wignSi (gam. 12:1-27). Tavdapirvelad, mis arqetipSi
paseqi saojaxo qmedeba iyo: abibis Tvis ToTxmetSi TiToeulma saxlma, sxvebisgan damoukideblad, saRamo
xans, vidre diliT egviptidan gasvlas daiwyebda, dakla saRi kravi, romelic mas winaswar hqonda dagulebuli. magram es ar iyo msxverplSewirvis arc erTi im saxeobaTagan, romlebic Semdgom Camoyalibda. msxverpli
(zebax), Cveulebriv, an mTlianad uflisTvis iwireba
(anu Semwirvels ar rCeba SesaWmelad) an sanaxevrod: nawili ufals ekuTvnis, nawili _ Semwirvels. paseqis saklavi ki sruliad gansakuTrebuli msxverpli iyo, romelic erTdroulad daikla israelis yvela ojaxSi erTmaneTisgan damoukidebliv, sisxli karis wirTxlebs
esxura da xorci mTlianad SeiWama ojaxis wevrebis mier
adgilzeve. rac morCa, dawves namusrevTan erTad, raTa
dilisTvis ar morCeniliyo. es qmedeba, romelic Semdgom ritualad gadaiqca, sagangebo viTarebiT iyo ganpirobebuli: es iyo egvipteSi israelianTa yofnis ukanaskneli Rame, diliT maT unda daetovebinaT egvipte.
RamiT ki uflis angelozs unda Seemusra egviptelTa yoveli pirmSo ubralo adamianidan ufliswulamde. kravi, romlis sisxli israelianTa saxlebis kars esxura,
israelianTa pirmSoebis gamosasyidi msxverpli iyo,
wirTxlze nacxebi sisxli ki imis niSani, rom am saxlSi
israeliani idga da mas Semmusvreli angelozis xeli ar
unda Sehxeboda. dilisaTvis gasasvlelad gamzadebuli
yoveli israeliani, yvela Tav-Tavis saxlSi myofi, an
ori mezobeli erT WerqveS, _ Tu kravi didia da erTi
ojaxi mTlianad ver SeWams mas, _ saidumlo viTarebaSi
fexze mdgomi, aCqarebiT Wams cecxlze Semwvar xorcs,
ara moxarSuls (Semdgom ki, rogorc meore rjulis wigni gvamcnobs, ganmeorebad ritualSi xorci ixarSeba),
ayolebs xmiads (ufuar purs) da mware balaxs.

332

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es ukanasknelni _ ufuaroba da balaxis simware _


paseqis miucilebeli elementebia, isini Seadgenen paseqis, rogorc pirvelqmedebis, arss. erTi mxriv, Tu paseqi egviptidan gamosvlis, xalxis gamosyidvis (romlis niSania sisxli) da, sabolood, gadarCenis sasixarulo gaxsenebaa, meore mxriv, paseqi im simwaris gaxsenebac aris, rac maT egvipteSi cxovrebisas ganicades.
meore rjulSi mware balaxi aRar aris naxsenebi (mxolod gam. 12:8; ricx. 9:11), magram xmiadze pirdapir aris
naTqvami, Tu risi simboloa igi: nu miatan mas safuarians, Svid dRes Wame masTan erTad xmiadi, gaWirvebis
puri... (16:3). safuvris akrZalva, erTi SexedviT, praqtikuli motiviT aris ganpirobebuli: israeli, romelic Cqarobda egviptidan gasvlas, ver daelodeboda
comis afuebas. safuariani puri fufunebis puri iqneboda moCqareTaTvis. zemoT moyvanili nawyveti amgvarad grZeldeba: ...radgan naCqarevad gamoxvedi egviptis qveynidan, rom mTeli sicocxle gaxsovdes egviptis
qveynidan Seni gamosvlis dRe (16:3). es Svidi dRe,
romlis manZilze grZeldeba paseqis dResaswauli, is
Svidi dRea, romelic gamosulebma gzaSi gaatares, sagzlad ki maT xmiadebi hqondaT. Cans, ufuaroba mxolod
siCqariT ar unda yofiliyo gamowveuli. sagzlad maT
safuariani puri ar gamoadgebodaT, ramdenadac, Tumca
safuari sicocxles aZlevs purs, igi misi sikvdilis mizezic aris. cocxali puri gzaSi cxeli havis pirobebSi
gaixrwneboda, mokvdeboda da, rogorc yoveli mkvdari, uwmiduris kategoriaSi gadavidoda, saWmelad
uvargisi Seiqneboda (niSandoblivia aRmosavleTisTvis, rom gilgameSianSi safuariani puri Svid dReSi gafuWebis Svid safexurs gadis). gzaSi _ mxolod
xmiadi, araviTari safuari! ufuarobis am SviddRian
periods ixsenebs paseqis dResaswauli, dawyebuls kravis dakvlidan ufuarobamde. magram aris arsebiTi gansxvaveba gamosvlaTa wignisa da meore rjulis wignis
versiebs Soris. Tu paseqis pirvelaqti, rogorc is gamosvlaTa wignSia aRwerili, saidumlo viTarebaSi,
erTmaneTisgan izolirebulad, Tav-Tavis saxlebSi Caatares israelianebma, dResaswaulad qceuli ritualizebuli aqti ukve, sajaroobis da dRis sinaTlis
garda, Tavisi aRsrulebis adgilad uflis mier arCeul erTaderT adgils moiTxovs (16:2). udabnoSi israelianebs saerTo sakulto adgili ar gaaCndaT, vidre
Sesakrebeli karavi ar aRimarTa, _ es ki gamosvlis
welsve, ramdenime TveSi moxda. karavi, rogorc viciT,
iq aRimarTeboda, sadac mogzauri israeli banaks dascemda, anu, es niSnavs, karvis adgili mgzavrobiT iyo
gansazRvruli da ara uflis nebiT, rasac meore rjuli
taZrisTvis awesebs.

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Svideulni
(16:9-12)
paseqis ormocdameaTe dRe dResaswaulia, romelic
ramdenime saxeliT aris cnobili: SvideulTa dResaswauli (xag SabuyoT), pirvelnayofTa mowevis dResaswauli (xag ha-kacir biqure), mosavlis dResaswauli
(xag ha-asir). samive saxelwodeba miuTiTebs, rom es
dResaswauli mkvidri mosaxleobis, miwaTmoqmedi xalxis anu agraruli dResaswaulia. Tu paseqis aRsruleba
kidev SeeZloT israelianebs udabnos pirobebSi, rogorc gaxseneba egviptidan amosvlisa, Svideuls verafriT izeimebdnen. amis SesaZlebloba maT mxolod qanaanSi damkvidrebis Semdeg miecaT, roca momTabare
mwyemsebi miwismuSakebad gardaiqmnen.
karvoba
(16:13-15)
meSvide Tvis meTxuTmete dRidan erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi mTeli israeli karvebSi cxovrobs udabnoSi
cxovrebis gasaxseneblad. kvlav im adgilze zeimobs am
dResaswauls, romelsac ufali airCevs. aq gaSlian karvebs kidev imis gasaxseneblad, rom udabnoSi ufali
ifaravda maT, rogorc axla karvebi ifaraven. Tu xmiadi
_ gaWirvebis puri (paseqis mTavari niSani) egvipteSi
duxWiri cxovrebis simboloa, karavi imedian sxivs
aCens. amasTanave, karvoba ganasrulebs sasoflo-sameurneo periods; igi ukanaskneli dResaswaulia, romelic agvirgvinebs samiwaTmoqmedo weliwads. Svid
dRes izeime karvobis dResaswauli, roca morCebi kaloobas da yurZnis wurvas (16:13). rogorc Cans, Rvinis
dawurva miwismuSakis moRvaweobis ukanaskneli etapia.
es is droa, roca sagviano (gviani zafxulis da Semodgomis) xili, maT Soris yurZeni, Semodis.
yvela am dResaswaulze yoveli israeliani, msxverplis Semwirveli, uflis winaSe mxiarulobs, magram ara
mxolod igi. israeliani valdebulia TavisTan erTad
amxiarulos leviani, romelic mis karze cxovrobs da
yvela, mezobeli Tu Sexiznuli qvriv-oboli. gaixareT uflis, Seni RvTis winaSe Sen da Senma asulma, Senma
msaxurma da mxevalma... dabolos, am adgilzec, aseT
dros, sadac da roca aRTqmuli miwis sxvadasxva mxridan daZruli mTeli israeli ikribeba, unda axsovdes
mas, rom mona iyo egvipteSi (16:12).
msajulebi da samarTali
(16:18-20)
religiuri cxovreba wesrigs moiTxovs, mas Tavisi
wesi da rigi aqvs. rituali wesiT da rigiT aris warmarTuli.
avtori ganagrZobs wesrigis Temas samarTlianobis
WrilSi, gadadis ra msajulTa da rjulis kacTa statusze, romlebic yovel StoSi da yovel qalaqSi unda

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iyvnen ganwesebuli, da Zalze mokled warmoadgens marTlmsajulebis sam princips: swor samarTals, piruTvnelobas da uangarobas, romlebic aq negatiur formaSia gamoTqmuli: samarTals nu gaamrudeb, mikerZoebuli nu iqnebi, ZRvens nu miiReb (16:19). es mowodebebi
gulisxmobs, rom yoveli israeliani Tanasworia kanonis winaSe da, rac igivea, uflis winaSe, radgan ufalia
samarTlis wyaro. amave dros, simarTle (cedek) is sawyisia, romelic iZleva qveynisa da, ufro metic, sicocxlis SenarCunebis garantias.
samarTlis, axla ukve RvTiuris, darRvevaa aSerasaTvis xis dargva uflis xeliT mopovebul miwa-wyalze misi samsxverplos gverdiT an misTvis saZulveli svetis
aRmarTva (16:21) da aSkara Tu faruli Tayvaniscema ucxo warmarTuli RmerTebisadmi, rogoric arian mze,
mTvare an cis mxedroba (varskvlavebi). uflis rjulisgan ganmdgari, kaci iqneba Tu qali, sikvdiliT isjeba,
kerZod, CaqolviT, oRond saTanado gamoZiebis Semdeg,
ori-sami mowmis Cvenebis safuZvelze. erTi mowme ar
aris sakmarisi (17:2-7). adgilze gadauwyveteli sisxlis samarTlis saqme igzavneba RvTis samsjavroze,
romlis gadawyvetileba sabolooa (17:8-11). rjulisagan gandgoma, romelic Sefasebulia rogorc aRTqmis
darRveva, miCneulia, erTi mxriv, sisaZagled (Toyebah), meore mxriv, borot saqmed (ha-dabar ha-ray). borotebis Camdeni gaigivebulia Tavad borotebasTan,
rogorc Zalze mZime kategoriasTan: da aRmofxvri borotebas Seni Suagulidan (17:7). es iseTi danaSaulia,
romelic rame sapatiebels ar tovebs adamianSi, RvTisgan gandgomis danaSauli mTlianad moicavs mis pirovnebas, is borotebis gansaxiereba xdeba da amitomac, rom
ar gavrceldes, rogorc epidemia, mTel sazogadoebaSi,
unda amoiZirkvos. es saqme mTeli sazogadoebis aRsasrulebelia, Tumca radikaluri sasjeli mowmeebis gareSe aRsruldeba: jer mowmeTa xeli unda iyos masze,
rom mokvdes, mere ki _ mTeli xalxis xeli da aRmofxvri
borotebas Seni Suagulidan (17:7). aseTive borotebaa
da sikvdiliT isjeba urCoba mRvdlisa da msajulis winaSe _ sasjelma unda SeaSinos xalxi: SeSindebian da
aRar gakadnierdebian (17:12-13). boroteba Sedegia, misi gamomwvevi piroba ki kadnierebaa (zadon). es is fsiqologiur-nebelobiTi movlenaa adamianSi, romelic
ZvelberZenTa hubrisis (hubris) analogiuria. misi warmoSoba da TandaTanobiTi zrda adamianSi katastrofas
iwvevs. adamianSi dabadebuli subieqturi gancda sazogadoebisaTvis obieqturad saSiS movlenad iqceva.
mefoba
(17:14-20)
hubrisis (zadon) Tema mefobasTan dakavSirebiT
kvlav wamoiWreba, rogorc mtkivneuli gamocdileba.
rjuli savsebiT iazrebs mefobis uaryofiT mxareebs,

335

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

magram is gardauvalia _ xalxi moiTxovs mefes, roca


aRTqmul qveyanaSi dasaxldeba. meore rjulSi es moTxovna nawinaswarmetyvelebia. ityvi: davisvam mefes im
xalxebiviT, Cems garSemo rom arian (17:14). uaryofiTi
damokidebuleba mefobis institutisadmi aq aSkarad
ar Cans, rogorc gamoCnda samuelis xanaSi, roca xalxma
mosTxova mas mefis dasma. magram isic aSkaraa, rom momavali mefobis sakiTxi aq hubrisis konteqstSia naxsenebi da mefobis mTavari nakli swored is aris, rom is
ubiZgebs mefed dasmuls hubrisisken, rac yvela borotebis sawyisia. ar gaumedidurdes Tavis Zmebs (17:20),
es aris ZiriTadi moTxovna Tu gafrTxileba, romelic
daskvnis saxiT asrulebs am monakveTs.
ram gamoiwvia mefobis SemoRebis dauokebeli survili? mxolod wamxedurobam, rogorc meore rjuli gveubneba: davisvam mefes im xalxebiviT, Cems garSemo rom
arian? (17:14). Tu mxolod es iyo mizezi, maSin isic ki
sakmarisi iqneboda uflis winaSe danaSaulisTvis, romelic gandgomis tolia da, amdenad, aranaklebi sisaZaglea mis TvalSi. mefis moTxovniT israeli arad agdebs Tavis uflismier rCeulobas (rogorc esavi _ Tavis pirmSoobas), rac sinas mTis Ziras gamoecxada mas da
mudmivad esmoda udabnoSi xetialisas. axla mas surs
icxovros ise, rogorc mis garSemo xalxebi cxovroben,
raTa waSalos zRvari Tavis Tavsa da xalxebs Soris,
romelTac ar ician RmerTi. meore danaSauli: israeli
uaryofs zeciur mefes miwieri mefis winaSe anu Teokratiul wyobilebas. mesame: mas surs gaeqces rCeuli eris
mudmivi pasuxismgeblobis mZime tvirTs, romelsac mas
akisrebs ufali, da gadaabaros pasuxismgebloba Tavis
keTildRebaze miwier mefes. es cvlileba mxolod msajulTa xanis dasasruls, samuelis msajulobisas, moxdeba (1mef. 8:5-9). meore rjuli mas, rogorc momavalSi
mosalodnels, iTvaliswinebs.
aq CamoTvlilia mefobis formaluri niSnebi, romlebiTac mefe upirispirdeba Teokratiul mmarTvels,
rogoric aris mose, rogorebic iyvnen moses Semdeg ieso
naves Ze da msajulebi. mefoba TavisTavad badebs pirovnebaSi TviTnebur gadaxrebs, rac gamoricxulia Teokratiuli winamZRolis SemTxvevaSi. rogori iqneba mefe? mas eyoleba bevri cxenebi, rac egviptis mogonebebs
da misken swrafvas aRZravs; eyoleba bevri coli, rac
uflisagan gandgomis mizezi Seiqneba (solomoni am xifaTis pirveli magaliTia); moixveWs uamrav oqro-vercxls (rogorc kvlav solomoni), rac kidev ufro gazrdis adamianur sixarbes masSi; gaumedidurdeba Tavis
moZmeT _ Tavis qveSevrdomebs anu gauucxovdeba Tavis
xalxs. meore rjuli pirobas uyenebs mefed dasmul
kacs, rom ar iyos aseTi. da, rac mTavaria, rac moTxovnilebaTa saTaveSia, mefed dasmuli kaci or pirobas unda
akmayofilebdes: igi uflis arCeuli da aucileblad
israeliani unda iyos. rCeul xalxs ara aqvs ufleba uc-

336

meore rjuli

xoeli daisvas mefed. mefe usaTuod misi Suagulidan


gamosuli, mis ZmaTagani unda iyos (17:15). es piroba, Tu
sxva ara, namdvilad Sesrulda israelis ori samefos
cxovrebaSi maT dasasrulamde (iudas samefoSi daviTiani mefeebi mefobdnen, israelis samefoSi _ qarizmatulni, uflis arCeulni). da kidev: mefe, rogorc moswavle, gamudmebiT, mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis manZilze,
unda kiTxulobdes da swavlobdes rjulis wigns, raTa
inaxavdes am rjulis yovel sityvas da am wesebs asrulebdes (17:19). amgvari qceva iqneba misi da mis STamomavalTa mefobis xangrZlivobis garantia.
solomonidan dawyebuli, israelisa da iudas samefoTa istoriaSi mefis ori tipi Camoyalibda: keTili
mefisa, romelic amgvari formuliT moixsenieba _ yvelaferSi keTilad iqceoda uflis TvalSi, rogorc daviTi iqceoda da ukeTuri mefisa _ yvelaferSi ukeTurad iqceoda anu gadauxvia daviTis gzas.
Tumca mefoba ar iyo aucilebeli, uflis nebis gamoxatuleba ar yofila, magram mogvianebiT israelis samefoTa dacemis Semdeg winaswarmetyvelTa qadagebebSi mefobam esqatologiur-mesianisturi datvirTva SeiZina.
kulti da winaswarmetyvelni
(18:1-22)
aq erTxel kidev meordeba levianTa statusis gansazRvra. gaxsenebulia, rom maT ara aqvs samkvidro miwaze,
raTa maT kvebavdes TavianTi miwa, rogorc danarCen TerTmet toms kvebavs. maTi samkvidro ufalia. ras niSnavs es?
es imas niSnavs, rom isini uflisadmi Sewiruli msxverplisgan ikvebebian, anu samkvidro eZleva mas naturis saxiT, ara miwis saxiT. yoveli Semwirveli valdebulia, Sewirulisgan raRac nawili misces levian mRvdels (dasaxelebulia beWi, yba da kuWi); imis gamo, rom igi uflis
arCeulia da misi saxeliT msaxurobs samsxverplosTan,
mas ekuTvnis wili uflisadmi Sewiruli pirvelmoweuli
xorblisgan, Rvinisgan, zeTisgan da cxvris pirvel ganaparsisgan. sazogadoebas evaleba arCinos leviani.
rjuli iTvaliswinebs, rom, SesaZloa, rigiTi leviani, romelic ar aris mRvdeli, daiCagros, ver miiRos Tavisi kanonieri wili, uflis wili, Tumca levianTa mTeli
Sto Tavad aris uflis wili. daCagrulma levianma SeiZleba datovos is qalaqi, romelsac Sekedlebulia da
cxovrobs iq, rogorc mdgmuri (ger) israelianTa sazogadoebaSi, romelsac emsaxureba da romlisganac is sarCos
moelis. carielze darCenili leviani arCevs qalaqis datovebas da uflis mier arCeul adgilze misvlas, sadac
imedi aqvs, rom iq momsaxure levianTa gverdiT misTvisac
iqneba adgili da wili maTTan erTad.
rjuli mravalgzis afrTxilebs israelianebs, ar moeqcnen adgilobrivi religiis, cru RmerTebis, mravalRmerTianobis, kerpTayvanismcemlobis tyveobaSi. es mTeli xuTwigneulis gamWoli Temaa, ZiriTadi mowodebaa.

337

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

magram arsad arsebiTad, siRrmiseulad ar aris laparaki


qanaanis xalxTa religiebsa da kultmsaxurebaze, _ mxolod miniSnebiT, roca naxsenebia svetebi da aSerebi, romlebic unda gaiCexos da Seimusros qanaanSi Sesvlisas.
rjuli afrTxilebs yovelTvis, rom eridos sisaZagleebs (ToyaboT) _ es zogadi saxelia yvelaferi imisa, rac
igulisxmeba warmarTul kultmsaxurebasa da CveulebebSi, Savi magiidan dawyebuli _ usurmagiT (saWmelad akrZaluliT) damTavrebuli. israeli waawydeba am yvelafers qanaanSi damkvidrebisas, _ es gardauvalia. roca
Sexval im qveyanaSi, romelsac gaZlevs Sen ufali, Seni
RmerTi, nu iswavli im xalxebis sisaZagleTa Cadenas
(18:9). aq rjuli kidev akonkretebs da afarToebs kidec
sisaZaglis mniSvnelobas. es aris, pirvel rigSi, cecxlSi gatarebis religiuri praqtika Tu xalxuri Cveuleba. nu iqneba Sens Soris Tavisi vaJisa da asulis cecxlSi gamtarebeli (19:10). levianTa wigni akonkretebs:
es aris moleqis cecxli (lev. 18:21, agreTve 20:2). ra
aris moleqi da ras gulisxmobs mis cecxlSi gatareba?
moleqi (Tu moloqi) cnobilia, rogorc yamonelTa mfarveli RvTaeba, magram raSi mdgomareobs misi cecxli da
gatarebis rituali, bolomde gasagebi ar aris. SesaZloa, es iyos pirvelSobilTa (pirmSoTa) RvTaebisadmi
Sewirvis Cveuleba am sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT.
israelic swiravs Tavis pirmSoebs, radgan isini ufals
ekuTvnian: cxovelTa pirvelmogebulni msxverplad Seiwirebian, adamianTa pirmSoni ki gamoisyidebian safasuriT an pirutyviT, romelic daikvlis (igulisxmeba: pirmSos sanacvlod, rogorc misi substituti). namdvilad
klavdnen Tu ara yamonelebi TavianT pirmSoebs? iyo es
sruladdasawveli? Tu es mxolod pirobiTi, ritualuri
qmedeba iyo da ara realur cecxlSi gatareba? am dros axsendebaT abraamis gamocda, roca RmerTma TiTqos adgilobrivi Cveulebisamebr moiTxova misgan pirmSos Sewirva sruladdasawvelad. abraamma miiRo es gamowveva, magram rogorc viciT, msxverplSewirvis aqtis kulminaciaSi RmerTma SeaCera abraamis aRmarTuli marjvena. magram
biblia inaxavs sxva epizodsac: ukiduresi gasaWiris
dros, roca iudasa da israelis laSqars alyaSi hyavda
moqceuli moabis qalaqi da gadarCenis araviTari imedi
aRar iyo, moabis mefem, meSam, gamoiyvana Tavisi pirmSo,
mis nacvlad rom unda gamefebuliyo, da galavanze mTeli
laSqrisa da ori mefis Tvalwin sruladdasawvelad Seswira Tavis RmerTs. es iyo da mefeebma moxsnes alya da ukan
dabrundnen (4mef. 3:27).
rjuli afrTxilebs israels moleqis sisaZaglisgan. TiTqos amao iyo es gafrTxileba. aseTi STabeWdileba gvrCeba, roca mefeTa wignSi vkiTxulobT, rom solomonma, pirveli taZris amSenebelma uflisaTvis,
moleqs, yamonianTa sibilwes samsxverplo augo ierusalimis mopirdapire mTaze (3mef. 11:7). Tu mefe solomoni gadaixara yamonianTa sibilwisken, ra unda vifiq-

338

meore rjuli

roT ubralo xalxze? es samsxverplo, romelic hinomis


xevSi moloqisTvis iwiravda pirmSoebs (4mef. asaxelebs mefe axazs, romelmac cecxlSi gaatara Tavisi Svili _ 16:3, oRond, ra mizniT, ar Cans), _ sam saukuneze
met xans moqmedebda, vidre is keTilma mefem, ioSiam, ar
wabilwa (4mef. 23:10).
kidev ras ukrZalavs rjuli xalxs? ar unda iyos maT
Soris jadoqari, grZneuli, marCieli, mesulTane,
mkvdarTa sulebis gamomkiTxveli... amaT praqtikas, qmedebas, _ Sav magias, zogadad rom vTqvaT, _ mTlianad
gamoricxavs uflis Tayvaniscema, radgan saZagelia
uflisaTvis yovelive amis gamkeTebeli (18:10-12).
Tu qanaaneli warmarTebi u
Y zenaesis nebis gagebas jadoqrebisa da mkiTxavebis meSveobiT cdiloben, israels
amisaTvis winaswarmetyvelebi eyoleba, romelTa piriT
WeSmariteba gacxaddeba. maTi winasaxe mosea. winaswarmetyvels, rogoric me var, Seni wiaRidan, Sens moZmeTagan, dagidgens ufali, Seni RmerTi, mas usmine (18:15).
RmerTs da adamians (israelis krebuls) Soris Suamavlis aucilebloba gamoiwvia im SiSma, romelic dasadgurda maT gulebSi uflis xmis uSualod smenisas xorebis mTis Ziras, sadac israeli rjulis misaRebad iyo Sekrebili. xalxma ver aitana uflis xma, romelic SemaZrwunebelad CaesmodaT maT. mets nuRar gavigoneb uflis,
Cemi RmerTis, xmas da am diad cecxlsac nu vixilav, raTa
ar movkvde (18:16). amis Semdeg iyo, rom uflis nalaparakevi moses piriT esmoda xalxs, ara uSualod RvTisgan. aq
da am dros daibada pirveli winaswarmetyveli.
ra aris winaswarmetyveleba da vin aris winaswarmetyveli _ nabi? arsad bibliaSi ar aris mocemuli misi
amomwuravi ganmarteba, mxolod naCvenebia sxvadaxva winaswarmetyvelTa magaliTze. pirveli xseneba winaswarmetyvelebisa abraamis mowodebasTan aris dakavSirebuli. RmerTma mouwoda abraams da, ra wamidanac mouwoda,
im wamidan gaxda is winaswarmetyveli. winaswarmetyvelia is kaci. ilocebs SenTvis, rom cocxali gadarCe
(dab. 20:7), eubneba ufali abraamze sizmarSi geraris mefes. marTalia, abraams araferi uwinaswarmetyvelebia,
magram man uwyis momavali, sakuTari Teslis momavali,
is, rac jer kidev ar aris CanasaxSic ki. abraami kidev
imitom aris winaswarmetyveli, rom is usityvod asrulebs uflis nebas, dahyveba mas, Tundac saSinel gansacdelamde (isakis epizodi). mas ar SeuZlia sxvanairad
moiqces _ mxolod ise, rogorc ufali ubrZanebs. ase iyo
xaranSi miRebuli brZanebidan moyolebuli, roca uflis erTi sityva sakmarisi iyo, rom mietovebina xarani
da ucnaur gzas gahyoloda ucxo qveynisken, vidre im dilis gamocxadebamde, roca RmerTma mas mxolodSobili
Ze mosTxova msxverplad. ase iyo yvela winaswarmetyveli, romlebic usityvod asrulebdnen uflis nebas, elaparakaT yvelaferi, risi laparakic, SesaZloa, maT eZnelebodaT. winaswarmetyveli uflis morCilia, absolu-

339

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

turi morCili. bibliam urCi winaswarmetyvelis erTaderTi magaliTi icis ionas saxiT (ion. 1:3).
pirveli piroba winaswarmetyvelisa swored uflis
morCilebaa, rac mis rCeulobasTan aris dakavSirebuli.
es ori ram erTmaneTs apirobebs. rCeuli morCili unda
iyos, morCileba ki rCeulobis niSania, radgan morCili
yovelTvis imis sityvas acxadebs, romelsac is morCilebas ucxadebs. Tu arsebobs uflis anu WeSmariti winaswarmetyveli, arsebobs cruwinaswarmetyvelic, romelic
emorCileba ara uzenaess, saidanac igi unda iRebdes STagonebas, aramed brbos, romlis dakveTasac asrulebs; igi
qadagebs ara RvTis sityvas, aramed laparakobs Tavisas,
qadagebs ara samxileblad, aramed msmenelis yurisa da
gulis saameblad. qadagebs ara imas, rac RmerTs surs, aramed imas, rac brbos surs. aseTi moqadage ar aris uflis
winaswarmetyveli, igi sakuTari Tavis winaswarmetyvelia. igi qadagebs ara imas, rac RmerTma bageebSi Caudo,
aramed imas, rac mas ukeTesad moeCvena, rac brbom ukarnaxa Tavis rCeuls; is qadagebs Tavis fiqrebs, zraxvebs da
ocnebebs an imas, rac sizmarSi ixila. ra kriteriumi arsebobs WeSmariti winaswarmetyvelis gamosarCevad cruwinaswarmetyvelisagan? erTaderTi, rac gamoarCevs, es
aris: Tu gulSi ityvi: rogor mivxvdeT sityvas, romelic ar uTqvams ufalso? winaswarmetyveli Tu uflis saxeliT ilaparakebs da ar acxaddeba misi nalaparakevi, ar
yofila es uflis sityva _ TviTneburad ulaparakia winaswarmetyvels, nu geSinia misi (18:21-22). es bolo winadadeba mowmobs, rom winaswarmetyvelis naTqvami sityva
saSiSia, radgan is uflis sityvaa _ pirdapiri, mamxilebeli, piruTvneli, pirquSi perspeqtivis damsaxveli.
winaswarmetyvelis qadageba dialogi ar aris, magram
is mainc msmenels gulisxmobs da ara sicarieles. winaswarmetyveli arasodes iqneba Tanaxma, qarze ilaparakos,
kedlebs uqadagos. mas yovelTvis xalxi hyavs mxedvelobaSi, israelis xalxi. magram is TiTqos ganyenebulia misgan: ufali xom ase eubneba: uqadage Cems xalxs, TiTqos es
xalxi ar iyos winaswarmetyvelis RviZli xalxi. magram
misi es ganyeneba xalxisgan uflis transcendenturobas,
miRmurobas gamoxatavs. rogorc SeiZleba arsebobdes
urCi winaswarmetyveli, aseve arsebobs urCi msmeneli,
magram mis urCobaze winaswarmetyveli ar aris pasuxismgebeli: ufali aTavisuflebs ugulebelyofil winaswarmetyvels pasuxismgeblobisagan, arc avalebs mosTxovos xalxs pasuxi urCobisaTvis. ufali Tavad mosTxovs
xalxs pasuxs (18:19). arc erTi sityva ar unda damalos winaswarmetyvelma; rac uflisgan gamoecxada mas, yvelaferi misgan xalxisTvis aris gamosacxadebeli. versad bibliaSi ver SevxvdebiT, verc warmovidgenT winaswarmetyvels, romelic inaxavdes sityvas rCeulTa viwro wrisaTvis. uflis sityva yvelas ekuTvnis, yvelasTvis gasagebia, radgan es yvela rCeulia, rogorc Tavad winaswarmetyvelia rCeuli.

340

meore rjuli

mkvleloba da mowmeoba
(19:3-21)
mkvlelis TavSesafarebel qalaqebze adrec iyo saubari (pirveli miniSneba mocemulia gam. 21:13-14). mTeli
miwa-wyali (aq laparakia mxolod iordanis marjvena
mxareze) sam nawilad aris dayofili, TiTo nawilSi TiTo qalaqia, sadac mkvlels SeuZlia gaiqces da Seafaros
Tavi anu gaeqces cxel gulze Surisgebas mesisxlis mxridan. moiwyve gza... (19:3), sagangebod aris naTqvami: sadac ar unda moxdes mkvleloba, mkvlels SeeZlos gahyves gzas, romelic erT-erT (uaxloes) TavSesafar qalaqamde miiyvans. rogor unda moiqces mkvleli qalaqSi,
vis Seuvrdeba, ramden xans darCeba, ra bedi elis aq _ es
yvelaferi Tavis adgilas aris Camoyalibebuli. rjuli
ganarCevs unebur mkvlelobas ganzraxi mkvlelobisagan. amas TavSesafar qalaqSi gamoiZieben da, Tu mkvlels
moklulisadmi mkvlelobamde mtroba ar hqonia, unebur
mkvlelad CaiTvleba, sasikvdilo ar aris. moyvanilic
aris uneblie mkvlelobis samagaliTo kazusic samarTlebrivi SedegiTurT: ...an vinc Tavis moyvasTan erTad wava tyeSi SeSis mosaWrelad, moiqnevs culs xis wasaqcevad, tars rkina wasZvreba, moxvdeba mis moyvass da
moklavs, am kacma erT-erTs am qalaqTagan unda Seafaros
Tavi, rom gadarCes, rom ar gamoekidos sisxlis amRebi
mkvlels cxel gulze, ar miewios, radgan gza didia, da
ar moklas, is ki sasikvdilo ar aris, radgan ar hqonia
misi siZulvili arc guSin, arc guSinwin (19:5-6). magram
es wesi amoqmeddeba mas Semdeg, rac israeli daepatroneba qveyanas da ufali misi xeliT ayris adgilobriv mosaxleobas, romelic imsaxurebs am sasjels.
TavSesafari qalaqebis gamoyofis sazrisi mdgomareobs udanaSaulo sisxlis daRvris Tavidan acilebaSi, rom erTxel daRvril sisxls ar mohyves axali sisxlis ganukiTxavad daRvra. TavSesafari qalaqebis imis
garantia iqneba, rom ar daiRvreba ubralo sisxli
Sens miwaze, romelic wilad mogca ufalma, Senma RmerTma, da ar iqneba sisxli Senze (19:10). udanaSaulo sisxli bRalavs uflis miwas, romelic man airCia rCeuli
xalxisTvis. rogorc ufalia wmida, aseve xalxia wmida
da wmidaa miwac. rjuli ambobs: arc udanaSaulo unda
daisajos da arc damnaSave ar unda darCes dausjeli.
ganzrax mkvlels patieba ara aqvs, TavSesafari qalaqi
ar icavs mas. mkvleli mTeli israelis siwmidis SembRalavia: Tu vinmes sZuls Tavisi axlobeli, Causafrdeba,
daecema, moklavs da mere Tavs Seafarebs erT-erT am qalaqs, qalaqis uxucesobam unda gamoayvaninos iqidan da
gadasces sisxlis amRebis xels, rom moiklas. wyalobis
TvaliT nu Sexedav mas, Camorecxe ubralo sisxli israels da kargi iqneba SenTvis (19:11-12). aq lakoniurad
aris gadmocemuli ganzrax mkvlelobis arsi: ambavi (incidenti) iwyeba siZulviliT, rac RvTiuri mcnebis
darRvevaa (nu SeiZuleb Sens moZmes... giyvardes Seni

341

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

axlobeli, rogorc Tavi Seni _ lev. 19:17-18), gadadis


ganzraxvaSi, ganzraxva safexurovan qmedebebSi (Casafreba, dacema) da mTavrdeba mkvlelobiT.
rogorc vxedavT, ganzrax mkvleli mainc sisxlis aRebis wesiT isjeba, magram aucilebelia TavSesafari qalaqis uxucesTa Tanxmoba: maT gamoaqvT sasikvdilo ganaCeni, romelic sisxlis amRebs mohyavs sisruleSi. goel hadam (sisxlis amRebi) ewodeba im pirs, uaxloes naTesavs, romelsac ufleba aqvs da, amavdroulad, valdebulic aris aRasrulos SurisZiebis aqti, aiRos mkvlelis
mier daRvrili udanaSaulo sisxlis samagiero.
[goel _ sisxlis naTesavi is piria, romelsac akisria pasuxismgebloba gardacvlil sisxlis naTesavze, evaleba gamoisyidos misi yana da karmidamo, zog SemTxvevaSi, iTxovos
kidec misi coli. gamosyidvis mTeli procedura klasikuri
sicxadiT da sisadaviT aris gadmocemuli ruTis wignSi.]

uneburad daRvrili sisxli ar eqvemdebareba SurisZiebas.


mkvleloba-Surisgebas garkveulad exmaureba muxli, romelic mosdevs mas: nu gadaswev winaparTa mier
gavlebul Seni axloblis samans Sens wilxvedrilSi,
romelic wilad Segxvdeba qveyanaSi, ufali Seni RmerTi rom gaZlevs dasamkvidreblad (19:14). Tu mkvleli
xelyofs axloblis sicocxles, romelic RmerTma mianiWa mas, samanis gadamwevi xelyofs axloblis aseve
RvTisgan boZebul miwas, miwis nakveTs wilxvedril miwaze. amrigad, es xelyofa uflis Seuracxyofaa, janyia
misi samarTlianobis winaSe. Tu raoden mZimea es danaSauli, masze ara am adgilas, aramed sxvagan, amave meore
rjulSi, vkiTxulobT: wyeulimc iyos Tavisi axloblis samanis gadamwevi! ityvis mTeli eri: amin! (27:17).
samanis gadamwevi ar imsaxurebs sikvdils, magram ra fasi aqvs sajarod dawyevlilis sicocxles?
axloblis xelyofis magaliTia crumowmeoba, romlis Cadenisganac dekalogis mecxre mcneba afrTxilebs adamians (gam. 20:16; rjl. 5:20). ciliswamebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, adamianisTvis rame danaSaulis
Tu Secodebis dasabraleblad ar kmara erTi mowme, aucilebelia ori an sami (19:15). Tu mainc erT-erTi crumowme gamodgeba, msajulebma unda amxilon igi da mas
imave sasjels daadeben, rasac crumowmoba gulisxmobda. da aRmofxvri borotebas Seni wiaRidan (19:19), askvnis rjuli.
rogorc davinaxeT, crumowme talionis kanonis ZaliT isjeba: ra danaSaulsac abralebs sxvas, im danaSaulis sasjels imsaxurebs, anu: sicocxle sicocxlis
wil, Tvali Tvalis wil, kbili kbilis wil, xeli xelis wil, fexi fexis wil (19:21).
Tu raoden sapasuxismgeblo iyo mowmeoba sasamarTloSi Zveli droidanve, iqidanac Cans, rom amis amsaxveli muxli xamurabis kodeqsis TavSia moqceuli: ukeTu kacma kaci daasmina, mkvleloba daabrala da ver da-

342

meore rjuli

umtkica, misi damsmeneli sikvdiliT unda daisajos


(1), aseve: ukeTu kaci sasamarTloSi danaSaulis mowmed gamovida da Tavisi naTqvami ver daamtkica, Tuki es
sicocxlis saqmea, es kaci sikvdiliT unda daisajos
(2). aqac talionis kanonia gamoyenebuli.
omis warmoebis rjuli
(20:1-20)
egviptidan gamomyvani ufali mebrZoli RmerTia. is
Suagul banakSi imyofeba, rogorc mefe da rogorc mxedarTmTavari, sardali laSqrisa. israelianebi uflis
laSqaria, cis laSqrobis, cabaoTis amqveyniuri xati
(ceba laSqari). magram mTlianobaSi israeli ar aris
omismoyvaruli xalxi. misTvis ufro metad Rirebulia
mSvidoba (Salom) da Semdeg iseTi Rirebulebebi, rogoricaa WeSmariteba (emeT), simarTle (cedek), romelTa am qveyanaze dasamkvidreblad aris is mowodebuli.
omi namdvilad ar unda yofiliyo misi saqme, amitomac
ufalma egviptidan gamoyvanili xalxi ar waiyvana
umoklesi gziT, sadac mas mebrZoli, kargad aRWurvili
xalxebi Sexvdebodnen, romelTa danaxva mas SiSiszars
dascemda, rogorc daecaT SiSiszari qanaanis dazvervisas im aT mstovars, romelTa motanilma sityvam SeaZrwuna banaki da kinaRam ukan dabruneba gadaawyvetina
ganTavisuflebul xalxs. magram brZolebi aucilebeli
Seiqna maT gzaze. gvaxsovs sisxlismRvreli omi yamalekTan da midianel-moabelTa urdoebTan. magram es ar
iyo ubralo omebi, es saRvTo omebi iyo, romelTac uflis xeli warmarTavda.
brZolis velze gasvlisas pirveli mowodeba _ nu SegeSindeba _ mRvdels ekuTvnis. is amxnevebs maT, ar SeuSindnen mtris simravles, arc mis cxenebsa da etlebs,
radgan Tavad ufali miuZRvebaT maT, rogorc yovelTvis.
ra Zalam unda sZlios SiSs, omSi gamsvlelisTvis am bunebriv grZnobas? mxolod da mxolod imis rwmenam, rom
RmerTia maT Soris da ibrZvis maTTvis. radgan ufali,
Tqveni RmerTi, mogyvebaT sabrZolvelad Tqvens mtrebTan (20:4). arc simravles, arc aRWurvilobas, arc etlebs ara aqvs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba. mxolod da mxolod rwmenas da sasoebas ufalSi. rwmenam da imedma unda
warxocos SiSis natamali. arsebobs orgvari SiSi: SiSi,
rogorc bunebrivi movlena, romelic SeiZleba iZlios,
da SiSi, rogorc pirovnebis TanSobili Tviseba, romelsac ver ereva adamiani. am ukanasknels iTvaliswinebs
rjuli: laSqris mawvevarni gamoacxadeben, rom mxdali
da guliT Zabuni Sin dabrundes, raTa misma simxdalem SiSi ar daTesos laSqarSi (20:8). msajulTa wignis cnobiT,
laSqridan, romelic midianelTa winaaRmdeg Seikriba,
22 000 kaci dabrunda Sin, aRiara ra Tavi mxdalad da omSi uvargisad (7:3). garda bunebiT mxdalTa, kidev sami kategoriis xalxi Tavisufldeba laSqridan. mawvevarTa
movaleobaa maTi gamoZaxeba. Tavisufldeba, vinc saxlis

343

xuTwigneulis Targmaneba

Seneba ki daamTavra, magram ver moaswro kurTxeva. vaiTu,


brZolaSi mokvdes da sxvam akurTxos misi aSenebuli saxli (20:5). es ki didi usamarTloba iqneba. omidan Tavisufldeba venaxis Camyreli, radgan, vaiTu, brZolaSi daiRupos da sxvam moisTvlas misi nayofi (20:6). es autaneli usamarTloba iqneba. radgan mxolod meoTxe wels moaqvs vazs pirveli mosavali da isic, rogorc pirvelmoweuli nayofebi, ufals ekuTvnis, venaxis Camyreli mexuTe
wlis mosavals unda daelodos, raTa datkbes sakuTari
Sromis nayofiT. am uflebas mas verc saRvTo omis movaleoba waarTmevs. amitomac am xnis manZilze is Tavisufalia.
mesame kategorias is kacebi Seadgenen, vinc qali daniSna,
magram jer ar mouyvania colad (20:7). mas ar evaleba omSi
wasvla, uflebac ki aqvs ar wavides: saRvTo omis valdebulebam ar unda waarTvas daniSnulis colad Txovis SesaZlebloba, saqorwino wes-Cveulebis bolomde miyvana
misi kacuri ufleba-movaleoba da adamianuri Rirsebis
saqmea. am kategoriis xalxis gamoxSirviT, cxadia, iklebs
laSqris ricxvi, magram saRvTo omSi ricxovnebas ara aqvs
mniSvneloba. ufali mcireTi imarjvebs, oRond rwmena
iyos am mcireSi.
mawvevarni rom morCebian TavianT saqmes, axla sardlebi airCevian xalxidan da uflis laSqaric mzad
aris brZolis velze gasasvlelad.
ori kategoriis qalaqebi xvdeba Tavis gzaze israels.
erTni aRTqmuli miwis farglebs gareT arian anu didad
daSorebuli qalaqebi (20:15). meoreni qveynis SigniT
mdebareoben. es ukanasknelni maTi msxverplia. ufals isini TavianTi ukeTurebebisTvis dasaRupavad hyavs ganwiruli da maTi aRsasrulic moawevs israelianTa xeliT.
pirwmindad gaanadgure isini: xeTelebi, amorevelebi,
qanaanelebi, ferizevelebi da iebusevelebi, rogorc gibrZana Sen ufalma, Senma RmerTma (20:17). maTgan erTi sulic ar unda datovon cocxali, rom mezoblad cxovrebis
SemTxvevaSi maTi sisaZagleebi ar gadaedos uflis xalxs
da ar gauwmidurdes... isini nadgurdebian egreT wodebuli xeremis wesiT (ix. ricx. 21:1-3).
Soreuli qalaqebisTvis, romlebic ar ekuTvnian
qanaanis miwa-wyals, israels sxva wesi aqvs: jer zavs
SesTavazeben da, Tu qalaqma miiRo zavi da ubrZolvelad danebda, msxverpli ar iqneba _ danebebuli qalaqi
dampyrobelis msaxuri da moxarke xdeba (20:11). xolo
Tu qalaqma zavi ar miiRo da winaaRmdegoba gauwia, sisxlisRvriT aRebuli qalaqis mamrovans mTlianad gawyveten; qalebs da bavSvebs _ tyved, pirutyvs da sxva
dovlaTs nadavlad waasxamen (20:12-14).
Tu qalaqis alyam didxans gastana, mosalodnelia,
moalyeebma garSemo xeebi gaanadguron alyis saWiroebisaTvis. israels ekrZaleba nayofieri xeebis moWra,
radgan Tuki Wam maT nayofs, arc unda moWra. radgan
mindorSi mdgari xe kaci xom ar aris, rom gagecalos da
cixe-simagreSi Seafaros Tavi? (20:21).

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meore rjuli

mokluli, velze dagdebuli


(21:1-9)
Tu qveyanaSi, romelsac gaZlevs ufali... (21:1) _ es
qveyana qanaania, romelic iwodeba rogorc qveyana (erec
miwa). am monakveTSi rjuli icavs, rogorc mTels sazogadoebas, ise miwas, sadac is saxlobs, wabilwvisagan,
radgan sisxli ara mxolod sazogadoebas awevs danaSaulad, aramed miwasac, risganac unda ganiwmidos miwac.
xalxi da miwa ganuyreli erTianobaa. gvaxsovs, rogor
gadavida miwaze jer adamis codva (dab. 3:17-18), mere
kaenisa (dab. 4:11-12), bolos, warRvnamdeli kacobriobisa (dab. 6:11-12). gauxsneli mkvleloba, razedac am
monakveTSia laparaki, iseve mZimed awevs adamianebs,
rogorc auxsneli, ganumartavi sizmari.
velze aRmoCnda moklulis gvami. moxda mkvleloba,
magram mkvleli ucnobia. Tu igi uneburi mkvleli iyo,