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You are on page 1of 16

Multiple-choice questions may continue on

the next column or page find all choices

before answering.

our Earth (center-to-center distance) so that

you would weigh one third of your current

weight? Neglect rotation. (In the figure, FE1

is the gravitational force due to the Earth

you are standing on, FE2 is the gravitational

force due to the other Earth, and Fscale is

the normal force which measures your weight.

The condition of the problem is that Fscale =

1

FE1 .)

3

25

5m

/s

A ship maneuvers to within 2.50 103 m of an

islands 1.77 103 m high mountain peak and

fires a projectile at an enemy ship 6.05 102

m on the other side of the peak, as illustrated.

The ship shoots the projectile with an initial

velocity of 2.55 102 m/s at an angle of 74.4 .

The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

1770 m

D RE

74.4

2500 m

605 m

Note: Figure is not drawn to scale

How high above the mountain does the projectile pass?

FE2

RE

Fscale

FE1

Explanation:

Solution: From the horizontal motion,

t =

x

vi (cos )

so that

1

y = vi (sin )t g (t)2

2

2

1

x

x

g

= vi (sin )

vi (cos )

2 vi (cos )

2

gx

= x(tan ) 2

2vi (cos )2

The distance above the peak is

h = y hmountain

= (2500 m)(tan 74.4 )

(9.81 m/s2 )(2500 m)2

1770 m

= 664.813 m

002

10.0 points

s !

3

RE correct

1. D = 1 +

2

s

GME

2. D =

3RE

s !

1

RE

3. D = 1 +

3

4. D = 3RE

s

GME

5. D =

2

3RE

6. D = RE

7. D = 3RE

s !

2

RE

8. D = 1 +

3

s

3GME

9. D =

2

RE

10. D =

2. T2 = m2 ( g a) T1 .

2GME

2

3RE

Explanation:

For you to stand stationary on the surface

of the Earth,

half of the force you usually feel due to the

Earth.

FE1

FE1 = 0

3

FE2 =

3. T2 = T1 m2 (a g) .

4. T2 = T1 + m2 ( a) .

5. T2 = F + T1 m2 ( g + a) .

FE2 +

6. T2 = T1 + m2 ( g) .

7. T2 = T1 m2 ( g + a) . correct

8. T2 = T1 m2 ( g) .

9. T2 = T1 + m2 ( g + a) .

2FE1

3

10. T2 = T1 m2 g + F m2 a .

We know that

Explanation:

From inspection, the net force acting on m2

is T1 T2 m2 g, so the equation of motion

is given by

GME2 m

2GME1 m

=

2

2

(D RE )

3RE

3 2

= (D RE )2

RE

2

s

3

D = RE +

RE > 2RE

2

T1 T2 m2 g = m2 a .

Solving for T2 gives

so it is sensible.

003 10.0 points

Consider a force of 76.5 N, pulling 3 blocks of

identical masses, where each mass is 0.7 kg,

along a rough horizontal surface. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the blocks

and the surface is given by 0.3. The acceleration of the blocks is a.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

m3

T2

T1

m2

m1

T2 = T1 m2 ( g + a)

004 10.0 points

The plot shows x(t) for a particle.

x

t

Which statement is correct about the motion?

1. The particle slows down, comes momentarily to a rest, then returns with increasing

speed to its starting point. correct

sketch).

The tension between blocks two and three

T2 equals:

down, then speeds up again.

1. T2 = T1 m2 ( g a) .

4. The particle moves along a portion of a

circle, as the sketch shows directly.

5. The particle moves at constant speed, but

not at constant velocity.

Explanation:

Since vx is the slope of x(t), the particle

slows down, comes to momentary rest, and

then reverses direction, increasing speed as it

returns to its starting point.

005 10.0 points

Consider a car of mass 1180 kg moving without slipping at a velocity v = 9 m/s on an

inclined circular track of radius R = 14 m.

The track is inclined, i.e. banked, at an angle

with respect to the horizontal direction.

Assuming that the track is frictionless,

what is the angle of the track? Give your

answer in degrees.

Use g = 9.8 m/s2 .

o

Explanation:

Take the radially inward direction as the

x-axis and the vertical direction orthogonal

to the x-axis as the y-axis. With the above

choice for axes, the free body diagram leads

to the following equations,

Fcentripetal = max = mv 2 /R

This force must be supplied by the xcomponent of the normal force so

2

mv /R = N sin

Since the car only accelerates in the radially

inward direction, the y-component of the normal force must be equal and opposite to the

gravitational force giving

may = N cos mg = 0

Eliminating N

from the above equations, we

v2

get = arctan

.

gR

006

10.0 points

A body oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x-axis. Its displacement varies

with time according to the equation

x(t) = A cos( t) .

Given the maximum acceleration amax =

1.5 m/s2 , the period T = 3 s, determine the

amplitude of oscillation, A.

Correct answer: 0.341959 m.

Explanation:

The acceleration is the rate of change

of the velocity and so its also the second

time derivative of the position of the object, i.e. a = dv/dt = d2 x/dt2 . Thus we

have a = 2 A cos( t), which has a maximum amplitude of amax = A 2 . We need

only the angular frequency which is related

to the period by = 2/T so in the end:

2 2

T 2

amax = A

giving A = amax

.

T

2

The potential energy between two atoms in a

particular molecule has the form

U (x) =

2.3 5.6

4

x8

x

where the units of x are length and the numbers 2.3 and 5.6 have appropriate units so

that U (x) has units of energy.

What is the equilibrium separation of the

atoms (that is the distance at which the force

between the atoms is zero)?

Correct answer: 0.952012.

Explanation:

The force as a function of position can be

calculated as the negative of the derivative of

U (x);

dU

dx

(18.4) (22.4)

=

x9

x5

F (x) =

r

4 18.4

= 0.952012 .

x=

22.4

6. Figure II

008 10.0 points

Which of the diagrams corresponds to a system of two electrons that are fired into space

in opposite directions (i.e. they are separated

by some initial distance and have initial velocities in opposite directions)? Assume they

only interact with each other.

Note that the horizontal and vertical axes

in each plot are the separation between the

particles and energy, respectively.

K +U

(I)

(II)

K

U

K +U

r

U

(III)

(IV)

K +U

K +U

K +U

U

(VI)

r

m v = (m + M ) vi ,

K +U

K

U

1. Figure V

2. Figure I correct

3. Figure IV

4. Figure VI

5. Figure III

A ball of mass M = 9 kg is suspended from a

vertical inextensible string of length = 3 m.

A bullet of mass m = M/2

p travelling with

a horizontal velocity v = 9 g collides with

the ball and gets stuck inside. As a result

of the impact the ball moves in a vertical

circle of radius . Assume that the string

remains taut throughout the motion. What

is the velocity of the ball-bullet system at the

highest point of the trajectory? Remember

that g = 9.8 m/s2 .

Explanation:

From conservation of momentum,

(V)

Explanation:

When the electrons are fired, they have

both kinetic and potential energy. They gain

kinetic energy from to their Coulomb repulsion as they move apart and their electric

potential energy decreases to zero at so

that all of their energy becomes kinetic. If

they were fired at each other and collided,

all of their energy would be potential energy

and they would turn around where the total

energy graph intersects the potential energy

graph. Thus the correct answer is Figure (I).

where vi is the velocity of the ball-bullet system immediately after the impact. Plugging

in m = M/2, we have

v

vi = .

3

From conservation of energy, Ei = Ef , with

1

Ei = (m + M ) vi2.

2

At the highest point of the trajectory, the

energy

Ef = KE + P E

1

= (m + M ) vf2 + 2(m + M ) g .

2

so that

Therefore,

1

1

(m + M ) vf2 = (m + M ) vi2

2

2

2(m + M ) g ,

m2 v4 cos = m1 v1 m1 v3 cos

(1)

= (0.43 kg) (7.4 m/s)

(0.43 kg) (5.2 m/s) cos 49

= 1.71505 kg m/s .

or

Vertically

vf2 = vi2 4 g

v2

4g

9

= 5 g .

so that

m2 v4 sin = m2 v2 m1 v3 sin

(2)

= (1.5 kg) (4.4 m/s)

(0.43 kg) (5.2 m/s) sin 49

= 4.91247 kg m/s .

This implies

vf =

=

5g

5(9.8 m/s2 )(3 m)

Thus

= 12.1244 m/s .

010

m2 v4 sin

m2 v4 cos

(4.91247 kg m/s)

=

(1.71505 kg m/s)

= 2.86433 ,

tan =

10.0 points

after

before

m1

v1

m1

v3

v4

v2

m2

and

m2

soup with mass m2 = 1.5 kg vertically upward

from a space ship with a velocity of v2 =

4.4 m/s. It is immediately struck from the

side by a meteor with mass m1 = 0.43 kg

traveling at v1 = 7.4 m/s perpendicular to

the can. The meteor ricochets off at an angle

of = 49 with a velocity of v3 = 5.2 m/s.

What is the angle of the cans motion

after the collision?

Correct answer: 70.7548.

Explanation:

Basic Concepts: Conservation of Momentum

pbef ore = paf ter .

= arctan(2.86433)

= 70.7548 .

Consider a rigid 3-mass system with the

masses separated by two massless rods of

length L so that the total length is 2 L.

Consider a rotation axis perpendicular to

the system and passing through the point x0 ,

1

which is L from the leftmost mass 3 M .

2

x0

3M

7M

6M

Solution: Horizontally

m1 v1 + m2 (0) = m1 v3 cos + m2 v4 cos ,

system about this axis.

31

2

56

2. I =

9

35

3. I =

9

85

4. I =

9

1. I =

M L2

012

10.0 points

M L2

M L2

M L2

5. I = 10 M L2

6. I = 9 M L2

7. I = 16 M L2 correct

58

M L2

9

64

9. I =

M L2

3

110

10. I =

M L2

9

Explanation:

8. I =

Let :

m1 = 3 M

m2 = 7 M

m3 = 6 M

1

L,

2

1

at r2 = L ,

2

3

at r3 = L .

2

at r1 =

and

of a system of point

particles is given by I =

mi ri2 . Considering the individual moments of inertia,

Ileft

Imiddle

Iright

2

3

1

L = M L2 ,

= (3 M )

2

4

2

1

7

L = M L2 , and

= (7 M )

2

4

2

27

3

L =

M L2 , so

= (6 M )

2

2

mounted in the vertical plane on a horizontal low friction axle. Initially the wheel is not

rotating. The wheel has mass M , all concentrated in the rim (spokes have negligible

mass). A lump of clay with mass m = 1/2 M

falls and sticks to the outer edge of the wheel

at an angle with respect to the vertical axis.

Just before impact the clay has a speed v.

Just after impact, the angular velocity of the

wheel is , what was the velocity of the lump

of clay before the collision?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

3

7

27

= M L2 + M L2 +

M L2

4

4

2

= 16 M L2 .

8.

(M m)R

sin

3R

cos

(2 M + m)R

cos

R

2 sin

3 cos

R

3R

correct

sin

3R

2 sin

R

sin

R

9.

cos

3 M R

10.

sin

Explanation:

Right before impact the angular momentum of the system comes from the clay:

~

Li = mvR sin .

After the impact, the final angular momentum is

~

Lf = I

. The moment of inertia for the combined

system is

I = M R2 + mR2 = 3/2M R2

, so

~ f = mR2 + M R2 .

L

get

1/2M vR sin = 3/2M R2.

Solving for v gives

v=

3R

.

sin

A metal block of mass 3 kg is falling downward and has velocity of 1.16 m/s when it

is 0.8 m above the floor. It strikes the top

of a relaxed vertical spring of length 0.4 m.

The spring constant is 2000 N/m. After striking the spring, the block rebounds. What is

the maximum height above the floor that the

block reaches after the impact? Take g to be

9.8 m/s2

Correct answer: 0.8687 m.

Explanation:

Let :

m = 3 kg ,

vi = 1.16 m/s ,

yi = 0.8 m , and

g = 9.8 m/s2 .

Since the potentials involved are all conservative, the final energy is equal to the initial

energy. The spring only acts to reverse the

direction of the block so:

1

1

Ei = mgyi + mvi2 = Ef = mgyf + mvf2

2

2

We set vf = 0 and then cancel out the masses

on both sides of the equation which leaves us

with

v2

yf = yi + i

2g

yf = 0.8 m +

(1.16 m/s)2

= 0.8687 m

2(9.8 m/s2 )

This problem describes a method of determining the moment of inertia of an irregularly shaped object such as the payload for a

satellite. A mass m is suspended by a cord

wound around the inner shaft (radius r) of a

turntable supporting the object. When the

mass is released from rest, it descends uniformly a distance h, acquiring a speed v.

m

Find moment of inertia of the equipment

(including the turntable) in terms of magnitudes of given variables.

2 3gh

1. I = m r

1

2 v2

2 2gh

2. I = m r

1 correct

v2

2 3gh

1

3. I = m r

v2

2 gh

4. I = m r

1

v2

5. I = m r

3gh

2

2 v2

Explanation:

From conservation of energy,

Krot + Ktrans + U = 0

1 v 2 1

I

+ m v2 = m g h

2

r

2

v2

= 2 m g h r2 m r2 .

r2

2 2gh

I = mr

1 .

v2

A bowling ball is hanging in mid-air at rest

in a room on board the International Space

Station. An astronaut throws a golf ball directly at the bowling ball, and they collide

elastically.

Compared to the bowling ball, the golf ball

after the collision has

1. less momentum, and less kinetic energy.

2. more momentum, and more kinetic energy.

3. None of these

4. less momentum, and more kinetic energy.

correct

keywords:

015 10.0 points

A student weighing 700 N climbs at constant

speed to the top of an 8 m vertical rope in 10

s.

What is the average power expended by the

student to overcome gravity?

1. 87.5 W

2. 1.1 W

3. 560 W correct

4. 875 W

5. 5600 W

Explanation:

Let :

F = 700 N ,

d = 8 m , and

t = 10 s .

against gravity, the average force exerted by

the student is the same as his/her weight, so

P =Fv=F

8m

d

= (700 N)

= 560 W .

t

10 s

Explanation:

If the collision is elastic, it almost exactly

reverses the momentum vector p of the golf

ball, while the momentum of the struck bowling ball becomes 2 p by conservation of momentum:

p p + pbb

pbb 2 p .

However, it must also be true that the KE

of the recoiling golf ball is only slightly less

than it was initially (since it has nearly the

same speed), so the KE of the struck bowling

ball must be much smaller and equal to that

small difference.

017 10.0 points

A horizontal, nonuniform beam of mass M

and length is hinged to a vertical wall at

one side, and attached to a wire on the other

end. The bar is motionless and a wire exerts

a force T at an angle of with respect to the

vertical.

xcm

4

3

in the wire is 35 N, sin = and cos = ,

5

5

how far is the center of mass of the beam from

the hinge? The acceleration due to gravity is

10 m/s2 .

1. 0.625

2. 0.4 correct

3. 0.18

xcm

m~g

the magnitude of the net torque through the

hinge is

z = T cos m g xcm = 0

m g xcm = T cos

T cos

xcm =

mg

4

(35 N)

5

= 0.4 .

=

(7 kg)(10 m/s2 )

4. 0.666667

5. 0.16

6. Not enough information is given.

7. 0.32

8. 0.5 , of course

9. 0.375

10. 0.3

226 g of water at 95 C is poured into a 24 g

aluminum cup containing 64 g of water at

30 C.

What is the equilibrium temperature of

the system?

The specific heat of water is 1 cal/g C and of aluminum is

0.215 cal/g C.

Correct answer: 79.7696C.

Explanation:

Let :

Explanation:

Consider the free-body diagram, with the

forces due to the wall not shown:

mh

mc

mAl

cw

cAl

Tc

Th

= 226 g ,

= 64 g ,

= 24 g ,

= 1 cal/g C ,

= 0.215 cal/g C ,

= 30 C , and

= 95 C .

10

gained by cold metal plus the water, so

mh cw (Th Tf )

= mAl cAl (Tf Tc ) + mc cw (Tf Tc )

(mh cw + mAl cAl + mc cw ) Tf

= mh cw Tf + mAl cAl Tc + mc cw Tc

Tf =

mh cw Th + mAl cAl Tc + mc cw Tc

mh cw + mAl cAl + mc cw

Since

mh cw Th + mAl cAl Tc + mc cw Tc

= (226 g) (1 cal/g C) (95 C)

+ (24 g) (0.215 cal/g C) (30 C)

+ (64 g) (1 cal/g C) (30 C)

= 23544.8 cal and

mh cw + mAl cAl + mc cw

= (226 g) (1 cal/g C)

+ (24 g) (0.215 cal/g C)

+ (64 g) (1 cal/g C)

= 295.16 cal/C ,

then the equilibrium temperature will be

Tf =

23544.8 cal

= 79.7696C .

295.16 cal/C

019

10.0 points

without slipping along a horizontal surface

until it encounters a hill. The lack of slipping

means that when the center of mass of the

hoop has speed vCM , the tangential speed of

the hoop relative to the center of mass is also

equal to vCM . Therefore, the angular speed

of the rotating hoop is

vCM

.

R

what vertical height h does the hoop roll up

the hill before momentarily coming to rest

and rolling back down the hill?

i2 R2

Mg

2i2 R2

2. h =

g

gR

3. h =

i

2 R2

4. h = i

correct

g

gR

5. h = 2

i

1/2i2 R2

6. h =

g

s

2gR

7. h =

i2

i

8. h =

gR

i

9. h =

gR2

p

10. h = 2 g i

1. h =

Explanation:

Apply the Energy Principle to the system

of the hoop plus the Earth. The ramp does

11

W = 352 N ,

Wp = 355 N .

zero work on the hoop since the point of application of the force has zero displacement (i.e.,

the wheel rolls without slipping), so energy is

conserved.

and

Nw

Ei = Ef

K i + Ui = K f + Uf

K i + 0 = 0 + Uf

1

1

2

M vCM

+ Ii2 = M gh

2

2

1

1

M (i R)2 + M R2 i2 = M gh

2

2

M R2 i2 = M gh

Ff

Wp

Nf

s

= arccos = arccos

For equilibrium

X

~ = 0 and

F

X

13 m

P ivot

2 R2

h= i

g

020 10.0 points

A 13 m ladder whose weight is 352 N is

placed against a smooth vertical wall. A

person whose weight is 355 N stands on the

ladder a distance 5.6 m up the ladder. The

foot of the ladder rests on the floor 9.23 m

from the wall.

= Wp d cos +W

9.23 m

13 m

= 44.7651

~ = 0 .

cos Nw sin = 0 ,

2

bottom of the ladder. Therefore

2 Fw sin = 2 Wp d cos + W cos

352 N

5.6 m

b

355 N

9.23 m

Correct answer: 331.631 N.

2 Wp d + W cos

2

sin

2 (355 N)(5.6 m) + (352 N)(13 m)

=

2 (13 m)

cos 44.7651

sin 44.7651

= 331.631 N .

Fw =

Explanation:

Let :

= 13 m ,

d = 5.6 m ,

s = 9.23 m ,

A 51.8 kg man sits on the back end of a 7.3 m

long boat. The front of the boat touches the

pier, but the boat isnt tied. The man notices

his mistake, stands up and walks to the boats

front, but by the time he reaches the front,

its moved 3.59 m away from the pier.

Assuming no water resistance to the boats

motion, calculate the boats mass (not counting the man).

Correct answer: 53.5315 kg.

Explanation:

In the absence of external forces, the center

of mass of the manboat system remains at

rest. So if the man moves distance Xman

and the boat moves distance Xboat , then we

must have

Mman Xman + Mboat Xboat

XCM =

Mman + Mboat

Mman Xman + Mboat Xboat

=0

=

Mman + Mboat

and therefore

12

A bubble of marsh gas rises from the bottom

of a freshwater lake at a depth of 4.64 m and a

temperature of 4 C to the surface, where the

water temperature is 17.9 C.

What is the ratio of the bubble diameter at

the two locations? (Assume that the bubble

gas is in thermal equilibrium with the water

at each location.)

Remember that the final pressure at the

surface of the lake is atmospheric pressure,

i.e. Pf = Pa = 1.01 105 Pa, and at the

bottom of the lake the initial pressure is given

by Pi = Pa + g h.

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 and

the density of water is = 1000 kg/m3 .

Correct answer: 1.15053.

Explanation:

Now, lets be careful about the displacements. Taking the back-to-front direction to

be positive, we have the boat moving backward, so

Xboat = 3.59 m < 0.

As to the man, his displacement relative to the

boat is the boats full length (back to front),

so

Xrel = +Lboat = +7.3 m,

Vf

Pi Tf

=

.

Vi

Pf Ti

Pi = Pa + g h , Pf = Pa and V r 3 , so

and

d3f

(Pa + g h)Tf

Pa Ti

g h Tf

= 1+

Pa

Ti

s

df

g h Tf

3

1+

=

.

di

Pa

Ti

d3i

Xman = Xrel + Xboat

= +7.3 m 3.59 m = +3.71 m .

Consequently,

Pa = 1.01 105 Pa ,

h = 4.64 m ,

Ti = 4 C = 277 K , and

Tf = 17.9 C = 290.9 K .

Let :

find

Xman

Mboat = Mman

.

Xboat

Since

Xman

Xboat

+3.71 m

= 51.8 kg

+3.59 m

= 53.5315 kg.

Mboat = Mman

1+

gh

= 1 + 1000 kg/m3

Pa

9.8 m/s2 (4.64 m)

1.01 105 Pa

= 1.45022 ,

T

P

r

(14+8)!

df

290.9 K

3

14!8!

= (1.45022)

= 1.15053 .

= kb ln

di

277 K

(14+6)!

13

14!6!

Using the Einstein model of a solid, what is

the change in entropy when adding two more

quanta of energy to a system of 5 atoms that

already has 6 quanta of energy stored in it?

22!

1. S = kB ln

14! 8!

33!

2. S = kB ln

4!

20!

3. S = kB ln

14! 6!

17

4. S = kB ln

6

16!

5. S = kB ln

8! 4

5!

6. S = kB ln

6!

20!

7. S = kB ln

4! 6!

33

correct

8. S = kB ln

4

22

9. S = kB ln

86

22!

10. S = kB ln

8! 6!

Explanation:

Entropy is defined as S = kB ln where

is the number of possible microstates, which

is the number of ways to arrange q quanta in

n harmonic oscillators, i.e.

=

(n 1 + q)!

(n 1)! q!

but in the final state qf = 8. Thus, the change

in entropy is

S = Sf Si

(14 + 6)!

(14 + 8)!

kb ln

= kb ln

14! 8!

14! 6!

22 21

= kb ln

87

33

= kb ln

4

A thin rod of length L has a linear density that

varies as a function of the distance, x, from

the left end of the rod given by the equation

(x) = (A x + B x2 ), where A and B are

constants such that has units of kg/m. The

rod is rotating about the left end as shown in

the figure. Calculate the moment of inertia

for the rod for this rotation.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

L4 2 L5

+

2

5

5

2B L

5

AL4 B L5

+

6

10

2

ML

3

A L3 B L4

+

4

5

4

AL

B L5

+

correct

4

5

7. AL3 + B L4

AL3 B L5

+

3

5

A L2 B L3

+

9.

2

3

Explanation:

To calculate the moment of inertia, we need

to integrate each segment of the rod of mass

8.

dm = (x)dx times the square of its distance

from the center of rotation,

Z L

I=

x2 dm

0

Z L

=

x2 (x)dx

0

Z L

=

x2 (A x + B x2 )dx

0

Z L

=

A x3 + B x4 dx

0

so we get

A x4 B x5 L

+

=

,

4

5 0

I=

A L4 B L5

+

.

4

5

Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 .

A wooden sphere has radius R = 6.1 cm,

density wood = 848 kg/m3 , and aerodynamical drag coefficient C = 0.5. What is the terminal speed vt of this sphere falling through

the air of density air = 1.2 kg/m3 ?

Correct answer: 47.4662 m/s.

Explanation:

At terminal speed vt , the air drag on the

sphere

Fd =

C

R2 air vt2

2

14

there is minimal friction. She pulls in her

arms and her rotational speed increases.

Choose the best statement below:

1. When she pulls in her arms, her rotational potential energy increases as her arms

approach the center.

2. When she pulls in her arms, her rotational

kinetic energy is conserved and therefore stays

the same.

3. When she pulls in her arms, her rotational

kinetic energy must decrease because of the

decrease in her moment of inertia.

4. When she pulls in her arms, her moment

of inertia is conserved.

5. When she pulls in her arms, her angular momentum decreases so as to conserve

energy.

6. When she pulls in her arms, the work

she performs on them turns into increased

rotational kinetic energy. correct

Explanation:

The kinetic energy of the figure skater,

E=

1

1

I 2 = L .

2

2

4R3

W =

wood g.

3

pulls in her arms because of the conservation

of angular momentum. Consequently, the

total kinetic energy increases. This additional

energy comes from the figure skater, namely

she has to perform some work to achieve this.

4R3

C

R2 air vt2 =

wood g,

2

3

Which of the following forces are conservative

forces?

Thus

and hence

r

8 wood

Rg = 47.4662 m/s.

vt =

3C air

026

10.0 points

the Sun

B) Spring force

15

C) Air resistance

D) The electric force between an atomic nucleus and an electron

E) Friction force

1. A,B,C,D,E

the direction opposite to the direction of a

fragment with the biggest mass,

2. Center of mass does not move,

3. Center of mass of the system moves in

the direction of a fragment with the biggest

mass,

2. A,D,E

3. A,B,D,E

the direction opposite to the direction of a

projectile just before it exploded,

4. B

5. C,E

6. A

7. A,B,C,E

direction of the biggest fragment,

6. Center of mass of the system follows the

same parabolic path the projectile would have

followed if there had been no explosion, correct

8. C,D,E

9. A,B,D correct

the direction opposite to the direction of the

biggest fragment,

10. A,B

Explanation:

The work due to a conservative force only

depends on the initial and final positions, being completely independent of the path taken.

This is true of the gravitational force, the

spring force, and the electric force, but is also

true for any force that is constant in both

magnitude and direction.

The directions of the forces of friction and

air resistance both depend on the direction

in which the object in question is moving,

and hence the particular path taken from the

initial position to the final position is important. These two are therefore not conservative

forces.

028 10.0 points

A projectile fired into the air suddenly explodes into several fragments.

What can be said about the motion of the

center of mass of the system made up of all

the fragments after the explosion?

Explanation:

Since the explosion is due to the internal

forces within the system, the center of mass

will continue with the same motion as if there

were no explosion.

029 10.0 points

An object of volume V and mass m is floating

at the interface between water and a denser

liquid. Let the density of the heavier liquid be and the density of water be w .

3

of the objects volume displacing

4

1

of the objects

water, and the remaining

4

volume displacing the heavier liquid.

be to have

4m

3w

3V

4m w

2.

3V

3

3 w V

3.

4

(1 + 3 w ) V

4.

4

3m

4w

5.

4V

m

6.

3w

V

4m

7.

3w correct

V

Explanation:

The buoyant force is the density of the fluid

displaced times the volume displaced and the

object is not moving so buoyancy counteracts

the gravitational force,

1.

1

3

w V g + V g.

4

4

and solving for gives

FB = mg =

4m

3w

V

You have 8 marbles, each with a number written on it: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. You take

these marbles and randomly place them into

3 bags in a certain order, with any number

of marbles in each bag. One such arrangement is shown in the figure below. How many

different arrangements are possible?

1. (8 + 3 1)!

2. 8!

3.

16

(8 + 3)!

8!(3 1)!

4. (8 + 3)!

(8 + 3)!

(3 1)!

(8 + 3 1)!

correct

6.

(3 1)!

(8 + 3 1)!

7.

8!3!

5.

8. 8

(8 + 3 1)!

3!

(8 + 3 1)!

10.

8!(3 1)!

9.

Explanation:

There are 8 marbles and (3-1) divisions between bags. The marbles are distinguishable

because of their numbers, but the bag divisions are not. Thus, we must divide by the

number of arrangements of bag divisions:

Number of arrangements =

(8 + 3 1)!

.

(3 1)!

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