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lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)

This print-out should have 30 questions.


Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page find all choices
before answering.

How close would another Earth have to be to


our Earth (center-to-center distance) so that
you would weigh one third of your current
weight? Neglect rotation. (In the figure, FE1
is the gravitational force due to the Earth
you are standing on, FE2 is the gravitational
force due to the other Earth, and Fscale is
the normal force which measures your weight.
The condition of the problem is that Fscale =
1
FE1 .)
3

25

5m

/s

001 10.0 points


A ship maneuvers to within 2.50 103 m of an
islands 1.77 103 m high mountain peak and
fires a projectile at an enemy ship 6.05 102
m on the other side of the peak, as illustrated.
The ship shoots the projectile with an initial
velocity of 2.55 102 m/s at an angle of 74.4 .
The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .

1770 m

D RE

74.4
2500 m

605 m
Note: Figure is not drawn to scale
How high above the mountain does the projectile pass?

FE2

RE

Fscale

FE1

Correct answer: 664.813 m.


Explanation:
Solution: From the horizontal motion,
t =

x
vi (cos )

so that
1
y = vi (sin )t g (t)2
2

2


1
x
x
g
= vi (sin )
vi (cos )
2 vi (cos )
2
gx
= x(tan ) 2
2vi (cos )2
The distance above the peak is
h = y hmountain
= (2500 m)(tan 74.4 )
(9.81 m/s2 )(2500 m)2

2(255 m/s)2 (cos 74.4 )2


1770 m
= 664.813 m
002

10.0 points

s !
3
RE correct
1. D = 1 +
2
s
GME
2. D =
3RE
s !
1
RE
3. D = 1 +
3
4. D = 3RE
s
GME
5. D =
2
3RE
6. D = RE

7. D = 3RE
s !
2
RE
8. D = 1 +
3
s
3GME
9. D =
2
RE

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)

10. D =

2. T2 = m2 ( g a) T1 .

2GME
2
3RE

Explanation:
For you to stand stationary on the surface
of the Earth,

We are solving for your scale weight to be


half of the force you usually feel due to the
Earth.
FE1
FE1 = 0
3

FE2 =

3. T2 = T1 m2 (a g) .
4. T2 = T1 + m2 ( a) .
5. T2 = F + T1 m2 ( g + a) .

FE2 + Fscale FE1 = 0.

FE2 +

6. T2 = T1 + m2 ( g) .
7. T2 = T1 m2 ( g + a) . correct
8. T2 = T1 m2 ( g) .
9. T2 = T1 + m2 ( g + a) .

2FE1
3

10. T2 = T1 m2 g + F m2 a .

We know that

Explanation:
From inspection, the net force acting on m2
is T1 T2 m2 g, so the equation of motion
is given by

GME2 m
2GME1 m
=
2
2
(D RE )
3RE
3 2
= (D RE )2
RE
2
s
3
D = RE +
RE > 2RE
2

T1 T2 m2 g = m2 a .
Solving for T2 gives

We see that our result is greater than 2RE ,


so it is sensible.
003 10.0 points
Consider a force of 76.5 N, pulling 3 blocks of
identical masses, where each mass is 0.7 kg,
along a rough horizontal surface. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the blocks
and the surface is given by 0.3. The acceleration of the blocks is a.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
m3

T2

T1

m2

m1

T2 = T1 m2 ( g + a)
004 10.0 points
The plot shows x(t) for a particle.
x
t
Which statement is correct about the motion?

1. The particle slows down, comes momentarily to a rest, then returns with increasing
speed to its starting point. correct

The tension of the strings are T1 and T2 (see


sketch).
The tension between blocks two and three
T2 equals:

2. The particle at first speeds up, then slows


down, then speeds up again.

1. T2 = T1 m2 ( g a) .

3. The particle follows the path of a projectile, like a thrown baseball.

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


4. The particle moves along a portion of a
circle, as the sketch shows directly.
5. The particle moves at constant speed, but
not at constant velocity.
Explanation:
Since vx is the slope of x(t), the particle
slows down, comes to momentary rest, and
then reverses direction, increasing speed as it
returns to its starting point.
005 10.0 points
Consider a car of mass 1180 kg moving without slipping at a velocity v = 9 m/s on an
inclined circular track of radius R = 14 m.
The track is inclined, i.e. banked, at an angle
with respect to the horizontal direction.
Assuming that the track is frictionless,
what is the angle of the track? Give your
answer in degrees.
Use g = 9.8 m/s2 .
o

Correct answer: 30.5567 .


Explanation:
Take the radially inward direction as the
x-axis and the vertical direction orthogonal
to the x-axis as the y-axis. With the above
choice for axes, the free body diagram leads
to the following equations,
Fcentripetal = max = mv 2 /R
This force must be supplied by the xcomponent of the normal force so
2

mv /R = N sin
Since the car only accelerates in the radially
inward direction, the y-component of the normal force must be equal and opposite to the
gravitational force giving
may = N cos mg = 0
Eliminating N 
from the above equations, we
v2
get = arctan
.
gR
006

10.0 points

A body oscillates with simple harmonic motion along the x-axis. Its displacement varies
with time according to the equation
x(t) = A cos( t) .
Given the maximum acceleration amax =
1.5 m/s2 , the period T = 3 s, determine the
amplitude of oscillation, A.
Correct answer: 0.341959 m.
Explanation:
The acceleration is the rate of change
of the velocity and so its also the second
time derivative of the position of the object, i.e. a = dv/dt = d2 x/dt2 . Thus we
have a = 2 A cos( t), which has a maximum amplitude of amax = A 2 . We need
only the angular frequency which is related
to the period by = 2/T so in the end:
 2 2
 T 2
amax = A
giving A = amax
.
T
2

007 10.0 points


The potential energy between two atoms in a
particular molecule has the form
U (x) =

2.3 5.6
4
x8
x

where the units of x are length and the numbers 2.3 and 5.6 have appropriate units so
that U (x) has units of energy.
What is the equilibrium separation of the
atoms (that is the distance at which the force
between the atoms is zero)?
Correct answer: 0.952012.
Explanation:
The force as a function of position can be
calculated as the negative of the derivative of
U (x);
dU
dx
(18.4) (22.4)

=
x9
x5

F (x) =

Thus, the condition F = 0 is satisfied when


r
4 18.4
= 0.952012 .
x=
22.4

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)

6. Figure II
008 10.0 points
Which of the diagrams corresponds to a system of two electrons that are fired into space
in opposite directions (i.e. they are separated
by some initial distance and have initial velocities in opposite directions)? Assume they
only interact with each other.
Note that the horizontal and vertical axes
in each plot are the separation between the
particles and energy, respectively.
K +U

(I)

(II)

K
U

K +U

r
U

(III)

(IV)

K +U

K +U

K +U
U

Correct answer: 12.1244 m/s.

(VI)
r

m v = (m + M ) vi ,
K +U
K
U

1. Figure V
2. Figure I correct
3. Figure IV
4. Figure VI
5. Figure III

009 10.0 points


A ball of mass M = 9 kg is suspended from a
vertical inextensible string of length = 3 m.
A bullet of mass m = M/2
p travelling with
a horizontal velocity v = 9 g collides with
the ball and gets stuck inside. As a result
of the impact the ball moves in a vertical
circle of radius . Assume that the string
remains taut throughout the motion. What
is the velocity of the ball-bullet system at the
highest point of the trajectory? Remember
that g = 9.8 m/s2 .

Explanation:
From conservation of momentum,

(V)

Explanation:
When the electrons are fired, they have
both kinetic and potential energy. They gain
kinetic energy from to their Coulomb repulsion as they move apart and their electric
potential energy decreases to zero at so
that all of their energy becomes kinetic. If
they were fired at each other and collided,
all of their energy would be potential energy
and they would turn around where the total
energy graph intersects the potential energy
graph. Thus the correct answer is Figure (I).

where vi is the velocity of the ball-bullet system immediately after the impact. Plugging
in m = M/2, we have
v
vi = .
3
From conservation of energy, Ei = Ef , with
1
Ei = (m + M ) vi2.
2
At the highest point of the trajectory, the
energy
Ef = KE + P E
1
= (m + M ) vf2 + 2(m + M ) g .
2

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


so that

Therefore,
1
1
(m + M ) vf2 = (m + M ) vi2
2
2
2(m + M ) g ,

m2 v4 cos = m1 v1 m1 v3 cos
(1)
= (0.43 kg) (7.4 m/s)
(0.43 kg) (5.2 m/s) cos 49
= 1.71505 kg m/s .

or

Vertically

vf2 = vi2 4 g

v2
4g
9
= 5 g .

m1 (0) + m2 v2 = m1 v3 sin + m2 v4 sin ,

so that
m2 v4 sin = m2 v2 m1 v3 sin
(2)
= (1.5 kg) (4.4 m/s)
(0.43 kg) (5.2 m/s) sin 49
= 4.91247 kg m/s .

This implies
vf =
=

5g
5(9.8 m/s2 )(3 m)

Thus

= 12.1244 m/s .
010

m2 v4 sin
m2 v4 cos
(4.91247 kg m/s)
=
(1.71505 kg m/s)
= 2.86433 ,

tan =

10.0 points
after

before
m1

v1

m1

v3

v4

v2

m2

and

m2

A litter happy astronaut throws a can of


soup with mass m2 = 1.5 kg vertically upward
from a space ship with a velocity of v2 =
4.4 m/s. It is immediately struck from the
side by a meteor with mass m1 = 0.43 kg
traveling at v1 = 7.4 m/s perpendicular to
the can. The meteor ricochets off at an angle
of = 49 with a velocity of v3 = 5.2 m/s.
What is the angle of the cans motion
after the collision?
Correct answer: 70.7548.
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: Conservation of Momentum
pbef ore = paf ter .

= arctan(2.86433)
= 70.7548 .

011 10.0 points


Consider a rigid 3-mass system with the
masses separated by two massless rods of
length L so that the total length is 2 L.
Consider a rotation axis perpendicular to
the system and passing through the point x0 ,
1
which is L from the leftmost mass 3 M .
2
x0
3M
7M
6M

Solution: Horizontally
m1 v1 + m2 (0) = m1 v3 cos + m2 v4 cos ,

Find the moment of inertia of the 3-mass


system about this axis.

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


31
2
56
2. I =
9
35
3. I =
9
85
4. I =
9

1. I =

M L2

012

10.0 points

M L2
M L2
M L2

5. I = 10 M L2
6. I = 9 M L2
7. I = 16 M L2 correct
58
M L2
9
64
9. I =
M L2
3
110
10. I =
M L2
9
Explanation:
8. I =

Let :

m1 = 3 M
m2 = 7 M
m3 = 6 M

1
L,
2
1
at r2 = L ,
2
3
at r3 = L .
2
at r1 =

and

The moment of inertia X


of a system of point
particles is given by I =
mi ri2 . Considering the individual moments of inertia,
Ileft
Imiddle
Iright

2
3
1
L = M L2 ,
= (3 M )
2
4
2

1
7
L = M L2 , and
= (7 M )
2
4
2

27
3
L =
M L2 , so
= (6 M )
2
2


A stationary bicycle wheel of radius R is


mounted in the vertical plane on a horizontal low friction axle. Initially the wheel is not
rotating. The wheel has mass M , all concentrated in the rim (spokes have negligible
mass). A lump of clay with mass m = 1/2 M
falls and sticks to the outer edge of the wheel
at an angle with respect to the vertical axis.
Just before impact the clay has a speed v.
Just after impact, the angular velocity of the
wheel is , what was the velocity of the lump
of clay before the collision?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

I = Ileft + Imiddle + Iright


3
7
27
= M L2 + M L2 +
M L2
4
4
2
= 16 M L2 .

8.

(M m)R
sin
3R
cos
(2 M + m)R
cos
R
2 sin
3 cos
R
3R
correct
sin
3R
2 sin
R
sin

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


R
9.
cos
3 M R
10.
sin
Explanation:
Right before impact the angular momentum of the system comes from the clay:

~
Li = mvR sin .
After the impact, the final angular momentum is

~
Lf = I
. The moment of inertia for the combined
system is
I = M R2 + mR2 = 3/2M R2
, so


~ f = mR2 + M R2 .
L

Using conservation of angular momentum, we


get
1/2M vR sin = 3/2M R2.
Solving for v gives
v=

3R
.
sin

013 10.0 points


A metal block of mass 3 kg is falling downward and has velocity of 1.16 m/s when it
is 0.8 m above the floor. It strikes the top
of a relaxed vertical spring of length 0.4 m.
The spring constant is 2000 N/m. After striking the spring, the block rebounds. What is
the maximum height above the floor that the
block reaches after the impact? Take g to be
9.8 m/s2
Correct answer: 0.8687 m.
Explanation:
Let :

m = 3 kg ,
vi = 1.16 m/s ,
yi = 0.8 m , and
g = 9.8 m/s2 .

Since the potentials involved are all conservative, the final energy is equal to the initial
energy. The spring only acts to reverse the
direction of the block so:
1
1
Ei = mgyi + mvi2 = Ef = mgyf + mvf2
2
2
We set vf = 0 and then cancel out the masses
on both sides of the equation which leaves us
with
v2
yf = yi + i
2g
yf = 0.8 m +

(1.16 m/s)2
= 0.8687 m
2(9.8 m/s2 )

014 10.0 points


This problem describes a method of determining the moment of inertia of an irregularly shaped object such as the payload for a
satellite. A mass m is suspended by a cord
wound around the inner shaft (radius r) of a
turntable supporting the object. When the
mass is released from rest, it descends uniformly a distance h, acquiring a speed v.

m
Find moment of inertia of the equipment
(including the turntable) in terms of magnitudes of given variables.


2 3gh
1. I = m r
1
2 v2


2 2gh
2. I = m r
1 correct
v2


2 3gh
1
3. I = m r
v2


2 gh
4. I = m r
1
v2

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


5. I = m r

3gh
2
2 v2

Explanation:
From conservation of energy,
Krot + Ktrans + U = 0
1  v 2 1
I
+ m v2 = m g h
2
r
2
v2
= 2 m g h r2 m r2 .
r2


2 2gh
I = mr
1 .
v2

016 10.0 points


A bowling ball is hanging in mid-air at rest
in a room on board the International Space
Station. An astronaut throws a golf ball directly at the bowling ball, and they collide
elastically.
Compared to the bowling ball, the golf ball
after the collision has
1. less momentum, and less kinetic energy.
2. more momentum, and more kinetic energy.
3. None of these
4. less momentum, and more kinetic energy.
correct

keywords:
015 10.0 points
A student weighing 700 N climbs at constant
speed to the top of an 8 m vertical rope in 10
s.
What is the average power expended by the
student to overcome gravity?
1. 87.5 W
2. 1.1 W
3. 560 W correct
4. 875 W
5. 5600 W
Explanation:
Let :

F = 700 N ,
d = 8 m , and
t = 10 s .

To climb vertically at constant speed


against gravity, the average force exerted by
the student is the same as his/her weight, so

P =Fv=F

8m
d
= (700 N)
= 560 W .
t
10 s

5. more momentum, and less kinetic energy.


Explanation:
If the collision is elastic, it almost exactly
reverses the momentum vector p of the golf
ball, while the momentum of the struck bowling ball becomes 2 p by conservation of momentum:

p p + pbb
pbb 2 p .
However, it must also be true that the KE
of the recoiling golf ball is only slightly less
than it was initially (since it has nearly the
same speed), so the KE of the struck bowling
ball must be much smaller and equal to that
small difference.
017 10.0 points
A horizontal, nonuniform beam of mass M
and length is hinged to a vertical wall at
one side, and attached to a wire on the other
end. The bar is motionless and a wire exerts
a force T at an angle of with respect to the
vertical.

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)

xcm

If the mass of the beam is 7 kg, the tension


4
3
in the wire is 35 N, sin = and cos = ,
5
5
how far is the center of mass of the beam from
the hinge? The acceleration due to gravity is
10 m/s2 .
1. 0.625
2. 0.4 correct
3. 0.18

xcm

m~g

With the z-axis pointing out of the paper,


the magnitude of the net torque through the
hinge is
z = T cos m g xcm = 0
m g xcm = T cos
T cos

xcm =
mg
 
4
(35 N)
5
= 0.4 .
=
(7 kg)(10 m/s2 )

4. 0.666667
5. 0.16
6. Not enough information is given.
7. 0.32
8. 0.5 , of course
9. 0.375
10. 0.3

018 10.0 points


226 g of water at 95 C is poured into a 24 g
aluminum cup containing 64 g of water at
30 C.
What is the equilibrium temperature of
the system?
The specific heat of water is 1 cal/g C and of aluminum is
0.215 cal/g C.
Correct answer: 79.7696C.
Explanation:
Let :

Explanation:
Consider the free-body diagram, with the
forces due to the wall not shown:

mh
mc
mAl
cw
cAl
Tc
Th

= 226 g ,
= 64 g ,
= 24 g ,
= 1 cal/g C ,
= 0.215 cal/g C ,
= 30 C , and
= 95 C .

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)

10

The heat lost by hot water equals the heat


gained by cold metal plus the water, so
mh cw (Th Tf )
= mAl cAl (Tf Tc ) + mc cw (Tf Tc )
(mh cw + mAl cAl + mc cw ) Tf
= mh cw Tf + mAl cAl Tc + mc cw Tc

Tf =

mh cw Th + mAl cAl Tc + mc cw Tc
mh cw + mAl cAl + mc cw

Since
mh cw Th + mAl cAl Tc + mc cw Tc
= (226 g) (1 cal/g C) (95 C)
+ (24 g) (0.215 cal/g C) (30 C)
+ (64 g) (1 cal/g C) (30 C)
= 23544.8 cal and
mh cw + mAl cAl + mc cw
= (226 g) (1 cal/g C)
+ (24 g) (0.215 cal/g C)
+ (64 g) (1 cal/g C)
= 295.16 cal/C ,
then the equilibrium temperature will be

Tf =

23544.8 cal
= 79.7696C .
295.16 cal/C

019

10.0 points

A hoop of mass M and radius R is rolling


without slipping along a horizontal surface
until it encounters a hill. The lack of slipping
means that when the center of mass of the
hoop has speed vCM , the tangential speed of
the hoop relative to the center of mass is also
equal to vCM . Therefore, the angular speed
of the rotating hoop is

vCM
.
R

If the initial angular frequency is i , to


what vertical height h does the hoop roll up
the hill before momentarily coming to rest
and rolling back down the hill?
i2 R2
Mg
2i2 R2
2. h =
g
gR
3. h =
i
2 R2
4. h = i
correct
g
gR
5. h = 2
i
1/2i2 R2
6. h =
g
s
2gR
7. h =
i2
i
8. h =
gR
i
9. h =
gR2
p
10. h = 2 g i
1. h =

Explanation:
Apply the Energy Principle to the system
of the hoop plus the Earth. The ramp does

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)

11

W = 352 N ,
Wp = 355 N .

zero work on the hoop since the point of application of the force has zero displacement (i.e.,
the wheel rolls without slipping), so energy is
conserved.

and

Nw
Ei = Ef
K i + Ui = K f + Uf
K i + 0 = 0 + Uf
1
1
2
M vCM
+ Ii2 = M gh
2
2
1
1
M (i R)2 + M R2 i2 = M gh
2
2
M R2 i2 = M gh

Ff

Wp

Nf

s
= arccos = arccos

For equilibrium
X
~ = 0 and
F
X

13 m

P ivot

2 R2
h= i
g
020 10.0 points
A 13 m ladder whose weight is 352 N is
placed against a smooth vertical wall. A
person whose weight is 355 N stands on the
ladder a distance 5.6 m up the ladder. The
foot of the ladder rests on the floor 9.23 m
from the wall.

= Wp d cos +W

9.23 m
13 m

= 44.7651

~ = 0 .

cos Nw sin = 0 ,
2

where d is the distance of the person from the


bottom of the ladder. Therefore
2 Fw sin = 2 Wp d cos + W cos
352 N

5.6 m
b

355 N
9.23 m

Calculate the force exerted by the wall.


Correct answer: 331.631 N.

2 Wp d + W cos
2
sin
2 (355 N)(5.6 m) + (352 N)(13 m)
=
2 (13 m)
cos 44.7651

sin 44.7651
= 331.631 N .

Fw =

Explanation:
Let :

= 13 m ,
d = 5.6 m ,
s = 9.23 m ,

021 10.0 points


A 51.8 kg man sits on the back end of a 7.3 m
long boat. The front of the boat touches the
pier, but the boat isnt tied. The man notices
his mistake, stands up and walks to the boats

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


front, but by the time he reaches the front,
its moved 3.59 m away from the pier.
Assuming no water resistance to the boats
motion, calculate the boats mass (not counting the man).
Correct answer: 53.5315 kg.
Explanation:
In the absence of external forces, the center
of mass of the manboat system remains at
rest. So if the man moves distance Xman
and the boat moves distance Xboat , then we
must have


Mman Xman + Mboat Xboat
XCM =
Mman + Mboat
Mman Xman + Mboat Xboat
=0
=
Mman + Mboat
and therefore

12

022 10.0 points


A bubble of marsh gas rises from the bottom
of a freshwater lake at a depth of 4.64 m and a
temperature of 4 C to the surface, where the
water temperature is 17.9 C.
What is the ratio of the bubble diameter at
the two locations? (Assume that the bubble
gas is in thermal equilibrium with the water
at each location.)
Remember that the final pressure at the
surface of the lake is atmospheric pressure,
i.e. Pf = Pa = 1.01 105 Pa, and at the
bottom of the lake the initial pressure is given
by Pi = Pa + g h.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 and
the density of water is = 1000 kg/m3 .
Correct answer: 1.15053.
Explanation:

Mman Xman + Mboat Xboat = 0 .

Now, lets be careful about the displacements. Taking the back-to-front direction to
be positive, we have the boat moving backward, so
Xboat = 3.59 m < 0.
As to the man, his displacement relative to the
boat is the boats full length (back to front),
so
Xrel = +Lboat = +7.3 m,

From the ideal gas law P V = n R T so V

Vf
Pi Tf
=
.
Vi
Pf Ti
Pi = Pa + g h , Pf = Pa and V r 3 , so

and

d3f

(Pa + g h)Tf
Pa Ti


g h Tf
= 1+
Pa
Ti
s

df
g h Tf
3
1+
=
.
di
Pa
Ti
d3i

but relative to the pier his displacement is only


Xman = Xrel + Xboat
= +7.3 m 3.59 m = +3.71 m .
Consequently,

Pa = 1.01 105 Pa ,
h = 4.64 m ,
Ti = 4 C = 277 K , and
Tf = 17.9 C = 290.9 K .

Let :

Solving this equation for the boats mass, we


find
Xman
Mboat = Mman
.
Xboat

Since
Xman
Xboat
+3.71 m
= 51.8 kg
+3.59 m
= 53.5315 kg.

Mboat = Mman

1+


gh
= 1 + 1000 kg/m3
Pa

9.8 m/s2 (4.64 m)

1.01 105 Pa
= 1.45022 ,

T
P

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


r
 (14+8)! 
df
290.9 K
3
14!8!
= (1.45022)
= 1.15053 .

= kb ln 
di
277 K
(14+6)!

13

14!6!

023 10.0 points


Using the Einstein model of a solid, what is
the change in entropy when adding two more
quanta of energy to a system of 5 atoms that
already has 6 quanta of energy stored in it?


22!
1. S = kB ln
14! 8!
 
33!
2. S = kB ln
4!


20!
3. S = kB ln
14! 6!
 
17
4. S = kB ln
6


16!
5. S = kB ln
8! 4
 
5!
6. S = kB ln
6!


20!
7. S = kB ln
4! 6!
 
33
correct
8. S = kB ln
4


22
9. S = kB ln
86


22!
10. S = kB ln
8! 6!

Explanation:
Entropy is defined as S = kB ln where
is the number of possible microstates, which
is the number of ways to arrange q quanta in
n harmonic oscillators, i.e.
=

(n 1 + q)!
(n 1)! q!

Here, n = 3 5 1 = 14 and initially qi = 6,


but in the final state qf = 8. Thus, the change
in entropy is
S = Sf Si




(14 + 6)!
(14 + 8)!
kb ln
= kb ln
14! 8!
14! 6!

22 21
= kb ln
87
 
33
= kb ln
4

024 10.0 points


A thin rod of length L has a linear density that
varies as a function of the distance, x, from
the left end of the rod given by the equation
(x) = (A x + B x2 ), where A and B are
constants such that has units of kg/m. The
rod is rotating about the left end as shown in
the figure. Calculate the moment of inertia
for the rod for this rotation.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

L4 2 L5
+
2
5
5
2B L
5
AL4 B L5
+
6
10
2
ML
3
A L3 B L4
+
4
5
4
AL
B L5
+
correct
4
5

7. AL3 + B L4
AL3 B L5
+
3
5
A L2 B L3
+
9.
2
3
Explanation:
To calculate the moment of inertia, we need
to integrate each segment of the rod of mass
8.

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


dm = (x)dx times the square of its distance
from the center of rotation,
Z L
I=
x2 dm
0
Z L
=
x2 (x)dx
0
Z L
=
x2 (A x + B x2 )dx
0
Z L
=
A x3 + B x4 dx
0

so we get

A x4 B x5 L


+
=
,
4
5 0
I=

A L4 B L5
+
.
4
5

025 10.0 points


Given: g = 9.8 m/s2 .
A wooden sphere has radius R = 6.1 cm,
density wood = 848 kg/m3 , and aerodynamical drag coefficient C = 0.5. What is the terminal speed vt of this sphere falling through
the air of density air = 1.2 kg/m3 ?
Correct answer: 47.4662 m/s.
Explanation:
At terminal speed vt , the air drag on the
sphere
Fd =

C
R2 air vt2
2

14

A figure skater on ice spins on one foot so


there is minimal friction. She pulls in her
arms and her rotational speed increases.
Choose the best statement below:
1. When she pulls in her arms, her rotational potential energy increases as her arms
approach the center.
2. When she pulls in her arms, her rotational
kinetic energy is conserved and therefore stays
the same.
3. When she pulls in her arms, her rotational
kinetic energy must decrease because of the
decrease in her moment of inertia.
4. When she pulls in her arms, her moment
of inertia is conserved.
5. When she pulls in her arms, her angular momentum decreases so as to conserve
energy.
6. When she pulls in her arms, the work
she performs on them turns into increased
rotational kinetic energy. correct
Explanation:
The kinetic energy of the figure skater,
E=

1
1
I 2 = L .
2
2

4R3
W =
wood g.
3

Her rotational velocity increases after she


pulls in her arms because of the conservation
of angular momentum. Consequently, the
total kinetic energy increases. This additional
energy comes from the figure skater, namely
she has to perform some work to achieve this.

4R3
C
R2 air vt2 =
wood g,
2
3

027 10.0 points


Which of the following forces are conservative
forces?

equals its weight

Thus

and hence
r
8 wood
Rg = 47.4662 m/s.
vt =
3C air
026

10.0 points

A) Gravitational force between the Earth and


the Sun
B) Spring force

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)

15

C) Air resistance
D) The electric force between an atomic nucleus and an electron
E) Friction force
1. A,B,C,D,E

1. Center of mass of the system moves in


the direction opposite to the direction of a
fragment with the biggest mass,
2. Center of mass does not move,
3. Center of mass of the system moves in
the direction of a fragment with the biggest
mass,

2. A,D,E
3. A,B,D,E

4. Center of mass of the system moves in


the direction opposite to the direction of a
projectile just before it exploded,

4. B
5. C,E
6. A
7. A,B,C,E

5. Center of mass of the system moves in the


direction of the biggest fragment,
6. Center of mass of the system follows the
same parabolic path the projectile would have
followed if there had been no explosion, correct

8. C,D,E
9. A,B,D correct

7. Center of mass of the system moves in


the direction opposite to the direction of the
biggest fragment,

10. A,B
Explanation:
The work due to a conservative force only
depends on the initial and final positions, being completely independent of the path taken.
This is true of the gravitational force, the
spring force, and the electric force, but is also
true for any force that is constant in both
magnitude and direction.
The directions of the forces of friction and
air resistance both depend on the direction
in which the object in question is moving,
and hence the particular path taken from the
initial position to the final position is important. These two are therefore not conservative
forces.
028 10.0 points
A projectile fired into the air suddenly explodes into several fragments.
What can be said about the motion of the
center of mass of the system made up of all
the fragments after the explosion?

8. There is not enough information given.


Explanation:
Since the explosion is due to the internal
forces within the system, the center of mass
will continue with the same motion as if there
were no explosion.
029 10.0 points
An object of volume V and mass m is floating
at the interface between water and a denser
liquid. Let the density of the heavier liquid be and the density of water be w .

What must the density of the denser liquid

lee (akl723) Final Exam Review 1 florin (57850)


3
of the objects volume displacing
4
1
of the objects
water, and the remaining
4
volume displacing the heavier liquid.
be to have

4m
3w
3V
4m w
2.

3V
3
3 w V
3.
4
(1 + 3 w ) V
4.
4
3m
4w
5.
4V
m
6.
3w
V
4m
7.
3w correct
V
Explanation:
The buoyant force is the density of the fluid
displaced times the volume displaced and the
object is not moving so buoyancy counteracts
the gravitational force,
1.

1
3
w V g + V g.
4
4
and solving for gives
FB = mg =

4m
3w
V

030 10.0 points


You have 8 marbles, each with a number written on it: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. You take
these marbles and randomly place them into
3 bags in a certain order, with any number
of marbles in each bag. One such arrangement is shown in the figure below. How many
different arrangements are possible?

1. (8 + 3 1)!
2. 8!

3.

16

(8 + 3)!
8!(3 1)!

4. (8 + 3)!

(8 + 3)!
(3 1)!
(8 + 3 1)!
correct
6.
(3 1)!
(8 + 3 1)!
7.
8!3!
5.

8. 8
(8 + 3 1)!
3!
(8 + 3 1)!
10.
8!(3 1)!
9.

Explanation:
There are 8 marbles and (3-1) divisions between bags. The marbles are distinguishable
because of their numbers, but the bag divisions are not. Thus, we must divide by the
number of arrangements of bag divisions:
Number of arrangements =

(8 + 3 1)!
.
(3 1)!